Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS. It is mainly a pathogen of PIGS, but also can infect HORSES.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with PLEURISY, inflammation of the PLEURA.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS, which is pathogenic for HORSES and PIGS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
Inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction in the presence of little local factors such as DENTAL PLAQUE and DENTAL CALCULUS. This highly destructive form of periodontitis often occurs in young people and was called early-onset periodontitis, but this disease also appears in old people.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE. Members are nonmotile, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods or coccobacilli. Its members are X factor (HEMIN) independent and variably dependent on V factor (NAD).
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A disease characterized by suppurative and granulomatous lesions in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Actinobacillus lignieresii infects cattle and sheep while A. equuli infects horses and pigs.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS, which causes EPIDIDYMITIS in SHEEP.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.

Pulmonary lesions in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.p.) serovar 1. (1/272)

Pathological studies were carried out on the lungs of guinea pigs intratracheally inoculated with 4.6 x 10(6-8) colony forming units (CFU)/head of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 1. All animals in the highest dose group died within 24 hr post inoculation (hpi) and showed pulmonary lesions being hemorrhagic in nature while all animals in the lowest dose group were killed as scheduled at 11 days post inoculation (dpi) and showed only hyperplasia of peribronchial lymphoid tissues. In the middle dose group, two died within 24 hpi, two died at 9 dpi, and the remaining one was killed at 11 dpi. Two guinea pigs which died at 9 dpi showed fibrinonecrotic pleuropneumonia which is the most characteristic acute pulmonary lesion in swine, and has not yet been reproduced in laboratory animals up to the present time. This suggests that guinea pigs may be a useful laboratory animal for studying the pathogenesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in swine.  (+info)

Vaccination and protection of pigs against pleuropneumonia with a vaccine strain of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae produced by site-specific mutagenesis of the ApxII operon. (2/272)

The production of toxin (Apx)-neutralizing antibodies during infection plays a major role in the induction of protective immunity to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae reinfection. In the present study, the gene encoding the ApxII-activating protein, apxIIC, was insertionally inactivated on the chromosome of a serovar 7 strain, HS93. Expression of the structural toxin, ApxIIA, and of the two genes required for its secretion, apxIB and apxID, still occurs in this strain. The resulting mutant strain, HS93C- Ampr, was found to secrete the unactivated toxin. Pigs vaccinated with live HS93C- Ampr via the intranasal route were protected against a cross-serovar challenge with a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae. This is the first reported vaccine strain of A. pleuropneumoniae which can be delivered live to pigs and offers cross-serovar protection against porcine pleuropneumonia.  (+info)

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae osteomyelitis in pigs demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization. (3/272)

Necrotizing osteomyelitis and fibrinopurulent arthritis with isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is reported in two pigs from a herd with lameness and mild coughing problems among 8 to 12-week-old pigs. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of A. pleuropneumoniae in formalin-fixed tissue was performed to verify the association of A. pleuropneumoniae with the bone and joint lesions. By in situ hybridization A. pleuropneumoniae was demonstrated as multiple microcolonies or single cells dispersed in focal fibrinonecrotizing pleuropneumonia, in joints with arthritis, and in bone necroses including lysis of growth plate and suppurative inflammation in the adjacent trabecular metaphysis, thus demonstrating that well-known infections manifest new, unusual lesions.  (+info)

Agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine: Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis. (4/272)

In recent years, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis have emerged as important pathogens of swine, particularly in high health status herds. Their association with a wide range of serious clinical conditions and has given rise to the moniker "suis-ide diseases." These organisms are early colonizers and, for that reason, are difficult to control by management procedures such as segregated early weaning. Vaccination, serodiagnostic testing, and even serotyping are complicated by the presence of multiple serotypes, cross-reactive antigens, and the absence of clear markers for virulence. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management of the causative agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine.  (+info)

Phenotypic variation in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans during laboratory growth: implications for virulence. (5/272)

This study examined alteration of specific virulence traits associated with phenotypic changes seen when a low-passage disease-associated and well maintained parent strain of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was compared to a laboratory-grown spontaneous variant/mutant. Clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans recovered from periodontitis patients typically grow as rough, adherent colonies on primary culture but undergo transformation to smooth, non-adherent colonies following repeated passage in vitro. The relationship of these phenotypic changes to the virulence of the organism or to the processes that underlie this transformation are not understood. A fresh clinical isolate, designated strain CU1000, was obtained from the first molar site of a patient with classical signs of localized juvenile periodontitis and used as the parent strain to study virulence-related phenotypes. Following several passages of CU1000 on selective agar, a spontaneous variant that demonstrated smooth, opaque, non-adherent colonies was isolated and designated strain CU1060. This study compared the properties of these two strains with respect to colony morphology, autoaggregation, surface appendages, adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA), LPS chemotype and activity, induction of fibroblast proteinase activity and antigenic properties. CU1000 demonstrated rough, raised, star-positive colonies which upon electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of large, flexible, bundled fibrils. In addition, CU1000 showed adherence to SHA, several unique protein antigens and elevated endotoxin and fibroblast proteinase activity. CU1060, on the other hand, showed minimal adherence to SHA and fewer reactive proteins compared to the fresh clinical isolates. This strain formed smooth, opaque colonies on agar, showed minimal fibril formation and limited endotoxin and fibroblast-proteinase-inducing activity. These findings demonstrate that clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans undergo significant virulence-reducing phenotypic alterations during in vitro passage and support the need to study this organism in its clinical form.  (+info)

Detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7 using the immunohistochemical staining. (6/272)

Whole cells of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) serotype 1, 2, 5 or 7 attached to fibrins were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. The sections on a slide glass were stained by the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase (ABC) method. Test sera were applied to sections as primary antibodies. The serum antibodies against A.pleuropneumoniae (serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7) were measured by the ABC method and complement fixation (CF) test. There was good correlation between the ABC and CF tests. The present results indicate that the immunohistochemical staining is as useful as the CF test for the detection and quantification of antibody in swine sera.  (+info)

