Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Actin polymerization: Where the WASP stings. (1/259)

How do extracellular signals induce actin polymerization, as required for many cellular responses? Key signal transducers, such as the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, have now been shown to link via proteins of the WASP family to the Arp2/3 complex, which nucleates actin polymerization.  (+info)

Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex. (2/259)

The Arp2/3 complex, a stable assembly of two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) with five other subunits, caps the pointed end of actin filaments and nucleates actin polymerization with low efficiency. WASp and Scar are two similar proteins that bind the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, but their effect on the nucleation activity of the complex was not known. We report that full-length, recombinant human Scar protein, as well as N-terminally truncated Scar proteins, enhance nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. By themselves, these proteins either have no effect or inhibit actin polymerization. The actin monomer-binding W domain and the p21-binding A domain from the C terminus of Scar are both required to activate Arp2/3 complex. A proline-rich domain in the middle of Scar enhances the activity of the W and A domains. Preincubating Scar and Arp2/3 complex with actin filaments overcomes the initial lag in polymerization, suggesting that efficient nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex requires assembly on the side of a preexisting filament-a dendritic nucleation mechanism. The Arp2/3 complex with full-length Scar, Scar containing P, W, and A domains, or Scar containing W and A domains overcomes inhibition of nucleation by the actin monomer-binding protein profilin, giving active nucleation over a low background of spontaneous nucleation. These results show that Scar and, likely, related proteins, such as the Cdc42 targets WASp and N-WASp, are endogenous activators of actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Relationship between Arp2/3 complex and the barbed ends of actin filaments at the leading edge of carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. (3/259)

Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently after stimulation and remains confined almost exclusively to the extreme outer edge of the extending lamellipod (within 100-200 nm of the plasma membrane). This is accompanied by an increase in filament density at the leading edge and a general decrease in filament length, with a specific loss of long filaments. Concomitantly, the Arp2/3 complex is recruited with a 1.5-fold increase throughout the entire cortical filament network extending 1-1.5 microm in depth from the membrane at the leading edge. The recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex at the membrane of the extending lamellipod indicates that Arp2/3 may be involved in initial generation of growing filaments. However, only a small subset of the complex present in the cortical network colocalizes near free barbed ends. This suggests that the 100-200-nm submembraneous compartment at the leading edge of the extending lamellipod constitutes a special biochemical microenvironment that favors the generation and maintenance of free barbed ends, possibly through the locally active Arp2/3 complex, severing or decreasing the on-rate of capping protein. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis suggesting uncapping is the dominant mechanism responsible for the generation of nucleation activity. However, they support the hypothesis of an Arp2/3-mediated capture of actin oligomers that formed close to the membrane by other mechanisms such as severing. They also support pointed-end capping by the Arp2/3 complex, accounting for its wide distribution at the leading edge.  (+info)

The interaction between N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex links Cdc42-dependent signals to actin assembly. (4/259)

Although small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family have been implicated in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton, the exact nature of the linkage has remained obscure. We describe a novel mechanism that links one Rho family member, Cdc42, to actin polymerization. N-WASP, a ubiquitously expressed Cdc42-interacting protein, is required for Cdc42-stimulated actin polymerization in Xenopus egg extracts. The C terminus of N-WASP binds to the Arp2/3 complex and dramatically stimulates its ability to nucleate actin polymerization. Although full-length N-WASP is less effective, its activity can be greatly enhanced by Cdc42 and phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate. Therefore, N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex comprise a core mechanism that directly connects signal transduction pathways to the stimulation of actin polymerization.  (+info)

Rho-family GTPases require the Arp2/3 complex to stimulate actin polymerization in Acanthamoeba extracts. (5/259)

BACKGROUND: Actin filaments polymerize in vivo primarily from their fast-growing barbed ends. In cells and extracts, GTPgammaS and Rho-family GTPases, including Cdc42, stimulate barbed-end actin polymerization; however, the mechanism responsible for the initiation of polymerization is unknown. There are three formal possibilities for how free barbed ends may be generated in response to cellular signals: uncapping of existing filaments; severing of existing filaments; or de novo nucleation. The Arp2/3 complex localizes to regions of dynamic actin polymerization, including the leading edges of motile cells and motile actin patches in yeast, and in vitro it nucleates the formation of actin filaments with free barbed ends. Here, we investigated actin polymerization in soluble extracts of Acanthamoeba. RESULTS: Addition of actin filaments with free barbed ends to Acanthamoeba extracts is sufficient to induce polymerization of endogenous actin. Addition of activated Cdc42 or activation of Rho-family GTPases in these extracts by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTPgammaS stimulated barbed-end polymerization, whereas immunodepletion of Arp2 or sequestration of Arp2 using solution-binding antibodies blocked Rho-family GTPase-induced actin polymerization. CONCLUSIONS: For this system, we conclude that the accessibility of free barbed ends regulates actin polymerization, that Rho-family GTPases stimulate polymerization catalytically by de novo nucleation of free barbed ends and that the primary nucleation factor in this pathway is the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Activation of the yeast Arp2/3 complex by Bee1p, a WASP-family protein. (6/259)

The Arp2/3 complex is a highly conserved cytoskeletal component that has been implicated in the nucleation of actin filament assembly. Purified Arp2/3 complex has a low intrinsic actin nucleation activity, leading to the hypothesis that an unidentified cellular activator is required for the function of this complex. We showed previously that mutations in the Arp2/3 complex and in Bee1p/Las17p, a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein(WASP) family, lead to a loss of cortical actin structures (patches) in yeast. Bee1p has also been identified as an essential nucleation factor in the reconstitution of actin patches in vitro. Recently, it was reported that WASP-like proteins might interact directly with the Arp2/3 complex through a conserved carboxy-terminal domain. Here, we have shown that Bee1p and the Arp2/3 complex co-immunoprecipitate when expressed at endogenous levels, and that this interaction requires both the Arc15p and Arc19p subunits of the Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, the carboxy-terminal domain of Bee1p greatly stimulated the nucleation activity of purified Arp2/3 complex in vitro, suggesting a direct role for WASP-family proteins in the activation of the Arp2/3 complex. Interestingly, deletion of the carboxy-terminal domain of Bee1p neither abolished the localization of the Arp2/3 complex, as had been suggested, nor resulted in a severe defect in cortical actin assembly. These results indicate that the function of Bee1p is not mediated entirely through its interaction with the Arp2/3 complex, and that factors redundant with Bee1p might exist to activate the nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Arp2/3 complex and actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin in dendritic organization and treadmilling of actin filament array in lamellipodia. (7/259)

The leading edge (approximately 1 microgram) of lamellipodia in Xenopus laevis keratocytes and fibroblasts was shown to have an extensively branched organization of actin filaments, which we term the dendritic brush. Pointed ends of individual filaments were located at Y-junctions, where the Arp2/3 complex was also localized, suggesting a role of the Arp2/3 complex in branch formation. Differential depolymerization experiments suggested that the Arp2/3 complex also provided protection of pointed ends from depolymerization. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin was excluded from the distal 0.4 micrometer++ of the lamellipodial network of keratocytes and in fibroblasts it was located within the depolymerization-resistant zone. These results suggest that ADF/cofilin, per se, is not sufficient for actin brush depolymerization and a regulatory step is required. Our evidence supports a dendritic nucleation model (Mullins, R.D., J.A. Heuser, and T.D. Pollard. 1998. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95:6181-6186) for lamellipodial protrusion, which involves treadmilling of a branched actin array instead of treadmilling of individual filaments. In this model, Arp2/3 complex and ADF/cofilin have antagonistic activities. Arp2/3 complex is responsible for integration of nascent actin filaments into the actin network at the cell front and stabilizing pointed ends from depolymerization, while ADF/cofilin promotes filament disassembly at the rear of the brush, presumably by pointed end depolymerization after dissociation of the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of the budding yeast Arp2/3 complex: a comparison of the in vivo and structural roles of individual subunits. (8/259)

In previous work, we identified the yeast Arp2/3 complex, which localizes to cortical actin patches and is required for their motility and integrity in vivo. This complex contains proteins homologous to each subunit of the Acanthamoeba and human Arp2/3 complex except for a 40-kDa subunit (p40), which was missing from the purified yeast complex. Here, we demonstrate by using immunoprecipitation and gel-filtration analysis that Arc40p, the homolog of p40 identified from the yeast genome database, associates with the yeast Arp2/3 complex. We have carried out gene disruptions of each subunit of the yeast Arp2/3 complex to study each subunit's role in the function of the complex. Surprisingly, we find that only ARC40 is fully essential for cell viability. Strains lacking each of the other subunits exhibit varying degrees of defects in cell growth and viability and in assembly and polarization of cortical actin patches. We have also examined each subunit's role in maintaining the structural integrity of the Arp2/3 complex. Arp2p, Arp3p, and Arc40p fall into the monomer pool in Deltaarc19 and Deltaarc35 cells, suggesting that Arc19p and Arc35p are the central scaffolding components of the complex. Arp2p and Arp3p do not have major roles in maintaining complex integrity, and Arc15p is required for association of Arp2p and Arc40p, but not other subunits, with the complex. These results provide evidence that each subunit contributes differently to the assembly and function of the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Actin-Related Protein 2 (Arp2) [Homo Sapiens] P61160: Family: Arp 2 belongs to actin family and Arp 2 subfamily, which consists of 21 proteins form different species. It is a subunit of ARP2/3 complex, along with Arp 3 and other 5 subunits, i.e. p40 (ARPC1), p35 (ARPC2), p19 (ARPC3), p18 (ARPC4), and p14 (ARPC5). It…
Actin-Related Protein 3 (Arp3) [Homo Sapiens] P: 61168: Family: Arp 3 belongs to actin family and Arp 3 subfamily, which consists of 20 proteins from different species. It is a subunit of ARP2/3 complex, along with Arp 2 and other 5 subunits, i.e. p40 (ARPC1), p35 (ARPC2), p19 (ARPC3), p18 (ARPC4), and p14 (ARPC5).…
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Arp2 protein (ab112388). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
ACTR1B antibody, C-term (ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog B, centractin beta (yeast)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-ACTR1B pAb (GTX89761) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
ACTRT1 antibody (actin-related protein T1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-ACTRT1 pAb (GTX120431) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
from a drones-eye-view of icelands scenic landscape, to a robot making music, designboom looks back at the most memorable videos we watched in 2017.
Migration of cells is critical to development of the central nervous system. Reelin, which was identified from the reeler mutant mice having a defect in the multilamellar structure of the brain, is thought to be a key signalling molecule that functions as a cue for determination of cell position. mDab1 (mouse Disabled homologue 1) functions downstream of Reelin. However, the mechanism by which mDab1 regulates cell migration during brain development is unknown. In the present paper, we show that mDab1 associates with N-WASP (neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) in vitro and in brains of embryonic mice. mDab1 activates N-WASP directly, and induces actin polymerization through the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3) complex. mDab1 induces formation of filopodia when it is overexpressed in COS-7 cells. This filopodium formation is dependent on N-WASP, because expression of an N-WASP mutant that cannot induce Arp2/3-complex-mediated actin polymerization suppressed filopodium formation. The PTB ...
T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization is considered to be actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex dependent. We therefore examined the requirement for Arp2/3- and formin-dependent F-actin nucleation during T cell activation. We demonstrated that without Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation, stimulated T cells could not form an F-actin-rich lamellipod, but instead produced polarized filopodia-like structures. Moreover, the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC, or centrosome), which rapidly reorients to the immunological synapse through an unknown mechanism, polarized in the absence of Arp2/3. Conversely, the actin-nucleating formins, Diaphanous-1 (DIA1) and Formin-like-1 (FMNL1), did not affect TCR-stimulated F-actin-rich structures, but instead displayed unique patterns of centrosome colocalization and controlled TCR-mediated centrosome polarization. Depletion of FMNL1 or DIA1 in cytotoxic lymphocytes abrogated cell-mediated killing. Altogether, our results have identified Arp2/3 complex
We next used electron microscopy and image analysis to identify conformational changes that occur upon activation of wild-type Arp2/3 complex. In addition, because the Arp2/3 complex containing the arp2-Y306A mutant exhibited constitutive activity similar to wild-type Arp2/3 complex activated by Las17 WCA (Fig. 6 G), we tested whether the arp2-Y306A mutation mimics the Arp2/3 complex activation step induced by NPF binding. Non-activated wild-type Arp2/3 complex, the arp2-Y306A Arp2/3 mutant, and wild-type Arp2/3 complex bound to Las17 WCA, were imaged by electron microscopy in negative stain (Fig. 7). Single-particle analysis resulted in three reconstructions at ∼2.5 nm resolution (Fig. 7 E), considerably higher than the 3.9 nm resolution previously reported for the yeast Arp2/3 complex (Volkmann et al., 2001). Fitting the atomic model of the nonactivated bovine Arp2/3 complex (Robinson et al., 2001) into the three-dimensional maps revealed that the overall morphology of all three ...
CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. Here, we show that loss of ARPC1B led to loss of CTL cytotoxicity, with the defect arising at 2 different levels. First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. Loss ...
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The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid sequence identity to…
Complete information for ACTR5 gene (Protein Coding), Actin Related Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Since their discovery in the mid-1990s, nuclear actin-related proteins (ARPs) have gained attention for their roles as structural components of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. These remodelers can move nucleosomes along the DNA, evict them from chromatin, and exchange histone variants to alter chromatin states locally. Chromatin-remodeling facilitates DNA-templated processes such as transcription regulation, DNA replication, and repair. Consistent with a role for ARPs in shaping chromatin structure, recent genetic studies show that they affect developmental and cell-type specific transcriptional programming. Here, we focus on recent results that suggest a specific contribution of ARPs to long-range interactions in the nucleus, and review evidence indicating that some ARPs may act independently of chromatin-remodeling machines.. ...
Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament (By similarity).
We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. Subunits ARPC2 p34 and ARPC4 p20 in the core of the complex associate through long carboxyl-terminal α helices and have similarly folded amino-terminal α/β domains. ARPC1 p40 is a seven-blade β propeller with an insertion that may associate with the side of an actin filament. ARPC3 p21 and ARPC5 p16 are globular α-helical subunits. We predict that WASp/Scar proteins activate Arp2/3 complex by bringing Arp2 into proximity with Arp3 for nucleation of a branch on the side of a preexisting actin filament. ...
The ability of the actin cytoskeleton to reorganize rapidly in response to external stimuli and internal cues is indispensable for changes in cell shape and motility and also for a variety of intracellular functions. Our data provide clear evidence that syndapins, members of the diverse F-BAR protein superfamily, are critically involved in Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization controlled by N-WASP. In vitro reconstitutions of actin polymerization with purified components revealed that syndapins activate the Arp2/3 complex via relieving the autoinhibition of its catalytic activator N-WASP.. The physiological importance of the ability of syndapins to interface with N-WASP-driven actin nucleation, which was demonstrated by our in vitro reconstitution and overexpression experiments, for neuronal morphogenesis is underscored by two findings. First, protein complexes of endogenous syndapin I and N-WASP were indeed detected in brain (Qualmann et al., 1999). Second, the increased axonal branching ...
Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides comprehensive integrated biological information for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
A guidewire useful for feeding a medical catheter through a body duct network to a distant target site within the body has a flexible distal portion. The distal portion facilitates threading the guidewire in a tortuous path through acute bends at branch junctions in the duct network. The guidewire end is able to feed into very delicate vessels such as ventricles of the brain and the spinal canal without puncturing the walls or damaging organs. The novel guidewire includes beads displaced longitudinally at the distal end of a core wire. The beads are separated by a gap distance. The core wire can flex at points within the gaps between beads which allows the dial end of the guidewire to bend at branch junctions and to conform to the curvature in the vessel duct. The beads can be fixed to the core wire or they can move freely along the distal portion. Also, beads freely sliding along the core wire can be compressed against each other to control the degrees of stiffness and curvature of the distal portion
Neurospora crassa RO12 protein: a p25 subunit of the actin-related protein 1 pointed-end complex of Neurospora crassa; amino acid sequence in first source
ARPC1A overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa (ARPC1A), transcript variant 2
Çarpış ingilizcesi, [çarpışmak] v. bump, come into collision, clash, collide, knock together, combat, do battle, cannon, encounter, skirmish, TDK Türk Dil Kurumu Gayrı Resmi Sözlüğü.
bin/bash #Set the parameters passed to this script to meaningful variable names. connection_type=$1 essid=$2 bssid=$3 if [ ${connection_type} == wireless ]; then #Change below to match your networks. case $essid in YOUR-NETWORK-NAME-ESSID) arp -s 00:11:22:33:44:55 ;; Netgear01923) arp -s 10:11:20:33:40:50 ;; ANOTHER-ESSID) arp -s 11:33:55:77:99:00 ;; *) echo Static ARP not set. No network defined. ;; esac fi ...
KEY: NRC= North Range Classroom, MRC=Main Range Classroom, IR=Indoor Range, MR=Main Range, TC=Trap Range Classroom, T=Trap Range, A=Archery Range m1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. ...
KEY: NRC= North Range Classroom, MRC=Main Range Classroom, IR=Indoor Range, MR=Main Range, TC=Trap Range Classroom, T=Trap Range, A=Archery Range m1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. ...
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The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is an actin nucleator that generates a branched actin network in mammalian cells. In addition to binding nucleation promoting factors, LeClaire et al. demonstrated that its phosphorylation state is essential key for its activity (LeClaire et al., 2008). In cells, the ARP2/3 complex is phosphorylated on threonine and tyrosine residues of the ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC1 subunits (Vadlamudi et al., 2004; LeClaire et al., 2008; Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). In particular, phosphorylation of threonine 237 and 238 of the ARP2 subunit is necessary to allow a change in the ARP2/3 complex structure to its active conformation (Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). While important for many functions in eukaryotic cells, ARP2/3 complex activity also benefits several cellular pathogens (Haglund and Welch, 2011; Welch and Way, 2013). Recently, we demonstrated that the bacterial pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, manipulates ARP2/3 complex
Observations of diverse plant cell types have shown that the cytoskeleton plays a vital role during cell morphogenesis (Kost and Chua, 2002). In general, microtubules are believed to play a role in determining and maintaining cell polarity, whereas actin microfilaments ensure the targeted delivery of vesicles that carry plasma membrane and cell wall components to the site of growth (Mathur and Hülskamp, 2002). Among other model cell types, leaf epidermal cells (trichomes) in Arabidopsis have emerged as an attractive system and have been used to dissect the role of microtubules and microfilaments during cell morphogenesis (Mathur et al., 1999; Szymanski et al., 1999; Mathur and Chua, 2000; Schwab et al., 2003). Arabidopsis trichomes are unicellular, with precisely angled branches, and develop through a well-coordinated sequence of morphogenetic events (Hülskamp et al., 1994; Szymanski et al., 2000). Thus, after branch initiation, the trichome cell undergoes rapid elongation, producing, ...
Model for Myo5 function in anchoring actin assembly to the PM at endocytic sites. (A) Myo5 (yellow bananas) restricts activation of the Arp2/3 complex (gray avocados) by the WASP complex (blue widgets) to a discrete location, generating an actin array that grows predominantly in the same direction to generate force. (B) Absent this critical linkage, Arp2/3 activators splinter off of the PM, leading to Arp2/3 complex activation throughout the actin network. Delocalized Arp2/3 complex activation results in disordered actin arrays that fail to produce force. In the most catastrophic cases, the Arp2/3 complex and its activators pull away from the PM completely to form cytoplasmic actin comets (lower left of zoom). ...
Aktin adalah protein globular dengan massa sekitar 42-kDa dengan berbagai fungsi dasar, hingga disebut protein sambi (bahasa Inggris: moonlighting protein), dengan peran dalam proses seluler dari migrasi sel hingga transpor membran.[1] Aktin ditemukan pada semua organisme eukariota, paling tidak terdapat 8 jenis protein yang mengandung aktin, disebut actin-related proteins (ARPs). Walaupun banyak ARP bersifat sitoskeletal, studi biokimia dan genetika akhir-akhir ini telah menunjukkan bahwa beberapa ARP memiliki fungsi di dalam inti sel selain di dalam sitoplasma,[2] seperti ekspresi gen, regulasi faktor transkripsi dan motilitas intra-inti. Aktin inti berperan dalam transkripsi ketiga enzim polimerase RNA, dalam remodelling kromatin dan dalam pembentukan kompleks ribonukleoprotein inti, dan pada pencerapan histon.[3]. Aktin juga merupakan stimulan ekspresi faktor transkripsi mitokondrial p43.[4] Ekspresi tersebut akan menginduksi aktivitas mitokondria, dan lintasan mitokondriogenesis, ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
10:19:51.819444 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:52.531849 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:52.736633 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:53.496214 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:53.950304 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:54.025389 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:54.164206 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:54.573082 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:54.880021 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:54.982068 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:55.487762 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:56.305907 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:56.714072 Out arp who-has tell 10:19:57.432325 Out arp who-has tell 10:20:10.926591 Out arp who-has tell 10:20:10.979725 Out arp who-has tell ...
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VCA Inc. (NASDAQ: WOOF), a leading animal healthcare company in the United States and Canada, today reported financial results for the second quarter
In trecut, diagnosticul de hiperaldosteroidism primar se suspiciona numai in contextul unei hipertensiuni asociata cu hipopotasemie. La ora actuala se estimeaza ca aproximativ 5-13% din totalul pacientilor cu HTA, au ARP scazute in contextul unei excretii crescute de aldosteron si multi dintre ei...
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Backgrounds: Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein, N-WASP, a member of the WASP family proteins is a regulator of ARP2/3 and cytoskeleton in the cells and has been implicated in regulating cell motility and morphology. N-WASP has been implicated in the development and progression of certain solid tumours. In the present study, we initially investigated the expression levels of N-WASP in a cohort of human colorectal cancers and explored the relationship between N-WASP and clinical outcome. We further examined the impact of N-WASP on the biological functions of colon cancer cells. Material and methods: A cohort of fresh frozen human colon tissues were used. N-WASP protein in tissues was analysed using an immunohistochemical method. N-WASP transcripts in the tissues were quantified using real-time quantitative PCR methods and correlated with clinical and pathological information of the patients together with clinical outcome. Human colon cancer cell line, HRT18, weakly positive for N-WASP was ...
The coiled coil domain of Crn1 inhibits Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. (A) Inhibition of Arp2/3 complex by the carboxy terminus of Crn1. Assembly kinetics for 2 μM monomeric actin in the presence or absence of 20 nM Arp2/3 complex, 200 nM WA fragment of Las17/Bee1, and 500 nM Crn1 or Crn1 fragments. Curve A, Arp2/3 complex, WA, and Crn1 (1-600); curve B, Arp2/3 complex and WA; curve C, Arp2/3 complex, WA, and 500 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve D, Arp2/3 complex, WA, and 500 nM Crn1 (1-651); curve E, Arp2/3 complex; curve F, actin alone. (B) Dose-responsive inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex by Crn1 (400-651). The graph shows assembly of 2 μM monomeric actin (10% pyrene labeled) in the presence of 20 nM Arp2/3 complex, 200 nM WA, and 0-1,000 nM Crn1 (400-651). Curve A, no Crn1 added; curve B, 67.5 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve C, 250 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve D, 500 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve E, 1,000 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve F, actin alone. (C) Graph showing the concentration-dependent effects of ...
Using nowexam VCA6-CMA dumps or Boot Camp, easy to pass the VCA6-CMA. VMware VCA6-CMA certification exams. Free nowexam VCA6-CMA practise tests with real questions.
Human ARPC5L partial ORF ( NP_112240, 1 a.a. - 100 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00081873-Q01) - Products - Abnova
Behringer has revealed plans to release clones of a studio full of classic analog synthesizers, including the ARP 2600 & SYNTHI VCS3.
Behringer has revealed plans to release clones of a studio full of classic analog synthesizers, including the ARP 2600 & SYNTHI VCS3.
DHCP Snooping on the Layer-3 switches with redundant links:. In the above topology, the ARP for the host is learned on the VLAN 10 through the Layer-2 interface Te 0/1.. Dell# show arp ip Protocol Address Age(min) Hardware Address Interface VLAN CPU. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Internet 9 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10 CP. If the DHCP snooping is enabled, the switch will capture the DHCP messages from the host and build the DHCP snooping binding table.. Dell#show ip dhcp snooping binding. Codes : S - Static D - Dynamic. IP Address MAC Address Expires(Sec) Type VLAN Interface. ====================================================. 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef 86008 D Vl 10 Te 0/1. This binding will internally created a static ARP for the host as below.. Dell#Show _arp. Vrf-ID:0 Owner:0 Clients:0 Service:0x2 Asked:0IsMgid:0Mgid:0. Internet - 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10. As mentioned ...
Ways of identifying chronic wounds that will heal in a timely, coordinated fashion and those that will not, together with novel therapeutic strategies, are vital for progression in the field of wound healing. IL-7 were increased in the healed chronic wound tissue samples, compared with non-healed chronic wound tissue samples, although the difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a greater staining intensity of IL-7 in the healed chronic wound tissue sections compared with the non-healed tissue sections. Treatment with rhIL-7 did not affect HaCaT cell growth rates, but was shown to enhance cell migration, an effect that could be further enhanced through the addition of inhibitors of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and protein kinase B. The data of the present study suggest that the expression levels of IL-7 may be increased in healing chronic wounds, and thus IL-7 may have a role in this process, potentially through its effects on ...
Membrane targeting is a crucial aspect in the spatial and temporal control of Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation in various cellular and developmental processes. Whereas previous studies suggested that membrane association is mediated by Scar/WAVE and WASP proteins, our data show that phosphoinositides do not exclusively act on Arp2/3-activators. We reveal that Abp1 is physically and functionally interfacing with Scar and that a subpool of Abp1 is membrane-associated by interactions with PS, PIP2 and PIP3. This creates a layer of Abp1-mediated Arp2/3 regulation specifically at the cell cortex.. Our in vitro reconstitutions proved that Abp1s lipid interactions are direct, specific and strong enough to withstand floatation through sucrose. The in vivo relevance of this novel Abp1 function is supported by subcellular fractionations and by colocalization of Abp1 with PIP3 especially at the plasma membrane of S2 cells.. The need for tight control of the membrane-associated pool of Abp1 is evident from ...
Predicted to have actin filament binding activity. Predicted to be involved in Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. Predicted to localize to the Arp2/3 protein complex and tubulobulbar complex. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in gastritis and myelodysplastic syndrome. Orthologous to human ARPC1B (actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B ...
border=1 cellspacing=0 !Gene!!Start!!End!!HK Gene!!Expression Breadth!!Description!!GO Term!!GO Function ,- ,ABHD12,,25223378,,25319477,,N,,17,,abhydrolase domain containing 12,,0016021,,integral to membrane ,- ,ACOT8,,43903767,,43919442,,N,,17,,acyl-CoA thioesterase 8,,0005515,,protein binding ,- ,ACSS1,,24934872,,24987616,,N,,16,,acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1,,0000166,,nucleotide binding ,- ,ACSS2,,32926405,,32979423,,Y,,18,,acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2,,0008610,,lipid biosynthetic process ,- ,ACTR5,,36810510,,36834503,,N,,12,,ARP5 actin-related protein 5 homolog (yeast),,0045449,,regulation of transcription ,- ,ADA,,42681576,,42713790,,N,,15,,adenosine deaminase,,0005515,,protein binding ,- ,ADAM33,,3596619,,3610738,,N,,10,,ADAM metallopeptidase domain 33,,0016020,,membrane ,- ,ADIG,,36643251,,36650518,,N,,1,,adipogenin,,0050873,,brown fat cell differentiation ,- ,ADNP,,48940289,,48980934,,Y,,18,,activity-dependent neuroprotector ...
Context: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a fatal, devastating disease with ill-defined treatment modalities, which affects young boys. Classic WAS is
Chromatin modifying activities inherent to polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 play an essential role in gene regulation, cellular differen...
University of Oregon biochemists have determined how tiny synthetic molecules disrupt an important actin-related molecular machine in cells in one study and, in a second one, the crystal structure of that machine when bound to a natural inhibitor.
This part is legal for sale or use on Emissions Controlled Vehicles, Uncontrolled (Non-Emissions Controlled) Vehicles, and Racing Use Only Vehicles because it does not affect vehicle emissions and is not covered by emissions regulations. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid ... Schafer DA, Schroer TA (2000). "Actin-related proteins". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15: 341-63. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio. ... Actin-like protein 7A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL7A gene. ... and expression of two novel actin genes, actin-like-7A (ACTL7A) and actin-like-7B (ACTL7B), from the familial dysautonomia ...
Actin-related protein 3B also known as ARP3-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3B gene. Pseudogenes of this ... This gene encodes a member of the actin-related proteins (ARP), which form multiprotein complexes and share 35-55% amino acid ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3B ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog B (yeast)". Human ACTR3B genome location and ACTR3B gene details page ... the gene encoding a new human actin-related protein, is alternatively spliced and predominantly expressed in brain neuronal ...
Bingham JB, Schroer TA (February 1999). "Self-regulated polymerization of the actin-related protein Arp1". Current Biology. 9 ( ... "The p150Glued component of the dynactin complex binds to both microtubules and the actin-related protein centractin (Arp-1)". ... "The p150Glued component of the dynactin complex binds to both microtubules and the actin-related protein centractin (Arp-1)". ... "Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1A gene. This gene encodes one ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa". Human ARPC1A genome location and ARPC1A gene details ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ... This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1B. The ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC2 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34kDa". Weed SA, Karginov AV, Schafer DA, Weaver AM, Kinley AW ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "Cortactin localization to sites of actin assembly in lamellipodia requires interactions with F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex". J ...
