A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS. It is mainly a pathogen of PIGS, but also can infect HORSES.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with PLEURISY, inflammation of the PLEURA.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS, which is pathogenic for HORSES and PIGS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
Inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction in the presence of little local factors such as DENTAL PLAQUE and DENTAL CALCULUS. This highly destructive form of periodontitis often occurs in young people and was called early-onset periodontitis, but this disease also appears in old people.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE. Members are nonmotile, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods or coccobacilli. Its members are X factor (HEMIN) independent and variably dependent on V factor (NAD).
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A disease characterized by suppurative and granulomatous lesions in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Actinobacillus lignieresii infects cattle and sheep while A. equuli infects horses and pigs.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS, which causes EPIDIDYMITIS in SHEEP.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A pleuropneumonia of cattle and goats caused by species of MYCOPLASMA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
Gram-negative bacteria isolated from infections of the respiratory and intestinal tracts and from the buccal cavity, intestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are probably part of the normal flora of man and animals.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Genus of bacteria in the family PASTEURELLACEAE, comprising multiple species that do not ferment trehalose. Species include MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; M. glucosida, M. granulomatis, M. ruminalis, and M. varigena.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the human mouth and intestine. Organisms of this genus can be opportunistic pathogens.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.

Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov., a novel succinic-acid-producing strain from the bovine rumen. (1/220)

Strain 130ZT was isolated from the bovine rumen. It is a facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, Gram-negative rod. It exhibits a 'Morse code' form of morphology, which is characteristic of the genus Actinobacillus. Strain 130ZT is a capnophilic, osmotolerant succinogen that utilizes a broad range of sugars. It accumulates high concentrations of succinic acid (> 70 g l-1). Strain 130ZT is positive for catalase, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase, but does not produce indole or urease. Acid but no gas is produced from D-glucose and D-fructose. 16S rRNA sequence analysis places strain 130ZT within the family Pasteurellaceae; the most closely related members of the family Pasteurellaceae have 16S rRNA similarities of 95.5% or less with strain 130ZT. Strain 130ZT was compared with Actinobacillus lignieresii and the related Bisgaard Taxa 6 and 10. Based upon morphological and biochemical properties, strain 130ZT is most similar to members of the genus Actinobacillus within the family Pasteurellaceae. It is proposed that strain 130ZT be classified as a new species, Actinobacillus succinogenes. The type strain of Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov. is ATCC 55618T.  (+info)

Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (2/220)

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

Studies on time-kill kinetics of different classes of antibiotics against veterinary pathogenic bacteria including Pasteurella, Actinobacillus and Escherichia coli. (3/220)

A systematic analysis of the bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of several antibiotics used in veterinary medicine was carried out by time-kill kinetic analysis using P. haemolytica, P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae, and E. coli. The antibiotics tested were enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, penicillin G, ceftiofur and tetracycline. Unexpectedly, the antibiotics well characterized as bacteriostatic agents against human pathogens such as tetracycline and macrolides, showed bactericidal activity against P. haemolytica and A. pleuropneumoniae. In contrast, tetracycline and erythromycin were bacteriostatic and tilmicosin was bactericidal against P. multocida. In addition, P. multocida was killed by fluoroquinolones at a slower rate than the other bacteria. Spectrum analysis revealed that ceftiofur and tilmicosin were good substrates of the universal efflux pump, AcrA/B, but penicillin and tetracycline were not. The fluoroquinolones were modest substrates for AcrA/B.  (+info)

Utilization of electrically reduced neutral red by Actinobacillus succinogenes: physiological function of neutral red in membrane-driven fumarate reduction and energy conservation. (4/220)

Neutral red (NR) functioned as an electronophore or electron channel enabling either cells or membranes purified from Actinobacillus succinogenes to drive electron transfer and proton translocation by coupling fumarate reduction to succinate production. Electrically reduced NR, unlike methyl or benzyl viologen, bound to cell membranes, was not toxic, and chemically reduced NAD. The cell membrane of A. succinogenes contained high levels of benzyl viologen-linked hydrogenase (12.2 U), fumarate reductase (13.1 U), and diaphorase (109.7 U) activities. Fumarate reductase (24.5 U) displayed the highest activity with NR as the electron carrier, whereas hydrogenase (1.1 U) and diaphorase (0.8 U) did not. Proton translocation by whole cells was dependent on either electrically reduced NR or H2 as the electron donor and on the fumarate concentration. During the growth of Actinobacillus on glucose plus electrically reduced NR in an electrochemical bioreactor system versus on glucose alone, electrically reduced NR enhanced glucose consumption, growth, and succinate production by about 20% while it decreased acetate production by about 50%. The rate of fumarate reduction to succinate by purified membranes was twofold higher with electrically reduced NR than with hydrogen as the electron donor. The addition of 2-(n-heptyl)-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide to whole cells or purified membranes inhibited succinate production from H2 plus fumarate but not from electrically reduced NR plus fumarate. Thus, NR appears to replace the function of menaquinone in the fumarate reductase complex, and it enables A. succinogenes to utilize electricity as a significant source of metabolic reducing power.  (+info)

Microbial utilization of electrically reduced neutral red as the sole electron donor for growth and metabolite production. (5/220)

Electrically reduced neutral red (NR) served as the sole source of reducing power for growth and metabolism of pure and mixed cultures of H2-consuming bacteria in a novel electrochemical bioreactor system. NR was continuously reduced by the cathodic potential (-1.5 V) generated from an electric current (0.3 to 1.0 mA), and it was subsequently oxidized by Actinobacillus succinogenes or by mixed methanogenic cultures. The A. succinogenes mutant strain FZ-6 did not grow on fumarate alone unless electrically reduced NR or hydrogen was present as the electron donor for succinate production. The mutant strain, unlike the wild type, lacked pyruvate formate lyase and formate dehydrogenase. Electrically reduced NR also replaced hydrogen as the sole electron donor source for growth and production of methane from CO2. These results show that both pure and mixed cultures can function as electrochemical devices when electrically generated reducing power can be used to drive metabolism. The potential utility of utilizing electrical reducing power in enhancing industrial fermentations or biotransformation processes is discussed.  (+info)

Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells using neutral red as an electronophore. (6/220)

Neutral red (NR) was utilized as an electron mediator in microbial fuel cells consuming glucose to study both its efficiency during electricity generation and its role in altering anaerobic growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli and Actinobacillus succinogenes. A study of chemical fuel cells in which NADH, NR, and ferricyanide were the electron donor, the electronophore, and the electron acceptor, respectively, showed that electrical current produced from NADH was proportional to the concentration of NADH. Fourfold more current was produced from NADH in chemical fuel cells when NR was the electron mediator than when thionin was the electron mediator. In microbial fuel cells in which E. coli resting cells were used the amount of current produced from glucose when NR was the electron mediator (3.5 mA) was 10-fold more than the amount produced when thionin was the electron mediator (0.4 mA). The amount of electrical energy generated (expressed in joules per mole of substrate) and the amount of current produced from glucose (expressed in milliamperes) in NR-mediated microbial fuel cells containing either E. coli or A. succinogenes were about 10- and 2-fold greater, respectively, when resting cells were used than when growing cells were used. Cell growth was inhibited substantially when these microbial fuel cells were making current, and more oxidized end products were formed under these conditions. When sewage sludge (i.e., a mixed culture of anaerobic bacteria) was used in the fuel cell, stable (for 120 h) and equivalent levels of current were obtained with glucose, as observed in the pure-culture experiments. These results suggest that NR is better than other electron mediators used in microbial fuel cells and that sludge production can be decreased while electricity is produced in fuel cells. Our results are discussed in relation to factors that may improve the relatively low electrical efficiencies (1.2 kJ/mol) obtained with microbial fuel cells.  (+info)

Comparative pathogenicity of different Actinobacillus suis O/K serotypes. (7/220)

The pathogenicity of Actinobacillus suis serotypes O1/K1 (strain SO4), O1/K2 (strain C84), and O2/K2 (strain H91-0380) was evaluated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) piglets challenged by intraperitoneal inoculation with approximately 1 x 10(7) colony-forming units per mL. All 3 strains produced peritonitis, but differences were observed in the composite histopathologic scores (P = 0.001) and in their ability to spread (P = 0.008) at 7 h post challenge. The O2/K2 strain caused the most severe peritonitis and disseminated most widely to other tissues. Moderate lesions were seen with the O1/K2 strain while the O1/K1 strain caused mild lesions and remained largely localized to the peritoneum. In an attempt to explain the basis of observed differences, the serum sensitivity of 9 A. suis strains with different O and K types was assessed. Regardless of the O/K type, all of the isolates tested were serum resistant. Moreover, most A. suis isolates grew as well or better in complement-replete sera as they did in complement-depleted sera. These observations indicate that although 02 and K2 strains had a greater propensity to cause a disseminating septic inflammatory response in pigs, they were no more resistant to complement-mediated killing than O1 strains.  (+info)

A gene cluster for the synthesis of serotype d-specific polysaccharide antigen in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (8/220)

The serotype d antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans consists of D-glucose, D-mannose, and L-rhamnose in a molar ratio of 1:2:1. A gene cluster involved in the synthesis of serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of A. actinomycetemcomitans IDH 781 (serotype d). This cluster consisted of 12 open reading frames. Insertional inactivation of six genes in this cluster resulted in loss of ability of A. actinomycetemcomitans IDH 781 cells to produce the polysaccharide. Comparing the structure of the gene cluster with similar clusters from other serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans, showed that eight genes are unique to serotype d; the other four genes are involved in the biosynthesis of dTDP-L-rhamnose. These results suggest that the synthesis and structure of serotype d-specific polysaccharide of A. actinomycetemcomitans is quite different from those of other serotype strains.  (+info)

According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, 'actinobacillus' is defined as:

"A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic rods (family Pasteurellaceae) that are parasites or commensals in animals and occasionally cause disease in humans. Some species produce a polysaccharide capsule."

In simpler terms, Actinobacillus is a type of bacteria that can be found in animals, including sometimes as normal flora in their mouths and throats. These bacteria can sometimes infect humans, usually through close contact with animals or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Some species of Actinobacillus can produce a polysaccharide capsule, which can make them more resistant to the body's immune defenses and more difficult to treat with antibiotics.

It is worth noting that while some species of Actinobacillus can cause disease in humans, they are generally not considered major human pathogens. However, they can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are active against gram-negative bacteria, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate or fluoroquinolones.

Actinobacillus infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Actinobacillus, which are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, and non-motile rods. These bacteria can cause a variety of infections in humans and animals, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and septicemia.

The most common species that causes infection in humans is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which is associated with periodontal disease, endocarditis, and soft tissue infections. Other species such as A. suis, A. lignieresii, and A. equuli can cause infections in animals and occasionally in humans, particularly those who have close contact with animals.

Symptoms of Actinobacillus infections depend on the site of infection and may include fever, chills, swelling, redness, pain, and purulent discharge. Diagnosis is typically made through culture and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples such as blood, wound secretions, or respiratory specimens. Treatment usually involves antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or third-generation cephalosporins. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that primarily affects the respiratory system of pigs, causing a disease known as porcine pleuropneumonia. This disease is associated with severe respiratory signs, including coughing, difficulty breathing, and high fever, and can lead to significant economic losses in the swine industry.

The bacterium is typically transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites, and it can also be spread through aerosolized droplets. Once inside the host, 'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' produces a number of virulence factors that allow it to evade the immune system and cause tissue damage.

Effective control and prevention strategies for porcine pleuropneumonia include vaccination, biosecurity measures, and antibiotic treatment. However, antibiotic resistance is an emerging concern in the management of this disease, highlighting the need for continued research and development of new control strategies.

'Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is facultatively anaerobic, meaning it can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen. This bacterium is commonly found as part of the oral microbiota in humans and is associated with periodontal diseases such as localized aggressive periodontitis. Additionally, it has been implicated in various extraoral infections, including endocarditis, meningitis, and septicemia, particularly in individuals with underlying medical conditions. The bacterium's virulence factors include leukotoxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and adhesins, which contribute to its pathogenicity.

'Actinobacillus suis' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that primarily affects pigs, causing diseases such as Glasser's disease (also known as porcine respiratory disease complex) and reproductive disorders. The bacterium can cause septicemia, meningitis, pneumonia, and arthritis in pigs, resulting in significant economic losses for the swine industry.

Humans can also become infected with 'Actinobacillus suis' through close contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, although such cases are rare. In humans, the bacterium can cause various clinical manifestations, including septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, and wound infections. Immunocompromised individuals are at higher risk of developing severe disease.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices when handling animals or working in environments where the bacterium may be present to reduce the risk of infection. If you suspect an 'Actinobacillus suis' infection, consult a medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Pleuropneumonia is a medical condition characterized by inflammation that affects both the lung tissue (pneumonia) and the pleural space (pleurisy) surrounding the lungs. It is often caused by bacterial infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae, that spread from the lungs to the pleural space.

The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, it may lead to complications such as pleural effusion (accumulation of fluid in the pleural space), lung abscesses, or empyema (pus in the pleural space).

Pleuropneumonia can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures or analysis of sputum or pleural fluid. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, along with supportive care such as pain management, hydration, and respiratory support if necessary.

'Actinobacillus equuli' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal system of horses. However, it can also cause disease in both horses and other animals, including humans, under certain conditions.

In horses, 'Actinobacillus equuli' can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, including septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion. The bacterium is often found in cases of "sleepy staggers," a neurological condition that affects young foals.

In humans, 'Actinobacillus equuli' is an uncommon cause of infection, but it has been associated with cases of bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, and wound infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with horses or other animals.

The bacterium is typically treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or ceftriaxone, although resistance to these drugs has been reported in some strains. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found as part of the normal microbiota of the human respiratory tract. However, some species can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which was originally identified as a cause of influenza (hence the name), but it is now known that not all strains of H. influenzae cause this disease. In fact, the majority of H. influenzae infections are caused by strains that produce a polysaccharide capsule, which makes them more virulent and able to evade the host's immune system.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was once a major cause of serious bacterial infections in children, including meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. However, since the introduction of vaccines against Hib in the 1980s, the incidence of these infections has decreased dramatically.

Other Haemophilus species that can cause human infections include Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi (which causes chancroid), and Haemophilus aphrophilus (which can cause endocarditis).

Aggressive periodontitis is a severe form of periodontal disease that affects the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. It is characterized by rapid destruction of the periodontal tissues and can result in significant tooth loss if left untreated.

Aggressive periodontitis typically affects younger individuals, often before the age of 30, and can progress rapidly, even in the absence of obvious dental plaque or calculus accumulation. It is often associated with a genetic predisposition and may cluster in families.

The disease is classified as localized or generalized based on the distribution of affected sites. Localized aggressive periodontitis typically affects no more than two teeth next to each other, while generalized aggressive periodontitis involves at least three or four teeth in different areas of the mouth.

In addition to genetic factors, other risk factors for aggressive periodontitis include smoking, diabetes, and hormonal changes. Treatment typically involves a combination of thorough dental cleanings, antibiotics, and sometimes surgical intervention to remove damaged tissue and promote healing. Regular maintenance care is essential to prevent recurrence and further progression of the disease.

Periodontitis is a severe form of gum disease that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone supporting your teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to tooth loss. It is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. The body's immune system fights the bacterial infection, which causes an inflammatory response. If the inflammation continues for a long time, it can damage the tissues and bones that support the teeth.

The early stage of periodontitis is called gingivitis, which is characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed or flossed. When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis. In addition to plaque, other factors that increase the risk of developing periodontitis include smoking or using tobacco products, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, a weakened immune system, and genetic factors.

Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using an antimicrobial mouth rinse, can help prevent periodontitis. Treatment for periodontitis may include deep cleaning procedures, medications, or surgery in severe cases.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

'Aggregatibacter' is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are part of the normal flora in the human mouth and respiratory tract. Some species of Aggregatibacter can cause infections, particularly in the mouth and throat, as well as in the brain, heart, and other parts of the body. These infections can include abscesses, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia.

The name 'Aggregatibacter' comes from the Latin word "aggregatus," which means "to gather together or collect." This is a reference to the fact that these bacteria are often found in clusters or aggregates.

It's important to note that Aggregatibacter species can be difficult to distinguish from other related genera, such as Haemophilus and Actinobacillus, based on traditional biochemical tests alone. Therefore, molecular methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing are often used to confirm the identification of these bacteria in clinical laboratories.

Exotoxins are a type of toxin that are produced and released by certain bacteria into their external environment, including the surrounding tissues or host's bloodstream. These toxins can cause damage to cells and tissues, and contribute to the symptoms and complications associated with bacterial infections.

Exotoxins are typically proteins, and they can have a variety of effects on host cells, depending on their specific structure and function. Some exotoxins act by disrupting the cell membrane, leading to cell lysis or death. Others interfere with intracellular signaling pathways, alter gene expression, or modify host immune responses.

Examples of bacterial infections that are associated with the production of exotoxins include:

* Botulism, caused by Clostridium botulinum
* Diphtheria, caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
* Tetanus, caused by Clostridium tetani
* Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis
* Food poisoning, caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus

Exotoxins can be highly potent and dangerous, and some have been developed as biological weapons. However, many exotoxins are also used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, such as botulinum toxin (Botox) for the treatment of wrinkles or dystonia.