Characterization of apxIVA, a new RTX determinant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. (7/272)

A fourth type of RTX determinant was identified in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and was designated apxIVA. When expressed in Escherichia coli, recombinant ApxIVA showed a weak haemolytic activity and co-haemolytic synergy with the sphingomyelinase (beta-toxin) of Staphylococcus aureus. These activities required the presence of an additional gene, ORF1, that is located immediately upstream of apxIVA. The apxIVA gene product could not be detected in A. pleuropneumoniae cultures grown under various conditions in vitro; however, pigs experimentally infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 5 and 7 started to produce antibodies that reacted with recombinant ApxIVA 14 d post-infection, indicating that apxIVA is expressed in vivo. In addition, sera from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with any of the serotypes all reacted with recombinant ApxIVA. The apxIVA gene from the serotype 1 A. pleuropneumoniae type strain Shope 4074T encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 202 kDa which has typical features of RTX proteins including hydrophobic domains in the N-terminal half and 24 glycine-rich nonapeptides in the C-terminal half that bind Ca2+. The glycine-rich nonapeptides are arranged in a modular structure and there is some variability in the number of modules in the ApxIVA proteins of different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The deduced amino acid sequences of the ApxIVA proteins have significant similarity with the Neisseria meningitidis iron-regulated RTX proteins FrpA and FrpC, and to a much lesser extent with other RTX proteins. The apxIVA gene could be detected in all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes and seems to be species-specific. Although the precise role of this new RTX determinant in pathogenesis of porcine pleuropneumonia needs to be determined, apxIVA is the first in vivo induced toxin gene that has been described in A. pleuropneumoniae.  (+info)

Genomic relatedness among Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field strains of sterotypes 1 and 5 isolated from healthy and diseased pigs. (8/272)

Forty-four Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates recovered from both healthy and diseased pigs were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and apx toxin gene typing. Nine RAPD types and 14 PFGE patterns were identified. No common RAPD or PFGE patterns were found between strains of serotype 1 and those of serotype 5. The RAPD analysis indicated that the 15 serotype 1 strains isolated from diseased pigs were assigned to 4 RAPD types, with 66% of strains characterized by the same RAPD type. By contrast, the 5 strains of serotype 1 isolated from healthy carriers were dispersed in 4 RAPD types. These data suggest that the diversity of strains isolated from healthy pigs could be higher than that of strains recovered from diseased pigs. In addition, all serotype 5 strains exhibited a unique RAPD type. Unlike RAPD, PFGE analysis allowed discrimination among isolates of serotype 1 and among those of serotype 5. All but 3 isolates showed the same apx genotype as their respective serotype reference strain. These data indicate that RAPD analysis is a valuable rapid tool for routine subtyping of strains of serotype 1. For strains of serotype 5, a combination of several typing methods, such as PFGE and apx gene typing, is needed to provide useful information on the molecular epidemiology of swine pleuropneumonia.  (+info)

Actinobacillus infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Actinobacillus, which are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, and non-motile rods. These bacteria can cause a variety of infections in humans and animals, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and septicemia.

The most common species that causes infection in humans is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which is associated with periodontal disease, endocarditis, and soft tissue infections. Other species such as A. suis, A. lignieresii, and A. equuli can cause infections in animals and occasionally in humans, particularly those who have close contact with animals.

Symptoms of Actinobacillus infections depend on the site of infection and may include fever, chills, swelling, redness, pain, and purulent discharge. Diagnosis is typically made through culture and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples such as blood, wound secretions, or respiratory specimens. Treatment usually involves antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or third-generation cephalosporins. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, 'actinobacillus' is defined as:

"A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic rods (family Pasteurellaceae) that are parasites or commensals in animals and occasionally cause disease in humans. Some species produce a polysaccharide capsule."

In simpler terms, Actinobacillus is a type of bacteria that can be found in animals, including sometimes as normal flora in their mouths and throats. These bacteria can sometimes infect humans, usually through close contact with animals or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Some species of Actinobacillus can produce a polysaccharide capsule, which can make them more resistant to the body's immune defenses and more difficult to treat with antibiotics.

It is worth noting that while some species of Actinobacillus can cause disease in humans, they are generally not considered major human pathogens. However, they can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are active against gram-negative bacteria, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate or fluoroquinolones.

'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that primarily affects the respiratory system of pigs, causing a disease known as porcine pleuropneumonia. This disease is associated with severe respiratory signs, including coughing, difficulty breathing, and high fever, and can lead to significant economic losses in the swine industry.

The bacterium is typically transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites, and it can also be spread through aerosolized droplets. Once inside the host, 'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' produces a number of virulence factors that allow it to evade the immune system and cause tissue damage.

Effective control and prevention strategies for porcine pleuropneumonia include vaccination, biosecurity measures, and antibiotic treatment. However, antibiotic resistance is an emerging concern in the management of this disease, highlighting the need for continued research and development of new control strategies.

'Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is facultatively anaerobic, meaning it can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen. This bacterium is commonly found as part of the oral microbiota in humans and is associated with periodontal diseases such as localized aggressive periodontitis. Additionally, it has been implicated in various extraoral infections, including endocarditis, meningitis, and septicemia, particularly in individuals with underlying medical conditions. The bacterium's virulence factors include leukotoxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and adhesins, which contribute to its pathogenicity.

'Actinobacillus suis' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that primarily affects pigs, causing diseases such as Glasser's disease (also known as porcine respiratory disease complex) and reproductive disorders. The bacterium can cause septicemia, meningitis, pneumonia, and arthritis in pigs, resulting in significant economic losses for the swine industry.

