Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Nepeta: A genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known for its mild calming effect and for the way cats are attracted to the aroma.Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Hydrangeaceae: A plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Bignoniaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by oppositely paired, usually compound leaves and bell- or funnel-shaped, bisexual flowers having a five-lobed calyx and corolla.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Commodification: The social process by which something or someone comes to be regarded and treated as an article of trade or commerce.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Impatiens: A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.Palaeognathae: A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Actinidiaceae: A plant family of the order Theales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for Kiwi fruit (ACTINIDIA).Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Clethraceae: A plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.PicratesZiziphus: A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Members contain nummularogenin (a spirostane) and is the source of an edible fruit.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Nymphaea: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.Ranunculus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Persia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Dalbergia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members of this genus can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS.Cecropia Plant: A plant genus of the family CECROPIACEAE. Hypotensive and hypoglycemic effects have been observed in animals after ingesting members of this genus. There is no relation to cecropia moth (Hyalophora cecropia) see MOTHS.MuseumsMagnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Blastomycosis: A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.Captan: One of the phthalimide fungicides.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Sequoia: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE known for including some of the tallest trees.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Hinduism: A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Typhaceae: A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.

DNA markers for identification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. (1/91)

The specific DNA fragment was screened by RAPD analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, as well as similar strains that were isolated from kiwifruits. The primer C24 detected a fragment that is specific in P. syringae pv. actinidiae. This fragment was cloned. The pathovar-specific fragment was detected from a Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNAs of P. syringae pv. actinidiae using the cloned fragment as a probe. The sequence size of the cloned fragment was determined as 675 bp. A DNA Database search suggested that the fragment was a novel one. Approximately 9 kb of a single fragment was detected only in the P. syringae pv. actinidiae by a Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNAs of P. syringae pv. actinidiae. Similar strains were also detected with the use of the cloned fragment as a probe. Since the genomic DNAs were digested with HindIII without a cleavage site, the result reveals that the cloned fragment exists on the genome of P. syringae pv. actinidiae as a single copy. A pair of primers that produced a 492 bp single fragment (only in the strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae) were synthesized, based on the pathovar-specific sequences of the cloned fragment of P. syringae pv. actinidiae. The development of the primers and probe made it possible to diagnose the bacterial canker infection from leaves or trunks of kiwifruit trees before any symptom appeared on the tree.  (+info)

Kiwifruit promotes laxation in the elderly. (2/91)

Numerous anecdotal reports have suggested that kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has laxative effects. This could be an acceptable dietary supplement, especially for elderly people who often present with constipation. We wished to obtain objective evidence as to whether or not kiwifruit eaten regularly could promote laxation in elderly people. Thirty-eight healthy adults of age > 60 years consumed their normal diet, with or without one kiwifruit per 30 kg bodyweight for three weeks, followed by a 3-week crossover period. Daily records were taken on frequency of defecation and characteristics of the stools. Kiwifruit significantly enhanced all tested measures of laxation in these adults. The regular use of kiwifruit appeared to lead to a bulkier and softer stool, as well as more frequent stool production. Kiwifruit as a natural remedy appears palatable to most of the population and provides improved laxation for elderly individuals who are otherwise healthy. It is likely that a number of factors in the whole fruit are involved, but the nature of the stools suggest fibre is important. This study provides evidence of the potential for improvement in bowel function, health and well-being through changes in diet.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of shoot development and branching patterns in Actinidia. (3/91)

We developed a framework for the quantitative description of Actinidia vine architecture, classifying shoots into three types (short, medium and long) corresponding to the modes of node number distribution and the presence/ absence of neoformed nodes. Short and medium shoots were self-terminated and had only preformed nodes. Based on the cut-off point between their two modes of node number distribution, short shoots were defined as having nine or less nodes, and medium shoots as having more than nine nodes. Long shoots were non-terminated and had a number of neoformed nodes; the total number of nodes per shoot was up to 90. Branching patterns for each parent shoot type were represented by a succession of branching zones. Probabilities of different types of axillary production (latent bud, short, medium or long shoot) and the distributions of length for each branching zone were estimated from experimental data using hidden semi-Markov chain stochastic models. Branching was acrotonic on short and medium parent shoots, with most axillary shoots being located near the shoot tip. For long parent shoots, branching was mesotonic, with most long axillary shoots being located in the transition zone between the preformed and neoformed part of the parent shoot. Although the shoot classification is based on node number distribution there was a marked difference in average (per shoot) internode length between the shoot types, with mean values of 9, 27 and 47 mm for short, medium and long shoots, respectively. Bud and shoot development is discussed in terms of environmental controls.  (+info)