Pasteurellaceae is a family of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic or aerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract of animals and humans. Some members of this family can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and localized infections such as abscesses and cellulitis.

Some notable genera within Pasteurellaceae include:

* Pasteurella: includes several species that can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and soft tissue infections in animals and humans. The most common species is Pasteurella multocida, which is a major pathogen in animals and can also cause human infections associated with animal bites or scratches.
* Haemophilus: includes several species that are normal flora of the human respiratory tract and can cause respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and meningitis. The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which can cause severe invasive diseases such as meningitis and sepsis, particularly in young children.
* Mannheimia: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract of ruminants (such as cattle and sheep) and can cause pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections in these animals. The most common species is Mannheimia haemolytica, which is a major pathogen in cattle and can also cause human infections associated with animal contact.
* Actinobacillus: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract of animals and can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and localized infections in these animals. The most common species is Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes a severe form of pneumonia in pigs.

Overall, Pasteurellaceae family members are important pathogens in both veterinary and human medicine, and their infections can range from mild to severe and life-threatening.

"Pasteurella" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacilli that are part of the family Pasteurellaceae. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock. They can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as wound infections, pneumonia, and septicemia, often following animal bites or scratches. Two notable species are Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella canis. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for appropriate treatment.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Actinobacillosis is a bacterial disease caused by the gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria Actinobacillus spp. This disease primarily affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and swine, causing symptoms such as abscesses, respiratory distress, and lameness. In rare cases, actinobacillosis can also affect humans, particularly those who have close contact with infected animals or consume contaminated food or water.

In humans, actinobacillosis typically manifests as a localized infection of the skin or mucous membranes, although it can also cause more widespread systemic infections. Symptoms may include fever, chills, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and painful abscesses or ulcers at the site of infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of any abscesses.

It is important to note that actinobacillosis is a relatively rare disease in humans, and it is not considered a significant public health concern. However, healthcare providers should be aware of the possibility of this infection in individuals who have close contact with infected animals or consume contaminated food or water.

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

"Actinobacillus seminis" is not a widely recognized or officially established medical term or species name in the field of human or veterinary medicine. It appears to be a combination of the genus name "Actinobacillus," which refers to a group of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, and the term "seminis," which is Latin for "of the seed" or "sperm."

There is some research suggesting that certain Actinobacillus species may be associated with reproductive tract infections in animals, such as bovine genital campylobacteriosis caused by Actinobacillus bovis. However, there is no established or well-known connection between the genus Actinobacillus and human male reproductive health or semen.

Therefore, it is not possible to provide a medical definition for "Actinobacillus seminis" as it does not appear to be a recognized or established term in the medical literature.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Gingiva is the medical term for the soft tissue that surrounds the teeth and forms the margin of the dental groove, also known as the gum. It extends from the mucogingival junction to the base of the cervical third of the tooth root. The gingiva plays a crucial role in protecting and supporting the teeth and maintaining oral health by providing a barrier against microbial invasion and mechanical injury.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Transferrin-binding proteins (TBPS) are a group of bacterial surface receptors that bind to transferrin, a glycoprotein involved in iron transport in mammals. These proteins are produced by certain pathogenic bacteria as a means to acquire iron from the host environment, which is essential for their growth and survival.

Transferrin sequesters iron in the bloodstream, making it unavailable to many invading microorganisms. However, some bacteria have evolved TBPS that can bind to transferrin and strip it of its iron, allowing them to use this vital nutrient for their own metabolic needs. The interaction between TBPS and transferrin is an important aspect of bacterial virulence and has been studied as a potential target for developing new antimicrobial therapies.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Contagious pleuropneumonia is a severe, highly contagious respiratory disease primarily affecting small ruminants such as sheep and goats. The causative agent is a gram-negative bacterium called Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). This disease is predominantly found in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, although it has the potential to spread rapidly and cause significant economic losses in susceptible populations.

The infection typically causes inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) and the pleura (pleurisy), which are the membranes lining the thoracic cavity and covering the lungs. Clinical signs include high fever, difficulty breathing, coughing, nasal discharge, loss of appetite, and depression. In severe cases, contagious pleuropneumonia can lead to sudden death due to acute lung failure or complications arising from secondary infections.

Transmission occurs through direct contact with infected animals, contaminated feed, water, or fomites (inanimate objects). The disease is not typically zoonotic, meaning it does not transmit from animals to humans. However, proper biosecurity measures and vaccination programs are crucial to controlling and preventing outbreaks in susceptible herds.

"Pasteurella multocida" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the respiratory tract of many animals, including birds, dogs, and cats. It can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bloodstream infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with animals or animal bites or scratches. The bacterium is named after Louis Pasteur, who developed a vaccine against it in the late 19th century.

'Eikenella corrodens' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterium that is commonly found as normal flora in the human oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. It is named for its ability to corrode or pit the surface of culture media.

Eikenella corrodens is a opportunistic pathogen that can cause localized infections such as abscesses, cellulitis, and endocarditis, particularly in individuals with underlying medical conditions or compromised immune systems. It has also been associated with bite wounds, human and animal bites, and trauma to the head and neck.

Eikenella corrodens is often resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and ampicillin due to the production of beta-lactamase enzyme. However, it remains susceptible to other antibiotics such as carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines.

Medical treatment for Eikenella corrodens infections typically involves the use of appropriate antibiotics based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing, along with surgical debridement or drainage of any abscesses or collections of pus.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

"Mannheimia" is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract of animals and are known to cause various diseases in domestic and wild animals. Some species of Mannheimia can also cause zoonotic infections in humans who come into close contact with infected animals.

The most well-known species of Mannheimia is M. haemolytica, which is a major pathogen in cattle and sheep, causing respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and shipping fever. Other species of Mannheimia include M. granulomatis, M. varigena, and M. succiniciproducens, among others.

