Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Arabidopsis contains ancient classes of differentially expressed actin-related protein genes. (1/347)

Actin-related proteins (ARPs) share less than 60% amino acid sequence homology with conventional actins and have roles in diverse cytoskeletal processes in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The genome of Arabidopsis was explored for possible ARP gene family members. Eight potential ARP gene sequences were found dispersed on three of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes. AtARP2 and AtARP3 are protein orthologs of their similarly named counterparts in other kingdoms. AtARP4, AtARP5, and AtARP6 are orthologs of two classes of nuclear ARPs previously characterized in animals and fungi, BAF53s and ARP6s. AtARP7 and AtARP8 appear to be novel proteins that are not closely related to any known animal or fungal ARPs, and may be plant specific. The complex Arabidopsis ARP gene structures each contain from five to 20 exons. Expressed transcripts were identified and characterized for AtARP2 through AtARP8, but not for AtARP9, and transcripts representing two splice variants were found for AtARP8. The seven expressed genes are predicted to encode proteins ranging from 146 to 471 amino acids in length. Relative to conventional actin and the other ARPs, AtARP2 and AtARP3 transcripts are expressed at very low levels in all organs. AtARP5, AtARP6, and AtARP8 each have distinct transcript expression patterns in seedlings, roots, leaves, flowers, and siliques. Using isovariant-specific monoclonal antibodies, AtARP4 and AtARP7 proteins were shown to be most highly expressed in flowers. The likely involvement of plant ARPs in actin nucleation, branching of actin filaments, chromatin restructuring, and transcription are briefly discussed.  (+info)

Arabidopsis CROOKED encodes for the smallest subunit of the ARP2/3 complex and controls cell shape by region specific fine F-actin formation. (2/347)

The generation of a specific cell shape requires differential growth, whereby specific regions of the cell expand more relative to others. The Arabidopsis crooked mutant exhibits aberrant cell shapes that develop because of mis-directed expansion, especially during a rapid growth phase. GFP-aided visualization of the F-actin cytoskeleton and the behavior of subcellular organelles in different cell-types in crooked and wild-type Arabidopsis revealed that localized expansion is promoted in cellular regions with fine F-actin arrays but is restricted in areas that maintain dense F-actin. This suggested that a spatiotemporal distinction between fine versus dense F-actin in a growing cell could determine the final shape of the cell. CROOKED was molecularly identified as the plant homolog of ARPC5, the smallest sub-unit of the ARP2/3 complex that in other organisms is renowned for its role in creating dendritic arrays of fine F-actin. Rescue of crooked phenotype by the human ortholog provides the first molecular evidence for the presence and functional conservation of the complex in higher plants. Our cell-biological and molecular characterization of CROOKED suggests a general actin-based mechanism for regulating differential growth and generating cell shape diversity.  (+info)

Mutations in actin-related proteins 2 and 3 affect cell shape development in Arabidopsis. (3/347)

ACTIN-RELATED PROTEINS 2 and 3 form the major subunits of the ARP2/3 complex, which is known as an important regulator of actin organization in diverse organisms. Here, we report that two genes, WURM and DISTORTED1, which are important for cell shape control in Arabidopsis, encode the plant ARP2 and ARP3 orthologs, respectively. Mutations in these genes result in misdirected expansion of various cell types: trichome expansion is randomized, pavement cells fail to produce lobes, hypocotyl cells curl out of the normal epidermal plane, and root hairs are sinuous. At the subcellular level, cell shape changes are linked to severe filamentous actin aggregation and compromised vacuole fusion. Because all seven subunits of the ARP2/3 complex are present in plants, our data indicate that this complex may play a pivotal role during plant cell morphogenesis.  (+info)

Requirements for Arabidopsis ATARP2 and ATARP3 during epidermal development. (4/347)

Plant cells employ the actin cytoskeleton to stably position organelles, as tracks for long distance transport, and to reorganize the cytoplasm in response to developmental and environmental cues. While diverse classes of actin binding proteins have been implicated in growth control, the mechanisms of cytoskeletal reorganization and the cellular functions of specific actin filament arrays are unclear. Arabidopsis trichome morphogenesis includes distinct requirements for the microtubule and actin filament cytoskeletons. It also is a genetically tractable process that is providing new knowledge about cytoskeleton function in plants. The "distorted group" of mutants defines a class of at least eight genes that are required during the actin-dependent phase of trichome growth. Using map-based cloning and a candidate gene approach, we identified mutations in ARP3 (ATARP3) and ARP2 (ATARP2) genes as the cause of the distorted1 (dis1) and wurm (wrm) phenotypes, respectively. ARP2 and ARP3 are components of the evolutionarily conserved ARP2/3 complex that nucleates actin filament polymerization [3]. Mutations in DIS1 and WRM caused severe trichome growth defects but had relatively mild effects on shoot development. DIS1 rescued the phenotype of Deltaarp3 when overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Developing dis1 trichomes had defects in cytoplasmic actin bundle organization and reduced relative amounts of cytoplasmic actin filaments in developing branches.  (+info)

The putative Arabidopsis arp2/3 complex controls leaf cell morphogenesis. (5/347)

The evolutionarily conserved Arp2/3 complex has been shown to activate actin nucleation and branching in several eukaryotes, but its biological functions are not well understood in multicellular organisms. The model plant Arabidopsis provides many advantages for genetic dissection of the function of this conserved actin-nucleating machinery, yet the existence of this complex in plants has not been determined. We have identified Arabidopsis genes encoding homologs of all of the seven Arp2/3 subunits. The function of the putative Arabidopsis Arp2/3 complex has been studied using four homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC5/p16. All four mutants display identical defects in the development of jigsaw-shaped epidermal pavement cells and branched trichomes in the leaf. These loss-of-function mutations cause mislocalization of diffuse cortical F-actin to the neck region and inhibit lobe extension in pavement cells. The mutant trichomes resemble those treated with the actin-depolymerizing drug cytochalasin D, exhibiting stunted branches but dramatically enlarged stalks due to depolarized growth suggesting defects in the formation of a fine actin network. Our data demonstrate that the putative Arabidopsis Arp2/3 complex controls cell morphogenesis through its roles in cell polarity establishment and polar cell expansion. Furthermore, our data suggest a novel function for the putative Arp2/3 complex in the modulation of the spatial distribution of cortical F-actin and provide evidence that the putative Arp2/3 complex may activate the polymerization of some types of actin filaments in specific cell types.  (+info)

p41-Arc subunit of human Arp2/3 complex is a p21-activated kinase-1-interacting substrate. (6/347)

The formation of new branched actin filament networks at the cell cortex of migrating cells is choreographed by the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex. Despite the fundamental role of the Arp2/3 complex in actin nucleation and branching, upstream signals that control the functions of p41-Arc, a putative regulatory component of the mammalian Arp2/3 complex, remain unidentified. Here we show that p41-Arc interacts with p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) both in vitro and in vivo. Pak1 phosphorylation of p41-Arc regulates its localization with the Arp2/3 complex in the cortical nucleation regions of cells. Pak1 phosphorylates p41-Arc on threonine 21 in the first WD repeat, and its mutation has functional implications in vivo. Threonine 21 phosphorylation by Pak1 is required for both constitutive and growth-factor-induced cell motility. Pak1 regulation of p41-Arc activation status represents a novel mechanism by which signalling pathways may influence the functions of the Arp2/3 complex, leading to motility in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Arabidopsis GNARLED encodes a NAP125 homolog that positively regulates ARP2/3. (7/347)

In migrating cells, the actin filament nucleation activity of ARP2/3 is an essential component of dynamic cell shape change and motility. In response to signals from the small GTPase Rac1, alterations in the composition and/or subcellular localization of the WAVE complex lead to ARP2/3 activation. The human WAVE complex subunit, WAVE1/SCAR1, was first identified in Dictyostelium and is a direct ARP2/3 activator. In the absence of an intact WAVE complex, SCAR/WAVE protein is destabilized. Although the composition of the five-subunit WAVE complex is well characterized, the means by which individual subunits and fully assembled WAVE complexes regulate ARP2/3 in vivo are unclear. The molecular genetics of trichome distortion in Arabidopsis is a powerful system to understand how signaling pathways and ARP2/3 control multicellular development. In this paper we prove that the GNARLED gene encodes a homolog of the WAVE subunit NAP125. Despite the moderate level of amino acid identity between Arabidopsis and human NAP125, both homologs were functionally interchangeable in vivo and interacted physically with the putative Arabidopsis WAVE subunit ATSRA1. gnarled trichomes had nearly identical cell shape and actin cytoskeleton phenotypes when compared to ARP2/3 subunit mutants, suggesting that GRL positively regulates ARP2/3.  (+info)

Arabidopsis NAP1 is essential for Arp2/3-dependent trichome morphogenesis. (8/347)

The dynamic nature of the eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton is essential for the locomotion of animal cells and the morphogenesis of plant and fungal cells. The F-actin nucleating/branching activity of the Arp2/3 complex is a key function for all of these processes. The SCAR/WAVE family represents a group of Arp2/3 activators that are associated with lamellipodia formation. A protein complex of PIR121, NAP1, ABI, and HSPC300 is required for SCAR regulation by cell signaling pathways, but the exact nature of this interaction is controversial and represents a continually evolving model. The mechanism originally proposed was of a SCAR trans repressing complex supported by evidence from in vitro experiments. This model was reinforced by genetic studies in the Drosophila central nervous system and Dictyostelium, where the knockout of certain SCAR-complex components leads to excessive SCAR-mediated actin polymerization. Conflicting data have steadily accumulated from animal tissue culture experiments suggesting that the complex activates rather than represses in vivo SCAR activity. Recent biochemical evidence supports the SCAR-complex activator model. Here, we show that genetic observations in Arabidopsis are compatible with an activation model and provide one potential mechanism for the regulation of the newly identified Arabidopsis Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Schroer, T. A., Heuser, J. E., Helfman, D. M., Leesmiller, J. P. (September 1992) Actin-Rpv - the Major Component of the Dynactin Complex - Activator of Cytoplasmic Dynein. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3. A2-A2. ISSN 1059-1524 ...