"Dia-interacting protein modulates formin-mediated actin assembly at the cell cortex". Curr. Biol. 17 (7): 579-91. doi:10.1016/j ... Wallar BJ, Deward AD, Resau JH, Alberts AS (2007). "RhoB and the mammalian Diaphanous-related formin mDia2 in endosome ... Protein diaphanous homolog 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DIAPH2 gene. This gene may play a role in the ... Satoh S, Tominaga T (2001). "mDia-interacting protein acts downstream of Rho-mDia and modifies Src activation and stress fiber ...
Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP). This IcsA/N-WASP complex then activates the Actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 ... Shigella flexneri is a rod shaped, nonflagellar bacterium that relies on actin-based motility. It produces the protein actin in ... The IcsA protein is first localized to one pole of the bacterium where it will then bind with the host's protein, ... "Activation of the Cdc42 Effector N-Wasp by the Shigella flexneri Icsa Protein Promotes Actin Nucleation by Arp2/3 Complex and ...
2004). "The Sprouty-related protein, Spred, inhibits cell motility, metastasis, and Rho-mediated actin reorganization". ... Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPRED2 gene. SPRED2 is a member ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Legius syndrome SPRED1 Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 v t e (Genes on human ... "Entrez Gene: SPRED2 sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 2". Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996). "A " ...
Rho proteins promote reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulate cell shape and motility. RhoC can activate formins ... It has been found to have a direct relationship to advanced tumor stage and metastasis, with increases in stage being related ... 1999). "Signaling from Rho to the actin cytoskeleton through protein kinases ROCK and LIM-kinase". Science. 285 (5429): 895-8. ... Here is a list of the ones found so far: IQGAP1 (IQ-domain GTP-ase Activating Protein): an effector of RhoC to enhance ...
Actin-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR2 gene. The specific function of ACTR2 has not yet ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR2 ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast)". Bearer EL, Prakash JM, Li Z (2002). "Actin dynamics in ... "The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ...
"The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... Actin-related protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3 gene. The specific function of this gene has not ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3 ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast)". Weed SA, Karginov AV, Schafer DA, Weaver AM, Kinley AW, ... Machesky LM, Insall RH (1999). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ...
The actin formation required to close the wounds in young chicks is controlled by Rho GTPase proteins, since, after injection ... Didsbury J, Weber RF, Bokoch GM, Evans T, Snyderman R (1989). "Rac, a novel ras-related family of proteins that are botulinum ... A second target to explain the role of the Rho proteins in cancer is their regulatory proteins. Rho proteins are very tightly ... GDI proteins form a large complex with the Rho protein, helping to prevent diffusion within the membrane and into the cytosol ...
The first eukaryotic protein identified was actin and actin-related proteins (Arp) 2 and 3 in Crenarchaeota. The implication is ... Ubiquitin-related protein called Urm1 is also present in Crenarchaeota. DNA replication system (GINS proteins) in Crenarchaeota ... In addition to actin, tubulin, ubiquitin and ESCRT proteins found in TACK archaea, Asgards contain functional genes for several ... One of the distinctions of the domain Eukarya in the three-domain system is that eukaryotes have unique proteins such as actin ...
"The Nucleo-cytoplasmic actin-binding protein CapG lacks a nuclear export sequence present in structurally related proteins". ... Myopodin contains a novel actin binding site (between amino acids 410 and 563) in the center of the protein. During myotube ... Myopodin protein, also called Synaptopodin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYNPO2 gene. Myopodin is expressed ... "Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB) -- Protein Information". "SYNPO2 - Synaptopodin-2 - ...
Machesky, L. M.; Insall, R. H. (1998). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin ... Insall is a frequent commentator on issues related to science policy, reproducibility, and science publishing. He was chosen by ... With Laura Machesky, he identified an important signaling pathway that controls the behavior of the actin cytoskeleton. Insall ... 14 (3): e1002404. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002404. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC 4794234. PMID 26981861. Insall, Robert (2011). "Career ...
Machesky LM, Insall RH (1998). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ... The WH2 domain binds to actin monomers and can facilitate the assembly of actin monomers into actin filaments. Human genes ... Protein families, Membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... It is found in WASP proteins which control actin polymerisation, therefore, WH2 is important in cellular processes such as cell ...
Machesky LM, Insall RH (March 1999). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin ... Bear JE, Rawls JF, Saxe CL (1998). "SCAR, a WASP-related protein, isolated as a suppressor of receptor defects in late ... Miki H, Suetsugu S, Takenawa T (February 1999). "WAVE, a novel WASP-family protein involved in actin reorganization induced by ... Marchand JB, Kaiser DA, Pollard TD, Higgs HN (2001). "Interaction of WASP/Scar proteins with actin and vertebrate Arp2/3 ...
Actin-binding LIM protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABLIM3 gene. The LIM domain is a double zinc finger ... Diseases associated with ABLIM3 include hepatoblastoma, and among its related super-pathways are axon guidance and DCC mediated ... "Entrez Gene: ABLIM3 actin binding LIM protein family, member 3". Krupp M, Weinmann A, Galle PR, Teufel A (Jan 2006). "Actin ... Krupp M, Weinmann A, Galle PR, Teufel A (Jan 2006). "Actin binding LIM protein 3 (abLIM3)". International Journal of Molecular ...
Coronin, actin binding protein, 1B also known as CORO1B is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CORO1B gene. Members of ... Studies related to this protein are as follows: Coronin 1B antagonizes cortactin and remodels Arp2/3-containing actin branches ... Okumura M, Kung C, Wong S, Rodgers M, Thomas ML (September 1998). "Definition of family of coronin-related proteins conserved ... "Entrez Gene: CORO1B coronin, actin binding protein, 1B". Cai L, Makhov AM, Schafer DA, Bear JE (September 2008). "Coronin 1B ...
Nebulin-related-anchoring protein (N-RAP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRAP gene. N-RAP is a muscle-specific ... In adult cardiac muscle, N-RAP colocalizes to intercalated discs, where it functions to anchor terminal actin filaments to the ... "Nebulin-related-anchoring protein". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Zong, N. C.; Li, H; Li, H; Lam, M ... Luo G, Herrera AH, Horowits R (May 1999). "Molecular interactions of N-RAP, a nebulin-related protein of striated muscle ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC3 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC3 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3, 21kDa". Welch MD, Iwamatsu A, Mitchison TJ (1997). "Actin ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... Marchand JB, Kaiser DA, Pollard TD, Higgs HN (2001). "Interaction of WASP/Scar proteins with actin and vertebrate Arp2/3 ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC4 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC4 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa". "Dysmorphology data for Arpc4". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
"Alternative splicing products of the gene for a human nuclear actin-related protein, hArpNbeta/Baf53, that encode a protein ... Actin-like protein 6A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL6A gene. This gene encodes a family member of actin- ... related proteins (ARPs), which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have ... Kuroda Y, Oma Y, Nishimori K, Ohta T, Harata M (November 2002). "Brain-specific expression of the nuclear actin-related protein ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC5 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC5 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa". Millard TH, Behrendt B, Launay S, Fütterer K, Machesky ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1B gene. This gene encodes one ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1B actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B, 41kDa". Abella, Jasmine V. G.; Galloni, Chiara; Pernier, ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q58CQ2 (Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ...
"Two regions responsible for the actin binding of p57, a mammalian coronin family actin-binding protein". Biological & ... Okumura M, Kung C, Wong S, Rodgers M, Thomas ML (Sep 1998). "Definition of family of coronin-related proteins conserved between ... As well as every other coronin, TgCor is an actin binding protein, it delocalizes to the posterior side of invading parasites ... "Entrez Gene: CORO1A coronin, actin binding protein, 1A". Kerber RA, O'Brien E, Cawthon RM (Jun 2009). "Gene expression profiles ...
2005). "A novel hook-related protein family and the characterization of hook-related protein 1". Traffic. 6 (6): 442-58. doi: ... an actin-binding protein, is critical for migration, adhesion, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells". Journal of ... "A novel protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT-binding protein enhances PKB kinase activity and regulates DNA synthesis". J Biol Chem. 280 ... Girdin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCDC88A gene. Although its cellular function are not fully elucidated, it ...
Zhang Y, Chen K, Tu Y, Wu C (2004). "Distinct roles of two structurally closely related focal adhesion proteins, alpha-parvins ... Members of the parvin family, including PARVA, PARVB and PARVG, are actin-binding proteins associated with focal contacts.[ ... Olski TM, Noegel AA, Korenbaum E (Feb 2001). "Parvin, a 42 kDa focal adhesion protein, related to the alpha-actinin superfamily ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
The cytoplasmic tail of PVRL1 can bind the protein afadin which is a scaffolding protein that binds actin. In the chemical ... is a human protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), also considered a member of the nectins. It is a membrane protein ... "Entry of alphaherpesviruses mediated by poliovirus receptor-related protein 1 and poliovirus receptor". Science. 280 (5369): ... The protein has been revealed as one of the key players in mediating cellular entry of the Herpes simplex virus by interacting ...
SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase ... "Entrez Gene: SMARCAL1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1". Yusufzai ... The encoded protein shows sequence similarity to the E. coli RNA polymerase-binding protein HepA. Mutations in this gene are a ...
... then they are likely functionally related.[49] Therefore, potentially interacting proteins can be identified by determining the ... Myosin filaments act as molecular motors and by binding to actin enables filament sliding.[8] Furthermore, members of the ... To test protein-protein interaction, the targeted protein cDNA and query protein cDNA were immobilized in a same coated slide. ... protein A is inactivated by protein B then the phenotypes will differ depending on which protein is inhibited (inhibit protein ...
... is able to invade cells (it is an intracellular pathogen).[50] It is able to polymerise actin, and to ... "Burkholderia pseudomallei genomes and related information". PATRIC. NIAID. Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. Retrieved ... "The Type VI secretion system spike protein VgrG5 mediates membrane fusion during intercellular spread by pseudomallei group ... 2000). "Burkholderia pseudomallei induces cell fusion and actin-associated membrane protrusion: a possible mechanism for cell- ...
ER stress is also related to Ca2+ signaling and along with the unfolded protein response, can cause ER associated degradation ( ... When a Ca2+ influx occurs, cross bridges form between myosin and actin leading to the contraction of the muscle fibers. ... Calmodulin may activate the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, or may act directly on other effector proteins.[14] ... Certain proteins of the cytoplasm and organelles act as buffers by binding Ca2+. Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated ...
The protective effects of serum albumin may be related to the capability of this protein to bind C. difficile toxin A and toxin ... Toxin B (cytotoxin) induces actin depolymerization by a mechanism correlated with a decrease in the ADP-ribosylation of the low ... The local epidemiology of C. difficile may offer clues on how its spread may relate to the time a patient spends in hospital ... Due in part to the emergence of a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain, C. difficile-related deaths increased 400% between 2000 and ...
The motility proteins are either actin and myosin or kinesin and microtubules. The myosin and kinesin, respectively, are ... A ribosome is a biological machine that uses protein dynamics on nanoscales to translate RNA into proteins ... The chemical nature of a protein is dictated by its sequence of amino acids-the chemical building blocks of proteins. This ... Proteins are manufactured in biological systems through the translation of nucleotide sequences by biological molecules called ...
... a proapoptotic BH3-only protein regulated by interaction with the myosin V actin motor complex, activated by anoikis". Science ... Lei K, Davis RJ (2003). "JNK phosphorylation of Bim-related members of the Bcl2 family induces Bax-dependent apoptosis". Proc. ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family. BCL2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as ... and has been shown to bind BCL2 proteins and function as an apoptotic activator. This protein is found to be sequestered to ...
"The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related ... α-Catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind filamentous actin (F-actin). β-Catenin binds directly to the cytoplasmic tail ... Through the interaction of β-catenin and α-catenin, actin and E-cadherin are linked, providing the cell with a means of stable ... They exhibit a high degree of protein dynamics, alone or in complex. Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an ...
Muscle fibers have myofibrils, which are able to contract due to actin and myosin. A muscle together with its tendon and bony ... As tendons develop they lay down collagen, which is the main structural protein of connective tissue. As tendons pass near bony ... the tongue and related muscles, the cheeks and the lips. Horses also have three pairs of salivary glands, the parotoid (largest ... Pepsin allows for the further breakdown of proteins into amino acid chains. Other enzymes include resin and lipase. ...
"Rickettsial Outer-Membrane Protein B (rOmpB) Mediates Bacterial Invasion through Ku70 in an Actin, c-Cbl, Clathrin and Caveolin ... Wikispecies has information related to Ixodidae. Wikispecies has information related to Rickettsia. "Rocky Mountain spotted ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... CDC42, protein tyrosine kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Src-family kinases then activate Arp2/3. This causes the ...
... these amino acid substitutions in Act5C and Act42A did not occur in regions of the actin molecule where actin binding proteins ... In Drosophila testicles, the Leukocyte-antigen-related (LAR) receptor tyrosine phosphatase targets selection and synapse ... Mahowald focused on cytoplasmic actin genes instead of muscular actin due to the multifunctional nature of cytoplasmic actin ... Indeed, Mahowald established that there is a need for multiple forms of actin due to the large quantity of actin needed in a ...
"Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): ... The enzyme belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily ... "KN-93 inhibition of G protein signaling is independent of the ability of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II to ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. ...
Chai, T.-T.; Ang, S.-Y.; Goh, K.; Lee, Y.-H.; Ngoo, J.-M.; Teh, L.-K.; Wong, F.-C. Trypsin-hydrolyzed corn silk proteins: ... The tube extends itself at the apex only, in an actin polymerization dependent process, and the direction in which the apex ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Corn silk. Look up corn silk or cornsilk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The antioxidant and hematoprotective effect of corn silk protein hydrolysate have been experimentally demonstrated. Potential ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related ... Iwata Y, Pan Y, Yoshida T, Hanada H, Shigekawa M (1998). "Alpha1-syntrophin has distinct binding sites for actin and calmodulin ... proteins. This gene is a member of the syntrophin gene family, which contains at least two other structurally related genes. ... Fernández-Larrea J, Merlos-Suárez A, Ureña JM, Baselga J, Arribas J (1999). "A role for a PDZ protein in the early secretory ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a ubiquitous actin monomer-binding protein belonging to the profilin family. It is thought ... Yayoshi-Yamamoto S, Taniuchi I, Watanabe T (September 2000). "FRL, a novel formin-related protein, binds to Rac and regulates ... Miki H, Suetsugu S, Takenawa T (December 1998). "WAVE, a novel WASP-family protein involved in actin reorganization induced by ... Miki H, Suetsugu S, Takenawa T (1999). "WAVE, a novel WASP-family protein involved in actin reorganization induced by Rac". ...
... and other proteins important for regulating microtubule dynamics. Recently an actin-like protein has been found in the gram- ... Enzymes related to TTL add the initial branching glutamate (TTL4,5 and 7), while other enzymes that belong to the same family ... MAP-1 proteins consists of a set of three different proteins: A, B and C. The C protein plays an important role in the ... Plus end tracking proteins are MAP proteins which bind to the tips of growing microtubules and play an important role in ...
