A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with PLEURISY, inflammation of the PLEURA.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS. It is mainly a pathogen of PIGS, but also can infect HORSES.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
A pleuropneumonia of cattle and goats caused by species of MYCOPLASMA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS, which is pathogenic for HORSES and PIGS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A FERREDOXIN-dependent oxidoreductase that is primarily found in PLANTS where it plays an important role in the assimilation of SULFUR atoms for the production of CYSTEINE and METHIONINE.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS, causing respiratory tract disease in CHICKENS known as infectious coryza.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.

Pulmonary lesions in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.p.) serovar 1. (1/288)

Pathological studies were carried out on the lungs of guinea pigs intratracheally inoculated with 4.6 x 10(6-8) colony forming units (CFU)/head of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 1. All animals in the highest dose group died within 24 hr post inoculation (hpi) and showed pulmonary lesions being hemorrhagic in nature while all animals in the lowest dose group were killed as scheduled at 11 days post inoculation (dpi) and showed only hyperplasia of peribronchial lymphoid tissues. In the middle dose group, two died within 24 hpi, two died at 9 dpi, and the remaining one was killed at 11 dpi. Two guinea pigs which died at 9 dpi showed fibrinonecrotic pleuropneumonia which is the most characteristic acute pulmonary lesion in swine, and has not yet been reproduced in laboratory animals up to the present time. This suggests that guinea pigs may be a useful laboratory animal for studying the pathogenesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in swine.  (+info)

Vaccination and protection of pigs against pleuropneumonia with a vaccine strain of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae produced by site-specific mutagenesis of the ApxII operon. (2/288)

The production of toxin (Apx)-neutralizing antibodies during infection plays a major role in the induction of protective immunity to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae reinfection. In the present study, the gene encoding the ApxII-activating protein, apxIIC, was insertionally inactivated on the chromosome of a serovar 7 strain, HS93. Expression of the structural toxin, ApxIIA, and of the two genes required for its secretion, apxIB and apxID, still occurs in this strain. The resulting mutant strain, HS93C- Ampr, was found to secrete the unactivated toxin. Pigs vaccinated with live HS93C- Ampr via the intranasal route were protected against a cross-serovar challenge with a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae. This is the first reported vaccine strain of A. pleuropneumoniae which can be delivered live to pigs and offers cross-serovar protection against porcine pleuropneumonia.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and sequencing of the aroA gene from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and its use in a PCR assay for rapid identification. (3/288)

The gene (aroA) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, serotype 2, encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase was cloned by complementation of the aroA mutation in Escherichia coli K-12 strain AB2829, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. A pair of primers from the 5' and 3' termini were selected to be the basis for development of a specific PCR assay. A DNA fragment of 1,025 bp was amplified from lysed A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 12 of biovar 1 or from isolated DNA. No PCR products were detected when chromosomal DNAs from other genera were used as target DNAs; however, a 1,025-bp DNA fragment was amplified when Actinobacillus equuli chromosomal DNA was used as a target, which could be easily differentiated by its NAD independence. The PCR assay developed was very sensitive, with lower detection limits of 12 CFU with A. pleuropneumoniae cells and 0.8 pg with extracted DNA. Specificity and sensitivity make this PCR assay a useful method for the rapid identification and diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae infections.  (+info)

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae osteomyelitis in pigs demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization. (4/288)

Necrotizing osteomyelitis and fibrinopurulent arthritis with isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is reported in two pigs from a herd with lameness and mild coughing problems among 8 to 12-week-old pigs. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of A. pleuropneumoniae in formalin-fixed tissue was performed to verify the association of A. pleuropneumoniae with the bone and joint lesions. By in situ hybridization A. pleuropneumoniae was demonstrated as multiple microcolonies or single cells dispersed in focal fibrinonecrotizing pleuropneumonia, in joints with arthritis, and in bone necroses including lysis of growth plate and suppurative inflammation in the adjacent trabecular metaphysis, thus demonstrating that well-known infections manifest new, unusual lesions.  (+info)

A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the recombinant Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxII antigen for diagnosis of pleuropneumonia in pig herds. (5/288)

For the surveillance of pig herds infected with porcine pleuropneumonia, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the recombinant Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxII protein as species- but not serotype-specific antigen was developed. Using this ELISA, 243 of 400 animals from 22 A. pleuropneumoniae-infected herds were classified as seropositive.  (+info)

First chromosomal restriction map of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and localization of putative virulence-associated genes. (6/288)