Membrane targeting is a crucial aspect in the spatial and temporal control of Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation in various cellular and developmental processes. Whereas previous studies suggested that membrane association is mediated by Scar/WAVE and WASP proteins, our data show that phosphoinositides do not exclusively act on Arp2/3-activators. We reveal that Abp1 is physically and functionally interfacing with Scar and that a subpool of Abp1 is membrane-associated by interactions with PS, PIP2 and PIP3. This creates a layer of Abp1-mediated Arp2/3 regulation specifically at the cell cortex.. Our in vitro reconstitutions proved that Abp1s lipid interactions are direct, specific and strong enough to withstand floatation through sucrose. The in vivo relevance of this novel Abp1 function is supported by subcellular fractionations and by colocalization of Abp1 with PIP3 especially at the plasma membrane of S2 cells.. The need for tight control of the membrane-associated pool of Abp1 is evident from ...
Actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF). The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility. In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA. The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs).
Introduction The Arp2/3 complex is responsible for nucleation of actin filaments to form branches at a distinct 70 degrees angle from the mother filament; ATP, an actin monomer, a mother filament and a nucleation promoting-factor needed to activate the complex which is intrinsically inactive. Several factors are known to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, most…
Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament (By similarity).
WASP homolog associated with actin, membranes and microtubules (WHAMM) is a newly discovered nucleation-promoting factor that links actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and regulates transport from the
structure of nucleotide-free bovine actin related ptotein(Arp)2/3 complex showed minimal contacts between Arp2 and Arp3 compared with the close association of adjacent subunits in the helical actin filament; Activation of the Arp2/3 involves the complex binding an existing filament and a nucleation-promoting factor, such as WASp or Scar, that brings along an actin monomer; interactions are thermodynamically coupled, In the presence of a nucleation promoting factor, actin monomer, and mother filament, Arp2 hydrolyzes ATP with a rate constant > 0.05 s^1; Arp3 binds ATP, but appreciable hydrolysis of the nucleotide by this subunit was not detected in either the active or inactive Arp2/3 ...
One component of our work is directed toward understanding how actin nucleation factors, including the Arp2/3 complex, formin proteins and so-called WH2 based nucleators, generate new actin filaments de novo from actin monomers. We also study how upstream regulators of these factors, particularly proteins in the WASP family, receive and integrate diverse signals to control actin nucleation. In each case we are interested in the structure and dynamics of the relevant molecules, and how these physical properties control biochemical and cellular activities. For example, we study how nucleation factors bind and organize actin monomers, how these complexes dynamically rearrange as a nascent filament grows, and how such rearrangements affect filament elongation rates and nucleation efficiency. We also study how WASP proteins bind multiple upstream ligands, and how thermodynamic cooperativity between these ligands is achieved and yields high specificity of WASP activation in vitro and in cells. This ...
The Arp2/3-complex in activated form will promote actin nucleation, causing the growth of a new filament under a 70° angle. The Arp2/3 complex contacts three actin subunits along one helix of the actin mother filament, led by subunits p34 and p40 [1]; as structural data already suggested, the two Arp-subunits are capable of dimerizing with…
CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. Here, we show that loss of ARPC1B led to loss of CTL cytotoxicity, with the defect arising at 2 different levels. First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. Loss ...
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human WHAMM protein. WHAMM (AAI67774.1, 1 a.a. ~ 809 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00123720-B01P) - Products - Abnova
We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. Subunits ARPC2 p34 and ARPC4 p20 in the core of the complex associate through long carboxyl-terminal α helices and have similarly folded amino-terminal α/β domains. ARPC1 p40 is a seven-blade β propeller with an insertion that may associate with the side of an actin filament. ARPC3 p21 and ARPC5 p16 are globular α-helical subunits. We predict that WASp/Scar proteins activate Arp2/3 complex by bringing Arp2 into proximity with Arp3 for nucleation of a branch on the side of a preexisting actin filament. ...
The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is an actin nucleator that generates a branched actin network in mammalian cells. In addition to binding nucleation promoting factors, LeClaire et al. demonstrated that its phosphorylation state is essential key for its activity (LeClaire et al., 2008). In cells, the ARP2/3 complex is phosphorylated on threonine and tyrosine residues of the ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC1 subunits (Vadlamudi et al., 2004; LeClaire et al., 2008; Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). In particular, phosphorylation of threonine 237 and 238 of the ARP2 subunit is necessary to allow a change in the ARP2/3 complex structure to its active conformation (Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). While important for many functions in eukaryotic cells, ARP2/3 complex activity also benefits several cellular pathogens (Haglund and Welch, 2011; Welch and Way, 2013). Recently, we demonstrated that the bacterial pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, manipulates ARP2/3 complex
WHAMM (WAS protein homolog associated with actin, golgi membranes and microtubules), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Supplementary Materials Supplemental Data supp_285_9_6781__index. 1A binds to PI(4 preferentially,5)P2-containing liposomes and that PI(4,5)P2 antagonizes the ability of Coronin 1A to disassemble actin filament branches, indicating a spatiotemporal regulation of Coronin 1A via a direct interaction with the plasma membrane lipid. Collectively, our proteomics data provide a list of potential acidic phospholipid-binding protein candidates ranging from the actin PF 429242 cost regulatory proteins to translational regulators. and structural studies showed that actin-binding sites of these ABPs are overlapped with PI(4,5)P2-binding sites and that the activity of ABPs is inhibited by PI(4,5)P2 (6,C8). Therefore, the activity of ABPs have thought to be inhibited by PI(4,5)P2 binding that occludes F-actin-binding sites and to be activated by PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis when phospholipase C (PLC) PF 429242 cost is activated by receptor stimulation (5). Indeed, recent study have reported that Cofilin, an ...