He found that muscles contain actin, which when combined with the protein myosin and the energy source ATP, contract muscle ... ISBN 978-963-306-347-7 Wikiquote has quotations related to Albert Szent-Györgyi. Albert Szent-Györgyi on Works ... Nagy, I Z (1995). "Semiconduction of proteins as an attribute of the living state: the ideas of Albert Szent-Györgyi revisited ... 30 (3-4): 327-35. doi:10.1016/0531-5565(94)00043-3. PMID 7556511. S2CID 54230701. Zallár, A; Szabó T (April 1989). "Habent sua ...
... regulatory protein serves as the motor protein that regulates, in synergy with its companion protein actin, the contraction ... "Effect of dietary protein on bed-rest-related changes in whole-body-protein synthesis". The American Journal of Clinical ... Together, MHC and actin provide the bulk of the myofibril fraction that accounts for most of the protein in the muscle cell. ... As a result of the reduction in net capacity for protein synthesis and the augmentation of protein degradation, a net loss of ...
... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... Articles related to biochemistry include: Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 2-amino-5- ... actin - action potential - activation energy - active site - active transport - adenosine - adenosine diphosphate (ADP) - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ...
... including lower levels of several proteins related to myosin and actin. Force is generated in striated muscle by the ... Protein synthesis and protein degradation decline with age in skeletal and heart muscle, as would be expected, since DNA damage ... A related theory is that mutation, as distinct from DNA damage, is the primary cause of aging. A comparison of somatic mutation ... Cai Q, Fu L, Wang Z, Gan N, Dai X, Wang Y (2014). "α-N-methylation of damaged DNA-binding protein 2 (DDB2) and its function in ...
Adducin is a heterodimeric protein that consists of related subunits, which are produced from distinct genes but share a ... phosphorylation in the MARCKS-related domain inhibits activity in promoting spectrin-actin complexes and occurs in many cells, ... Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ...
More specifically the actin and actin binding proteins seen in Hirano bodies are a significant feature of an Alzheimer's ... There is an upregulation of a macroautophagic pathway related to AD that can be related to an actin aggregate thought to be an ... Hirano bodies are intracellular aggregates of actin and actin-associated proteins first observed in neurons (nerve cells) by ... It was observed that Hirano bodies are a specific site of a C-terminal fragment of β-amyloid precursor proteins. University of ...
Baumgartner S, Martin D, Hagios C, Chiquet-Ehrismann R (August 1994). "Tenm, a Drosophila gene related to tenascin, is a new ... Human genes encoded teneurin domain proteins (TENM1-4) are list in the infoboxes. Tucker RP, Chiquet-Ehrismann R, Chevron MP, ... suggesting cell signalling roles and regulation of actin organisation. Teneurin-3 regulates the structural and functional ... The name refers to "ten-a" (from "tenascin-like protein, accessory") and "neurons", the primary site of teneurin expression. ...
Coronin-6 belongs to the coronin family which is an actin binding protein. Human CORO6 gene is located on chromosome 17 on the ... compared Homo sapiens protein CORO6 to its paralogs By comparing its paralogs we found that CORO1A and CORO1B are most related ... de Hostos EL, Eugenio L (September 1999). "The coronin family of actin-associated proteins". Trends Cell Biol. 9 (9): 345-50. ... Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness ...
This actin binding protein was named coronin after its strong immunolocalisation in the actin rich crown like extension of the ... 1998). "Definition of family of coronin-related proteins conserved between humans and mice: close genetic linkage between ... Initially this protein was admitted into club of actin binding proteins with least enthusiasm, as the primary structure did not ... these proteins have all been shown to bind F-actin and localize in the dynamic F-actin rich area of cells. Recent study shows ...
... actin cytoskeleton organization, and regulation of cell proliferation. ALDOA likely regulates actin cytoskeleton remodeling ... The protein encoded by this gene is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate ... Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 3 and 10. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011] ALDOA is a homotetramer and ... This nuclear localization is regulated by the protein kinases AKT and p38. It is suggested that the nucleus serves as a ...
Viral membrane proteins with similarity to cellular adhesion proteins modulate interaction of virus-infected cells and ... Wikispecies has information related to African swine fever virus. Canadian Food Inspection Agency African swine fever ... progeny virions are transported to the plasma membrane along microtubules where they bud out or are propelled away along actin ... structural proteins, and many proteins that are not essential for replication in cells, but instead have roles in virus ...
"TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ... Wu C, Liu Z, Ma L, Pei C, Qin L, Gao N, Li J, Yin Y (August 2017). "MiRNAs regulate oxidative stress related genes via binding ... The TATA box is also found in 40% of the core promoters of genes that code for the actin cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID. When promoters ...
... is a cytoskeletal protein actin projection on the leading edge of the cell. It contains a quasi-two-dimensional actin mesh; the ... The lamellipodium (plural lamellipodia) (from Latin lamella, related to lamina, "thin sheet", and the Greek radical pod-, "foot ... Ena/VASP proteins are found at the leading edge of lamellipodia, where they promote actin polymerization necessary for ... Further, Ena/VASP prevents the action of capping protein, which halts actin polymerization. Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander ...
Protein polybromo-1 (PB1) also known as BRG1-associated factor 180 (BAF180) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PBRM1 ... and actin. Chicken PB1 possesses 5 bromodomains, 2 bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domains, and 1 truncated high-mobility group ( ... "The human SWI/SNF-B chromatin-remodeling complex is related to yeast Rsc and localizes at kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes ... 2001). "Protein-Protein Interaction Panel Using Mouse Full-Length cDNAs". Genome Res. 11 (10): 1758-65. doi:10.1101/gr.180101. ...
Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to "Actin-Related Protein 3". ... "Actin-Related Protein 3" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Actin-Related Protein 3" by people in this website by year, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Actin-Related Protein 3" by people in Profiles. ...
Primer Set for studying beta-Actin in the research area. ... Pathways & Proteins. Explore pathways + proteins related to ... Resuspend ChIP-Grade Protein G Magnetic Beads #9006 by gently vortexing. Immediately add 30 µl of Protein G Magnetic Beads to ... and DNA repair proteins. When performing the ChIP assay, cells are first fixed with formaldehyde, a reversible protein-DNA ... Wash protein G magnetic beads by adding 1 ml of low salt wash to the beads and incubate at 4°C for 5 min with rotation. Repeat ...
actin-related protein / histone / chromatin / regulation of gene expression / budding yeast / nuclear protein / protein-protein ... Recently various actin-related proteins, which show moderate similarity to conventional actins, have been reported, suggesting ... ACT3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes an actin-related protein and is essential for viability. Act3p is an novel actin-family ... Publications] Jiang,Y.W.他: Epigenetic effects on yeast transcription caused by mutations in an actin-related protein present ...
Liu, S. L; May, J. R; Helgeson, L. A; Nolen, B. J (2013). "Insertions within the actin core of actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) ... An actin nucleation core is a protein trimer with three actin monomers. It is called a nucleation core because it leads to the ... Protein domains, Proteins, Structural proteins, Tetramers (chemistry), All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs, Chemistry stubs) ... Actin protein dimers and trimers are energetically unfavorable. ... modulate branching nucleation by Arp2/3 complex". The Journal ...
Nucleation, the rate-limiting step, is stimulated by a complex of actin-related protein Arp2/3 and WASp. Cdc42 GTPase also ... WIP: a multifunctional protein involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006 Apr. 85(3-4):295-304. [QxMD ... Proteins that regulate dynamic actin remodeling in response to membrane signaling minireview series. J Biol Chem. 1999 Nov 12. ... Absent WASp protein expression results in classic WAS. Mutated WASp protein expression causes X-linked thrombocytopenia. ...
Nucleation, the rate-limiting step, is stimulated by a complex of actin-related protein Arp2/3 and WASp. Cdc42 GTPase also ... WIP: a multifunctional protein involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006 Apr. 85(3-4):295-304. [QxMD ... Proteins that regulate dynamic actin remodeling in response to membrane signaling minireview series. J Biol Chem. 1999 Nov 12. ... Absent WASp protein expression results in classic WAS. Mutated WASp protein expression causes X-linked thrombocytopenia. ...
... leading edge protrusions in firmly adherent cells that contain Arp2/3-generated dendritic actin networks. Although lamellipodia ... Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex Grant support * DK037871/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States ... Arp2/3 is critical for lamellipodia and response to extracellular matrix cues but is dispensable for chemotaxis Cell. 2012 Mar ... Surprisingly, Arp2/3-depleted cells respond normally to shallow gradients of PDGF, indicating that lamellipodia are not ...
Human Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (ARPC2) ELISA kit , CSB-EL002127HU , CusabioHuman Actin-related protein 2/3 ... Human Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (ARPC2) ELISA kit , CSB-EL002127HU Cusabio Elisa ... HIST1H4A (Ab-3) Antibody , CSB-PA010429PA03nme1HU , CusabioHIST1H4A (Ab-3) Antibody is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the ... HIST1H4A (Ab-3) Antibody , CSB-PA010429OA03nme1HU , CusabioHIST1H4A (Ab-3) Antibody is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the ...
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control the assembly and remodeling of actin structures is one of the goals of ... the actin cytoskeleton. This plays a role both in the effective immune response and as a target for pathogens. ... actin. -related proteins Arp2 and Arp3. The complex is mostly inactive in the absence of so called nucleation promoting factors ... Twisted rods made of the protein actin are major constituents in our muscles. These rods, termed actin filaments, are not only ...
Actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4. 0.8404. 32. LYSMD2. LysM domain containing 2. 0.8333. 32. ... Metabolic proteins. RNA polymerase related proteins. Predicted locationi All transcripts of all genes have been analyzed ... Evidence at protein level. Protein expressioni A summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed normal ... RNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION SUMMARYi Below is an overview of RNA and protein expression data generated in the Human Protein ...
RefSeq) actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5. KO. K05754 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5. ... Cytoskeleton proteins [BR:tca04812]. Eukaryotic cytoskeleton proteins. Actin filaments / Microfilaments. Actin-binding proteins ... 04812 Cytoskeleton proteins [BR:tca04812]. 659386. Membrane trafficking [BR:tca04131]. Others. Actin-binding proteins. Arp2/3 ... 09182 Protein families: genetic information processing. 04131 Membrane trafficking [BR:tca04131]. 659386. 09183 Protein ...
... and the lysates were prepared and subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting of DNA damage-related proteins. Actin was ... Actin was used as the loading control. The target protein was compared with the respective actin and then compared with the ... Actin was used as the loading control. The target protein was compared with the respective actin and then compared with the ... Actin was used as the loading control. The target protein was compared with the respective actin and then compared with the ...
Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The MYH3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called ... muscle fibers are primarily composed of thick filaments made of myosin and thin filaments of another protein called actin. ... This protein belongs to a group of proteins called myosins, which are involved in movement and the transport of materials ... Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes. Freeman-Sheldon syndrome. Variants (also known as mutations) in the MYH3 gene ...
protein coding gene. actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-like. ... protein coding gene. protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit. Tssr23846. 2. 39196552 to 39196573 21. -. TSS region. ... protein coding gene. golgi autoantigen, golgin subfamily a, 1. Gm26127. 2. 39027777 to 39027883 106. +. snRNA gene. predicted ... protein coding gene. suppressor of cancer cell invasion. Gm30067. 2. 39080119 to 39116581 36462. +. lncRNA gene. predicted gene ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from Arpc1a actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A available at GenScript, ... General protein information. Preferred Names. actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A ... Mus musculus actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A (Arpc1a), mRNA.. pcDNA3.1-C-(k)DYK or customized vector. 5-7. $ ... actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A. Comment. Comment: PROVISIONAL REFSEQ: This record has not yet been subject to ...
Listing of Chemical-related topic pages on the NIOSH Web site. ... Lamin A and beta-actin are involved in the process of apoptosis ... In addition, activation of antiapoptotic factors including phospho-Akt (protein kinase B) and Bcl-2 was detected. Further ... Immunoprecipitation (IP) western blot analysis demonstrated the formation of the Fas-related death-inducing signaling complex ( ... Furthermore, lamin A and beta-actin were cleaved. Moreover, we found that apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was up-regulated and ...
Aliases: ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast) ;ACTR3;ARP3 ;. Background: Isotype: IgG ...
A one-to-one complex of a 45,000-mol-wt protein and actin was purified from unfertilized eggs of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus ... of the actin filament. The 45,000-mol-wt protein-actin complex can thus be categorized as a capping protein. ... A 45,000-mol-wt protein-actin complex from unfertilized sea urchin egg affects assembly properties of actin. H Hosoya, H Hosoya ... In all cases except b, a molar ratio of less than 1:100 of the 45,000-mol-wt protein-actin complex to actin is sufficient to ...
... to bind to an intracellular protein which allows for super resolution imaging and single particle tracking inside the living ... Dynamic direct super-resolution imaging of actin labeled with Alexa647-phalloidin related to Figure 3.. Real time is displayed ... A thick actin bundle can be seen to split into two thinner actin filaments. The actin filaments grew 230 nm apart after 1 min ... 2008) Halotag: A novel protein labeling technology for cell imaging and protein analysis ACS Chemical Biology 3:373-382. ...
... power the movement of actin filaments, and cross-link actin filaments into bundles. Actin related proteins (Arp) 2/3 complex is ... This reorganization of actin filaments occurs through the interactions between actin and actin binding proteins. Actin-binding ... This reorganization of actin filaments occurs through the interactions between actin and actin binding proteins. Actin-binding ... power the movement of actin filaments, and cross-link actin filaments into bundles. Actin related proteins (Arp) 2/3 complex is ...
Actin Cytoskeleton 7% * Actin Depolymerizing Factors 30% * Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex 21% ... Role of Protein Kinase D in Actin Remodeling and Cell Motiliy. *Storz, Peter (PI) ...
Moreover, we find that resveratrol increases both the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II and the ... Mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis-related markers, such as an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and cleaved forms of ... We next reveal that some apoptosis-related markers induced by resveratrol are further attenuated by the inhibition of autophagy ... methyladenine or knockdown of autophagy-related (Atg) genes by siRNA. Differences between two values were tested by Students ...
Our lab focuses on two related scientific ideas; the molecular nature of interactions between microbial pathogens and the host ... how Shigella spread by inducing the assembly of an actin tail at the bacterial pole 3) how Shigella form protrusions that allow ... for intercellular spread 4) how the autotransporter family of secreted proteins are translocated across the bacterial membranes ...
i,Results,/i,. The DEGs in subclusters 3, 6, 7, and 8 were chosen for further analyses. Based on WGCNA analysis, blue and green ... Finally, 9 hub genes (including BCL2-associated X protein, BAX; and Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 1B, ARPC1B) in ... G. Li, G. Liu, N. Song et al., "A novel recombinant BCG-expressing pro-apoptotic protein BAX enhances Th1 protective immune ... S. Karimi, F. Mohammadi, S. A. Mir Afsharieh et al., "High expression apoptotic proteins; P53, FAS, and BAX associated with ...