Humans can also become infected with 'Actinobacillus suis' through close contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, although such cases are rare. In humans, the bacterium can cause various clinical manifestations, including septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, and wound infections. Immunocompromised individuals are at higher risk of developing severe disease.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices when handling animals or working in environments where the bacterium may be present to reduce the risk of infection. If you suspect an 'Actinobacillus suis' infection, consult a medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Pleuropneumonia is a medical condition characterized by inflammation that affects both the lung tissue (pneumonia) and the pleural space (pleurisy) surrounding the lungs. It is often caused by bacterial infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae, that spread from the lungs to the pleural space.

The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, it may lead to complications such as pleural effusion (accumulation of fluid in the pleural space), lung abscesses, or empyema (pus in the pleural space).

Pleuropneumonia can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures or analysis of sputum or pleural fluid. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, along with supportive care such as pain management, hydration, and respiratory support if necessary.

'Actinobacillus equuli' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal system of horses. However, it can also cause disease in both horses and other animals, including humans, under certain conditions.

In horses, 'Actinobacillus equuli' can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, including septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion. The bacterium is often found in cases of "sleepy staggers," a neurological condition that affects young foals.

In humans, 'Actinobacillus equuli' is an uncommon cause of infection, but it has been associated with cases of bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, and wound infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with horses or other animals.

The bacterium is typically treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or ceftriaxone, although resistance to these drugs has been reported in some strains. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found as part of the normal microbiota of the human respiratory tract. However, some species can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which was originally identified as a cause of influenza (hence the name), but it is now known that not all strains of H. influenzae cause this disease. In fact, the majority of H. influenzae infections are caused by strains that produce a polysaccharide capsule, which makes them more virulent and able to evade the host's immune system.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was once a major cause of serious bacterial infections in children, including meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. However, since the introduction of vaccines against Hib in the 1980s, the incidence of these infections has decreased dramatically.

Other Haemophilus species that can cause human infections include Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi (which causes chancroid), and Haemophilus aphrophilus (which can cause endocarditis).

Aggressive periodontitis is a severe form of periodontal disease that affects the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. It is characterized by rapid destruction of the periodontal tissues and can result in significant tooth loss if left untreated.

Aggressive periodontitis typically affects younger individuals, often before the age of 30, and can progress rapidly, even in the absence of obvious dental plaque or calculus accumulation. It is often associated with a genetic predisposition and may cluster in families.

The disease is classified as localized or generalized based on the distribution of affected sites. Localized aggressive periodontitis typically affects no more than two teeth next to each other, while generalized aggressive periodontitis involves at least three or four teeth in different areas of the mouth.

In addition to genetic factors, other risk factors for aggressive periodontitis include smoking, diabetes, and hormonal changes. Treatment typically involves a combination of thorough dental cleanings, antibiotics, and sometimes surgical intervention to remove damaged tissue and promote healing. Regular maintenance care is essential to prevent recurrence and further progression of the disease.

Periodontitis is a severe form of gum disease that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone supporting your teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to tooth loss. It is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. The body's immune system fights the bacterial infection, which causes an inflammatory response. If the inflammation continues for a long time, it can damage the tissues and bones that support the teeth.

The early stage of periodontitis is called gingivitis, which is characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed or flossed. When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis. In addition to plaque, other factors that increase the risk of developing periodontitis include smoking or using tobacco products, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, a weakened immune system, and genetic factors.

Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using an antimicrobial mouth rinse, can help prevent periodontitis. Treatment for periodontitis may include deep cleaning procedures, medications, or surgery in severe cases.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

'Aggregatibacter' is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are part of the normal flora in the human mouth and respiratory tract. Some species of Aggregatibacter can cause infections, particularly in the mouth and throat, as well as in the brain, heart, and other parts of the body. These infections can include abscesses, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia.

The name 'Aggregatibacter' comes from the Latin word "aggregatus," which means "to gather together or collect." This is a reference to the fact that these bacteria are often found in clusters or aggregates.

It's important to note that Aggregatibacter species can be difficult to distinguish from other related genera, such as Haemophilus and Actinobacillus, based on traditional biochemical tests alone. Therefore, molecular methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing are often used to confirm the identification of these bacteria in clinical laboratories.

Exotoxins are a type of toxin that are produced and released by certain bacteria into their external environment, including the surrounding tissues or host's bloodstream. These toxins can cause damage to cells and tissues, and contribute to the symptoms and complications associated with bacterial infections.

Exotoxins are typically proteins, and they can have a variety of effects on host cells, depending on their specific structure and function. Some exotoxins act by disrupting the cell membrane, leading to cell lysis or death. Others interfere with intracellular signaling pathways, alter gene expression, or modify host immune responses.

Examples of bacterial infections that are associated with the production of exotoxins include:

* Botulism, caused by Clostridium botulinum
* Diphtheria, caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
* Tetanus, caused by Clostridium tetani
* Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis
* Food poisoning, caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus

Exotoxins can be highly potent and dangerous, and some have been developed as biological weapons. However, many exotoxins are also used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, such as botulinum toxin (Botox) for the treatment of wrinkles or dystonia.

Pasteurellaceae is a family of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic or aerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract of animals and humans. Some members of this family can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and localized infections such as abscesses and cellulitis.

Some notable genera within Pasteurellaceae include:

* Pasteurella: includes several species that can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and soft tissue infections in animals and humans. The most common species is Pasteurella multocida, which is a major pathogen in animals and can also cause human infections associated with animal bites or scratches.
* Haemophilus: includes several species that are normal flora of the human respiratory tract and can cause respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and meningitis. The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which can cause severe invasive diseases such as meningitis and sepsis, particularly in young children.
* Mannheimia: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract of ruminants (such as cattle and sheep) and can cause pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections in these animals. The most common species is Mannheimia haemolytica, which is a major pathogen in cattle and can also cause human infections associated with animal contact.
* Actinobacillus: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract of animals and can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and localized infections in these animals. The most common species is Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes a severe form of pneumonia in pigs.

Overall, Pasteurellaceae family members are important pathogens in both veterinary and human medicine, and their infections can range from mild to severe and life-threatening.