Modelling kiwifruit budbreak as a function of temperature and bud interactions. (4/91)

This paper presents two models of budbreak on canes of 'Hayward' kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). A conventional 'chill unit' (CU) type model is compared with an alternative 'loss of potential' (LOP) approach, which assumes that the number of buds developing in spring depends on climate and node position-dependent bud-to-bud interactions that vary in duration and intensity. Both models describe how temperature, and application of a dormancy-breaking chemical, determine the overall amount of budbreak for whole canes. However, the LOP model does so by describing patterns of budbreak along canes. To do this, the cumulative influence of distal neighbours is assumed to cause a progressive fall in the capacity for bud development over the autumn-winter period, an influence that gets stronger as temperature rises. The LOP model also assumes that the rate of decline varies along the cane, as a function of some inherent bud property. These two factors mean that buds towards the base of the cane break less often under the suppressive influence of distal neighbours, while low temperature ('chilling') increases budbreak by diminishing the intensity of suppression relative to bud development rate. Under this scenario, dormancy-breaking chemicals (such as hydrogen cyanamide, HC) enhance budbreak by diminishing the duration of suppression. Models were calibrated using daily temperature series and budbreak proportion data from a multi-year regional survey, and were then tested against independent data sets. Both models were run from a fixed start date until the time budbreak was almost complete, or until a standard date. The fitted models described 87 % of variation in amount of budbreak due to site, year, HC and node position effects in the original data set. Results suggest that the correlation between chilling and the amount of budbreak can be interpreted as a population-based phenomenon based on interaction among buds.  (+info)

A case of chloroplast heteroplasmy in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) that is not transmitted during sexual reproduction. (5/91)

We report the first case of plastid chimera within the Actinidia genus, where plastid inheritance was believed to be paternal. The heterogeneity of chloroplast DNA observed in the hexaploid Actinidia deliciosa cultivar D uno involves the presence or absence of a particular MspI restriction site in the region between the psbC gene and the tRNA-Ser(UGA) gene. The heterogeneity was first observed using restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed through cloning and sequencing. The analysis of the cloned fragments revealed the presence of two haplotypes: the most frequent type was found in 123 (88.5%) out of a total of 139 colonies screened. Partial sequences of the psbC-trnS fragment from both haplotypes revealed that the polymorphism occurs within the coding region of the psbC gene and consists of a synonymous transition. A contamination-free cross involving D uno as the male parent produced only plants characterized by the most frequent haplotype, indicating either selection bias against the rare type or more likely fixation of the frequent type in tissues leading to the formation of the male gametes. The MspI restriction profiles performed on various tissues suggest that the rarer type is absent from the histogenic layer LII and that D uno is a periclinal plastid chimera.  (+info)

A one-step organelle capture: gynogenetic kiwifruits with paternal chloroplasts. (6/91)

Androgenesis, the development of a haploid embryo from a male nucleus, has been shown to result in the instantaneous uncoupling of the transmission of the organelle and nuclear genomes (with the nuclear genome originating from the male parent only and the organelle genomes from the female parent). We report, for the first time, uncoupling resulting from gynogenesis, in Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit), a plant species known for its paternal mode of chloroplast inheritance. After pollen irradiation, transmission of nuclear genes from the pollen parent to the progeny was inhibited, but transmission of the chloroplast genome was not. This demonstrates that plastids can be discharged from the pollen tube into the egg with little or no concomitant transmission of paternal nuclear genes. Such events of opposite inheritance of the organelle and nuclear genomes must be very rare in nature and are unlikely to endanger the long-term stability of the association between the different genomes of the cell. However, they could lead to incongruences between organelle gene trees and species trees and may constitute an alternative to the hybridization/introgression scenario commonly invoked to account for such incongruences.  (+info)