Besides, we briefly introduced the research status of cancer-associated fibroblasts-related lncRNAs in OSCC metastasis. Finally ... Besides, we briefly introduced the research status of cancer-associated fibroblasts-related lncRNAs in OSCC metastasis. Finally ... fascin actin-bundling protein 1) (106), and Wnt/β-catenin (107, 108), LINC00152 was demonstrated to promote the invasion and ... The EMT-related transcription factor snail up-regulates FAPalpha in malignant melanoma cells. Exp Cell Res (2018) 364(2):160-7 ...
Validated for Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry). Highly specific and rigorously validated in-house, β-Actin (13E5) ... Monoclonal Antibody for studying beta-Actin. Cited in 3 publications. ... Pathways & Proteins. Explore pathways + proteins related to this product.. Select Your Pathway/Protein. Death Receptor ... Depsite the high sequence identity between the cytoplasmic actin isoforms, β-actin and cytoplasmic γ-actin, β-Actin (13E5) ...
Here, the authors show that synthetic protein fibrils added to an emulsion can control the division of droplets and that this ... Here, we demonstrate that artificial networks of protein nanofibrils can induce controlled deformation and division of all- ... division with synthetic self-assembling fibrils and offer an engineered approach to regulate the morphology of protein gels. ... protein nanofibrils, such as cytoskeletal filaments, control the shape and the division of cells, yet mimicking this ...
Resveratrol induced apoptosis and regulated apoptosis-related protein levels in liver cancer cells. (A) Fluorescent microscopy ... Cell migration is tightly regulated by the activity of Rho proteins through actin cytoskeletal rearrangements (36). In addition ... It functions as a RhoGTPase activating protein (RhoGAP) (14). Activated protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase D (PKD) ... C) Protein levels of PI3K, p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-FoxO3a after treated with EX527. (D) Protein levels of PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT ...
  • [ 3 ] The exact function of WASp is not fully elucidated, but it seems to function as a bridge between signaling and movement of the actin filaments in the cytoskeleton. (
  • [ 4 ] that interfere with the protein binding to Cdc42 and Rac GTPases, among other binding partners, most of which are involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton of lymphocytes. (
  • The actin cytoskeleton is responsible for cellular functions such as growth, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytokinesis. (
  • Cellular morphology, adhesion, and motility occur through the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs) are ubiquitous components of this cytoskeleton. (
  • In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA (PubMed:29925947). (
  • It may act as a link between Cdc42 signaling and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Esposito A, Dohm CP, Kermer P, Bahr M, Wouters FS (2007) alpha-Synuclein and its disease-related mutants interact differentially with the microtubule protein tau and associate with the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous proteins that enables the active transport of cellular cargo, transduces force, and when assembled into higher-order structures, forms the basis for motile cellular structures that promote cell movement. (
  • SCARN is one of three L. japonicus proteins containing the conserved N and C terminal domains predicted to be required for rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • ACTR3 forms part of the ARP2/3 complex which initiates polymerization of actin filaments in the cytoskeleton, necessary for motility and maintenance of cell morphology ( Vartiainen and Machesky 2004 ). (
  • Signaling pathways involving the Rho family of small GTPases mediate distinct actin cytoskeleton reorganization events in different cell types and have been proposed to be key mediators of dendritic development. (
  • Inactivation of two Dictyostelium discoideum genes, DdPIK1 and DdPIK2, encoding proteins related to mammalian phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, results in defects in endocytosis, lysosome to postlysosome transport, and actin cytoskeleton organization. (
  • Ste20-like kinases and regulator proteins in the cytoskeleton of Dictyostelium discoideum. (
  • WH2 domains and actin variants as multifunctional organizers of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Microarray analysis revealed that HP-PRRSV infection has affected PAMs in expression of the important genes involved in cytoskeleton and exocytosis organization, protein degradation and folding, intracellular calcium and zinc homeostasis. (
  • Nak1 (also known as N-rich kinase 1), is required by fission yeast for polarizing the tips of actin cytoskeleton and is involved in cell growth, cell separation, cell morphology and cell-cycle progression. (
  • Filamin A is a cytoskeleton protein with multiple roles that binds to actin and other proteins in many cell types. (
  • Cross-talk through FAK/Src signaling modulates adhesion assembly and turnover, as well as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • [ 5 ] Actin filament growth occurs by rapid monomer addition (polymerization) to the barbed leading end of a nucleated site. (
  • Next, gelsolin (activated by Ca ++ ) severs actin filaments to create barbed ends, but then must be uncapped from the filament by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphonate and Rac to proceed with polymerization. (
  • Actin filament assembly involves both nucleation and elongation. (
  • e) Growth of the actin filament is inhibited at the barbed end. (
  • These results indicate that the 45,000-mol-wt protein-actin complex from the sea urchin egg regulates the assembly of actin by binding to the barbed end (preferred end or rapidly growing end) of the actin filament. (
  • The fluorescent signal of monomer pyrene actin is enhanced during its polymerization into filaments, making it an ideal tool for monitoring actin filament formation. (
  • After 30 min incubation time, actin filaments were added to the SLBs using blunt-cut pipette tips at a corresponding G-actin concentration of 100 nM (to ensure a homogenous mix of actin filaments, 2 µl of actin filament solution was mixed in 18 µl KMEH and then added to the SLB containing 80 µl KMEH). (
  • 2009) Actin filament dynamics are dominated by rapid growth and severing activity in the Arabidopsis cortical array. (
  • However, compared with knowledge of how nucleation of dendritic actin filament arrays by the actin-related protein-2/3 complex is regulated, the in vivo regulatory mechanisms for actin cable formation are less clear. (
  • EM studies showed that unbranched actin filament bundles were reconstituted successfully in the yeast extracts. (
  • Actin filament severing by cofilin dismantles actin patches and produces mother filaments for new patches . (
  • In both of these studies, the application of ET of negatively stained cytoskeletons for higher filament resolution and cryo-ET for preserving overall 3D morphology was crucial for obtaining a complete structure-function analysis of actin-driven propulsion. (
  • 2022 ) Modulation of cardiac thin filament structure by phosphorylated troponin-I analyzed by protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulation. (
  • 2020 ) M8R tropomyosin mutation disrupts actin-binding and filament regulation: the beginning affects the middle and end. (
  • ARPC1 p40 is a seven-blade β propeller with an insertion that may associate with the side of an actin filament. (
  • We predict that WASp/Scar proteins activate Arp2/3 complex by bringing Arp2 into proximity with Arp3 for nucleation of a branch on the side of a preexisting actin filament. (
  • To learn about the interplay between Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin branching and formin-dependent actin filament elongation and how the two pathways are regulated by profilin, see the related papers from Rotty et al. (
  • Recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex to vinculin: coupling membrane protrusion to matrix adhesion. (
  • However, most of these bio-molecules and fluorophores are not able to cross the cell membrane of a living cell, making it challenging to image intracellular proteins. (
  • As an inner membrane transporter of MTB, transmembrane transport protein MmpL3 ( MMPL3 ) participants in the transport of trehalose monomycolate and is a novel target for the treatment of TB patients [ 14 ]. (
  • Membrane remodeling proteins such as Eps15 homology (EH) domain-containing protein 2 (EHD2) 11 , 12 , Pacsin/Syndapin2 13 - 15 and EH domain-binding protein 1 (EHBP1 16 ) also associate with caveolae. (
  • Fusion releases their luminal contents into the cytosol of the target cell, and membrane proteins into either the plasma membrane or endocytic membrane. (
  • small integral membrane protein 7 [Sour. (
  • In addition to established membrane remodeling roles in various cellular locations, actin has recently emerged as a participant in mitochondrial fission. (
  • Components of the Electron Transport System Are Asymmetrically Oriented Within the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane 000273 3. (
  • The calcium (Ca2+)-dependent phospholipid binding protein annexin gene family, which is known to be related to membrane lipid and cytoskeletal components, is involved in a diverse range of biological functions. (
  • As an evolutionarily conserved group, annexins are calcium (Ca 2+ )-dependent phospholipid binding proteins known to be related to membrane lipid and cytoskeletal components [1, 2]. (
  • The remarkable and special characteristics of these proteins function in membrane organization, vesicle trafficking and the Ca 2+ signaling pathway and are involved in a diverse range of cellular functions [1]. (
  • The annexin gene Ann2 in vertebrates is a multipotent calcium and anionic phospholipid-binding protein that is found to play a considerable role in endocytosis, exocytosis, ion channel conduction, membrane tissues and other processes [16]. (
  • the complex is then targeted to the ER membrane by the interaction with the SRP receptor (3). (
  • For example, many membrane bound proteins carry signal peptides that are recognized by signal receptors that guide them to the target site. (
  • For example, in epithelial cells, which are polarized, protein composition at the apical membrane is very different from that at the basolateral membrane. (
  • Cytosolic proteins that are associated with the plasma membranes are often localized based on their interaction with membrane lipids such as the phosphoinositides. (
  • Formins specify membrane patterns generated by propagating actin waves. (
  • Atg9 is the only characterized transmembrane protein that is absolutely required for Cvt vesicle formation, and it is proposed to carry membrane from peripheral donor sites to the phagophore assembly site where the vesicle forms. (
  • Many of these proteins and lipids are delivered to the lysosome membrane, and some are degraded in the lysosome lumen, whereas others appear to be recycled. (
  • ADFP is related with the globule surface membrane material. (
  • A Vibrio effector protein is an inositol phosphatase and disrupts host cell membrane integrity. (
  • The ER is a key intracellular site for synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins, regulating their folding, assembly into complexes, transport and degradation. (
  • The presence of band 3 and actin in the vesicles together with the absence of almost all other integral membrane and cytoskeletal proteins, and the specific, aging-associated alterations in band 3 aggregation and degradation shown by proteomics as well as immunochemistry, all suggest that the erythrocyte aging process harbors a specific, band 3-centered mechanism for vesicle generation. (
  • The age-related recruitment of plasma proteins, proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and small G proteins to the erythrocyte membrane supports the hypothesis that modification of band 3 and/or degradation initiate vesiculation, and the subsequent recognition and fast removal of vesicles by the immune system. (
  • Several scaffolding proteins bind directly to actin filaments (red), which is believed to restrain retrograde flow and allow the force of actin polymerization to generate membrane protrusion. (
  • The process of maturation of reticulocytes into fully mature erythrocytes that occurs in the circulation is known to be characterized by a complex interplay between loss of cell surface area and volume, removal of remnant cell organelles and redundant proteins, and highly selective membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. (
  • 7 Other notable hallmarks of maturation include a progressive loss of RNA content, an increase in cell deformability, and a decrease in both cytoplasmic and surface protein content through exocytosis, membrane shedding and autophagy-mediated pathways. (
  • The rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes in its membrane, these ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis[2]. (
  • Furthermore, the virus-like oncoprotein, latent membrane layer proteins 1 (LMP1), was accountable for downregulation of miR-203. (
  • A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. (
  • In addition, protein-complex (es) containing both Act3p and core histones was isolated from nuclear extract using histidine-tagged Act3p and an anti-Act3p antibody, suggesting that Act3p interacts with core histones in vivo. (
  • Nucleation, the rate-limiting step, is stimulated by a complex of actin-related protein Arp2/3 and WASp. (
  • Using fibroblasts derived from Ink4a/Arf-deficient mice, we generated a stable line depleted of Arp2/3 complex that lacks lamellipodia. (
  • Utilizing a microfluidic gradient generation system, we tested the role of Arp2/3 complex and lamellipodia in directional cell migration. (
  • In the meantime, the field distinguishes between three classes of nucleators: (i) Arp2/3 complex and activators, (ii) the family of formins and (iii) the third class comprising Spir, Cobl and Leiomodin. (
  • Mus musculus actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A (Arpc1a), mRNA. (
  • Immunoprecipitation (IP) western blot analysis demonstrated the formation of the Fas-related death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) in the apoptotic process. (
  • A 45,000-mol-wt protein-actin complex from unfertilized sea urchin egg affects assembly properties of actin. (
  • A one-to-one complex of a 45,000-mol-wt protein and actin was purified from unfertilized eggs of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, by means of DNase l-Sepharose affinity and gel filtration column chromatographies. (
  • Effects of the complex on the polymerization of actin were studied by viscometry, spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy. (
  • The results are summarized as follows: (a) The initial rate of actin polymerization is inhibited at a very low molar ratio of the complex to actin. (
  • b) Acceleration of the initial rate of polymerization occurs at a relatively high, but still substoichiometric, molar ratio of the complex to actin. (
  • c) Annealing of F-actin fragments is inhibited by the complex. (
  • d) The complex prevents actin filaments from depolymerizing. (
  • In all cases except b, a molar ratio of less than 1:100 of the 45,000-mol-wt protein-actin complex to actin is sufficient to produce these significant effects. (
  • The 45,000-mol-wt protein-actin complex can thus be categorized as a capping protein. (
  • Actin related proteins (Arp) 2/3 complex is an actin polymerization inducing complex that includes Arp2, Arp3, p41-Arc, p34-Arc, p21-Arc, p20 Arc, and p16-Arc. (
  • The Arp2 and Arp3 subunits may nucleate actin polymerization, while the p41-Arc subunit is a WD repeat-containing protein that may regulate both the activity and localization of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • WASH and the Arp2/3 complex regulate endosome shape and trafficking. (
  • trafficking protein particle complex su. (
  • Component of the Arp2/3 complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) (PubMed:9230079). (
  • The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility (PubMed:9230079). (
  • The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs) (PubMed:29925947). (
  • This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. (
  • The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through evolution. (
  • Decreased expression of the seven ARP2/3 complex genes in human gastric cancers. (
  • The similarity between these two proteins suggests that they both may function as p41 subunit of the human Arp2/3 complex that has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. (
  • It is possible that the p41 subunit is involved in assembling and maintaining the structure of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Here , we report the solution structures of the extended murine PTPN13 PDZ3 domain in its apo form and in complex with its physiological ligand , the carboxy-terminus of protein kinase C-related kinase-2 (PRK2), determined by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. (
  • Following the complex positioning (3), SRP / SRP receptor complex dissociates from the peptide due to GTP hydrolysis. (
  • SCARN binds to ARPC3, one of the predicted components in the actin-related protein complex involved in the activation of actin nucleation. (
  • these results suggests a book mechanism of recruitment of Arp 2/3 complex during phagocytosis in is definitely the causative agent of amoebiasis and prospects to morbidity and mortality in developing countries. (
  • Arp2/3 complex is definitely one of the main group of substances required for actin characteristics. (
  • There are multiple ways by which Arp 2/3 complex is definitely recruited at the site of actin characteristics. (
  • Though NPFs, such as WAVE, WASP and WASH are thought to become involved in service of Arp 2/3 complex during phagocytosis, in some situations (elizabeth.g. uptake of was analysed using mass spectrometry [12C14]. (
  • Another calcium mineral joining protein EhCaBP3 is definitely individually recruited forming a multimeric complex [32]. (
  • Among these only EhARPC1, a member of the Arp2/3 complex, was found to become a potential molecule that may couple EhCaBP1-EhC2PK mediated signaling with actin CXCR7 characteristics. (