The structure of the Arp2/3-actin branch will open many possible lines of future research. The work of Rouiller et al. (2008) provides critical information that will allow the complete elucidation of the pathway that leads to branch formation. It is known that the Arp2/3 complex, an actin filament, a nucleation-promoting protein such as SCAR or WASP, and an actin monomer must converge to form a branch, but the specific temporal sequence and the interrelationship between these binding events are incompletely understood. This question has important implications for how and where Arp2/3 branches form in cells. Another area that this structure could potentially illuminate is the role of nucleotide hydrolysis by the Arp2 and Arp3 subunits in branch structure and debranching. Nucleotide binding and hydrolysis by both subunits are important for Arp2/3 complex activity in yeast (Martin et al., 2006), and the structure of the inactive complex is affected by bound nucleotide (Nolen and Pollard, 2007). ...
ARPC1A overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa (ARPC1A), transcript variant 2
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Human ARPC5L partial ORF ( NP_112240, 1 a.a. - 100 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00081873-Q01) - Products - Abnova
19 products from 7 suppliers. Compare and order ARPC2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
KEY: NRC= North Range Classroom, MRC=Main Range Classroom, IR=Indoor Range, MR=Main Range, TC=Trap Range Classroom, T=Trap Range, A=Archery Range m1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. ...
KEY: NRC= North Range Classroom, MRC=Main Range Classroom, IR=Indoor Range, MR=Main Range, TC=Trap Range Classroom, T=Trap Range, A=Archery Range m1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. ...
The ARP2/3 complex and formins are the only known plant actin nucleators. Besides their actin-related functions, both systems also modulate microtubule organization and dynamics. Loss of the main housekeeping Arabidopsis thaliana Class I membrane-targeted formin FH1 (At3g25500) is known to increase cotyledon pavement cell lobing, while mutations affecting ARP2/3 subunits exhibit an opposite effect. Here we examine the role of FH1 and the ARP2/3 complex subunit ARPC5 (At4g01710) in epidermal cell morphogenesis with focus on pavement cells and trichomes using a model system of single fh1 and arpc5, as well as double fh1 arpc5 mutants. While cotyledon pavement cell shape in double mutants mostly resembled single arpc5 mutants, analysis of true leaf epidermal morphology, as well as actin and microtubule organization and dynamics, revealed a more complex relationship between the two systems and similar, rather than antagonistic, effects on some parameters. Both fh1 and arpc5 mutations increased actin network
Proteins residing at the plus and minus ends of microtubules have been thought not to communicate with each other, but recent findings on bona fide nucleation factors also regulating microtubule dynamics have challenged this notion. New work by Bouissou et al (2014) in The EMBO Journal now reveals that interplay between the nucleation factor γ‐TuRC and the plus‐end tracking protein EB1 controls mitotic spindle positioning by affecting the stability and dynamics of astral microtubules.. See also: A Bouissou et al (January 2014) ...
ARPC FORM 123 PDF - By order of the secretary of the air force air force instruction 22 november incorporating change 1, 30 september personnel. requires AF Form 10 to be
Localization of Arp2/3 complex at actin filament branching points. Xenopus keratocytes and fibroblasts were treated with CD (0.2 μM for 30 min or 0.5...
Daniels genome tests revealed a mutation as yet unknown to medical science. The defect appeared in a gene known as ARPC1B, known to produce a protein required by the bodys cells to change shape, move, divide and perform other vital bodily functions. And Daniels ARPC1B gene expressed none of this critical protein. Two other patients, related to one another but not to Daniel, also were discovered to have a mutation leaving them with very little ARPC1B protein. And over time another 20 children globally have also been identified with this same genetic mutation ...
Reaktivität: Fledermaus, Huhn, Rind (Kuh) and more. 34 verschiedene PHACTR3 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
bin/bash #Set the parameters passed to this script to meaningful variable names. connection_type=$1 essid=$2 bssid=$3 if [ ${connection_type} == wireless ]; then #Change below to match your networks. case $essid in YOUR-NETWORK-NAME-ESSID) arp -s 00:11:22:33:44:55 ;; Netgear01923) arp -s 10:11:20:33:40:50 ;; ANOTHER-ESSID) arp -s 11:33:55:77:99:00 ;; *) echo Static ARP not set. No network defined. ;; esac fi ...
WAS is associated with mutations in a gene on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp11.23) that was originally termed the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein gene and is officially known as WAS (Gene ID: 7454).[8] X-linked thrombocytopenia is also linked to WAS mutations, although they differ from those that cause full-blown WAS. The rare disorder X-linked neutropenia has also been linked to a specific subset of WAS mutations.[9]. The protein product of WAS is known as WASp. It contains 502 amino acids and is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells (the cells in the bone marrow that develop into blood cells). The main function of WASp is to activate actin polymerization by serving as a nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) for the Arp2/3 complex, which generates branched actin filaments. Several proteins can serve as NPFs, and it has been observed that in WAS platelets the Arp2/3 complex functions normally, indicating that WASp is not required for its activation in platelets.[10] In T-cells, WASp is ...
Intracellular transport is vital for the function, survival and architecture of every eukaryotic cell. Long-range transport in animal cells is thought to depend exclusively on microtubule tracks. This study reveals an unexpected actin-dependent but microtubule-independent mechanism for long-range transport of vesicles in mouse oocytes. Vesicles organize their own actin tracks by recruiting the actin nucleation factors Spire1, Spire2 and Formin-2, which assemble an extensive actin network from the vesicles surfaces. The network connects the vesicles with one another and with the plasma membrane. Vesicles move directionally along these connections in a myosin-Vb-dependent manner to converge and to reach the cell surface. The overall outward-directed movement of the vesicle-actin network is driven by recruitment of vesicles to the plasma membrane in the periphery of the oocyte. Being organized in a dynamic vesicle-actin network allows vesicles to move in a local random manner and a global directed ...
The WAVE/SCAR complex promotes actin nucleation through the Arp2/3 complex, in response to Rac signaling. We show that loss of WVE-1/GEX-1, the only C. elegans WAVE/SCAR homolog, by genetic mutation or by RNAi, has the same phenotype as loss of GEX-2/Sra1/p140/PIR121, GEX-3/NAP1/HEM2/KETTE, or ABI-1/ABI, the three other components of the C. elegans WAVE/SCAR complex. We find that the entire WAVE/SCAR complex promotes actin-dependent events at different times and in different tissues during development. During C. elegans embryogenesis loss of CED-10/Rac1, WAVE/SCAR complex components, or Arp2/3 blocks epidermal cell migrations despite correct epidermal cell differentiation. 4D movies show that this failure occurs due to decreased membrane dynamics in specific epidermal cells. Unlike myoblasts in Drosophila, epidermal cell fusions in C. elegans can occur in the absence of WAVE/SCAR or Arp2/3. Instead we find that subcellular enrichment of F-actin in epithelial tissues requires the Rac-WAVE/SCAR-Arp2/3
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic interaction of amphiphysin with N-WASP regulates actin assembly. AU - Yamada, Hiroshi. AU - Padilla-Parra, Sergi. AU - Park, Sun Joo. AU - Itoh, Toshiki. AU - Chaineau, Mathilde. AU - Monaldi, Ilaria. AU - Cremona, Ottavio. AU - Benfenati, Fabio. AU - De Camilli, Pietro. AU - Coppey-Moisan, Maïté. AU - Tramier, Marc. AU - Galli, Thierry. AU - Takei, Kohji. PY - 2009/12/4. Y1 - 2009/12/4. N2 - Amphiphysin 1, an endocytic adaptor concentrated at synapses that couples clathrin-mediated endocytosis to dynamin-dependentfission, wasalsoshowntohavearegulatoryroleinactindynamics. Here, we report that amphiphysin 1 interacts with N-WASP and stimulates N-WASP- and Arp2/ 3-dependent actin polymerization. Both the Src homology 3 and the N-BAR domains are required for this stimulation. Acidic liposome-triggered, N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization is strongly impaired in brain cytosol of amphiphysin 1 knock-out mice. FRET-FLIM analysis of Sertoli cells, where endogenously ...