"Pasteurella" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacilli that are part of the family Pasteurellaceae. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock. They can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as wound infections, pneumonia, and septicemia, often following animal bites or scratches. Two notable species are Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella canis. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for appropriate treatment.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Actinobacillosis is a bacterial disease caused by the gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria Actinobacillus spp. This disease primarily affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and swine, causing symptoms such as abscesses, respiratory distress, and lameness. In rare cases, actinobacillosis can also affect humans, particularly those who have close contact with infected animals or consume contaminated food or water.

In humans, actinobacillosis typically manifests as a localized infection of the skin or mucous membranes, although it can also cause more widespread systemic infections. Symptoms may include fever, chills, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and painful abscesses or ulcers at the site of infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of any abscesses.

It is important to note that actinobacillosis is a relatively rare disease in humans, and it is not considered a significant public health concern. However, healthcare providers should be aware of the possibility of this infection in individuals who have close contact with infected animals or consume contaminated food or water.

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

"Actinobacillus seminis" is not a widely recognized or officially established medical term or species name in the field of human or veterinary medicine. It appears to be a combination of the genus name "Actinobacillus," which refers to a group of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, and the term "seminis," which is Latin for "of the seed" or "sperm."

There is some research suggesting that certain Actinobacillus species may be associated with reproductive tract infections in animals, such as bovine genital campylobacteriosis caused by Actinobacillus bovis. However, there is no established or well-known connection between the genus Actinobacillus and human male reproductive health or semen.

Therefore, it is not possible to provide a medical definition for "Actinobacillus seminis" as it does not appear to be a recognized or established term in the medical literature.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Gingiva is the medical term for the soft tissue that surrounds the teeth and forms the margin of the dental groove, also known as the gum. It extends from the mucogingival junction to the base of the cervical third of the tooth root. The gingiva plays a crucial role in protecting and supporting the teeth and maintaining oral health by providing a barrier against microbial invasion and mechanical injury.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Transferrin-binding proteins (TBPS) are a group of bacterial surface receptors that bind to transferrin, a glycoprotein involved in iron transport in mammals. These proteins are produced by certain pathogenic bacteria as a means to acquire iron from the host environment, which is essential for their growth and survival.