  • Arp2/3 complex healthy proteins EhARPC1 and EhARPC2 were also found when EhAK1 binding healthy proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry [31]. (
  • Development of the dendritic tree is a series of dynamic events that result in the formation of a complex and highly ordered structure through abundant remodeling and reorganization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. (
  • Image averaging produced a 2.9 nm resolution model of branch junctions in situ and revealed a close fit to the electron density map of the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3)-actin complex in vitro . (
  • 3-Deoxy-D-chorismate/prephenate controlled DAHPS in complex with Mn2+ and Mn2+ + phosphoenolpyruvate reveal an unusual quaternary architecture: DAHPS domains assemble like a tetramer, from either side of which chorismate mutase-like (CML) regulatory domains asymmetrically emerge to form a pair of dimers. (
  • We demonstrated the power of DeltaNeTS+ in predicting gene targets using gene expression data in complex organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans and human cell lines (T-cell and Calu-3). (
  • In addition to affecting the cell cycle, CDC5L protein is also a member of the spliceosome complex and is involved in pre-mRNA splicing [ 12 - 14 ]. (
  • For example, cereblon (CRBN) interacts with damaged DNA binding protein 1 and forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with Cullin 4 in which the proteins recognized by CRBN are ubiquitinated and degraded by proteasomes. (
  • We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. (
  • Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) Complex Proteins Facilitate Orthopoxvirus Entry, Fusion and Spread. (
  • On the cover: The image shows a mixture of branched F-actin networks (in red and green), generated in vitro and visualized with TIRF microscopy, and fission yeast cells with labeled F-actin (expressing Lifeact-GFP, pseudo-colored Red Hot) in the absence or presence of an Arp2/3 complex inhibitor, observed by confocal microscopy. (
  • 2015) now show that profilin controls the partitioning of actin monomers between competing actin networks assembled by Arp2/3 complex and formins or Ena/VASP. (
  • In addition, activation of antiapoptotic factors including phospho-Akt (protein kinase B) and Bcl-2 was detected. (
  • As a sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activator, resveratrol elevated SIRT1 protein expression and its enzyme activity and decreased expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑phosphoinositide‑3‑kinase (PI3K), p‑AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase 1 (AKT), and its downstream target p‑Forkhead Box O3a in HepG2 cells. (
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway plays an important role in cell survival and PI3K activity has been linked to a variety of human cancers ( 8 ). (
  • AKT, a downstream kinase of PI3K, regulates many cellular proteins including metabolism, apoptosis and proliferation ( 9 ). (
  • A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent insulin signaling pathway to N-WASP/Arp2/3/F-actin required for GLUT4 glucose transporter recycling. (
  • Insulin is a major anabolic regulator of energy homeostasis and its signalling pathways implicate the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Akt. (
  • Another important enzyme involved in fat metabolism is the insulin-independent AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). (
  • Results indicated that Bic initiated multiple apoptotic and fibrotic pathways, including androgen deprivation, downregulation of the androgen receptor → phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase → Akt pathway, upregulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway- tumor necrosis factor α → nuclear factor κB → caspase-3, increased expressions of fibrosis-related proteins including platelet-derived growth factor β, fibronectin and collagen IV, and enhanced cell migration. (
  • Our studies possess demonstrated that the main transmission helps to enrich a C2 website protein kinase, EhC2PK, at RBC-attachment sites [30]. (
  • EhC2PK recruits calcium mineral joining protein EhCaBP1 [15, 30], which in change brings in atypical kinase EhAK1 at the site of attachment [31]. (
  • Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Abl is an actin-binding protein and a key regulator of neuronal axonal development. (
  • Catalytic domain of Ste20-like kinase-like Protein Serine/Threonine Kinases. (
  • The SLK-like subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (
  • Members of the subfamily include SLK, STK10 (also called LOK for lymphocyte-oriented kinase), SmSLK (Schistosoma mansoni SLK), and related proteins. (
  • SLK promotes apoptosis through apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38. (
  • Only extracts enriched in the mitotic cyclin Clb2 were competent for actin cable assembly, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity was indispensible. (
  • The loss of ORP2 resulted in a marked reduction of active phosphorylated Akt(Ser473) and its target Glycogen synthase kinase 3(Ser9), consistent with defective Akt signaling. (
  • Characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana STY8, STY17 and STY46 protein kinase family. (
  • The present application provides bifunctional compounds of Formula (Ia) or (Ib): or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate, solvate, prodrug, stereoisomer, or tautomer thereof, which act as protein degradation inducing moieties for cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8). (
  • the Targeting Ligand is capable of binding to a targeted protein, such as a cyclin-dependent kinase (e.g. (
  • Transcription aspect p64), polo like kinase (PLK1), and NIMA (Never In Mitosis Gene A)-related kinase 2 (NEK2) protein. (
  • 4F2hc interacts with Girdin in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)- and amino acid signalingCdependent manners to translocate to the lysosome. (
  • The Nak1 subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (
  • This subfamily is composed of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Nak1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kic1p (kinase that interacts with Cdc31p) and related proteins. (
  • The expression levels of TYR, tyrosinase‑related protein‑1 (TRP‑1), TRP‑2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2 and JNK2 mRNA were tested by the reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction assay. (
  • Phytoestrogen can regulate melanin synthesis of melanocytes through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway initiated by binding of phytoestrogen to the ER. (
  • The β-actin gene is actively transcribed in all cell types and its promoter is highly enriched for histone modifications associated with active transcription, such as histone H3 Lys4 tri-methylation and general histone acetylation. (
  • The gene product, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASp) is a 502 amino acid protein expressed within the cytoplasm of non-erythroid hematopoietic cells. (
  • In general, WAS gene mutations that cause absent protein expression result in classic WAS. (
  • The MYH3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called myosin-3. (
  • Studies suggest that MYH3 gene variants that cause Freeman-Sheldon syndrome prolong the attachment of myosin to actin, possibly because the variants affect the way myosin uses ATP. (
  • The MYH3 gene variants that cause Sheldon-Hall syndrome are believed to interfere with the ability of the myosin-3 protein to attach to actin and other muscle proteins, and may also impair the formation of thick filaments. (
  • In addition to inhibition of cancer cell migration, tumor suppressor gene DLC1 Rho GTPase activating protein level was upregulated and its phosphorylation was enhanced by AKT with resveratrol treatment. (
  • The gene repertoire of the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) would have therefore harbored both actin and various ARPs. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses suggest an early recruitment of an actin-related gene by viruses from ancient protoeukaryotic hosts before the emergence of modern eukaryotes, possibly followed by a back transfer that gave rise to eukaryotic actins. (
  • This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1B. (
  • This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 28 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database. (
  • Molecular cloning of the Matrix Gla Protein gene from Xenopus laevis. (
  • Cloning of the bone Gla protein gene from the teleost fish Sparus aurata. (
  • Headway is being made in terms of developing therapeutics for ACTA1 disease, with gene therapy (specifically reducing the amount of mutant skeletal muscle α-actin protein) and pharmacological agents showing promising results in animal models and patient muscle. (
  • Neuron-specific gene 2 (NSG2) encodes for one of the most abundant proteins in the nervous system during perinatal development. (
  • Because of their morphologic and functional complexity, neurons have evolved specialized proteins like those of the neuron-specific gene family [neuron-specific gene (NSG)1-NSG3]. (
  • Neuron-specific gene 2 (NSG2, neuronal vesicle trafficking-associated 2) belongs to the "neuron-specific gene" family of small, single-pass transmembrane proteins that localize to vesicular compartments within neuronal dendrites. (
  • HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion in the human huntingtin ( HTT ) gene that expresses mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) containing N-terminal extended polyglutamine repeats [ 14 ]. (
  • The Cell division cycle 5-like (CDC5L) protein has been well-known a significant similarity with the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc5 gene product, which is a cell cycle regulator essential for the G2/M transition [ 7 - 10 ]. (
  • Results】 The most stable reference gene in both female and male adults of N. lugens after exposure to heat stress was β-actin 1. (
  • Conclusions】 β-actin 1 can be used as the reference gene for normalization of gene expression under high temperature stress in N. lugensadults . (
  • Caused by mutations in the SMARCAL1 gene (2q35), which encodes the chromatin remodeling protein hHARP (also known as the SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A-like protein 1). (
  • De novo variants in an extracellular matrix protein coding gene, fibulin-5 (FBLN5) are associated with pseudoexfoliation. (
  • An actin nucleation core is a protein trimer with three actin monomers. (
  • In mammalian and additional systems a quantity of healthy proteins that situation and regulate actin nucleation, polymerization, bundling, and branching have been recognized and characterized. (
  • related proteins Arp2 and Arp3. (
  • Mouse anti ACTR3 antibody recognizes actin-related protein 3, also known as ARP3. (
  • Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. (
  • In addition, muscle fibers are primarily composed of thick filaments made of myosin and thin filaments of another protein called actin. (
  • Muscle fibers containing myosin-3 are found primarily in the fetus before birth, and they are important for early development of the muscles. (
  • The long tail region of the myosin heavy chain interacts with other proteins, including the tail regions of other myosins, to form thick filaments. (
  • Prolonged attachment of myosin to actin keeps the muscle tensed and does not allow it to relax, which prevents movement. (
  • Muscles are comprised of two protein filaments: myosin and actin. (
  • Doran MH, Lehman W. ( 2021 ) The Central Role of the F-Actin Surface in Myosin Force Generation. (
  • 2020 ) Cryo-EM and Molecular Docking Shows Myosin Loop 4 Contacts Actin and Tropomyosin on Thin Filaments. (
  • E]ach basic working component in the muscle cell is an individual protein molecule consisting of a long tail and short head rather like an elongated tadpole, known as a myosin motor. (
  • First, the myosin head attaches itself to another long fibrillar molecule known as actin… Second… the head bends suddenly - the power stroke - and this bending causes the myosin molecule and the actin to move in opposite directions. (
  • All muscle contraction we know about is based on sliding filaments of actin and myosin, and if we could pack more filaments into a given cross-sectional area, the force would be increased. (
  • Increasing the power of muscles by increasing the force of the individual power strokes that each myosin head makes as it bends and pushes on the actin fiber is also difficult to envisage. (
  • We identify a cytoskeletal protein, non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) whose abundance and phosphorylation status differs between reticulocytes and erythrocytes and localized it in the proximity of autophagosomal vesicles. (
  • This remodeling is a highly selective process, characterized by proteasomal degradation and exocytosis of specific components (e.g. actin, myosin, talin) with preferential retention of the remainder (e.g. α or β-spectrin). (
  • Here, we report the presence and expression of actin-related genes in viral genomes (viractins) of some Imitervirales, a viral order encompassing the giant Mimiviridae. (
  • Metal ion binding proteins, glycolytic enzymes and motor proteins were induced transiently, whereas expression of genes involved in stress and immune response, cell proliferation and growth, signal transduction and apoptosis, protein biosynthesis and folding changed in a reciprocal fashion. (
  • 2. Identification of stress-regulated genes provides the possibility for measuring stress responses in various conditions and further search for the functionally related genes. (
  • The overall aim of UKF project was to construct a preliminary Atlantic bluefin tuna-specific genechip with only a handful of indicative genes (related to stress, health and immunity) that would be helpful in wide monitoring of tuna health status in rearing conditions. (
  • and two housekeeping genes β-actin and 18ssu rDNA). (
  • However, this isolate did not contain any of the genes encoding virulence factors that have been ascribed to pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and are responsible for bloody diarrhea or dysenteric syndromes ( 3 ). (
  • In this study, we investigated the role of transgelin in VM and assessed its effect on the expression of endothelial and angiogenesis-related genes during VM in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. (
  • Although transgelin knockdown did not affect the transcript levels of most of the angiogenesis-related genes in this study, it was associated with the inhibition of the uptake of IL-8, accompanied by suppressed VM, indicating that transgelin is required for VM. (
  • In the past decade many autophagy-related genes, Atg, have been identified that are required for autophagic functions. (
  • This domain occurred 416 times on human genes ( 961 proteins). (
  • Neurons have evolved a number of unique protein-coding genes that regulate trafficking of protein complexes within small organelles throughout dendrites and axons. (
  • The proteins of S100 are mostly coded for by closely linked genes inside a region on the long arm of human chromosome 1 (1q21.3) and have a specific tissue or cell typespecific expression pattern. (
  • Previously, it was demonstrated that the mRNA expression of chemotaxis- and angiogenesis-related genes in human monocytes increased after interaction with colon cancer cells ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • Against this background, we investigated the mRNA expression of signaling pathway activation- and suppression-related genes in LPS-treated human monocytes following interaction with colon cancer cells. (
  • For example, CDK1 is a key determinant of mitotic progression, CDK2 regulates DNA replication in S phase, and CDK4/6 drives the cell cycle from G0 or G1 to S phase by phosphorylation on Rb protein to activate expression of genes involved in cell cycle control. (
  • Especially adhesion-related genes are upregulated in fibroblasts of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, which can indicate a more pronounced role of fibroblasts in the inflammatory process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, possibly resulting in reduced function as effectors of extracellular matrix repair. (
  • This study was conducted to understand the expression patterns of heat shock protein genes (hsps) in the adaptation to temperature stress in N. lugens . (
  • 4. How does local protein synthesis control axon guidance in human neurons and what roles do autism related genes such as FMRP and TSC have in the control of local protein synthesis downstream of axon guidance cues. (
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and increased ROS level could activate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway which further execrates proinflammatory factor expression and induces the expression of genes related vascular remodeling [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • We detected 12,608 differentially methylated sites between ME/CFS patients and healthy controls predominantly localized to cellular metabolism genes, some of which were also related to self-reported quality of life health scores. (
  • Associations of polymorphisms in LOXL1 and copper chaperone genes with pseudoexfoliation-syndrome-related cataract in a Chinese Uygur population. (
  • Resveratrol (RES, trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenol compound derived from grapes, berries, peanuts and other sources, and it has inhibitory effects on several types of cancer cell lines such as colon, lung and prostate and affects diverse molecular targets ( 2 ). (
  • Together, we provide a mechanistic map for the molecular control of caveolae shape by eight of the major caveolae-associated coat and regulatory proteins. (
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13, also known as PTP-BL in mice, is a large multi-domain non-transmembrane scaffolding protein with a molecular mass of 270 kDa. (
  • Matrix Gla protein in Xenopus laevis: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and evolutionary considerations. (
  • Molecular cloning and sequence of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) alpha-skeletal actin: tissue and developmental expression. (