Mannheimia bacteria are known to produce a variety of virulence factors, including hemolysins, endotoxins, and exotoxins, which contribute to their pathogenicity. Diagnosis of Mannheimia infections typically involves the isolation and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples, such as respiratory secretions or tissue samples, followed by confirmation using biochemical tests or molecular methods. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics, although the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Mannheimia species is a growing concern.

"Porphyromonas gingivalis" is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal disease. It is a major pathogen in chronic periodontitis, which is a severe form of gum disease that can lead to destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, such as proteases and endotoxins, which contribute to its pathogenicity. It has been shown to evade the host's immune response and cause tissue destruction through various mechanisms, including inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases.

P. gingivalis has also been linked to several systemic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease, although the exact mechanisms of these associations are not fully understood. Effective oral hygiene practices, including regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental cleanings, can help prevent the overgrowth of P. gingivalis and reduce the risk of periodontal disease.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Capnocytophaga is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the normal oral flora of humans and some animals. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen. They are known to cause various types of infections, including bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. The infection can be acquired through animal bites or scratches, or through close contact with saliva from infected animals. In humans, Capnocytophaga can also be part of the normal oral flora, but it rarely causes disease.

It is important to note that while Capnocytophaga can cause serious infections, they are relatively rare and proper hygiene and handling of pets can help reduce the risk of infection. If you have a weakened immune system or if you develop symptoms such as fever, chills, or severe illness after being bitten or scratched by an animal, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Succinic acid, also known as butanedioic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula HOOC(CH2)2COOH. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and has a slightly acerbic taste. In medicine, succinic acid is not used as a treatment for any specific condition. However, it is a naturally occurring substance found in the body and plays a role in the citric acid cycle, which is a key process in energy production within cells. It can also be found in some foods and is used in the manufacturing of various products such as pharmaceuticals, resins, and perfumes.

The palatine tonsils, also known as the "tonsils," are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the oropharynx, at the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system and play a role in protecting the body from inhaled or ingested pathogens. Each tonsil has a surface covered with crypts and follicles that contain lymphocytes, which help to filter out bacteria and viruses that enter the mouth and nose.

The palatine tonsils are visible through the mouth and can be seen during a routine physical examination. They vary in size, but typically are about the size of a large olive or almond. Swelling or inflammation of the tonsils is called tonsillitis, which can cause symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In some cases, enlarged tonsils may need to be removed through a surgical procedure called a tonsillectomy.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Prevotella intermedia is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. It is a normal resident of the human microbiota but can also be an opportunistic pathogen, causing various types of infections such as periodontitis, endocarditis, and brain abscesses. P. intermedia has been associated with several diseases, including respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, and joint infections. It is often found in mixed infections with other anaerobic bacteria. Proper identification of this organism is important for the selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

Pasteurellaceae infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae. This family includes several genera of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, with the most common pathogenic genus being Pasteurella. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including pets like cats and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated fluids.

Pasteurellaceae infections can cause a range of clinical manifestations, depending on the specific species involved and the site of infection. Common Pasteurella species that cause human infections include P. multocida and P. pneumotropica. Infections caused by these bacteria often present as localized skin or soft tissue infections, such as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections, following animal contact.

In addition to skin and soft tissue infections, Pasteurellaceae can also cause respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, bronchitis), septicemia, and, rarely, meningitis or endocarditis. Immunocompromised individuals, those with chronic lung disease, or those who have alcohol use disorder are at increased risk for severe Pasteurellaceae infections.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics active against gram-negative bacteria, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate, doxycycline, or fluoroquinolones. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent potential complications and the spread of infection.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Anseriformes is a taxonomic order that includes approximately 150 species of waterfowl, such as ducks, geese, and swans. These birds are characterized by their short, stout bills, which often have serrated edges or a nail-like structure at the tip, and are adapted for filter-feeding or grazing on aquatic vegetation. Anseriformes species are found worldwide, with the exception of Antarctica, and they inhabit a wide range of wetland habitats, including freshwater lakes, rivers, marshes, and coastal estuaries. Many Anseriformes species are migratory and travel long distances between their breeding and wintering grounds. The order is divided into two families: Anatidae, which includes ducks, geese, and swans, and Anhimidae, which includes screamers, a group of large, terrestrial birds found in South America.

Aspartate ammonia-lyase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of certain amino acids. Its systematic name is L-aspartate ammonia-lyase (ADI), and it is also known as aspartase. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the conversion of L-aspartic acid to fumaric acid and ammonia.

L-aspartic acid + H2O → fumaric acid + NH3

Aspartate ammonia-lyase is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In bacteria, this enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids. In plants, aspartate ammonia-lyase plays a role in the synthesis of certain aromatic compounds. The human body does not produce this enzyme, so it is not relevant to medical definitions in the context of human health and disease.

Transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) is not a medical term itself, but it is a bacterial protein involved in the process of iron acquisition by certain bacteria. Therefore, I will provide you with a biological definition:

Transferrin-binding Protein B (TbpB) is a bacterial surface protein primarily found in pathogenic Neisseria species, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. TbpB plays a crucial role in the iron acquisition process by binding to human transferrin, a glycoprotein that transports iron in the bloodstream.

TbpB, along with Transferrin-binding Protein A (TbpA), facilitates the uptake of iron from transferrin, which is essential for bacterial growth and survival within the host. The interaction between TbpB and transferrin allows the bacteria to evade the host's immune system and establish an infection. Understanding the function of TbpB has implications in developing novel therapeutic strategies against Neisseria infections.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

'Eikenella' is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the normal human microbiota, particularly in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. The most common species is *Eikenella corrodens*. These bacteria can cause localized or systemic infections, often following trauma or dental procedures, and are sometimes associated with human bites or wounds contaminated with saliva. Infections caused by Eikenella spp. can be difficult to diagnose due to their slow growth and fastidious nature, but they usually respond well to antibiotic therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "KB cells" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or scientific communities. It's possible that "KB cells" may refer to a specific cell line used in scientific research. KB cells are a type of cell line derived from a human carcinoma (a type of cancer) of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose). They are often used in studies related to cancer, virology, and other areas of biomedical research.