Transferrin sequesters iron in the bloodstream, making it unavailable to many invading microorganisms. However, some bacteria have evolved TBPS that can bind to transferrin and strip it of its iron, allowing them to use this vital nutrient for their own metabolic needs. The interaction between TBPS and transferrin is an important aspect of bacterial virulence and has been studied as a potential target for developing new antimicrobial therapies.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia and Salmonella infections in pigs. Prior to the introduction of vaccination with material from ... "Development of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection". Vaccine. 24 (49-50): 7226-7237. doi: ... Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or alleviate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or ... They can also mitigate the severity of infection, resulting in a lower mortality rate, lower morbidity, faster recovery from ...
"EHV-1 Congenital Infection and Concurrent Actinobacillus Equuli Septicemia in a Standardbred Neonatal Foal: Clinical, ... "Facial Cellulitis Due to Actinobacillus Equuli Infection in a Neonatal Foal." Veterinary Record 162.11 (2008): 347-349. Web. ... "Septicemia and Peritonitis Due to Actinobacillus Equuli Infection in an Adult Horse." Veterinary Pathology 38.2 (2001): 230-232 ... Infections in swine are more common in European countries compared to the North American Countries. Infections in the United ...
... and Streptococcus suis or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. Antibiotics such as ceftiofur, gentamicin, and ... Actinobacillus suis is a beta-haemolytic, Gram-negative bacterium of the family Pasteurellaceae. The bacterium has many strains ... Type strain of Actinobacillus suis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with 'species' microformats, ... Affected piglets can develop septicaemia, multifocal infections, and respiratory signs, and may die. Adult pigs may show signs ...
An infection of a horse tongue by the bacterium Actinobacillus lignieresii, which most commonly affects cattle, was described ... ISBN 978-1-55753-409-5. Baum, K. H.; Shin, S. J.; Rebhun, W. C.; Patten, V. H. (1984). "Isolation of Actinobacillus lignieresii ...
In 1995, Its infections cost the U.S. economy about $30 million. Such losses usually result from medication and veterinary ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was found to be the causative agent for up to 20% of all bacterial pneumonia cases in swine. ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, encapsulated coccobacillus bacterium found in the family ... Overcrowding in pigpens, co-infections of other respiratory pathogens, and unusual stress all contribute to the spread of the ...
The infection is most commonly caused by abrasions on different soft tissues through which the bacteria, Actinobacillus ... One of the most common forms seen by veterinarians is mouth actinobacillosis of cattle, due to Actinobacillus lignieresii. The ... Actinobacillosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Actinobacillus. It is more commonly associated with animals than with humans. ... actinomycosis Actinobacillus suis "Merck Veterinary Manual". "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:actinobacillosis".[permanent dead ...
All infections were cured. Intervet developed cefquinome (Cobactan) to treat bovine respiratory disease, the most common ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and Streptococcus suis. Mastitis-metritis-agalactia syndrome involved with E. coli, ... For pigs, it is used to treat bacterial infections of the lungs and respiratory tract caused by P. multocida, Haemophilus ... To prevent the claimed infections in piglets, attention should be paid to hygiene and ventilation, and overcrowding should be ...
Sneath, P. H. A.; Stevens, M. (1990). "Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella ... Pasteurella bettyae is a bacterium associated with human Bartholin gland abscess and finger infections. ...
In addition to valvular infections in the heart, they can also produce other infections, such as bacteremia, abscess, ... HACEK originally referred to Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, ... 1], eMedicine, HACEK organism infection. June 2005. (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... which is an inflammation of the heart due to bacterial infection. HACEK is an abbreviation of the initials of the genera of ...
Polyps or mucus can obstruct the nasopharynx, as can congestion due to an upper respiratory infection. The auditory tube, which ... The HACEK organisms (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella ... and share an enhanced capacity to produce endocardial infections, especially in young children. Fusobacterium is a pathogen. ...
It has also been isolated from actinomycotic lesions (mixed infection with certain Actinomyces species, in particular A. ... It was reclassified as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by Topley & Wilson (1929) and as Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans ... Jorth P, Trivedi U, Rumbaugh K, Whiteley M (November 2013). "Probing bacterial metabolism during infection using high- ... Less frequently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is associated with nonoral infections such as endocarditis. Its role in aggressive ...
Infection and Immunity. 69 (12): 7610-5. doi:10.1128/iai.69.12.7610-7615.2001. PMC 98854. PMID 11705940. Malone T, Blumenthal ... "Inactivation of DNA adenine methyltransferase alters virulence factors in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". Oral ...
"Comparison of Two Selective Media for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans." J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:636-638. Fryman A, ... that substantiated aggressive periodontitis as a bona fide infection, rather than merely a degenerative disorder. Dental ... Slots is responsible for discovering the role of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus ...
Fives-Taylor PM, Meyer DH, Mintz KP, Brissette C (June 1999). "Virulence factors of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". ... Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 7 (4): 213-7. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0691.2001.00210.x. PMID 11422244. Genco RJ, Zambon JJ, ... Zambon JJ, Christersson LA, Slots J (December 1983). "Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human periodontal disease. ... High levels of Aggregatibacter (or Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans and, in some populations, Porphyromonas gingivalis. ...
... actinobacillus infections MeSH C01.252.400.700.030.178 - actinobacillosis MeSH C01.252.400.700.433 - haemophilus infections ... bacteroides infections MeSH C01.252.400.126 - bartonellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.126.100 - bartonella infections MeSH ... moraxellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.560.022 - acinetobacter infections MeSH C01.252.400.610 - mycoplasmatales infections ... salmonella infections, animal MeSH C01.252.400.310.821.873 - typhoid fever MeSH C01.252.400.310.850 - serratia infections MeSH ...
"HACEK Group Infections: Overview - eMedicine Infectious Diseases". Retrieved 2009-03-17. v t e (Articles with short description ... Norskov-Lauritsen N, Kilian M. (2006). "Reclassification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, ...
... may be useful for treating and preventing biofilm-associated infections caused by poly-N-acetylglucosamine- ... Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Ramasubbu N, Fine DH (August 2003). "Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by ... Kaplan JB, Meyenhofer MF, Fine DH (2003). "Biofilm growth and detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". J. Bacteriol ... a biofilm-releasing glycoside hydrolase from the periodontopathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". J. Mol. Biol. 349 (3 ...
Infection has been shown to have high prevalence in the autumn and winter months. K.kingae infections are rare in adults, but ... Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella organisms: a retrospective multicenter evaluation". J. Clin. Microbiol ... Poor oral hygiene, pharyngitis, and mucosal ulceration are also predisposing factors for infection. The infection can occur in ... The infection rate is poorly documented, thus the illness tends to go underdiagnosed. K. kingae can be transmitted person to ...
... viral infection, and bacterial infection. As a result, sulfatide is associated with, able to bind to, and/or is present in ... Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are pathogens that cause respiratory disease in swine. Haemophilus ... However, sulfatide has little function in HIV-1 infection of CD4+ cells. The binding of gp120 to GalCer has the ability to ... Sulfatide has been shown to play a role or have some association with several diseases and infections. This includes diabetes ...
With the consistent and complete removal of biofilm, the infection can be arrested and healthy periodontium can be achieved. ... These bacteria include Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Healthy ...