  • Pyrene labeled rabbit muscle actin has an approximate molecular weight of 43 kDa, and is supplied as a white lyophilized powder. (
  • A 100 µg sample of pyrene muscle actin (molecular weight approx. (
  • S100 are acidic proteins with a molecular weight range of 10-12 KDa that firstly recognized in 1965. (
  • Protein sequence analyses, molecular modelling and biochemical assays demonstrated that Ati2 is an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, which hydrolyses PtdIns(4,5)P 2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 in a way similar to VPA0450, a protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus having high sequence similarity with Ati2. (
  • This is most unlikely because the diameter of the filaments is determined by the size of protein molecules that make up the filaments, and their size is probably determined by the requirement of the molecular mechanism. (
  • The proteins responsible for the key molecular events leading to the structural changes between the developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus remain unknown. (
  • Studying actin polymerization in vitro . (
  • Studying the effects of actin binding proteins and drugs on actin polymerization in vitro . (
  • A range of defects and behaviors of the mutants in vitro and in cultured cells are found, paralleling the complexity of actin-based muscle myopathy phenotypes. (
  • Using an in vitro approach, we studied the effect of the IQGAP protein fragment Rng2(1-189) on the geometry of actin filaments when tethered to supported lipid bilayers all reconstituted from purified proteins. (
  • To gain insights into mechanisms for regulating actin cable assembly, we reconstituted the assembly process in vitro by introducing microspheres functionalized with the C terminus of the budding yeast formin Bni1 into extracts prepared from yeast cells at different cell-cycle stages. (
  • 2 As the current endpoint of existing in vitro erythroid culture systems, 4 3 interest in this cell type and the mechanisms and factors that may underlie and drive their maturation to erythrocytes has received renewed interest in recent years. (
  • The in vitro incorporation of AHA with different tags into newly synthesized proteins (NSPs) by PSCs was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and confocal microscopy. (
  • De novo identification of mammalian ciliary motility proteins using cryo-EM. (
  • Our current work focuses on three areas: 1) the actin-based motility of intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes , 2) the whole-cell crawling of epithelial cells and leukocytes, and related processes such as phagocytosis in macrophages, and 3) the dynamics of cellular organization in bacteria and diatoms. (
  • One group of researchers showed that a K. pneumoniae strain isolated from bloody diarrhea can bind to HeLa cells and cytoskeletal proteins, such as the actin that accumulates at the point of bacterium-host contact ( 3 ). (
  • [ 3 ] This ultrastructural component of cellular architecture is involved fundamentally in intracellular and cell substrate interactions and signaling via its role in cell morphology and movement. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a vital role in the sensing and responding to cellular perturbations through alterations in protein and cholesterol biosynthesis, with quality control being ensured through the unfolded protein response (UPR). (
  • In particular, SiR-Actin and SiR-Tubulin are the only stains available on the market which enable live cell imaging of the major cytoskeletal cellular structures - without the need to transfect cells with vectors carrying the information for fluorescently labeled tubulin or actin or related binding proteins. (
  • It is involved in the regulation of several cellular processes such as cytokinesis and actin-cytoskeletal rearrangement. (
  • Recent advances include a fast and effective method for optical clearing of large volumes of formaldehyde fixed pathological tissue and the development of a light sheet fluorescence microscope for cm-sized samples with 3-dimensional cellular resolution. (
  • In order for subcellular processes to be carried out within defined compartments or cellular regions, mechanisms must exist to ensure the required protein components are present at the sites and at an adequate concentration. (
  • Formation of Cytoplasmic Actin-Cofilin Rods is Triggered by Metabolic Stress and Changes in Cellular pH. (
  • Actin assembly states in Dictyostelium discoideum at different stages of development and during cellular stress. (
  • At the cellular level the alteration of Abl also changes actin organization consistent with RhoA inhibition. (
  • They are also able to interact with various cellular receptors enabling S100 proteins to modulate innate and adaptive immune response with some influence on cell migration and chemotaxis, as well as tissue modeling, growth and repair. (
  • It functions as a proinflammatory cytokine-like protein, which is first isolated and described in human in 1995 main cellular source of S100A12 is neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages [ 5 ]. (
  • Moreover, curdione attenuated the expression of Cyt-C, c-caspase-3 and c-caspase-9 increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and hence decreased the cellular apoptosis. (
  • in FASEB J 32:1281-1295, 2018), this study identifies ORP2 as a new regulatory nexus of Akt signaling, cellular energy metabolism, actin cytoskeletal function, cell migration, and proliferation. (
  • Then IF (immunofluorescence) staining technique was used to demonstrate the cellular distribution of these proteins. (
  • Various immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), e.g. thalidomide and lenalidomide, binds to CRBN and modulates CRBN's role in the ubiquitination and degradation of protein factors involved in maintaining regular cellular function. (
  • The complete Foliglurax custom synthesis course of growth and metastasis of cancer as a disease, is realized by way of simultaneous and/ or successive deleterious genetic changes affecting a wide selection of cellular functions either inside the cell itself (e.g. from DNA harm repair to antigen response) and /or outside the cell (e.g. from angiogenesis to the dissolution of matrix proteins). (
  • We specialize in the production of purified proteins and easy-to-use kits to study biochemical and cellular processes. (
  • A) Western blot evaluation for detection of proteins LC3 I and II in cellular Dicycloverine (hydrochloride) manufacturer lysates of untreated HMECs and these incubated with exosomes from MDA-MB-231 cells for 24 h. (
  • C) Western blot analysis for detection of autophagy protein LC3 I and II in cellular lysates of HMECs that had been treated with or devoid of NAC and incubated with or devoid of exosomes from MDA-MB-231 cells for 3 h. (
  • Equal protein concentrations of cellular lysates have been analyzed by western blots. (
  • As a result, we found proteins that are involved in important processes during development, such as energy metabolism, control pathways and cellular communication. (
  • Here, we show that interaction between 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), a subunit of multiple amino acid transporters, and the multifunctional hub protein girders of actin filaments (Girdin) down-regulates mTORC1 activity. (
  • In addition to pathways related to complement activation, our collective inference pointed to pathway groups involved in phospholipid synthesis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, consistent with the AMD pathogenesis mechanism where the dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium cells plays central roles. (
  • The pathways coupling phagocytosis initiation signals to actin characteristics possess been analyzed quite extensively in some model systems [3C5]. (
  • The pyrin protein appears to be a regulator of inflammation, but its exact role on inflammatory pathways is still controversial. (
  • If successful, homeostasis is restored and protein synthesis resumes, but if ER stress persists, cell death pathways are activated. (
  • tumor suppressors like PP2A, p53;transcription aspects like MYC, E2F1, ETS1, ATF2, FLT1, CHK1) or with components of essential oncogenic pathways (pathways like the PI3K-mTOR pathway, the RAS-MEKERK pathway, the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway) [3-10]. (
  • In order to increase our knowledge about the protein content and the main biological pathways of human vascular endothelial cells, we have undertaken the proteomic analysis of the most explored present endothelial cell model, i.e. primocultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (
  • Therefore, proper cell function is dictated by strict regulation of MT dynamics, which is controlled by several mechanisms including microtubule associated proteins (MAPs), signaling pathways, and post-translational modifications (PTMs). (
  • In sensory axons, the ER generates an important retrograde injury signal through the synthesis and cleavage/activation of the ER transmembrane transcription factor, Luman/cAMP response element binding protein 3, that is retrogradely transported to the nucleus where it regulates the intrinsic of ability of these neurons to regenerate an axon. (
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13, also known as PTP-BL in mice, represents a large multi-domain non-transmembrane scaffolding protein that contains five consecutive PDZ domains. (
  • Suzuki and Emr 2018 identified the transmembrane autophagy protein Atg27 as a physiological cargo recycled from the vacuole. (
  • Rather, a genome-wide mutant display screen resulted in the id of two proteinsthe NEDD4 family members homologous to E6AP C terminus (HECT) E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 as well as the transmembrane proteins TMEM127thead Lomitapide mesylate wear are necessary for Typhimurium (hereafter known as Mel Juso cells by CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis (Amount?S1A) and infected them with wild-type or mutant bacterias. (
  • Polymerization of actin filaments was induced by addition of an equal amount of 2x KMEH buffer supplemented with 2 mM Mg-ATP bringing the G-actin concentration to 5 µM. (
  • Lamin A and beta-actin are involved in the process of apoptosis. (
  • Western blot analysis was then used for analyzing the expression of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins. (
  • TUNEL assay revealed that resveratrol induced cell apoptosis by increasing HCC apoptosis rate from 3±0.78% to 16±1.12% with upregulation of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2 associated X, apoptosis regulator and cleaved‑poly (ADP‑Ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP), and downregulation of Bcl‑2, caspase‑3, caspase‑7 and PARP. (
  • SIRT1 might regulate cell apoptosis by deacetylating FoxOs protein. (
  • b The protein expression of apoptosis-related markers (Bax, Bcl-2, PARP-1, and caspase-3) in reperfused liver tissue was analyzed by western blotting. (
  • Physique 3 Apoptosis was Vorinostat quantified by two methods: MTT and circulation cytometry. (
  • A novel human dynactin-associated protein, dynAP, promotes activation of Akt, and ergosterol-related compounds induce dynAP-dependent apoptosis of human cancer cells. (
  • This unfolded protein response (UPR) also promotes the degradation of misfolded proteins (ER-associated protein degradation-ERAD), but if these compensatory mechanisms fail, the affected cells may undergo apoptosis. (
  • This work was undertaken to assess the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (rhTRAIL) as a potential therapeutic for malignant melanoma. (
  • Several members of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) family, including FasL, TNF-α and TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), robustly induce apoptosis in transformed cancer cells [5] . (
  • Binding of TRAIL to DR4 and/or DR5 initiates the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis characterized by the cleavage of procaspase 8 to caspase 8 followed by the activation of downstream executioner caspases 3, 6 and 7. (
  • tBid then stimulates the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c resulting in activation of caspase 9 followed caspases 3, 6 and 7 and the hallmark events of apoptosis [9,10] . (
  • An optimized form of the apoptosis-inducing portion of the protein, rhTRAIL consists of the extracellular C-domain amino acids 114-281 and lacks any exogenous sequence tags. (
  • Subsequent, the activation status of p53 was determined by determining the mRNA and protein levels of its primary transcription targets MDM2, PUMA, BAX, and p21 as well as their downstream effects, namely apoptosis (PUMA and BAX) and cell cycle arrest (p21).Figure three: Survival curve and mixture index (CI) with the sequential and simultaneous mixture therapy inside the p53 wild sort cell line A549. (
  • Two of the five alleles caused formation of branched root-hairs in uninoculated seedlings, suggesting SCARN plays a role in the microtubule and actin-regulated polar growth of root hairs. (
  • In contrast, neurons expressing a constitutively active v- abl construct (CA-Abl) show an exuberant microtubule-associated protein 2-positive (MAP2-positive) dendrite outgrowth, suggesting that Abl modulates dendritic growth. (
  • Regulators of tubulin polyglutamylation control nuclear shape and cilium disassembly by balancing microtubule and actin assembly. (
  • such as actin filaments, keratin and microtubule [ 3 ]. (
  • Resveratrol suppresses tumor cell growth and metastasis in colorectal cancer cells by targeting SIRT1 protein and regulating NF-κB signaling pathway ( 6 ). (
  • The endoplasmic reticular stress pathway and smooth muscle actin were unaffected by Bic. (
  • Absence of additional actin modulating proteins in these two pull down tests suggests that EhARPC1 and EhARPC2 may have important part in the phagocytic pathway mediated by EhCaBP1-EhC2PK. (
  • Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway (UPP) is a critical pathway that regulates proteins and degrades misfolded or abnormal proteins. (
  • A similar protein in Xenopus affects cell adhesion and gastrulation movements, and may be localized in the secretory pathway. (
  • The most well-described pathway relating to loss of protein during reticulocyte maturation concerns the removal of the transferrin receptor CD71. (
  • These effectors are generally enzymes that catalyze post-translational adjustment of web host innate signalling pathway protein (Jennings et?al. (
  • Launched just over a year ago, SiR-Actin (Fig 1) and SiR-Tubulin (Fig 2) have been available on the market providing the most convenient tools to stain F-actin and Microtubules in living cells. (
  • To give users a good overview which cell types have been already successfully stained with SiR-Actin and SiR-Tubulin, we are building up a data base in cooperation with Spirochrome. (
  • Both labs stained Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) either with SiR-Actin or with SiR-Tubulin. (
  • In particular, several studies have linked dysfunctional tubulin acetylation to neuronal diseases such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (3, 4) . (
  • B . A Xenopus spinal neuron growth cone immuno-labelled for b-tubulin (green) and F-actin (red). (
  • Expression of the alpha-tubulin protein was recognized using rabbit anti-alpha-tubulin polyclonal antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, UK) like a main antibody. (
  • The modular structure of PTPN13 consists of an N-terminal KIND domain, a FERM domain, and five PDZ domains, followed by a C-terminal protein tyrosine phosphatase domain. (
  • LSP1(Leukocyte-specific protein 1), PSTPIP2 (Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 2), LPXN(Leupaxin), DAAM1(Dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 1, WDR1(WD repeat containing protein 1), and WIPF3 (WAS/WASL-interacting protein family member 3) in migrating cells. (
  • CusabioHIST1H4A (Ab-3) Antibody is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery.Online Order Payment is possible or send quotation to. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy of the living cells is often achieved through specific labeling of proteins by antibody, nanobody, or bio-specific ligand conjugated to a fluorophore. (
  • Lane 1: 1:1000, lane 2: 1:2000, lane 3: 1:4000 dilution of the mouse anti- p21-Arc antibody. (
  • This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated β-Actin (13E5) Rabbit mAb #4970. (
  • Yeast RNase H(35) is the counterpart of the mammalian RNase HI, and is evolutionarily related to prokaryotic RNase HI' FEBS Lett.421. (
  • In this study, we make use of the well-known pore-forming bacterial toxin streptolysin O (SLO) to label intracellular proteins in mammalian cells for fluorescence microscopy applications. (
  • Mammalian Cdc42-interacting protein 4 (CIP4). (
  • Mammalian PACSIN proteins. (
  • Mammalian RhoGAP4 proteins. (
  • In summary, this range of qualitative and quantitative findings in young male mice raise the possibility that very low doses of BPS may impair mammalian reproduction through epigenetic modifications of sperm proteins. (
  • Epub 2020 Jan 3. (
  • RsfA (YbeB) proteins are provigil cost 2020 indicated. (
  • PSRP1 is not a ribosomal protein, but a ribosome-binding factor that is recycled by provigil cost 2020 the structure of the microsporidian ribosome. (
  • 2020 ) Protein-Protein Docking Reveals Dynamic Interactions of Tropomyosin on Actin Filaments. (
  • The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of October 3, 2021. (
  • PRKM1 Regulating integrins in order that they firmly bind extracellular matrix, to be able to connect EVs towards the extracellular matrix at particular places in tissue and organs, is certainly one potential energetic function for actin-associated protein in EVs. (
  • The overproduction of the extracellular matrix by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts is responsible for increased collagen synthesis and its deposition in the skin, lungs, heart, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, tendons, and ligaments [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Fibroblasts are important in tissue repair and modulation by producing extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, ECM-degrading enzymes and their inhibitors 9 . (