However, without more context or information, it's difficult to provide a more precise definition of "KB cells." If you have more information about where you encountered this term or what specific context it was used in, I may be able to give a more accurate answer.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Pasteurella infections are diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pasteurella, with P. multocida being the most common species responsible for infections in humans. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts of animals, particularly domestic pets such as cats and dogs.

Humans can acquire Pasteurella infections through animal bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated animal secretions like saliva. The infection can manifest in various forms, including:

1. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are the most common types of Pasteurella infections, often presenting as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections after an animal bite or scratch.
2. Respiratory tract infections: Pasteurella bacteria can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory tract infections, especially in individuals with underlying lung diseases or weakened immune systems.
3. Ocular infections: Pasteurella bacteria can infect the eye, causing conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, or endophthalmitis, particularly after an animal scratch to the eye or face.
4. Septicemia: In rare cases, Pasteurella bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause septicemia, a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.
5. Other infections: Pasteurella bacteria have also been known to cause joint infections (septic arthritis), bone infections (osteomyelitis), and central nervous system infections (meningitis or brain abscesses) in some cases.

Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing Pasteurella infections, as they can progress rapidly and lead to severe complications, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Tylosin is defined as a macrolide antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae. It is primarily used in veterinary medicine to treat various bacterial infections in animals, such as respiratory and digestive tract infections caused by susceptible organisms.

Tylosin works by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and thereby preventing bacterial growth. It has a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria, including some strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. However, tylosin is not commonly used in human medicine due to its potential for causing hearing damage and other side effects.

In addition to its use as an antibiotic, tylosin has also been used as a growth promoter in animal feed to improve feed efficiency and weight gain. However, this practice has been banned in some countries due to concerns about the development of antibiotic resistance and the potential risks to human health.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

The periodontium is a complex structure in the oral cavity that surrounds and supports the teeth. It consists of four main components:
1. Gingiva (gums): The pink, soft tissue that covers the crown of the tooth and extends down to the neck of the tooth, where it meets the cementum.
2. Cementum: A specialized, calcified tissue that covers the root of the tooth and provides a surface for the periodontal ligament fibers to attach.
3. Periodontal ligament (PDL): A highly vascular and cell-rich connective tissue that attaches the cementum of the tooth root to the alveolar bone, allowing for tooth mobility and absorption of forces during chewing.
4. Alveolar bone: The portion of the jawbone that contains the sockets (alveoli) for the teeth. It is a spongy bone with a rich blood supply that responds to mechanical stresses from biting and chewing, undergoing remodeling throughout life.

Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, affect the health and integrity of the periodontium, leading to inflammation, bleeding, pocket formation, bone loss, and ultimately tooth loss if left untreated.