"First description of an Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens prosthetic joint infection". New Microbes and New Infections. 18 ... Henderson B, Ward JM, Ready D (October 2010). "Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans: a triple A* ... It can be potentially lethal to humans, but infections are rare. † Archaeoacanthocircus angustiannulatus Kozur, Moix & Ozsvárt ... Norskov-Lauritsen N, Kilian M (2006). "Reclassification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, ...
... urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle-ear infections, formation of dental plaque, gingivitis, coating contact ... Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Ramasubbu N, Fine DH (August 2003). "Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by ... Examples of such infections include chronic wounds, chronic otitis media, chronic prostatitis and chronic lung infections in ... Biofilms of fungal origin are important aspects of human infection and fungal pathogenicity, as the fungal infection is more ...
The question then became how exposure to the caterpillars produced these non-specific bacterial infections of the affected ... Actinobacillus encephalitis. MRLS was observed in mares of all breeds and ages. Early and late fetal losses were observed ... Mares which aborted are treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics to avoid bacterial infections. The foals born from mares ... Reviewing the speed with which ETCs produced late-term abortions in 2002 experiments, the nonspecific bacterial infections in ...
Adequate plaque control is important in ensuring long-term results from the procedure, and if post-operative infection control ... CO2 laser Diode laser It has been suggested that lasers can give a substantial reduction in bacteria such as Actinobacillus ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia and Salmonella infections in pigs. Prior to the introduction of vaccination with material from ... "Development of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection". Vaccine. 24 (49-50): 7226-7237. doi: ... Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or alleviate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or ... They can also mitigate the severity of infection, resulting in a lower mortality rate, lower morbidity, faster recovery from ...
Categories: Actinobacillus Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species. These organisms share ... Infection due to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans: 15 cases and review. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb. 11 (1):46-63. [QxMD ... For the most part, endocarditis is the focus of incidence studies of HACEK infections, but other infections can be caused by ... Diseases & Conditions HACEK Group Infections * 2003/viewarticle/best-practices-diagnosing-upper-respiratory-infections- ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Lawsonia ... Comparison was made to the change after a randomly selected date in herds not vaccinating against each of the infections. ... Comparison was made to the change after a randomly selected date in herds not vaccinating against each of the infections. ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Porcine Circovirus Type II, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus and Lawsonia ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a bacterial infection that results in coughing, high fever, respiratory distress and high ... Research funded by the Swine Health Information Center has shown Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 is capable of ... University conducted a series of studies to compare different strains and define the risks posed by this emerging infection.. ...
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In addition, recent studies have suggested that some types of oral infection may potentially confound a number of systemic ... Infection involving the oral cavity can be associated with significant morbidity. ... 12] Periodontitis has been associated with the proliferation of the bacteria Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Porphyromonas ... Caries and Periapical Infection. Caries are the most common odontogenic infection. Prevalence appears to vary depending on the ...
It is used to treat Actinobacillus, pasteurella and mycoplasma infection of pleuropneumonia. ... It is more active against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella and Mycoplasma in livestock than Tylosin. 95% of the ...
Treatment of infections caused by the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Pasteurella multocida , Bordetella bronchiseptica , ... Swine: Treatment of infections caused by strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae,. Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella ...
Acute outbreaks of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) require rapid, effective, parenteral antimicrobial treatment. The ... with one or two doses of 7.5 mg/kg injectable enrofloxacin for the treatment of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in ... Sneath PHA, Stevens M. Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis Spa nov., noma rev., Pastewella bettii sp. nov., ... In two, single-centre, studies conducted in USA on SRD in pigs with mixed infections of APP, PM, H. parasuis and Streptococcus ...
... systems for the assessment of the pathological outcomes derived from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae experimental infections. ... Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections and Environmental Sustainability of the Ovine Sector: Eimeria spp. Infections and Nitrogen ... thus predisposing to secondary viral and bacterial infections. The clinical onset and outcome of M. hyopneumoniae infection are ... Maes, D.; Sibila, M.; Kuhnert, P.; Segalés, J.; Haesebrouck, F.; Pieters, M. Update on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in ...
actinobacillosis - a disease of cattle and sheep, caused by infection with an Actinobacillus lignieresii and characterized by ...
Galleria mellonella is an effective model to study Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. Pereira, Monalessa Fábia; Rossi, ... Infecções por Actinobacillus/microbiologia , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinobacillus ... Infecções por Actinobacillus/microbiologia , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , ...
A urinary tract infection (UTI) (also known as acute cystitis or bladder infection) is an infection that affects part of the ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Nicolle LE (2008). "Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated ... In women, urinary tract infections are the most common form of bacterial infection with 10% developing urinary tract infections ... urinary tract infection, UTI, urinary tract infections, UTIs. 関. 尿路感染. 定義. *尿路(腎、尿管、膀胱、尿道など)の感染症。尿道
... that are frequently isolated from clinical specimens concomitantly with Actinomyces in human infection include Actinobacillus ... Infections of the oral and cervicofacial regions are the most commonly recognized infections; however, the thoracic region, ... Pulmonary infections usually arise after aspiration of oropharyngeal or GI secretions. GI infection frequently follows loss of ... Funke G, von Graevenitz A. Infections due to Actinomyces neuii (former "CDC coryneform group 1" bacteria). Infection. 1995 Mar- ...
Other Infection by more than one organism 023.9 Unspecified 024 Glanders Infection by: Actinobacillus mallei Farcy Malleomyces ... infection Rat tapeworm (infection) 123.8 Other Diplogonoporus (grandis) infection Dipylidium (caninum) infection Dog tapeworm ( ... infection) Threadworm infection 127.5 Capillariasis Infection by Capillaria philippinensis Excludes: infection by Capillaria ... infection) Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-III (disease) (illness) (infection) HTLV-III (disease) (illness) (infection) HTLV- ...
Endocarditis due to Aggregatibacter (formerly: Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, a bacterium that grows in characteristic ... As with chronic infections elsewhere in the human body, chronic periodontal infections are associated with systemic changes to ... Also of interest may be the articles Viral Infections of the Mouth and Noncandidal Fungal Infections of the Mouth. ... encoded search term (Bacterial Mouth Infections) and Bacterial Mouth Infections What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Association between infection of different strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in ...
HACEK Infections - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, which usually occurs with A. israelii in actinomycosis ... respiratory infections (including empyemas), uterine infections related to intrauterine devices, and mixed soft-tissue ... Haemophilus species (H. parainfluenza, H. aphrophilus, and H. paraphrophilus), which may cause respiratory infections or, less ...
These pathogens, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, are found in endodontic infections more often when the infections ... The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in ... Novel bacterial phylotypes in endodontic infections. J Dent Res. 2005;84(6):565-9 [ Links ]. 10. Santos CF, Sakai VT, Machado ... have been reported in endodontic infections more frequently when PCR is used than when cultures are used for such ...