  • Mass spectrometry evaluation of RA synovial tissue recognized MDA-modified proteins and revealed shared peptides between MDA-modified and citrullinated actin and vimentin. (
  • They are non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases preferentially expressed in myeloid lineage. (
  • Mice were sacrificed and testicular tissue taken for histological analysis and protein identification by nano-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and sperm collected for immunodetection of acetylated lysine and phosphorylated tyrosine followed by protein characterisation using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF MS). (
  • Impairing mitochondrial division through Drp1 knockout or inhibition prolonged the time of mitochondrial accumulation of F-actin and also led to abnormal mitochondrial accumulation of the actin regulatory factors cortactin, cofilin, and Arp2/3 complexes, suggesting that disassembly of mitochondrial F-actin depends on Drp1 activity. (
  • Flow cytometry analysis revealed an increase in the expression of the endothelial-related markers VE-cadherin and CD34 in cells that underwent VM, compared with those growing in a monolayer, which was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. (
  • The cells exhibit endothelial morphology and are widely used in studies relating to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease. (
  • Results: The mRNA expressions of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, nuclear factor-κB, RelB, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β in THP-1 cells following interaction with HepG2 cells, were suppressed by pretreatment with LPS. (
  • Using low levels of protein loads (~ 30 nug), the association of two-dimensional electrophoresis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and database interrogations allowed us to identify 53 proteins of suspected endothelial origin in quiescent HUVECs. (
  • Reduced WASp protein expression results in X-linked thrombocytopenia. (
  • WAS results from an X-linked genetic defect in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp). (
  • The family in mammals comprises as classical members haematopoietic WASP, the more ubiquitous and neuronally enriched N-WASP and three WAVE isoforms (1,2,3). (
  • Actin polymerization is harnessed by cells to generate lamellipodia for movement and by a subclass of pathogens to facilitate invasion of their infected hosts. (
  • This portion of the fluorescence digital image gallery features widefield fluorescence images captured from over 30 cell lines stained with a mixture of synthetic probes, antibodies, and fluorescent proteins. (
  • A) 293FT cells transduced with the indicated shRNAs pretreated with or without 200 nM Bafilomycin A1 for 3 h were starved for amino acids (AAC) for the indicated times, followed by WB with the indicated antibodies. (
  • Sequence Note: The RefSeq transcript and protein were derived from genomic sequence to make the sequence consistent with the reference genome assembly. (
  • STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. (
  • Taken with each other these findings suggested that interaction of HMECs with exosomes from breast cancer cells induce ROS, which can additional lead to autophagy induction in these epithelial cells.ROS created throughout exosome-HMEC interactions benefits in induction of DNA harm response (DDR)ROS induced oxidative anxiety is identified to induce DDR [63] in cells which can lead to both phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15,Figure 3. (
  • The SiR dyes are coupled to binding components which specifically bind to F-actin (Jasplakinolide natural compound), Microtubules (Docetaxel), or the DNA minor groove binder bisbenzimide (Hoechst). (
  • The CA-Abl phenotype is not affected by destabilization of microtubules but is reversed partially when actin filaments are stabilized with jasplakinolide. (
  • Act3p is an novel actin-family protein in terms of its nuclear localization. (
  • Example applications in conventional and super-resolution imaging of native and transfected cells include p65 signal transduction activation, single molecule tracking of kinesin, and specific labeling of a series of nuclear and cytoplasmic protein complexes. (
  • High Mobility Group Protein A1a (HMGA1a) is a highly abundant nuclear protein, which plays a crucial role during embryogenesis, cell differentiation, and neoplasia. (
  • Shear flow was able to induce H2B acetylation and nuclear spreading by CFL2/F-actin cytoskeletal reorganization. (
  • Macrophages are known to respond to LPS signaling via nuclear factor (NF)-κB ( 3 ). (
  • One day sciatic nerve crush injury triggered a robust increase in UPR-associated mRNA and protein expression in both neuronal cell bodies and the injured axons. (
  • The mRNA and protein expression of OCT2 was determined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. (
  • Cell division cycle 5-like (CDC5L) protein is a cell cycle regulator of the G2/M transition and has been reported to participate in the catalytic step of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing and DNA damage repair. (
  • Bavachin (10 µmol/l) inhibited the expression of TYR and JNK proteins, and the expression of TYR, TRP‑1, TRP‑2, ERK1, ERK2 and JNK2 mRNA in A375 cells. (
  • ICI182780 and U0126 could significantly reverse the bavachin treatment on the protein expression levels and the mRNA expression of TYR, TRP‑1, TRP‑2, ERK1, ERK2 and JNK2. (
  • In conclusion, bavachin inhibited the synthesis of melanin on A375 cells by inhibiting the protein and mRNA expression of TYR, TRP-1, TRP-2, ERK1, ERK2 and JNK2. (
  • The Flna Dilp2 mutation results in nonsense-mediated decay of the Flna mRNA and, therefore, absence of any Flna protein. (
  • 0.05, Figure ?Number3A3A and B). Open in a separate windowpane Number 3 Antioxidant-related indication protein and mRNA manifestation in hepatic stellate cell-T6 cells. (
  • ORP2 is a ubiquitously expressed OSBP-related protein previously implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)lipid droplet (LD) contacts, triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism, cholesterol transport, adrenocortical steroidogenesis, and actin-dependent cell dynamics. (
  • These have obvious trade-offs of limited choice in emission wavelengths and available class of ligands that they can be covalently attached to and maintain their selectivity for the particular intracellular protein. (
  • Another method to overcome the permeability issue is by transfecting the cells with plasmid DNA encoding the intracellular protein of interest appended to a fluorescent protein (FP). (
  • Here, we present a general method for labeling intracellular proteins in transfected or non-transfected cells, in the nucleus or the cytoplasm, with probes ranging in size from small (~2 kDa) molecules to large proteins (up to 150 kDa), for either general or super-resolved fluorescence microscopy. (
  • The intracellular role of calprotectins has not been well-defined, although they constitute about 40% of neutrophils and 5% of monocyte cytosolic proteins. (
  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the elderly characterized by retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration with accumulation of abnormal intracellular deposits (lipofuscin) and photoreceptor death. (
  • TIF) pbio.2005090.s004.tif (1.5M) GUID:?9A46E06B-2B3D-4E4B-B361-38B6B04D197B S3 Fig: Comprehensive Peptide YY(3-36), PYY, human measurement of intracellular amino acids. (
  • Western-blot analysis showed an activation of proapoptotic factors including Fas (CD95), Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), caspase-8, death receptor 3 (DR3) and BID in apoptotic cells induced by metallic nickel particles. (
  • cholinergic receptor muscarinic 3 [Sour. (
  • G protein-coupled receptor class C grou. (
  • The use of the cable-reconstitution system to test roles for the key actin-binding proteins tropomyosin, capping protein, and cofilin provided important insights into assembly regulation. (
  • According to sequence comparison, the basal core structure of conventional actin may well be conserved in Act3p. (
  • These sequences represent the protein coding region of the Arpc1a cDNA ORF which is encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) sequence. (
  • GenScript guarantees 100% sequence accuracy of all synthetic DNA constructs we deliver, but we do not guarantee protein expression in your experimental system. (
  • This usually consists of about 30 amino acids that are not present in a linear sequence, but are in close spatial proximity in the 3-dimensional space. (
  • See the reference protein sequence for dystrophin isoform Dp427m (NP_003997.2). (
  • Third… the head unbends and attaches itself to the actin… The sequence is repeated again, and gradually, via a series of small steps, the two molecules slide past each other. (
  • Excessive protein load, incorrect amino acid sequence or conditions that perturb protein folding lead to the accumulation of misfolded proteins. (
  • The encoded protein shows amino acid sequence similarity to N-acetyltransferases. (
  • The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. (
  • Together, these studies support a critical role for Abl kinases in regulating dendrogenesis by inducing actin cytoskeletal rearrangements in cooperation with Rho GTPases. (
  • For example, Abl kinases may decrease RhoA activation via the phosphorylation of an upstream Rho regulator, p190Rho GTPase-activating protein (p190RhoGAP) ( Moresco and Koleske, 2003 ). (
  • The expression levels of TYR and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinases (JNK) proteins were tested by western blot analysis. (
  • 1998) Rearrangement of actin microfilaments in plant root hairs responding to Rhizobium etli nodulation signals. (
  • Synaptopodin is a proline-rich protein intimately associated with actin microfilaments present in the foot processes of podocytes. (
  • The head region interacts with actin, which allows the thick and thin filaments to move relative to one another so that muscles can contract. (
  • The Actin Regulator Coronin-1A Modulates Platelet Shape Change and Consolidates Arterial Thrombosis. (
  • Protein is one of the most essential macronutrients for muscle growth and repair because it's packed with amino acids that your body does and doesn't produce. (
  • This is a timeline of proteins , a class of macromolecules in the form of polymer chains made of amino acids . (
  • Around this time, nutritional research centers on the discovery of individual vitamins and amino acids , putting little interest in human protein requirements, or in the possibility of their not being met. (
  • Values in control cells starved for amino acids for 3 h were set as 1. (
  • This reorganization of actin filaments occurs through the interactions between actin and actin binding proteins. (
  • Entry:P30153) (Binary interactions provide information about binary protein-protein interactions. (
  • CIP2A by virtue of its functional interactions with a wide quantity of oncogenesis related proteins and transcription aspects forms the major constituent of. (
  • Protein expression is influenced by many factors that may vary between experiments or laboratories. (
  • Murine β -defensin-3 ( mBD3 ) and mBD4 expression are induced by mycobacterial infection, which may play roles in controlling mycobacterial growth during TB infection [ 13 ]. (
  • determine the expression pattern of C1q in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to explore the function of C1q in TB, finding that C1q is closely related to the active disease and disease severity in TB and serves as a diagnostic biomarker for the disease [ 18 ]. (
  • Subsequently, much evidence has accumulated that by transferring microRNAs, EVs modulate target cell protein expression. (
  • For example, two groups reported that microRNA 214-3p is found in EVs from osteoclasts, and is transferred to osteoblasts, where it inhibits osteoblast formation by reducing the expression of regulatory proteins [11,12]. (
  • d Representative western blot images show that overexpression of miR-7 or miR-504 decreased the expression of the rat Shank3 construct with the 3′UTR, but not of that without the 3′UTR, in HEK293T cells. (
  • Lentivirus -mediated overexpression of miR-504 , which mimics its reported expression change in postmortem brain tissues of bipolar disorder, decreased endogenous Shank3 protein in cultured hippocampal neurons. (
  • g LNA -inhibitor against miR-7 , miR-34a , and miR-504 did not affect the expression of the mutant SHANK3 3′UTR in cultured neurons. (
  • f LNA -inhibitor against miR-7 , miR-34a , or miR-504 increased the expression of co -transfected SHANK3 3′UTR in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. (
  • Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the 131) that purport to represent a time- to ORI that the data provided by National Research Council based on a course of 15-LO-1 protein expression in Respondent are based on actual review of NPPTL's program activities. (
  • and assessment is defined as the the thesis (p. 135) that purport to (3) to exclude himself voluntarily ``demonstration that specified represent 15-LO-1 expression in aortic from serving in any advisory capacity to requirements relating to a product, rings of normoxic and hypoxic rabbits. (
  • The transformation is characterized by the loss E-cadherin expression and increased expression of -smooth muscle actin (-SMA). (
  • Expression of apoptotic proteins was measured by Western blot. (
  • There are only few reports on differential proteins expression in potato under pathogen infections. (
  • The protein spots cofilin-1 (CFL1) and glycealdehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) from cMSCs had expression levels similar to that of ACs whereas the others (ie. (
  • These data in humans and in diseased kidneys would be worthwhile evaluating because changes in general RAS do not closely reflect local expression and regulation of intrarenal RAS [ 3 ]. (
  • Then the distribution and expression of pyrin and actin related proteins were analyzed during cell migration process using a functional HL-60 cell migration assay. (
  • qRT-PCR was performed in order to analyze the expression profile of actin related proteins during cell migration. (
  • These drug-like molecules offer the possibility of temporal control over protein expression, and could be useful as biochemical reagents for the treatment of diseases. (
  • Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of β-actin 1, β-actin 2, β-actin 3,28S rRNA, 18S rRNA and α-2-tubluin in their bodies. (
  • After the controlled-labeling of proteins during the induction of strobilar development, we identified modifications in protein expression. (
  • We report that transient de novo F-actin assembly on the mitochondria occurs upon induction of mitochondrial fission and F-actin accumulates on the mitochondria without forming detectable submitochondrial foci. (
  • These data indicate that the dynamic assembly and disassembly of F-actin on the mitochondria participates in Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. (
  • Actin-Interacting Protein 1 Contributes to Intranuclear Rod Assembly in Dictyostelium discoideum. (
  • Cell-cycle regulation of formin-mediated actin cable assembly. (
  • Assembly of appropriately oriented actin cables nucleated by formin proteins is necessary for many biological processes in diverse eukaryotes. (
  • Furthermore, using mass spectrometry, we identified components of the actin cables formed in yeast extracts, providing the basis for comprehensive understanding of cable assembly and regulation. (
  • Protein export according to schedule: architecture, assembly, and regulation of type III secretion systems from plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria. (
  • Integrin activation leads to the assembly of multiple scaffolding proteins, such as talin, paxillin and vinculin to the cytoplasmic tail of integrins. (
  • The thioredoxin-like protein rod-derived cone viability factor (RdCVFL) interacts with TAU and inhibits its phosphorylation in the retina. (
  • Our results show that the protein is not completely random coil but adopts a compact structure consisting of transient long-range contacts, which is regulated by post-translational phosphorylation. (
  • Quantitative proteomic analysis of early phosphorylation changes induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in 5L rat hepatoma cells. (
  • In addition, FAK and Src are activated by clustering of integrin receptors, and they modulate the composition of adhesions through phosphorylation of key residues that allow for binding of many additional proteins (not shown). (
  • 2015) demonstrate that CENP-A phosphorylation by CDK1 inhibits its association with the chaperone protein HJURP and that the removal of this modification at mitotic exit is a key regulatory event that controls the timing of new CENP-A nucleosome formation at centromeres. (
  • Lamellipodia are sheet-like, leading edge protrusions in firmly adherent cells that contain Arp2/3-generated dendritic actin networks. (
  • Furthermore, down-regulation of actin regulatory proteins led to elongation of mitochondria, associated with mitochondrial accumulation of Drp1. (
  • CD2 cytoplasmic domain binding protein. (
  • Traditional western blot analyses verified that SLP-2 proteins appearance was higher in tumors than in matched adjacent nontumor tissue (Body?1B). (
  • Swollen adipose tissue, tightly packed with spores, was homogenized in a map of 3. (
  • DA draw out caused a reduction in -SMA (-soft muscle tissue actin) and MMP-2 amounts, and a rise in E-cadherin manifestation. (
  • It has been mentioned that the development of fibrocartilage tissue can be attenuated if the appropriate cartilage proteins are expressed. (
  • One way to ensure that this is achieved is through the implantation of cells that have the ability to express the typical proteins required to obtain optimal tissue repair. (
  • Besides tissue degradation and destruction, a chronic inflammatory process underlies COPD, with infiltrating inflammatory cells producing a large variety of cytokines 3 , 6 , 13 - 16 . (
  • By virtue of chronic engagement, however, it also contributes to the age-related decline of tissue homeostasis leading to degeneration, metabolic dysfunction, and cancer. (