Microtubule inhibiting agents (MIAs) characteristically induce phosphorylation of the major anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and while this leads to Mcl-1 degradation, the role of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL phosphorylation in mitotic death has remained controversial. We used siRNA knockdown of the anaphase-promoting complex activator, Cdc20, as a defined molecular system to investigate the role, specifically in mitotic death, of individual anti- apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and their phosphorylated forms. We show that Cdc20 knockdown in HeLa cells induces mitotic arrest and subsequent mitotic death. Knockdown of Cdc20 in HeLa cells stably overexpressing untagged wild-type Bcl-2, Bcl-xL or Mcl-1 promoted phosphorylation of the overexpressed proteins in parallel with their endogenous counterparts. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL blocked mitotic death induced by Cdc20 knockdown, phospho-defective mutants were more protective than wild-type proteins, and phospho-mimic Bcl-xL was unable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishment of the Major Compatibility Complex-Dependent Development of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells by the Cbl Family Proteins. AU - Huang, Fang. AU - Kitaura, Yasuyuki. AU - Jang, Ihn Kyung. AU - Naramura, Mayumi. AU - Kole, Hemanta H H.. AU - Liu, Liping. AU - Qin, Haiyan. AU - Schlissel, Mark S S.. AU - Gu, Hua. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Casitas B cell lymphoma (Cbl) proteins are negative regulators for T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. Their role in thymocyte development remains unclear. Here we show that simultaneous inactivation of c-Cbl and Cbl-b in thymocytes enhanced thymic negative selection and altered the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, the mutant thymocytes developed into CD4+- and CD8+-lineage T cells independent of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), indicating that the CD4+- and CD8+-lineage development programs are constitutively active in the absence of c-Cbl and Cbl-b. The mutant double-positive (DP) thymocytes exhibited ...
Short Talk: Cell Basal Polarity Complex Scribble Is Required for Leukemic Initiation and Propagation through Negative Regulation of Apical Polarity Complex Activator Cdc42 and Hypoxia Inducing Factor-1α ...
Model for Myo5 function in anchoring actin assembly to the PM at endocytic sites. (A) Myo5 (yellow bananas) restricts activation of the Arp2/3 complex (gray avocados) by the WASP complex (blue widgets) to a discrete location, generating an actin array that grows predominantly in the same direction to generate force. (B) Absent this critical linkage, Arp2/3 activators splinter off of the PM, leading to Arp2/3 complex activation throughout the actin network. Delocalized Arp2/3 complex activation results in disordered actin arrays that fail to produce force. In the most catastrophic cases, the Arp2/3 complex and its activators pull away from the PM completely to form cytoplasmic actin comets (lower left of zoom). ...
I used mutagenesis in the rescue scheme to determine whether a direct interaction between Spir and Capu is necessary during oogenesis. Previously, a point mutation was described in the Spir-KIND domain (Y232K) that abolishes interaction between Spir and Capu in binding assays and in pyrene actin polymerization assays (Vizcarra et al., 2011). In the same studies, SpirD with this mutation fails to colocalize with full-length Capu in tissue culture (S2) cells (Vizcarra et al., 2011). I, therefore, asked, what happens when I replace wild-type Spir with SpirB(Y232K)-GFP in flies? This construct failed to rescue the mutant phenotype in every aspect assayed. Flies expressing SpirB(Y232K)-GFP were sterile, had no detectable actin mesh during mid-oogenesis and consistently exhibited premature streaming (Fig. 3A,B, Table 1). Furthermore, streaming velocities were indistinguishable from the spir mutant (Fig. 3M). SpirB(Y232K)-GFP did not have a detectable effect on later stages of oogenesis in that, as ...
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Recruitment of EPLIN, which is not expressed in all cell types but is found exclusively in AJ, has also been shown to be tension dependent [14][15][16]. In this case EPLIN binds to the sides of F-actin where it stabilizes and/or crosslinks bundles of actin filaments to prevent Arp2/3 binding and subsequently, filament branching [14]. Whilst serving this role, EPLIN may also interact with α-catenin in complex with cadherin and stabilize actin filament bundles that span from one AJ to the next (i.e. the adhesion belt) [15]. In vitro experiments have shown that whilst monomers of α-catenin could not bind actin filaments, EPLIN could. Moreover, depletion of EPLIN from epithelial cells resulted in disruption of the adhesion belt, with the cell-cell contacts taking on a more immature appearance i.e. radial actin filaments terminating at puncta of E-cadherin present at contact sites [15]. Collectively these studies [14][15] suggest EPLIN may promote AJ maturation by linking the catenin-cadherin ...
The results of this study indicate that NOSTRIN interacts directly with the M3R and is required for its correct spatial localization at the plasma membrane in aortic endothelial cells. In the absence of NOSTRIN, the function of the M3R was markedly impaired, resulting in abolition of the calcium response to acetylcholine, an impaired activation of eNOS, and the inhibition of vascular relaxation. These changes at the cellular level were reflected in vivo in the existence of elevated blood pressure and diastolic dysfunction in NOSTRINΔEC mice.. The interaction of NOSTRIN with the M3R is to our knowledge the first example of an F-BAR protein interacting with a Gαq/11-protein-coupled receptor. The interaction is direct and involves the SH3 domain of NOSTRIN. The SH3 domain alone was not sufficient to bind to the M3R, indicating that additional motifs in NOSTRIN might be required. On the side of the M3R, the interaction with NOSTRIN involved the i3loop, which comprises 240 amino acids but contains ...
Eukaryotic cells use actin polymerization to change shape, move, and internalize extracellular materials by phagocytosis and endocytosis, and to form contractile structures. In addition, several pathogens have evolved to use host cell actin assembly for attachment, internalization, and cell-to-cell …
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The GAP first draft also has added the elements of NCDs Global Monitoring Framework (including twenty-five indicators) and Voluntary Global Targets (nine targets) finalised in the WHO meeting of member states late last year (5-7 November 2012). However the stakeholders want the 25 indicators of Global Monitoring Framework (GMF) and 9 voluntary global targets should be integrated in GAP alongwith evidence based interventions. Let us examine the GMF and GAP in some detail: ...
Having an existing gmfgen file and a generated diagram plug-in, but trying to generate the same diagram plug-in results in different java classes structure ...
Having an existing gmfgen file and a generated diagram plug-in, but trying to generate the same diagram plug-in results in different java classes structure ...
This session welcomes contributions on experimental, theoretical, and computational studies of phenomena related to nucleation and growth, including vapor-to-liquid (droplet) nucleation, liquid-to-vapor (bubble) nucleation and crystallization.. ...
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In trecut, diagnosticul de hiperaldosteroidism primar se suspiciona numai in contextul unei hipertensiuni asociata cu hipopotasemie. La ora actuala se estimeaza ca aproximativ 5-13% din totalul pacientilor cu HTA, au ARP scazute in contextul unei excretii crescute de aldosteron si multi dintre ei...
ב-3 בנובמבר 2019, העלה וסט בכורה את האופרה שלו נבוכדנצר, שכללה את השיר Wash Us in the Blood.[5] באפריל 2020, דיווח העיתונאי וויל וולש ממגזין GQ, כי שמע כמה שירים חדשים בזמן שהיה במקסיקו יחד עם וסט.[6] וולש שיתף את מקהלת השיר והשווה את הצליל התעשייתי שלו לאלבום האולפן השישי של וסט Yeezus, שיצא בשנת 2013. ב-25 במאי 2020, חשף הבמאי ארתור יפה כי צילם לאחרונה וידאו קליפ עם וסט.[7] ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1A gene. This gene encodes one ... Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa". Human ARPC1A genome location and ARPC1A gene details ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC2 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34kDa". Weed SA, Karginov AV, Schafer DA, Weaver AM, Kinley AW ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "Cortactin localization to sites of actin assembly in lamellipodia requires interactions with F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex". J ...
Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP). This IcsA/N-WASP complex then activates the Actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 ... Shigella flexneri is a rod shaped, nonflagellar bacterium that relies on actin-based motility. It produces the protein actin in ... It then uses another IpaBC complex to make a pore and enter the next cell. VacJ is a protein that is also needed by S. flexneri ... The IcsA protein is first localized to one pole of the bacterium where it will then bind with the host's protein, ...
NPFs in the mammalian cell recruit and bind to the already existing actin-related-protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) and ... The Actin assembly-inducing protein (ActA) is a protein encoded and used by Listeria monocytogenes to propel itself through a ... an actin monomer binding protein, which itself promotes polymerization at barbed ends of actin filaments. Furthermore, VASP ... In the cytosol they start to polymerize actin on their surface by the help of the ActA protein. It has been shown that ActA is ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC3 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC3 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3, 21kDa". Welch MD, Iwamatsu A, Mitchison TJ (1997). "Actin ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... Marchand JB, Kaiser DA, Pollard TD, Higgs HN (2001). "Interaction of WASP/Scar proteins with actin and vertebrate Arp2/3 ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC4 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC4 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa". "Dysmorphology data for Arpc4". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC5 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC5 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa". Millard TH, Behrendt B, Launay S, Fütterer K, Machesky ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1B gene. This gene encodes one ... Isoforms of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. Indeed, it ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1B actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B, 41kDa". Abella, Jasmine V. G.; Galloni, Chiara; Pernier, ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q58CQ2 (Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex ...
2003). "Haematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) promotes actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex-mediated actin ... Chen, Y R; Kori R; John B; Tan T H (Nov 2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ... Chen YR, Kori R, John B, Tan TH (2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ... Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCLS1 gene. HCLS1 has been shown to ...
"The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... Actin-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR2 gene. The specific function of ACTR2 has not yet ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR2 ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast)". Bearer EL, Prakash JM, Li Z (2002). "Actin dynamics in ...
ARPIN: encoding protein Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor ARPP-19: encoding protein cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 19 ... encoding protein snRNA-activating protein complex subunit 5 SPN1: encoding protein Snurportin1 STRC: stereocilin SUHW4: ... encoding protein hVam6p/Vps39-like protein ZNF592: encoding protein Zinc finger protein 592 UNC13C: encoding protein unc-13 ... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 280D SYNM: encoding protein Synemin TEX9: encoding protein Testis-expressed protein 9 ...
... encoding protein ADP-ribosylation-like factor 6 interacting protein 4 ARPC3: encoding protein Actin-related protein 2/3 complex ... encoding protein Intermediate filament family orphan 1 KANSL2: encoding protein KAT8 regulatory NSL complex subunit 2 (KANSL2) ... encoding protein a protein of 377 amino acid residues FAM60A: encoding protein FAM60A FAM186B: encoding protein Protein FAM186B ... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 26 ZNF84: encoding protein Zinc finger protein 84 ZNF268: encoding protein Zinc finger ...
"The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... Actin-related protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3 gene. The specific function of this gene has not ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3 ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast)". Weed SA, Karginov AV, Schafer DA, Weaver AM, Kinley AW, ... Machesky LM, Insall RH (1999). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ...
... actin-related protein 2-3 complex MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.500 - actin-related protein 2 MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.750 - actin- ... photosystem i protein complex MeSH D05.500.562.496 - photosystem ii protein complex MeSH D05.500.562.500 - proteasome ... actin capping proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.500 - capz actin capping protein MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.750 - tropomodulin ... related protein 3 MeSH D05.750.078.730.250 - actins MeSH D05.750.078.730.281 - cortactin MeSH D05.750.078.730.350 - gelsolin ...
Actin, alpha 1 Actinin, alpha 1 Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 Aldehyde ... mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha 1 BCL2-related protein A1 Butyrophilin, subfamily 1, member A1 Butyrophilin, subfamily 3, ... DP alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 Myosin light chain A1, an actin-binding protein NADH ... alpha 1 RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 1, member A1 Replication protein A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1 Sec61 ...
Filament end-tracking protein (e.g., formins, VASP, N-WASP) Filament-nucleator known as the Actin-Related Protein-2/3 (or Arp2/ ... complex Filament cross-linkers (e.g., α-actinin, fascin, and fimbrin) Actin monomer-binding proteins profilin and thymosin β4 ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... These structures are regulated by many other classes of actin-binding proteins, including motor proteins, branching proteins, ...
Machesky LM, Insall RH (1998). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ... The WH2 domain binds to actin monomers and can facilitate the assembly of actin monomers into actin filaments. Human genes ... Protein families, Membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... It is found in WASP proteins which control actin polymerisation, therefore, WH2 is important in cellular processes such as cell ...
... expression of the nuclear actin-related protein ArpNalpha and its involvement in mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex ... Actin-like protein 6A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL6A gene. This gene encodes a family member of actin- ... related proteins (ARPs), which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have ... "Alternative splicing products of the gene for a human nuclear actin-related protein, hArpNbeta/Baf53, that encode a protein ...
The first eukaryotic protein identified was actin and actin-related proteins (Arp) 2 and 3 in Crenarchaeota. The implication is ... A protein called endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT III) that is involved in eukaryotic cell division ... Ubiquitin-related protein called Urm1 is also present in Crenarchaeota. DNA replication system (GINS proteins) in Crenarchaeota ... In addition to actin, tubulin, ubiquitin and ESCRT proteins found in TACK archaea, Asgards contain functional genes for several ...
"Dynamics of cytoplasmic dynein in living cells and the effect of a mutation in the dynactin complex actin-related protein Arp1 ... an actin-related protein is a component of a filament that resembles F-actin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 126 (2): 403-12. ... Dynamin related protein 1) have been documented as vital to the attachment of mitochondria to the dynactin complex. Dynactin ... It is built around a short filament of actin related protein-1 (Arp1). Dynactin was identified as an activity that allowed ...
Enz R (March 2002). "The actin-binding protein Filamin-A interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7". FEBS ... "Homer regulates the association of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with multivalent complexes of homer-related, ... "Actin-binding protein alpha-actinin-1 interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5b and modulates the cell surface ... The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the ...
ActA Actibind Actin Actinfilin Actinogelin Actin-regulating kinases Actin-Related Proteins Actobindin Actolinkin Actopaxin ... Actin-binding proteins (also known as ABPs) are proteins that bind to actin. This may mean ability to bind actin monomers, or ... Many actin-binding proteins, including α-actinin, β-spectrin, dystrophin, utrophin and fimbrin, do this through the actin- ... related to the ERM proteins) Myosins MAP-1C Metavinculin Moesin (the M of ERM proteins) Myosin light chain kinase MAL Mip-90 ...
The complex folds various proteins, including actin and tubulin. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different ... Joly EC, Sévigny G, Todorov IT, Bibor-Hardy V (Mar 1994). "cDNA encoding a novel TCP1-related protein". Biochimica et ... T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCT3 gene. This gene encodes a molecular ... This complex consists of two identical stacked rings, each containing eight different proteins. Unfolded polypeptides enter the ...
"Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... In molecular biology, DCTN6 is that subunit of the dynactin protein complex that is encoded by the p27 gene. Dynactin is the ... "Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... Dynactin p27 forms a hetero-dimer with the other dynactin pointed-end complex subunit p25/DCTN5 in 1:1 ratio, and it is ...