Combined physical and genetic maps of the genomes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae AP76 (serotype 7 clinical isolate) and of A. pleuropneumoniae ATCC 27088 (serotype 1 reference strain) were constructed by using the restriction endonucleases ApaI, AscI, NotI, and SalI. The chromosome sizes as determined by the addition of estimated fragment sizes were 2.4 Mbp, and both maps had a resolution of approximately 100 kbp. The linkages between the ApaI, AscI, NotI, and SalI fragments and their relative positions were determined by (i) fragment excision and redigestion and (ii) partial digests of defined fragments and Southern blot using end-standing probes. The single SalI site within the chromosome of strain A. pleuropneumoniae AP76 was defined as position 1 of the map; for the map of A. pleuropneumoniae ATCC 27088, the corresponding SalI site was chosen. Putative virulence-associated genes (apx, omlA, sodA, tbpBA, ureC, and a repeat element) and housekeeping genes (glyA, metJ, recA, and rhoAP) were positioned on the physical maps and located on the ApaI and NotI fragments of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains.  (+info)

Detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7 using the immunohistochemical staining. (7/288)

Whole cells of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) serotype 1, 2, 5 or 7 attached to fibrins were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. The sections on a slide glass were stained by the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase (ABC) method. Test sera were applied to sections as primary antibodies. The serum antibodies against A.pleuropneumoniae (serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7) were measured by the ABC method and complement fixation (CF) test. There was good correlation between the ABC and CF tests. The present results indicate that the immunohistochemical staining is as useful as the CF test for the detection and quantification of antibody in swine sera.  (+info)

Characterization of apxIVA, a new RTX determinant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. (8/288)

A fourth type of RTX determinant was identified in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and was designated apxIVA. When expressed in Escherichia coli, recombinant ApxIVA showed a weak haemolytic activity and co-haemolytic synergy with the sphingomyelinase (beta-toxin) of Staphylococcus aureus. These activities required the presence of an additional gene, ORF1, that is located immediately upstream of apxIVA. The apxIVA gene product could not be detected in A. pleuropneumoniae cultures grown under various conditions in vitro; however, pigs experimentally infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 5 and 7 started to produce antibodies that reacted with recombinant ApxIVA 14 d post-infection, indicating that apxIVA is expressed in vivo. In addition, sera from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with any of the serotypes all reacted with recombinant ApxIVA. The apxIVA gene from the serotype 1 A. pleuropneumoniae type strain Shope 4074T encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 202 kDa which has typical features of RTX proteins including hydrophobic domains in the N-terminal half and 24 glycine-rich nonapeptides in the C-terminal half that bind Ca2+. The glycine-rich nonapeptides are arranged in a modular structure and there is some variability in the number of modules in the ApxIVA proteins of different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The deduced amino acid sequences of the ApxIVA proteins have significant similarity with the Neisseria meningitidis iron-regulated RTX proteins FrpA and FrpC, and to a much lesser extent with other RTX proteins. The apxIVA gene could be detected in all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes and seems to be species-specific. Although the precise role of this new RTX determinant in pathogenesis of porcine pleuropneumonia needs to be determined, apxIVA is the first in vivo induced toxin gene that has been described in A. pleuropneumoniae.  (+info)

'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that primarily affects the respiratory system of pigs, causing a disease known as porcine pleuropneumonia. This disease is associated with severe respiratory signs, including coughing, difficulty breathing, and high fever, and can lead to significant economic losses in the swine industry.

The bacterium is typically transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites, and it can also be spread through aerosolized droplets. Once inside the host, 'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' produces a number of virulence factors that allow it to evade the immune system and cause tissue damage.

Effective control and prevention strategies for porcine pleuropneumonia include vaccination, biosecurity measures, and antibiotic treatment. However, antibiotic resistance is an emerging concern in the management of this disease, highlighting the need for continued research and development of new control strategies.

Actinobacillus infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Actinobacillus, which are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, and non-motile rods. These bacteria can cause a variety of infections in humans and animals, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and septicemia.

The most common species that causes infection in humans is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which is associated with periodontal disease, endocarditis, and soft tissue infections. Other species such as A. suis, A. lignieresii, and A. equuli can cause infections in animals and occasionally in humans, particularly those who have close contact with animals.