... to pharmaceutical compositions containing the compounds of formula 1 and to methods of treating bacterial protozoa infections ... The compounds of formula 1 are antibacterial agents that may be used to treat various bacterial and protozoa infections. The ... or Actinobacillus haemolyticum; respiratory tract infections related to infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella ... Other bacterial infections and protozoa infections and disorders related to such infections that may be treated or prevented in ...
Reference strains included Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 with a QC range of 2-8 mcg/mL and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ATCC ... of florfenicol was determined for isolates obtained from natural respiratory infections of swine from 1990-2001 (Table 2). ... Concentrate Solution is indicated for the treatment of swine respiratory disease associated with Actinobacillus ... has been demonstrated against commonly isolated pathogens involved in swine respiratory disease including Actinobacillus ...
The clinical picture of an APP infection is characterised by severe respiratory symptoms with a strong impairment of the ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a gram-negative bacillus. It produces exotoxins that can destroy lung macrophages and ...
These results serve as a basis to know the mechanisms of infection of the bacteria and to better understand their virulence ... RESUMEN Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) es un patógeno del sistema respiratorio porcino y agente etiológico de la ... Mecanismo de internalización de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae en células endoteliales de aorta de cerdo en cultivo. Login ... ABSTRACT Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is a respiratory system pathogen and etiological agent of porcine ...
Treats respiratory diseases, foot rot, and urinary tract infections in dogs, and controls early mortality in chicks and poults ... Horses Treatment of respiratory infections in horses associated with Streptococcus zooepidemicus Dogs Treatment of canine ... Swine Treatment/control of swine bacterial respiratory disease (swine bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus ( ... uriniary tract infections associated with Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Day-Old Chicks Control of early mortality, ...
Actinobacillus equuli infections. *Gram-negative pleomorphic infections: Actinobacillus seminis, Histophilus ovis and ... infections. Salmonellosis in livestock is caused by infection with both host-specific and non-host-specific Salmonella serovars ... Carrier animals and contaminated environments are important sources of infection. The most common serovars associated with ... It elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses to infections by salmonellas. Strains with incomplete O antigens (rough ...
  • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Lawsonia intracellularis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Research funded by the Swine Health Information Center has shown Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 is capable of surviving colder temperatures than previously thought. (farmscape.ca)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a bacterial infection that results in coughing, high fever, respiratory distress and high mortality. (farmscape.ca)
  • It is more active against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella and Mycoplasma in livestock than Tylosin. (qdrunda.cn)
  • Acute outbreaks of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) require rapid, effective, parenteral antimicrobial treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae hfq mutants strains are attenuated for virulence in pigs, impaired in the ability to form biofilms, and more susceptible to stress, but knowledge of the extent of sRNA involvement is limited. (bvsalud.org)
  • INDICATIONS: FLORCON 2.3% Concentrate Solution is indicated for the treatment of swine respiratory disease associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Streptococcus suis in swine. (drugs.com)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae can also be detected by culture ( service 150 Bacteriology ). (laboklin.com)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a gram-negative bacillus. (laboklin.com)
  • The clinical picture of an APP infection is characterised by severe respiratory symptoms with a strong impairment of the general condition (fever up to 42 °C). In intensive pig farming, pleuropneumonia caused by A. pleuropneumoniae is one of the most important infectious diseases. (laboklin.com)
  • RESUMEN Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) es un patógeno del sistema respiratorio porcino y agente etiológico de la pleuroneumonía porcina, la cual es caracterizada como una pleuroneumonía exudativa, fibrinosa, hemorrágica y necrosante y es considerada una de las principales causas de pérdida económica de la industria porcina debido a los altos índices de mortalidad, reducción de ganancia media diaria de peso, gastos médicos, pérdidas por sacrificio y gastos por intervención. (uaa.mx)
  • En México, A. pleuropneumoniae se encuentra altamente diseminada, siendo los serotipos 1, 3, 5 y 7 los más prevalentes y la enfermedad que produce afecta del 60 al 80% de las granjas porcícolas del estado de Aguascalientes. (uaa.mx)
  • ABSTRACT Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is a respiratory system pathogen and etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia which is characterized as an exudative, fibrinous, hemorrhagic and necrotizing pleuropneumonia and is considered one of the main causes of economic loss of the swine industry due to the high mortality rates, reduction of average daily weight gain, medical expenses, sacrificial losses and intervention expenses. (uaa.mx)
  • Swine Treatment/control of swine bacterial respiratory disease (swine bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella choleraesuis and Streptococcus suis. (lambertvetsupply.com)
  • Detection of Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae ApxIV Toxin Antibody in Serum and Oral Fluid Specimens from Pigs Inoculated Under Experimental Conditions. (ncsu.edu)
  • Advocin is specifically indicated for the treatment of respiratory disease caused by Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs, and the treatment of enteric disease caused by Escherischia coli in pigs. (noahcompendium.co.uk)
  • It is used to treat Actinobacillus, pasteurella and mycoplasma infection of pleuropneumonia. (qdrunda.cn)
  • Advocin is specifically indicated for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (shipping fever, pneumonia) caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida and enteric infections caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (noahcompendium.co.uk)
  • Prevention and treatment of swine respiratory diseases such as Streptococcus suis type 2, Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia, Pasteurella multocida & Haemophilus parasuis. (yemayabvet.com)
  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans with original genus name, " Actinobacillus, " referred to the internal star shapes formed by colonies on solid media. (medscape.com)
  • This study investigated the occurrence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in the root canals of cleft lip and palate patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Portanto, este estudo avaliou por meio da técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase a presença dos micro-organismos Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans e Porphyromonas gingivalis de canais radiculares em pacientes com fissuras lábio-palatais. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nearly always part of a mixed infection, especially with flora such as Aggregatibacter (ex Actinobacillus ) actinomycetemcomitans , Eikenella corrodens , Bacteroides spp , S. aureus , Streptococcus spp . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • endocarditis (The "A" of HACEK is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, now known as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In response to a severe outbreak of APP serotype 15 in finishing barns in Iowa in 2021, Iowa State University conducted a series of studies to compare different strains and define the risks posed by this emerging infection. (farmscape.ca)
  • Horses Treatment of respiratory infections in horses associated with Streptococcus zooepidemicus Dogs Treatment of canine uriniary tract infections associated with Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. (lambertvetsupply.com)
  • Virtually all cases are mixed infections with other bacteria, including Eikenella corrodens , Bacteroides spp, S. aureus , Streptococcus spp. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Salmonellosis in livestock is caused by infection with both host-specific and non-host-specific Salmonella serovars, and results in enteritis, septicaemia or abortion. (anipedia.org)