... (Pasteurella) ureae and A. hominis occur in the respiratory tracts of healthy humans and may be involved in the ... Actinobacillus is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and non-spore-forming, oval to rod-shaped bacteria occurring as parasites ... 2008). "Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae". Pasteurellaceae: Biology, Genomics and Molecular Aspects. Caister Academic Press. ... ISBN 978-1-904455-24-0. Nørskov-Lauritsen N, Kilian M (September 2006). "Reclassification of Actinobacillus ...
"Actinobacillus rossii" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Actinobacillus rossii at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Sneath, P. H. A.; Stevens, M. (1990). "Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella ... Actinobacillus rossii is a bacterium. It was first isolated from the vaginas of postparturient sows. ... Actinobacillus] rossii". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 55 (Pt 1): 209-223. doi:10.1099/ijs ...
"Actinobacillus seminis" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN NSWDPI Type strain of Actinobacillus seminis at BacDive - the ... Sneath, P. H. A.; Stevens, M. (1990). "Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella ... Actinobacillus seminis is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with epididymitis of sheep. ... Hajtós, I.; Fodor, L.; Glávits, R.; Varga, J. (1987). "Isolation and Characterization of Actinobacillus seminis Strains from ...
... was found to be the causative agent for up to 20% of all bacterial pneumonia cases in swine. ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, encapsulated coccobacillus bacterium found in the family ... "Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae". Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Retrieved 3 September 2018. Shope, RE ( ... Gillaspy, A. "Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae". Laboratory for Molecular Biology and Cytometry Research-University of Oklahoma ...
... is a beta-haemolytic, Gram-negative bacterium of the family Pasteurellaceae. The bacterium has many strains ... Type strain of Actinobacillus suis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with 'species' microformats, ... Actinobacillus suis, reviewed and published by Wikivet at http://en.wikivet.net/Actinobacillus_suis accessed 07/10/2011. ... and Streptococcus suis or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. Antibiotics such as ceftiofur, gentamicin, and ...
"Actinobacillus Suis and Actinobacillus Equuli, Emergent Pathogens of Septic Embolic Nephritis, a New Challenge for the Swine ... As part of the genus Actinobacillus, Actinobacillus equuli is gram negative. A. equuli displays negative results after ... This information helped determine that this species is closely related to Actinobacillus suis and Actinobacillus hominus. ... "First Human Case of Meningitis and Sepsis in a Child Caused by Actinobacillus suis or Actinobacillus equuli". Journal of ...
"Actinobacillus succinogenes" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Actinobacillus succinogenes at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Actinobacillus succinogenes is a bacterium. It is a succinic acid-producing strain first isolated from the bovine rumen. It is ... Guettler, M. V.; Rumler, D.; Jain, M. K. (1999). "Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov., a novel succinic-acid-producing strain ... McKinlay, J. B.; Zeikus, J. G.; Vieille, C. (2005). "Insights into Actinobacillus succinogenes Fermentative Metabolism in a ...
Actinobacillus Bacteremia. JAMA. 1932;99(4):298-300. Smith, H.L. and F.A. Willius. Pericarditis: I. Chronic Adherent ...
Sneath, P. H. A.; Stevens, M. (1990). "Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella ...
Bisgaard, M (February 1986). "Actinobacillus muris sp. nov. isolated from mice". APMIS. 94B (1-6): 1-8. doi:10.1111/j.1699- ... Nicklas, W; Bisgaard, M; Aalbæk, B; Kuhnert, P; Christensen, H (October 2015). "Reclassification of Actinobacillus muris as ...
Sneath, P. H. A.; Stevens, M. (1990). "Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella ...
Sneath, P. H. A.; Stevens, M. (1990). "Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella ... Actinobacillus] rossii and [Pasteurella] mairii". Veterinary Microbiology. 116 (1-3): 194-201. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.03.003 ... Actinobacillus] rossii". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 55 (Pt 1): 209-223. doi:10.1099/ijs ...
Fives-Taylor PM, Meyer DH, Mintz KP, Brissette C (June 1999). "Virulence factors of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". ... Zambon JJ, Christersson LA, Slots J (December 1983). "Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human periodontal disease. ... High levels of Aggregatibacter (or Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans and, in some populations, Porphyromonas gingivalis. ... Various studies have associated Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, formerly known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, ...
One of the most common forms seen by veterinarians is mouth actinobacillosis of cattle, due to Actinobacillus lignieresii. The ... Actinobacillosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Actinobacillus. It is more commonly associated with animals than with humans. ... The infection is most commonly caused by abrasions on different soft tissues through which the bacteria, Actinobacillus ... actinomycosis Actinobacillus suis "Merck Veterinary Manual". "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:actinobacillosis".[permanent dead ...
See at publisher McKinlay, J. B.; Zeikus, J. G.; Vieille, C. (2005). "Insights into Actinobacillus succinogenes Fermentative ... Microbial production of Succinic acid can be performed with wild bacteria like Actinobacillus succinogenes, Mannheimia ... van Heerden, C.D.; Nicol, W. (2013). "Continuous succinic acid fermentation by Actinobacillus succinogenes". Biochemical ...
Henderson B, Ward JM, Ready D (October 2010). "Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans: a triple A* ... Norskov-Lauritsen N, Kilian M (2006). "Reclassification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, ...
It was reclassified as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by Topley & Wilson (1929) and as Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans ... Nørskov-Lauritsen N, Kilian M (September 2006). "Reclassification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus ... Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans: a triple A* periodontopathogen?". Periodontology 2000. 54 (1): 78-105. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Ramasubbu N, Fine DH (August 2003). "Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by ... Kaplan JB, Meyenhofer MF, Fine DH (2003). "Biofilm growth and detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". J. Bacteriol ... a biofilm-releasing glycoside hydrolase from the periodontopathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". J. Mol. Biol. 349 (3 ... "Poly-N-acetylglucosamine mediates biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae". Microb ...
"Comparison of Two Selective Media for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans." J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:636-638. Fryman A, ... Slots is responsible for discovering the role of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus ...
"Comparison of Two Selective Media for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Archived 2023-08-12 at the Wayback Machine." J Clin ... Slots, J. "Selective medium for isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans." J Clin Microbiol 1982;15:606-609. ( ...
ISBN 978-1-55753-409-5. Baum, K. H.; Shin, S. J.; Rebhun, W. C.; Patten, V. H. (1984). "Isolation of Actinobacillus lignieresii ... An infection of a horse tongue by the bacterium Actinobacillus lignieresii, which most commonly affects cattle, was described ...
These bacteria include Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Healthy ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia and Salmonella infections in pigs. Prior to the introduction of vaccination with material from ... "Development of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection". Vaccine. 24 (49-50): 7226-7237. doi: ...
This study found that LJP was highly associated with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.[citation needed] Lopez 2001 examined ...
"Inactivation of DNA adenine methyltransferase alters virulence factors in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". Oral ...
anitratus Actinobacillus anseriformium biovar 1 Actinobacillus anseriformium biovar 2 Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria Aeromonas ...
Bacteria which give negative results for the indole test include: Actinobacillus spp., Aeromonas salmonicida, Alcaligenes sp., ...
Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Ramasubbu N, Fine DH (August 2003). "Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by ...