Symptoms of Actinobacillus infections depend on the site of infection and may include fever, chills, swelling, redness, pain, and purulent discharge. Diagnosis is typically made through culture and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples such as blood, wound secretions, or respiratory specimens. Treatment usually involves antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or third-generation cephalosporins. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, 'actinobacillus' is defined as:

"A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic rods (family Pasteurellaceae) that are parasites or commensals in animals and occasionally cause disease in humans. Some species produce a polysaccharide capsule."

In simpler terms, Actinobacillus is a type of bacteria that can be found in animals, including sometimes as normal flora in their mouths and throats. These bacteria can sometimes infect humans, usually through close contact with animals or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Some species of Actinobacillus can produce a polysaccharide capsule, which can make them more resistant to the body's immune defenses and more difficult to treat with antibiotics.

It is worth noting that while some species of Actinobacillus can cause disease in humans, they are generally not considered major human pathogens. However, they can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are active against gram-negative bacteria, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate or fluoroquinolones.

Pleuropneumonia is a medical condition characterized by inflammation that affects both the lung tissue (pneumonia) and the pleural space (pleurisy) surrounding the lungs. It is often caused by bacterial infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae, that spread from the lungs to the pleural space.

The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, it may lead to complications such as pleural effusion (accumulation of fluid in the pleural space), lung abscesses, or empyema (pus in the pleural space).

Pleuropneumonia can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures or analysis of sputum or pleural fluid. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, along with supportive care such as pain management, hydration, and respiratory support if necessary.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

'Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is facultatively anaerobic, meaning it can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen. This bacterium is commonly found as part of the oral microbiota in humans and is associated with periodontal diseases such as localized aggressive periodontitis. Additionally, it has been implicated in various extraoral infections, including endocarditis, meningitis, and septicemia, particularly in individuals with underlying medical conditions. The bacterium's virulence factors include leukotoxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and adhesins, which contribute to its pathogenicity.

Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found as part of the normal microbiota of the human respiratory tract. However, some species can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which was originally identified as a cause of influenza (hence the name), but it is now known that not all strains of H. influenzae cause this disease. In fact, the majority of H. influenzae infections are caused by strains that produce a polysaccharide capsule, which makes them more virulent and able to evade the host's immune system.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was once a major cause of serious bacterial infections in children, including meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. However, since the introduction of vaccines against Hib in the 1980s, the incidence of these infections has decreased dramatically.

Other Haemophilus species that can cause human infections include Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi (which causes chancroid), and Haemophilus aphrophilus (which can cause endocarditis).

'Actinobacillus suis' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that primarily affects pigs, causing diseases such as Glasser's disease (also known as porcine respiratory disease complex) and reproductive disorders. The bacterium can cause septicemia, meningitis, pneumonia, and arthritis in pigs, resulting in significant economic losses for the swine industry.

Humans can also become infected with 'Actinobacillus suis' through close contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, although such cases are rare. In humans, the bacterium can cause various clinical manifestations, including septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, and wound infections. Immunocompromised individuals are at higher risk of developing severe disease.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices when handling animals or working in environments where the bacterium may be present to reduce the risk of infection. If you suspect an 'Actinobacillus suis' infection, consult a medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Transferrin-binding proteins (TBPS) are a group of bacterial surface receptors that bind to transferrin, a glycoprotein involved in iron transport in mammals. These proteins are produced by certain pathogenic bacteria as a means to acquire iron from the host environment, which is essential for their growth and survival.

Transferrin sequesters iron in the bloodstream, making it unavailable to many invading microorganisms. However, some bacteria have evolved TBPS that can bind to transferrin and strip it of its iron, allowing them to use this vital nutrient for their own metabolic needs. The interaction between TBPS and transferrin is an important aspect of bacterial virulence and has been studied as a potential target for developing new antimicrobial therapies.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

"Pasteurella multocida" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the respiratory tract of many animals, including birds, dogs, and cats. It can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bloodstream infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with animals or animal bites or scratches. The bacterium is named after Louis Pasteur, who developed a vaccine against it in the late 19th century.

Contagious pleuropneumonia is a severe, highly contagious respiratory disease primarily affecting small ruminants such as sheep and goats. The causative agent is a gram-negative bacterium called Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). This disease is predominantly found in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, although it has the potential to spread rapidly and cause significant economic losses in susceptible populations.

The infection typically causes inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) and the pleura (pleurisy), which are the membranes lining the thoracic cavity and covering the lungs. Clinical signs include high fever, difficulty breathing, coughing, nasal discharge, loss of appetite, and depression. In severe cases, contagious pleuropneumonia can lead to sudden death due to acute lung failure or complications arising from secondary infections.