Chloroplast inheritance patterns in Actinidia hybrids determined by single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. (7/91)

The inheritance patterns of the chloroplast genomes of the Actinidia hybrids A. eriantha (male parent) x A. chinensis (female parent) and A. chinensis (male parent) x A. melanandra (female parent) were analyzed using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the trnL-trnF and psbA-trnH intergenic spacers. This showed that the artificial hybrids between A. eriantha and A. chinensis all had the haplotype of their male parent. Alignment of the sequences of A. eriantha and A. chinensis revealed four substitutions and one insertion (GATTC) in trnL-trnF and two substitutions in psbA-trnH. In contrast, the haplotypes of the artificial hybrids between A. chinensis and A. melanandra had the same patterns as their female parent. Alignment of the entire region of A. chinensis and A. melanandra revealed 12 substitutions: 1 in trnL-trnF and 11 in psbA-trnH. However, no sequence variation in the trnL-trnF and psbA-trnH intergenic spacers was found. We have developed a simple screening method for detecting the inheritance patterns of Actinidia chloroplast DNA haplotypes using SSCP analysis of the trnL-trnF and psbA-trnH intergenic spacers. Our findings indicate that the inheritance of the chloroplast genome in Actinidia hybrids differs according to the species selected.  (+info)

Pectin methylesterase inhibitor. (8/91)

Pectin methylesterase (PME) is the first enzyme acting on pectin, a major component of plant cell wall. PME action produces pectin with different structural and functional properties, having an important role in plant physiology. Regulation of plant PME activity is obtained by the differential expression of several isoforms in different tissues and developmental stages and by subtle modifications of cell wall local pH. Inhibitory activities from various plant sources have also been reported. A proteinaceous inhibitor of PME (PMEI) has been purified from kiwi fruit. The kiwi PMEI is active against plant PMEs, forming a 1:1 non-covalent complex. The polypeptide chain comprises 152 amino acid residues and contains five Cys residues, four of which are connected by disulfide bridges, first to second and third to fourth. The sequence shows significant similarity with the N-terminal pro-peptides of plant PME, and with plant invertase inhibitors. In particular, the four Cys residues involved in disulfide bridges are conserved. On the basis of amino acid sequence similarity and Cys residues conservation, a large protein family including PMEI, invertase inhibitors and related proteins of unknown function has been identified. The presence of at least two sequences in the Arabidopsis genome having high similarity with kiwi PMEI suggests the ubiquitous presence of this inhibitor. PMEI has an interest in food industry as inhibitor of endogenous PME, responsible for phase separation and cloud loss in fruit juice manufacturing. Affinity chromatography on resin-bound PMEI can also be used to concentrate and detect residual PME activity in fruit and vegetable products.  (+info)

  • People who tasted the fruit thought it had a gooseberry flavour, so began to call it the Chinese gooseberry, but being from the genus Actinidia , it is not related to the gooseberry family, Grossulariaceae . (
  • Actinidia /ˌæktɪˈnɪdiə/ is a genus of woody and, with a few exceptions, dioecious plants native to temperate eastern Asia, occurring throughout most of China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan, and extending north to southeast Siberia and south into Indochina. (
  • Phylogenetic relationships between A. deliciosa and three of its closest relatives within the same section of the genus Actinidia were investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism and the data used to generate a phylogenetic tree depicting this relationship. (
  • It is the hardiest species in the genus Actinidia, at least down to about ?40 °C (?40 °F) in winter, albeit somewhat susceptible to late spring frosts. (
  • Chat, J. and Dumoulin, P.Y. (1997) Flow cytometry and RAPD markers applied to parentage analysis within Actinidia genus. (
  • The genus Actinidia Lindl. (
  • This large EST resource will allow researchers to undertake the tremendous challenge of understanding the molecular basis of genetic diversity in the Actinidia genus as well as provide an EST resource for comparative fruit genomics. (
  • Fruit diversity in the genus Actinidia . (
  • 2017_0198 actinidia contr.Pseudomonas syringae pv. (
  • Schotsmans, W, MacKay, B & Mawson, A 2008, ' Temperature kinetics of texture changes in actinidia chinensis 'Hortl6A' during storage ', Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology , vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 760-764. (