This gene encodes a member of the actin-related proteins (ARP), which form multiprotein complexes and share 35-55% amino acid ... Actin-related protein 3B also known as ARP3-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3B gene. Pseudogenes of this ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3B ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog B (yeast)". Human ACTR3B genome location and ACTR3B gene details page ... the gene encoding a new human actin-related protein, is alternatively spliced and predominantly expressed in brain neuronal ...
Coronin, actin binding protein, 1B also known as CORO1B is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CORO1B gene. Members of ... Studies related to this protein are as follows: Coronin 1B antagonizes cortactin and remodels Arp2/3-containing actin branches ... Okumura M, Kung C, Wong S, Rodgers M, Thomas ML (September 1998). "Definition of family of coronin-related proteins conserved ... "Entrez Gene: CORO1B coronin, actin binding protein, 1B". Cai L, Makhov AM, Schafer DA, Bear JE (September 2008). "Coronin 1B ...
"Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... a macromolecular complex consisting of 23 subunits (11 individual proteins ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD). The subunit is ... "The APC-associated protein EB1 associates with components of the dynactin complex and cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain". ... Yue L, Lu S, Garces J, Jin T, Li J (August 2000). "Protein kinase C-regulated dynamitin-macrophage-enriched myristoylated ...
... links with other proteins and serves as a core component of two distinct protein complexes, mTOR complex 1 and mTOR ... mTOR signaling appears to be closely related to the presence of soluble amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau proteins, which aggregate and ... mTORC2 has been shown to function as an important regulator of the actin cytoskeleton through its stimulation of F-actin stress ... This complex functions as a nutrient/energy/redox sensor and controls protein synthesis. The activity of mTORC1 is regulated by ...
Alpha-catenins are proteins of about 100 kDa which are evolutionary related to vinculin. In terms of their structure the most ... The association of catenins to cadherins produces a complex which is linked to the actin filament network, and which seems to ... Protein pages needing a picture, Protein domains, Protein families, Membrane proteins). ... In addition to actin, vinculin interacts with other structural proteins such as talin and alpha-actinins. Vinculin is a large ...
The gene product is a protein that forms a multiprotein complex that links receptor kinases and actin. Binding to actin occurs ... Machesky LM, Insall RH (1999). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ... Bear JE, Rawls JF, Saxe CL (1998). "SCAR, a WASP-related protein, isolated as a suppressor of receptor defects in late ... Marchand JB, Kaiser DA, Pollard TD, Higgs HN (2001). "Interaction of WASP/Scar proteins with actin and vertebrate Arp2/3 ...
... a proapoptotic BH3-only protein regulated by interaction with the myosin V actin motor complex, activated by anoikis". Science ... Lei K, Davis RJ (2003). "JNK phosphorylation of Bim-related members of the Bcl2 family induces Bax-dependent apoptosis". Proc. ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family. BCL2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as ... and has been shown to bind BCL2 proteins and function as an apoptotic activator. This protein is found to be sequestered to ...
They exhibit a high degree of protein dynamics, alone or in complex. Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an ... The minimal cadherin-catenin complex binds to actin filaments under force". Science. 346 (6209): 1254211. doi:10.1126/science. ... "The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ...
"Rickettsial Outer-Membrane Protein B (rOmpB) Mediates Bacterial Invasion through Ku70 in an Actin, c-Cbl, Clathrin and Caveolin ... Wikispecies has information related to Ixodidae. Wikispecies has information related to Rickettsia. "Rocky Mountain spotted ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... CDC42, protein tyrosine kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Src-family kinases then activate Arp2/3. This causes the ...
"Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and (alpha)-actinin ... "Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): ... The enzyme belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily ... "KN-93 inhibition of G protein signaling is independent of the ability of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II to ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related ... "Alternative splicing of dystrobrevin regulates the stoichiometry of syntrophin binding to the dystrophin protein complex". Curr ... Iwata Y, Pan Y, Yoshida T, Hanada H, Shigekawa M (1998). "Alpha1-syntrophin has distinct binding sites for actin and calmodulin ... proteins. This gene is a member of the syntrophin gene family, which contains at least two other structurally related genes. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a ubiquitous actin monomer-binding protein belonging to the profilin family. It is thought ... Yayoshi-Yamamoto S, Taniuchi I, Watanabe T (September 2000). "FRL, a novel formin-related protein, binds to Rac and regulates ... Mahoney NM, Janmey PA, Almo SC (1997). "Structure of the profilin-poly-L-proline complex involved in morphogenesis and ... Miki H, Suetsugu S, Takenawa T (December 1998). "WAVE, a novel WASP-family protein involved in actin reorganization induced by ...
... and other proteins important for regulating microtubule dynamics. Recently an actin-like protein has been found in the gram- ... In recent studies, the Vale group at UCSF identified the protein complex augmin as a critical factor for centrosome-dependent, ... Enzymes related to TTL add the initial branching glutamate (TTL4,5 and 7), while other enzymes that belong to the same family ... MAP-1 proteins consists of a set of three different proteins: A, B and C. The C protein plays an important role in the ...
... regulatory protein serves as the motor protein that regulates, in synergy with its companion protein actin, the contraction ... "Effect of dietary protein on bed-rest-related changes in whole-body-protein synthesis". The American Journal of Clinical ... Although reduced lunar gravity was expected to make some tasks less strenuous, reduced suit mobility coupled with a complex and ... Together, MHC and actin provide the bulk of the myofibril fraction that accounts for most of the protein in the muscle cell. ...
... plant protein - plasma membrane - plasmid - plasmin - plasminogen - platelet glycoprotein GPIb-IX complex - platelet membrane ... Articles related to biochemistry include: Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 2-amino-5- ... actin - action potential - activation energy - active site - active transport - adenosine - adenosine diphosphate (ADP) - ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ...
... including lower levels of several proteins related to myosin and actin. Force is generated in striated muscle by the ... Almeida KH, Sobol RW (2007). "A unified view of base excision repair: lesion-dependent protein complexes regulated by post- ... Protein synthesis and protein degradation decline with age in skeletal and heart muscle, as would be expected, since DNA damage ... A related theory is that mutation, as distinct from DNA damage, is the primary cause of aging. A comparison of somatic mutation ...
... phosphorylation in the MARCKS-related domain inhibits activity in promoting spectrin-actin complexes and occurs in many cells, ... Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... Adducin is a heterodimeric protein that consists of related subunits, which are produced from distinct genes but share a ... "Identification of the spectrin subunit and domains required for formation of spectrin/adducin/actin complexes". J. Biol. Chem. ...
More specifically the actin and actin binding proteins seen in Hirano bodies are a significant feature of an Alzheimer's ... There is an upregulation of a macroautophagic pathway related to AD that can be related to an actin aggregate thought to be an ... Hirano bodies were first described in the CA1 in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex ... Hirano bodies are intracellular aggregates of actin and actin-associated proteins first observed in neurons (nerve cells) by ...
... a 55 kDa protein was isolated from the actomyosin complex of Dictyostelium discoideum, which was later shown to bind actin in ... 1998). "Definition of family of coronin-related proteins conserved between humans and mice: close genetic linkage between ... This actin binding protein was named coronin after its strong immunolocalisation in the actin rich crown like extension of the ... Initially this protein was admitted into club of actin binding proteins with least enthusiasm, as the primary structure did not ...
... such as protein-DNA complexes, which include the TATA binding motif. Compounds that trap the protein-DNA intermediate could ... Wu C, Liu Z, Ma L, Pei C, Qin L, Gao N, Li J, Yin Y (August 2017). "MiRNAs regulate oxidative stress related genes via binding ... The TATA box is also found in 40% of the core promoters of genes that code for the actin cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus ... SNPs destabilize the TBP/TATA complex which significantly decreases the rate at which TATA-binding proteins (TBP) will bind to ...