Transmission occurs through direct contact with infected animals, contaminated feed, water, or fomites (inanimate objects). The disease is not typically zoonotic, meaning it does not transmit from animals to humans. However, proper biosecurity measures and vaccination programs are crucial to controlling and preventing outbreaks in susceptible herds.

Aspartate ammonia-lyase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of certain amino acids. Its systematic name is L-aspartate ammonia-lyase (ADI), and it is also known as aspartase. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the conversion of L-aspartic acid to fumaric acid and ammonia.

L-aspartic acid + H2O → fumaric acid + NH3

Aspartate ammonia-lyase is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In bacteria, this enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids. In plants, aspartate ammonia-lyase plays a role in the synthesis of certain aromatic compounds. The human body does not produce this enzyme, so it is not relevant to medical definitions in the context of human health and disease.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Pasteurellaceae is a family of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic or aerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract of animals and humans. Some members of this family can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and localized infections such as abscesses and cellulitis.

Some notable genera within Pasteurellaceae include:

* Pasteurella: includes several species that can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and soft tissue infections in animals and humans. The most common species is Pasteurella multocida, which is a major pathogen in animals and can also cause human infections associated with animal bites or scratches.
* Haemophilus: includes several species that are normal flora of the human respiratory tract and can cause respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and meningitis. The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which can cause severe invasive diseases such as meningitis and sepsis, particularly in young children.
* Mannheimia: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract of ruminants (such as cattle and sheep) and can cause pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections in these animals. The most common species is Mannheimia haemolytica, which is a major pathogen in cattle and can also cause human infections associated with animal contact.
* Actinobacillus: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract of animals and can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and localized infections in these animals. The most common species is Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes a severe form of pneumonia in pigs.

Overall, Pasteurellaceae family members are important pathogens in both veterinary and human medicine, and their infections can range from mild to severe and life-threatening.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) is not a medical term itself, but it is a bacterial protein involved in the process of iron acquisition by certain bacteria. Therefore, I will provide you with a biological definition:

Transferrin-binding Protein B (TbpB) is a bacterial surface protein primarily found in pathogenic Neisseria species, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. TbpB plays a crucial role in the iron acquisition process by binding to human transferrin, a glycoprotein that transports iron in the bloodstream.

TbpB, along with Transferrin-binding Protein A (TbpA), facilitates the uptake of iron from transferrin, which is essential for bacterial growth and survival within the host. The interaction between TbpB and transferrin allows the bacteria to evade the host's immune system and establish an infection. Understanding the function of TbpB has implications in developing novel therapeutic strategies against Neisseria infections.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

"Pasteurella" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacilli that are part of the family Pasteurellaceae. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock. They can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as wound infections, pneumonia, and septicemia, often following animal bites or scratches. Two notable species are Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella canis. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for appropriate treatment.

The palatine tonsils, also known as the "tonsils," are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the oropharynx, at the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system and play a role in protecting the body from inhaled or ingested pathogens. Each tonsil has a surface covered with crypts and follicles that contain lymphocytes, which help to filter out bacteria and viruses that enter the mouth and nose.

The palatine tonsils are visible through the mouth and can be seen during a routine physical examination. They vary in size, but typically are about the size of a large olive or almond. Swelling or inflammation of the tonsils is called tonsillitis, which can cause symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In some cases, enlarged tonsils may need to be removed through a surgical procedure called a tonsillectomy.

Tylosin is defined as a macrolide antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae. It is primarily used in veterinary medicine to treat various bacterial infections in animals, such as respiratory and digestive tract infections caused by susceptible organisms.

Tylosin works by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and thereby preventing bacterial growth. It has a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria, including some strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. However, tylosin is not commonly used in human medicine due to its potential for causing hearing damage and other side effects.

In addition to its use as an antibiotic, tylosin has also been used as a growth promoter in animal feed to improve feed efficiency and weight gain. However, this practice has been banned in some countries due to concerns about the development of antibiotic resistance and the potential risks to human health.

'Actinobacillus equuli' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal system of horses. However, it can also cause disease in both horses and other animals, including humans, under certain conditions.

In horses, 'Actinobacillus equuli' can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, including septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion. The bacterium is often found in cases of "sleepy staggers," a neurological condition that affects young foals.

In humans, 'Actinobacillus equuli' is an uncommon cause of infection, but it has been associated with cases of bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, and wound infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with horses or other animals.