  • Latent porcine circovirus type 2-infected domestic pigs: A potential infection model for the effective development of vaccines against latent or chronic virus induced diseases. (vetsuisse.ch)
  • Seroprevalence of atypical porcine pestivirus in a closed pig herd with subclinical infection. (vetsuisse.ch)
  • H parainfluenzae is capable of causing a variety of infections such as IE, otitis media , abscesses, and pneumonia, although it is an uncommon cause of these infections. (medscape.com)
  • Surgical debride- man wound infection involving Lonepinella -like organisms ment and washout revealed pus within the thenar muscle occurring after koala bites in Queensland, Australia. (cdc.gov)
  • Organisms may be present in cervical smears but do not represent infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The pathogenesis of HACEK endocarditis is thought to be due to colonization of the oropharynx with bacteria that reach the vascular space following either trauma or local infection. (medscape.com)
  • We report 3 cases of koala bite wound infection with Lonepi- tralia, went to a general practitioner for treatment of a koala nella koalarum -like bacteria requiring antimicrobial and sur- crush-bite injury to the thumb. (cdc.gov)
  • In those with vague symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult because bacteria may be present without there being an infection. (meddic.jp)
  • Infective Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is infection of the endocardium, usually with bacteria (commonly, streptococci or staphylococci) or fungi. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These results serve as a basis to know the mechanisms of infection of the bacteria and to better understand their virulence factors, which once properly described, will serve to develop a specific treatment for the disease and reach its future eradication. (uaa.mx)
  • Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or alleviate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight a disease that has already occurred, such as cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • Host-pathogen interactions and responses to infection are dynamic processes involving multiple pathways in the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infected but clinically healthy animals carrying the pathogen are an important source of the infection [ 1 - 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Change in the condition of any one of the above factors or combination thereof can result in oral hard or soft tissue infection. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, rare cases of endometritis and urinary tract infection have been identified. (medscape.com)
  • A urinary tract infection ( UTI ) (also known as acute cystitis or bladder infection ) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. (meddic.jp)
  • Invasive infections commonly occur in the setting of trauma, underlying structural heart disease, malignancy, and other immunocompromised states. (medscape.com)
  • Urinary tract infections occur more commonly in women than men, with half of women having at least one infection at some point in their lives. (meddic.jp)
  • The treatment of acute APP infections is essential to ensure animal welfare and will contribute to minimising adverse economic effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES AND INJURIES I. INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES (001-139) Includes: diseases generally recognized as communicable or transmissible as well as a few diseases of unknown but possibly infectious origin Excludes: acute respiratory infections (460-466) influenza (487. (cdc.gov)
  • Foci of infection in the oral cavity arising from chronic periodontitis or chronic periapical abscesses (ie, inflammation and abscess of the tissue attached to the apex of the root) may lead to subacute bacterial endocarditis (BE) and glomerulonephritis (GN). (medscape.com)
  • Comparison was made to the change after a randomly selected date in herds not vaccinating against each of the infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Actinomycosis Actinomycosis is a chronic localized or hematogenous anaerobic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii and other species of Actinomyces . (msdmanuals.com)
  • E corrodens can cause IE and is associated with infection following traumatic inoculation from the oral cavity and is found in up to 42% of abscesses from human bite wounds. (medscape.com)
  • Actinomyces radicidentis , a recently described species, has been isolated with polymerase chain reaction from patients with endodontic infections. (medscape.com)
  • Other bacterial species that often are copathogens to Actinomyces species may aid spread of infection by inhibiting host defenses and reducing local oxygen tension. (medscape.com)
  • Indication Treatment of inflamed and eczematous tissue, skin and wound infections in dogs, cats and horses due to bacterial, allergic or fungal causes. (petstoreluna.net)
  • In addition, recent studies have suggested that some types of oral infection may potentially confound a number of systemic problems including cardiac disease, pregnancy, kidney disease, and diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • certain localized infections Note: Categories for "late effects" of infectious and parasitic diseases are to be found at 137. (cdc.gov)
  • Apical periodontal infection has been associated with 200 bacterial species, and 500 bacterial species have been reported with marginal periodontitis. (medscape.com)
  • In some cases vaccines may result in partial immune protection (in which immunity is less than 100% effective but still reduces risk of infection) or in temporary immune protection (in which immunity wanes over time) rather than full or permanent immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunosuppressive drug therapy and any disease (eg, HIV infection) resulting in suppression of the normal inflammatory and immune mechanisms can cause or enhance severe periodontal diseases. (medscape.com)
  • It elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses to infections by salmonellas. (anipedia.org)
  • This invention also relates to pharmaceutical compositions containing the novel compounds and to methods of treating bacterial infections and protozoa infections in mammals, fish and birds by administering the novel compounds to mammals, fish and birds requiring such treatment. (justia.com)
  • Macrolide antibiotics are known to be useful in the treatment of a broad sprectrum of bacterial infections and protozoa infections in mammals, fish and birds. (justia.com)
  • In those with frequent infections, low dose antibiotics may be taken as a preventative measure. (meddic.jp)
  • In uncomplicated cases, urinary tract infections are easily treated with a short course of antibiotics, although resistance to many of the antibiotics used to treat this condition is increasing. (meddic.jp)
  • Like azithromycin and other macrolide antibiotics, the novel macrolide compounds of the present invention possess potent activity against various bacterial infections and protozoa infections as described below. (justia.com)
  • Infection involving the oral cavity can be associated with significant morbidity. (medscape.com)
  • A number of systemic diseases can reduce host defense mechanisms, leading to reductions in phagocytic activity, pulmonary clearance, and circulation, with these factors contributing to oral infection. (medscape.com)
  • These specific conditions in the oral cavity may create foci of infection that can affect many other vital systems, such as the cardiovascular and renal systems. (medscape.com)
  • In women, urinary tract infections are the most common form of bacterial infection with 10% developing urinary tract infections yearly. (meddic.jp)
  • Periodontitis is a common chronic bacterial infection of the supporting structures of the teeth. (medscape.com)
  • However, an increased or improved use of vaccination has been suggested as a potential strategy to prevent specific diseases and/or secondary infections ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • They can also mitigate the severity of infection, resulting in a lower mortality rate, lower morbidity, faster recovery from illness, and a wide range of other effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Neafsey said the most likely mechanism for JEV introduction and establishment of infection would be through infected mosquitoes and expressed concern about delayed recognition of infection in livestock due to the disease's non-specific presentation. (swinehealth.org)
  • infection may advance through tissue planes with no respect for anatomical barriers. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Suspicion may be raised upon imaging studies that show infection crossing tissue planes (e.g., empyema crossing into the chest wall). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Some vaccines offer full sterilizing immunity, in which infection is prevented completely. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five different preventable infections. (wikipedia.org)