At least the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae N-glycosyltransferase can also hydrolyze sugar-nucleotides in the absence of a ... N-glycosylation by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C does not require metals, consistent with observations made on other ... The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae N-glycosyltransferase is the best researched enzyme of this family. Initially, protein ... N-glycosyltransferases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae use an asparagine-amino acid-serine or ...
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are pathogens that cause respiratory disease in swine. Haemophilus ... Escherichia coli TOP10 strain Campylobacter jejuni Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae Actinobacillus ...
Actinobacillus (Pasteurella) ureae and A. hominis occur in the respiratory tracts of healthy humans and may be involved in the ... Actinobacillus is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and non-spore-forming, oval to rod-shaped bacteria occurring as parasites ... 2008). "Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae". Pasteurellaceae: Biology, Genomics and Molecular Aspects. Caister Academic Press. ... ISBN 978-1-904455-24-0. Nørskov-Lauritsen N, Kilian M (September 2006). "Reclassification of Actinobacillus ...
This test is sent to an external laboratory. Shipping (test code: xtrnc) and handling (test code: xhand) fees are also applicable on each submission. External test price is subject to change. ...
Timeline for Species Actinobacillus succinogenes [TaxId:67854] from c.91.1.1 Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase (ATP- ... PDB entries in Species: Actinobacillus succinogenes [TaxId: 67854]:. *Domain(s) for 1ygg: *. Domain d1ygga2: 1ygg A:228-539 [ ... Lineage for Species: Actinobacillus succinogenes [TaxId: 67854]. *Root: SCOPe 2.06 *. Class c: Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [ ... Species Actinobacillus succinogenes [TaxId:67854] from c.91.1.1 Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase (ATP-oxaloacetate ...
CCUG27361 - Actinobacillus lignieresii, Deposit Date: 1990-10-26
Structure of the periplasmic binding protein AfuA from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (endogenous glucose-6-phosphate and ... Structure of the periplasmic binding protein AfuA from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (endogenous glucose-6-phosphate and ...
Why resequence Actinobacillus succinogenes?. The development of alternative fuel sources has been driven by factors such as ... Researchers are studying the natural succinate producer Actinobacillus succinogenes, to improve the succinate yield. In order ...
Index of /ftp/lanl_oralgen/Actinobacillus_actinomycetemcomitans_HK1651/. ../ homd_seq/ 19-Mar-2014 13:41 - aact.sql 17-Jan-2014 ...
Vigre H, Angen Ø, Barfod K, Lavritsen DT, Sørensen V. Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs under field-like ... Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs under field-like conditions: emphasis on tonsillar colonisation and ... Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs under field-like conditions: emphasis on tonsillar colonisation and ... Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs under field-like conditions: emphasis on tonsillar colonisation and ...
Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm ... Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm ...
... Actinobacillus spp. cause a variety of diseases in livestock (Table 1), although most are ... Actinobacillus equuli infections. *Gram-negative pleomorphic infections: Actinobacillus seminis, Histophilus ovis and ... Prevalence of organisms described as Actinobacillus suis or haemolytic Actinobacillus equuli in the oral cavity of horses. ... Newly described Actinobacillus spp. in livestock have not as yet had specific diseases ascribed to them, and have only been ...
Actinobacillus equuli. a species causing suppurative lesions, particularly in the kidneys and joints in foals and piglets, and ...
Actinobacillus answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. A species ... actino- + bacillus] A genus of aerobic gram-negative coccobacilli that are parasites of hoofed mammals, and, rarely, of humans ... "Actinobacillus." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/ ...
Real-Time PCR Detection products are intended for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), the cau... ... Kylt® Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) Real-Time PCR Detection products are intended for the detection of Actinobacillus ... The Real-Time PCR Detection Kit contains all reagents and controls for the secure and precise detection of Actinobacillus ...
... q Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae qPCR assay for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae DNA in samples from Swine. ... INgene® q Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae qPCR assay for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae DNA in samples from ... INgene® q Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a real-time PCR kit for the detection of App DNA in samples from Swine. The assay ...
Actinobacillus sp. 4069. Taxonomy ID: 570178 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid570178). current name. ... cellular organisms; Bacteria; Pseudomonadota; Gammaproteobacteria; Pasteurellales; Pasteurellaceae; Actinobacillus; ...
PRJNA874317 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Retrieve all samples from this project. Submission. University of Debrecen, ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae 84/14. Identifiers. BioSample: SAMN30542534; Sample name: 84/14; SRA: SRS14850522. Organism. ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. cellular organisms; Bacteria; Pseudomonadota; Gammaproteobacteria; Pasteurellales; ...
The major causative agent of localised aggressive periodontitis is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This disease affects ...
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Acta Veterinaria , Indexes , Keywords , Actinobacillus lignieresii Actinobacillus lignieresii. * Fatal Actinobacillosis in a ...
name=PreQ1 regulon. species= Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. (optional)size=1. ...
Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans. See the list below:. * Amoxicillin 500 mg PO TID for 10d plus ... Slots J, Ting M. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in human periodontal disease: occurrence and ...
AsurDx™ Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) Antibody Test. The AsurDxTM Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) Antibody Test ... The causal organism is Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP). APP is a hemolytic, Gram-negative, capsulated, coccobacillary rod ... Kit is designed for the detection of pig antibodies specific to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP).. ...
"Купить Recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes Porphobilinogen deaminase (hemC), E-Coli по выгодным ценам ...
Molecular approaches to leucotoxin as a virulence component in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. J. L. Ebersole, E. Kraig, ... N2 - A strategy has been developed to examine the hypothesis that leucotoxin is a critical virulence factor of Actinobacillus ... AB - A strategy has been developed to examine the hypothesis that leucotoxin is a critical virulence factor of Actinobacillus ... Molecular approaches to leucotoxin as a virulence component in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. / Ebersole, J. L.; Kraig, ...
8] LI S C,HUANG J F,HUNG Y T,et al.In silico capsule locus typing for serovar prediction of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae[J]. ... 4] STRINGER O W,LI Y,BOSS J T,et al.JMM Profile:Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae:A major cause of lung disease in pigs but ... 39] CHANG Y F,SHI J,SHIN S J.Sequence analysis of the ROB-1 beta-lactamase gene from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae[J]. ... WANG D D,CHEN G Q,ZHANG C Y,et al.Isolation,identification and drug sensitive tests of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype ...
The regulatory effect of fermentable sugar levels on the production of leukotoxin by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. In: ... The regulatory effect of fermentable sugar levels on the production of leukotoxin by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. FEMS ... The regulatory effect of fermentable sugar levels on the production of leukotoxin by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. / ... keywords = "Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, chemostat culture, leukotoxin, sugar repression",. author = "Katsunori ...
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. 99. Peptostreptococcus sp.. 99. 82. -. +. 29. +. 28. 5,3.103. Streptococcus genomosp. C4. 99. ...
Haemophilus, Actinobacillus,... Buy from $186.76 Summoner 2: Primas Official... Buy from $64.76 ...
is the oropharynx of seals and sea elephants, but the other two members of Pasteurellaceae, Actinobacillus and Avibacterium, ... Actinobacillus (T470; 8.0%), Bisgaardia (T-472; 5.4%) and Avibacterium (T-471; 2.4%). The genera occurred only with a total of ... Quantitative real-time PCR using TaqMan and SYBR Green for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, ...

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