The bacterium is typically treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or ceftriaxone, although resistance to these drugs has been reported in some strains. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacterial capsules are slimy, gel-like layers that surround many types of bacteria. They are made up of polysaccharides, proteins, or lipopolysaccharides and are synthesized by the bacterial cell. These capsules play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria as they help the bacteria to evade the host's immune system and promote their survival and colonization within the host. The presence of a capsule can also contribute to the bacteria's resistance to desiccation, phagocytosis, and antibiotics.

The chemical composition and structure of bacterial capsules vary among different species of bacteria, which is one factor that contributes to their serological specificity and allows for their identification and classification using methods such as the Quellung reaction or immunofluorescence microscopy.

Iron-binding proteins, also known as transferrins, are a type of protein responsible for the transport and storage of iron in the body. They play a crucial role in maintaining iron homeostasis by binding free iron ions and preventing them from participating in harmful chemical reactions that can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause cellular damage.

Transferrin is the primary iron-binding protein found in blood plasma, while lactoferrin is found in various exocrine secretions such as milk, tears, and saliva. Both transferrin and lactoferrin have a similar structure, consisting of two lobes that can bind one ferric ion (Fe3+) each. When iron is bound to these proteins, they are called holo-transferrin or holo-lactoferrin; when they are unbound, they are referred to as apo-transferrin or apo-lactoferrin.

Iron-binding proteins have a high affinity for iron and can regulate the amount of free iron available in the body. They help prevent iron overload, which can lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage, as well as iron deficiency, which can result in anemia and other health problems.

In summary, iron-binding proteins are essential for maintaining iron homeostasis by transporting and storing iron ions, preventing them from causing harm to the body's cells.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Haemophilus paragallinarum is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is the primary cause of infectious coryza, an upper respiratory disease in birds, particularly chickens. The bacteria colonize and infect the mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract, leading to clinical signs such as sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, it can result in significant economic losses for poultry farmers due to decreased egg production, poor feed conversion, and increased mortality rates. It is transmitted through direct contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces, making biosecurity measures essential to control its spread.

Pasteurella infections are diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pasteurella, with P. multocida being the most common species responsible for infections in humans. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts of animals, particularly domestic pets such as cats and dogs.

Humans can acquire Pasteurella infections through animal bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated animal secretions like saliva. The infection can manifest in various forms, including:

1. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are the most common types of Pasteurella infections, often presenting as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections after an animal bite or scratch.
2. Respiratory tract infections: Pasteurella bacteria can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory tract infections, especially in individuals with underlying lung diseases or weakened immune systems.
3. Ocular infections: Pasteurella bacteria can infect the eye, causing conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, or endophthalmitis, particularly after an animal scratch to the eye or face.
4. Septicemia: In rare cases, Pasteurella bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause septicemia, a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.
5. Other infections: Pasteurella bacteria have also been known to cause joint infections (septic arthritis), bone infections (osteomyelitis), and central nervous system infections (meningitis or brain abscesses) in some cases.

Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing Pasteurella infections, as they can progress rapidly and lead to severe complications, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

"Mannheimia haemolytica" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found as part of the normal flora in the upper respiratory tract of cattle and other ruminants. However, under certain conditions such as stress, viral infection, or sudden changes in temperature or humidity, the bacteria can multiply rapidly and cause a severe respiratory disease known as shipping fever or pneumonic pasteurellosis.

The bacterium is named "haemolytica" because it produces a toxin that causes hemolysis, or the breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the characteristic clear zones around colonies grown on blood agar plates. The bacteria can also cause other symptoms such as fever, coughing, difficulty breathing, and depression.

"Mannheimia haemolytica" is a significant pathogen in the cattle industry, causing substantial economic losses due to mortality, reduced growth rates, and decreased milk production. Prevention and control measures include good management practices, vaccination, and prompt treatment of infected animals with antibiotics.

... (previously Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was found to be the causative agent for up to 20% of all bacterial pneumonia cases in swine. ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, encapsulated coccobacillus bacterium found in the family ... "Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae". Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Retrieved 3 September 2018. Shope, RE ( ...
2008). "Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae". Pasteurellaceae: Biology, Genomics and Molecular Aspects. Caister Academic Press. ... Actinobacillus (Pasteurella) ureae and A. hominis occur in the respiratory tracts of healthy humans and may be involved in the ... Actinobacillus is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and non-spore-forming, oval to rod-shaped bacteria occurring as parasites ... ISBN 978-1-904455-24-0. Nørskov-Lauritsen N, Kilian M (September 2006). "Reclassification of Actinobacillus ...
"Development of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection". Vaccine. 24 (49-50): 7226-7237. doi: ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia and Salmonella infections in pigs. Prior to the introduction of vaccination with material from ...
"Poly-N-acetylglucosamine mediates biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae". Microb ... Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Ramasubbu N, Fine DH (August 2003). "Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by ... Kaplan JB, Meyenhofer MF, Fine DH (2003). "Biofilm growth and detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". J. Bacteriol ... a biofilm-releasing glycoside hydrolase from the periodontopathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". J. Mol. Biol. 349 (3 ...
At least the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae N-glycosyltransferase can also hydrolyze sugar-nucleotides in the absence of a ... N-glycosylation by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C does not require metals, consistent with observations made on other ... The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae N-glycosyltransferase is the best researched enzyme of this family. Initially, protein ... N-glycosyltransferases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae use an asparagine-amino acid-serine or ...
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are pathogens that cause respiratory disease in swine. Haemophilus ... coli TOP10 strain Campylobacter jejuni Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ...
... in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae". Front. Microbiol. 9: 2489. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02489. PMC 6206304. PMID 30405558. ...
Clade II, encompassing Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus minor, Haemophilus ducreyi, Mannheimia haemolytica and ... Two major clades are formed within this Pasteurellales: Clade I, encompassing Aggregatibacter, Pasteurella, Actinobacillus ...
... and Streptococcus suis or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. Antibiotics such as ceftiofur, gentamicin, and ... Actinobacillus suis is a beta-haemolytic, Gram-negative bacterium of the family Pasteurellaceae. The bacterium has many strains ... Type strain of Actinobacillus suis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with 'species' microformats, ... Actinobacillus suis, reviewed and published by Wikivet at http://en.wikivet.net/Actinobacillus_suis accessed 07/10/2011. ...
Pigs: Treatment and metaphylaxis of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and Streptococcus suis. Mastitis-metritis-agalactia syndrome involved with E. coli, ...
... is indicated for the treatment and metaphylaxis of swine respiratory disease associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, ...
... while the other includes Actinobacillus minor, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus ducreyi, Haemophilus parasuis, and ... The distribution of CSIs corresponds to sensu stricto clades of "true" Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species, ... Other pathogenic members of the family Pasteurellaceae include Aggregatibacter, Mannheimia, Pasteurella, and Actinobacillus ... Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella. These genera demonstrate extensive polyphyly across the family, however, CSIs ...
Actinobacillus equuli MeSH B03.440.450.009.580 - Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae MeSH B03.440.450.009.675 - Actinobacillus ... Actinobacillus equuli MeSH B03.660.250.550.050.580 - Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae MeSH B03.660.250.550.050.675 - ... Actinobacillus seminis MeSH B03.660.250.550.050.700 - Actinobacillus suis MeSH B03.660.250.550.290 - Haemophilus MeSH B03.660. ... Actinobacillus MeSH B03.660.250.550.050.050 - Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans MeSH B03.660.250.550.050.200 - ...
The Gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a ... The Gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a ... Comparative genomic characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Zhuofei Xu 1 , Xiabing Chen, Lu Li, Tingting Li, ... Comparative genomic characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Zhuofei Xu et al. J Bacteriol. 2010 Nov. ...
The RTX haemolysins APXI and APXII are major virulence factors of the swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniaeevidence ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. 99. Peptostreptococcus sp.. 99. 82. -. +. 29. +. 28. 5,3.103. Streptococcus genomosp. C4. 99. ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae hfq mutants strains are attenuated for virulence in pigs, impaired in the ability to form ... Here, using A. pleuropneumoniae strain MIDG2331 (serovar 8), 14 sRNAs were identified by co-immunoprecipitation with Hfq and ... of small RNAs associated with RNA chaperone Hfq reveals a new stress response regulator in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. ...
... and for the control of SRD associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae ... associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis, and ... Tulathromycin has demonstrated in vitro activity against A. pleuropneumoniae, P. multocida, B. bronchiseptica, H. parasuis, and ...
MeSH Terms: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/enzymology; Carrier Proteins/analysis*; Carrier Proteins/chemical synthesis; ... containing an acceptor sequence optimized for glycosylation by the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae N-glycosyltransferase (NGT) ...
PromethION (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). high-throughput sequencing * Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae GEO Jan 30, 2023 ...
... clinical signs and pulmonary lesions of the respiratory processes produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ... safety and efficacy of the vaccine PB-116 in the control of porcine pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ... Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the vaccine PB-116 in the control of porcine pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus ...
Actinobacillus B03.440.450.009.200 Actinobacillus equuli B03.440.450.009.580 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae B03.440.450.009. ... Actinobacillus B03.660.250.550.050.200 Actinobacillus equuli B03.660.250.550.050.580 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae B03.660. ... 250.550.050.675 Actinobacillus seminis B03.660.250.550.050.700 Actinobacillus suis B03.660.250.550.170 Aggregatibacter B03.660. ... 675 Actinobacillus seminis B03.440.450.009.700 Actinobacillus suis B03.440.450.019 Aeromonadaceae B03.440.450.019.025 Aeromonas ...
... putative reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in tissues and blood from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ...
Cytokine expression by CD163+ monocytes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-infected pigs".. „Náš příspěvek byl o reakci ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which infect cattle, humans and swine, respectively ... For example, Lkt of Mannheimia haemolytica primarily targets bovine leukocytes, whereas the Aqx toxin of Actinobacillus equuli ...
... pleuropneumoniae was a clinical problem in the herd (P = 0.03), 1.36 times less for each year that passed since the herd ... 2 times higher if Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae was a clinical problem in the herd (P = 0.03), 1.36 times less ... 2 times higher if Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae was a clinical problem in the herd (P = 0.03), 1.36 times less ...
... the names of these new species are Actinobacillus minor (type strain, NM305), Actinobacillus porcinus (type strain, NM319), and ... Borr J. D., Ryan D. A. J., Maclnnes J. I. 1991; Analysis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and related organisms by DNA-DNA ... Actinobacillus minor sp. nov., Actinobacillus porcinus sp. nov., and Actinobacillus indolicus sp. nov., Three New V Factor- ... Actinobacillus minor sp. nov., Actinobacillus porcinus sp. nov., and Actinobacillus indolicus sp. nov., Three New V Factor- ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (organism). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (organism). ...
Actinobacillus [B03.440.450.009] * Actinobacillus equuli [B03.440.450.009.200] * Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae [B03.440. ... Actinobacillus [B03.660.250.550.050] * Actinobacillus equuli [B03.660.250.550.050.200] * Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae [ ... Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae Hemophilus pleuropneumoniae Registry Number. txid715. Previous Indexing. Actinobacillus (1985-1991 ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Preferred Term Term UI T050740. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1992). ...
Actinobacillus [B03.440.450.009] * Actinobacillus equuli [B03.440.450.009.200] * Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae [B03.440. ... Actinobacillus [B03.660.250.550.050] * Actinobacillus equuli [B03.660.250.550.050.200] * Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae [ ... Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae Hemophilus pleuropneumoniae Registry Number. txid715. Previous Indexing. Actinobacillus (1985-1991 ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Preferred Term Term UI T050740. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1992). ...
4. The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 ... Title : The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 3 str. JL03 chromosome,. hypothetical protein. 3e-06. 50.4. ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 7 str. AP76, complete. hypothetical protein. 4e-06. 50.1. ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae - Originally called haemophilus. A bacterium that produces a severe haemorrhagic and ... A common example is pneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Pasteurella - Bacteria found as normal inhabitants of ... Viruses such as flu, PRRS, swine fever and the bacteria Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and salmonellosis. Viremia - Viruses in the blood stream.. Source: ​http ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae - Preferred Concept UI. M0025808. Scope note. A species of gram-negative, facultatively ... Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae Scope note:. Especie de bacterias gramnegativas anaerobias facultativas de forma cocobacilar que ... infection: coord IM with ACTINOBACILLUS INFECTIONS (IM). Allowable Qualifiers:. CH chemistry. CL classification. CY cytology. ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Descriptor French: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Entry term(s):. Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae ...
Cloning and Biological Analysis of Apx IVA Gene of Porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Liu P, Gao X, Guo X, Wang T, Yang F ... Cloning and Biological Analysis of Apx IVA Gene of Porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Liu P, Gao X, Guo X, Wang T, Yang F ...
Unknown pathway for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae L20 (serotype 5b). Model MML. [View MML] ...
Unknown pathway for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae L20 (serotype 5b). Model MML. [View MML] ...
Cytoplasmic N-glycosyltransferase of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an inverting enzyme and recognizes the NX(S/T) ...
ACTINOBACILLUS PLEUROPNEUMONIAE 2014-09-26 CDISC-1083 Add C86160 Term SPCIES SDTM Species Add new term to existing codelist ...
... notably Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Many outbreaks of the latter have been linked to preceding unrecognised Swine Flu ...
... reveals increased cathelicidin expression in porcine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ...
  • In this work, we have altered a multiplex PCR used for the identification of cultures of G. australis, A. pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida to be more sensitive and then evaluated the use of the altered diagnostic tool on cultures and directly on tissues. (qld.gov.au)
  • INDICATIONS: FLORCON 2.3% Concentrate Solution is indicated for the treatment of swine respiratory disease associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Streptococcus suis in swine. (drugs.com)
  • It is more active against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella and Mycoplasma in livestock than Tylosin. (qdrunda.cn)
  • It is used to treat Actinobacillus, pasteurella and mycoplasma infection of pleuropneumonia. (qdrunda.cn)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (previously Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, respiratory pathogen found in pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Lawsonia intracellularis . (frontiersin.org)
  • ABSTRACT Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is a respiratory system pathogen and etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia which is characterized as an exudative, fibrinous, hemorrhagic and necrotizing pleuropneumonia and is considered one of the main causes of economic loss of the swine industry due to the high mortality rates, reduction of average daily weight gain, medical expenses, sacrificial losses and intervention expenses. (uaa.mx)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a bacterial infection that results in coughing, high fever, respiratory distress and high mortality. (farmscape.ca)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was found to be the causative agent for up to 20% of all bacterial pneumonia cases in swine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glaesserella australis, a newly described bacterial species, has been isolated from pig lungs that displayed lesions very similar to those caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, prompting the need for a validated diagnostic tool. (qld.gov.au)
  • Here, using A. pleuropneumoniae strain MIDG2331 ( serovar 8), 14 sRNAs were identified by co-immunoprecipitation with Hfq and the expression of eight, identified as trans-acting sRNAs, were confirmed by Northern blotting . (bvsalud.org)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 7 str. (up.ac.za)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae hfq mutants strains are attenuated for virulence in pigs , impaired in the ability to form biofilms , and more susceptible to stress, but knowledge of the extent of sRNA involvement is limited. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nineteen different serotype variants (serovars) have been recognized for A. pleuropneumoniae, based on the different capsular polysaccharides exhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research funded by the Swine Health Information Center has shown Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 is capable of surviving colder temperatures than previously thought. (farmscape.ca)
  • Several virulence factors account for the remarkable pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The typical presentation of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs is the characteristic demarcated lesions in the middle, cranial, and caudal lobes of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • [email protected] 1 Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA), UAB-IRTA, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain Full list of author information is available at the end of the article origin stressed again the interest in the epidemiology of influenza in pigs [6]. (studylibfr.com)
  • As a facultative anaerobic pathogen, A. pleuropneumoniae may need CO2 to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute outbreaks of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) require rapid, effective, parenteral antimicrobial treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From a total of 166 lung samples, 51.9%, 51.9% and 5.6% of farms were PCR positive for P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae and G. australis, respectively. (qld.gov.au)
  • The Gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a lethal respiratory infectious disease causing great economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • A combination of PRRSv, which is immunosuppressive, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), which can also be immunosuppressive and a pathogenic strain of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App), leading to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a classic example. (farms.com)
  • Clustering of 26,012 predicted protein-coding genes showed that the pan genome of A. pleuropneumoniae consists of 3,303 gene clusters, which contain 1,709 core genome genes, 822 distributed genes, and 772 strain-specific genes. (nih.gov)
  • Here, using A. pleuropneumoniae strain MIDG2331 ( serovar 8), 14 sRNAs were identified by co-immunoprecipitation with Hfq and the expression of eight, identified as trans-acting sRNAs, were confirmed by Northern blotting . (bvsalud.org)
  • the names of these new species are Actinobacillus minor (type strain, NM305), Actinobacillus porcinus (type strain, NM319), and Actinobacillus indolicus (type strain, 46KC2), respectively. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This work increases our understanding of the multilayered and complex nature of the influence of Hfq-dependent sRNAs on the physiology and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. (bvsalud.org)
  • Analysis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and related organisms by DNA-DNA hybridization and restriction endonuclease fingerprinting. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Produce neumonía con pleuritis fibrinosa acompañante en CERDOS. (bvsalud.org)