... is a cytoskeletal protein actin projection on the leading edge of the cell. It contains a quasi-two-dimensional actin mesh; the ... The lamellipodium (plural lamellipodia) (from Latin lamella, related to lamina, "thin sheet", and the Greek radical pod-, "foot ... Ena/VASP proteins are found at the leading edge of lamellipodia, where they promote actin polymerization necessary for ... Further, Ena/VASP prevents the action of capping protein, which halts actin polymerization. Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PBRM1 gene. Component of the SWI/SNF-B (PBAF) chromatin-remodeling complex, which ... "The human SWI/SNF-B chromatin-remodeling complex is related to yeast Rsc and localizes at kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes ... and actin. Chicken PB1 possesses 5 bromodomains, 2 bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domains, and 1 truncated high-mobility group ( ... 2001). "Protein-Protein Interaction Panel Using Mouse Full-Length cDNAs". Genome Res. 11 (10): 1758-65. doi:10.1101/gr.180101. ...
G-actin with G-actin or F-actin, cadherin-catenin complex with actin, vinculin with F-actin, microtubule with kinetochore ... This is possible due to the bacterial protein FimH, which mediates high adhesion in response to high flow. The lectin domain is ... Catch bonds are revealed when the mean bond lifetime (reciprocally related to the rate of bond dissociation) increases with the ... The minimal cadherin-catenin complex binds to actin filaments under force". Science. 346 (6209): 1254211. doi:10.1126/science. ...
... another Ras-related GTP-binding protein, is implicated in the regulation of the actin organisation in presence of extracellular ... unable to bind to their specific effector proteins showed that RalA and RalB isoforms promote branching through exocyst complex ... In addition, the inactivation of Rho protein by ADP-ribosylation in Rac1 microinjection reduced the formation of actin stress ... "The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth ...
Ras-related protein Rap-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAP1A gene. The product of this gene belongs to the ... "The junctional multidomain protein AF-6 is a binding partner of the Rap1A GTPase and associates with the actin cytoskeletal ... Hanzal-Bayer M, Renault L, Roversi P, Wittinghofer A, Hillig RC (May 2002). "The complex of Arl2-GTP and PDE delta: from ... family of Ras-related proteins. These proteins share approximately 50% amino acid identity with the classical RAS proteins and ...
For example, the cadherin-α-catenin complex binds the actin cytoskeleton, though whether it binds via binding proteins or ... Anchorage of AMPA Receptors by Cadherins through Neural Plakophilin-Related Arm Protein-AMPA Receptor-Binding Protein Complexes ... In homodimeric form, α-catenins do not bind β- catenins, but preferentially bind F-actin and other proteins promoting F-actin ... anti-p120ctn serum pulls out a complex containing both proteins from cell lysates. The same occurs for a protein similar to ABP ...
... allowing the CAS protein to function as a scaffold for other proteins including CRK proteins and C3G, a guanine nucleotide ... The SH3 domain is a point of contact with polyproline sequences on focal adhesion kinase (FAK). or the related kinase PTK2B, ... and eventually the solubility and/or stability of the complex. Through SRC, EFS may also negatively regulate expression of E- ... leading to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and changes in motility and invasion. ...
... t-complex 11 (6p21.31) TJAP1: tight junction associated protein 1 (6p21.1) TP53COR1 encoding protein Tumor protein p53 pathway ... It contains the major histocompatibility complex, which contains over 100 genes related to the immune response, and plays a ... phosphatase and actin regulator 1 (6p24.1) PKHD1: polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) (6p21.2-p12) ... encoding protein Absent in melanoma 1 protein (6q21) AIG1: encoding protein Androgen-induced protein 1 (6q24.2) AKIRIN2: akirin ...
Takenaga K, Nakamura Y, Sakiyama S, Hasegawa Y, Sato K, Endo H (Mar 1994). "Binding of pEL98 protein, an S100-related calcium- ... troponin C and troponin T-to modulated the actin and myosin interaction. In diastole, the tropomyosin-troponin complex inhibits ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 July ... Chevray PM, Nathans D (Jul 1992). "Protein interaction cloning in yeast: identification of mammalian proteins that react with ...
2005). "Direct binding to ceramide activates protein kinase Cζ before the formation of a pro-apoptotic complex with PAR-4 in ... These targets in turn mediate the effects of Sph and its related sphingoid bases, with known roles in regulating the actin ... Sph is also known to interact with protein targets such as the protein kinase H homologue (PKH) and the yeast protein kinase ( ... Transferring to the GSL synthesis site is done with the help of a transport protein known as four phosphate adaptor protein 2 ( ...
The axon initial segment is unmyelinated and contains a specialized complex of proteins. It is between approximately 20 and 60 ... The neurite with the lowest actin filament content will become the axon. PGMS concentration and f-actin content are inversely ... Axons were known to have different thicknesses (from 0.1 to 20 µm) and these differences were thought to relate to the speed at ... In the CNS the major myelin protein is proteolipid protein, and in the PNS it is myelin basic protein. Nodes of Ranvier (also ...
HAMLET is known as an anticancer protein complex found in breast milk. One of the two molecules of this complex is multimeric ... actin filaments through activation of actin-severing protein gelsolin, and vimentin through an unknown mechanism. The last NS1- ... Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) (Figure 5) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ... This protein binds to anti-apoptotic proteins resulting in these proteins' inhibition. As a p53 inducible gene, NOXA is ...
Sada K, Minami Y, Yamamura H (September 1997). "Relocation of Syk protein-tyrosine kinase to the actin filament network and ... "Cell adhesion kinase beta forms a complex with a new member, Hic-5, of proteins localized at focal adhesions". The Journal of ... A senescence-related protein, with focal adhesion kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (41): 26516-21. doi:10.1074 ... This 4.1 band domain binds to the cytoplasmic region of transmembrane proteins including glycophorin C, actin and spectrin. ...
The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the ... SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily D member 3 is a protein that in humans is ... Ring HZ, Vameghi-Meyers V, Wang W, Crabtree GR, Francke U (July 1998). "Five SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin- ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase ...
CRK-associated substrate-related protein (CAS-L), and Cas scaffolding protein family member 2 (CASS2). An important paralog of ... Wallez Y, Mace PD, Pasquale EB, Riedl SJ (2012). "NSP-CAS Protein Complexes: Emerging Signaling Modules in Cancer". Genes ... Overexpression of the deacetylation mimicking (9KR) mutant of CTTN is sufficient to restore actin dynamics at the leading edge ... novel SH2-containing protein family), and other proteins such as the Id family of helix-loop-helix proteins. In terms of post- ...
Lehtonen S, Lehtonen E, Kudlicka K, Holthöfer H, Farquhar MG (2004). "Nephrin forms a complex with adherens junction proteins ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to P120 catenin. Human CTNND1 genome location and CTNND1 gene details page in the UCSC ... Hazan RB, Norton L (April 1998). "The epidermal growth factor receptor modulates the interaction of E-cadherin with the actin ... p120, and called catenin delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNND1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ...
... leading edge protrusions in firmly adherent cells that contain Arp2/3-generated dendritic actin networks. Although lamellipodia ... Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex Grant support * DK037871/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States ... Arp2/3 is critical for lamellipodia and response to extracellular matrix cues but is dispensable for chemotaxis Cell. 2012 Mar ... Surprisingly, Arp2/3-depleted cells respond normally to shallow gradients of PDGF, indicating that lamellipodia are not ...
Human Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (ARPC2) ELISA kit , CSB-EL002127HU , CusabioHuman Actin-related protein 2/3 ... complex subunit 2 (ARPC2) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with... ... Human Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (ARPC2) ELISA kit , CSB-EL002127HU Cusabio Elisa ... HIST1H4A (Ab-3) Antibody , CSB-PA010429PA03nme1HU , CusabioHIST1H4A (Ab-3) Antibody is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the ...
platelet protein P47 Medicine & Life Sciences 14% * Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex Medicine & Life Sciences 13% ... Endocytic protein intersectin-l regulates actin assembly via Cdc42 and N-WASP. In: Nature cell biology. 2001 ; Vol. 3, No. 10. ... Endocytic protein intersectin-l regulates actin assembly via Cdc42 and N-WASP. Nature cell biology. 2001;3(10):927-932. doi: ... Endocytic protein intersectin-l regulates actin assembly via Cdc42 and N-WASP. / Hussain, Natasha K.; Jenna, Sarah; Glogauer, ...
Actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4. 0.8404. 32. LYSMD2. LysM domain containing 2. 0.8333. 32. ... BLOC-1 related complex subunit 8. 0.7965. 32. PSMB4. Proteasome 20S subunit beta 4. 0.7895. 32. ... Metabolic proteins. RNA polymerase related proteins. Predicted locationi All transcripts of all genes have been analyzed ... Evidence at protein level. Protein expressioni A summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed normal ...
PDB Compounds: (E:) Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d2p9ie_:. Sequence; same for both ... complexed with adp, ca. Details for d2p9ie_. PDB Entry: 2p9i (more details), 2.46 Å. PDB Description: crystal structure of ... Protein automated matches [190347] (1 species). not a true protein. *. Species Cow (Bos taurus) [TaxId:9913] [187174] (12 PDB ... Other proteins in same PDB: d2p9ia1, d2p9ia2, d2p9ic_, d2p9id1, d2p9id2, d2p9if_, d2p9ig_. automated match to d1k8ke_. ...
Actin Cytoskeleton 7% * Actin Depolymerizing Factors 30% * Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex 21% ... Role of Protein Kinase D in Actin Remodeling and Cell Motiliy. *Storz, Peter (PI) ...
i,Results,/i,. The DEGs in subclusters 3, 6, 7, and 8 were chosen for further analyses. Based on WGCNA analysis, blue and green ... Finally, 9 hub genes (including BCL2-associated X protein, BAX; and Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 1B, ARPC1B) in ... R. S. Mahla, "Sweeten PAMPs: role of sugar complexed PAMPs in innate immunity and vaccine biology," Front Immunol, vol. 4, p. ... G. Li, G. Liu, N. Song et al., "A novel recombinant BCG-expressing pro-apoptotic protein BAX enhances Th1 protective immune ...
Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex - Preferred Concept UI. M0480284. Scope note. A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 ... A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of ... Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex Entry term(s). Actin Related Protein 2 3 Complex Arp2 3 Complex Arp2 3 Protein Complex Arp2-3 ... Actin Related Protein 2 3 Complex. Arp2 3 Complex. Arp2 3 Protein Complex. Arp2-3 Complex. Arp2-3 Protein Complex. ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B, ARC1B_HUMAN, p41-ARC ... Myosin-Actin filaments [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * Mother filament:branching complex:daughter filament [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... Myosin-Actin filaments [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * Mother filament:branching complex:daughter filament [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... Actin filament bound Myosin-X [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * Mother filament:branching complex:daughter filament [cytosol ...
Rho GTPase activating protein 10 .... ARPC5L. 81873. ARPC5L. actin related protein 2/3 complex.... ... malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein .... MED20. 9477. MED20. mediator complex subunit 20 [Sour.... ... Related gene sets. (show 110 additional gene sets from the source publication) GSE29614_CTRL_VS_DAY3_TIV_FLU_VACCINE_PBMC_DN ...
Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 (ARPC5) Antibody. 20-abx148346 Abbexa * ... Arf-GAP With SH3 Domain, ANK Repeat And PH Domain-Containing Protein 1 (ASAP1) Antibody. ...
... a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) (PubMed:9230079 ... The exact role of the protein encoded by this gene, the p16 subunit, has yet to be determined. Alternatively spliced transcript ... repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks ( ... The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through ...
RESULTS: Actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A (ARPC1A) was identified as the hub gene. ARPC1A was highly expressed in ... The expression of proteins encoded by these genes was further validated by the Human protein Atlas (HPA) database. RESULTS: A ... Semantic Computed Tomography Features for Predicting BRCA1-associated Protein 1 and/or Tumor Protein p53 Gene Mutation Status ... RESULTS: Based on 160 differentially expressed TMB-related lncRNAs, two TMB-related molecular clusters with distinct immune ...
Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex 31% * Actin Depolymerizing Factors 29% * Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases 20% ... Formation of binary and ternary signaling complexes in intact cells. Backer, J. M., Myers, M. G., Sun, X. J., Chin, D. J., ... Myotubularin lipid phosphatase binds the hVPS15/hVPS34 lipid kinase complex on endosomes. Cao, C., Laporte, J., Backer, J. M., ... Protein kinase A-dependent and -independent signaling pathways contribute to cyclic AMP-stimulated proliferation. Cass, L. A., ...
Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex 100% * Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family 56% ... A heterodimeric complex of the LRR proteins LRIM1 and APL1C regulates complement-like immunity in Anopheles gambiae. Baxter, R ... Nkx2-5 transactivates the Ets-related protein 71 gene and specifies an endothelial/endocardial fate in the developing embryo. ... The WAVE regulatory complex is inhibited. Ismail, A. M., Padrick, S. B., Chen, B., Umetani, J. & Rosen, M. K., May 2009, In: ...
actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3. HGNC:706. 12q24.11. Arpc3A. 3R. ...
actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2. U: 2. D: 1 ... C9orf72, member of C9orf72-SMCR8 complex. U: 1. CACNA1C. ... potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, beta member 1. U: 2 ...
actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A. 0.010. 2610528J11Rik. RIKEN cDNA 2610528J11 gene. 0.010. ... coatomer protein complex, subunit epsilon. 0.063. Cfi. complement component factor i. 0.063. ... The chemical reactions and pathways involving L-ascorbic acid, (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,5- ... dihydrofuran-3-olate; L-ascorbic acid is vitamin C and has co-factor and anti-oxidant activities in many species. ...
... proteins, experimentally-verified interactions and signaling pathways involved in the innate immune response of humans, mice ... Encoded Proteins IDBP-29025 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa ... Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. ... This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1B. The ...
actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-like. Molecular. skeletal muscle. Human. ARPC5L. 2.0% Decrease Gene Expression ... ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, O subunit. Molecular. skeletal muscle. Human. ATP5O. 2.0% Decrease ... actin binding LIM protein 1. Molecular. skeletal muscle. Human. ABLIM1. 4.0% Increase Gene Expression Level. Add. ... actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1. Molecular. skeletal muscle. Human. ACTC1. 8.0% Increase Gene Expression Level. Add. ...
Rat actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2. *PCR Arrays. *qPCR Master Mix ...
actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A [Source:NCBI gene;Acc:770269]. ... trafficking protein particle complex 4 [Source:NCBI gene;Acc:419788]. 25.. PAM16. 9684. 1.59. -. -. -. 0.765. -. -. 0.825. -. - ... LDL receptor related protein 12 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:HGNC:31708]. 35.. IPO9. ENSGALG00000000397. 9263. 1.533. -. -. -. 0.758 ... myotubularin related protein 6 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:HGNC:7453]. 38.. PHACTR4. ENSGALG00000042485. 3523. 1.526. -. -. -. ...
PREDICTED: actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A-like isoform X1 [Populus euphratica]. 11. Hb_000630_050. 0.0724146993. ... myosin heavy chain-related family protein [Populus trichocarpa]. 9. Hb_000058_100. 0.0700374341. -. -. PREDICTED: RNA-directed ... protein transporter, putative [Ricinus communis]. 7. Hb_001199_020. 0.0698951103. -. -. hypothetical protein JCGZ_25565 [ ... conserved hypothetical protein [Ricinus communis]. 12. Hb_000020_190. 0.074955762. -. -. hypothetical protein RCOM_0452240 [ ...
Additional name(s) for this target protein: Actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B ... Western blot : 2-4ug/ml. IHC (FFPE) : 5ug/ml. ELISA (peptide) LOD : 1:32000. ...
In the hosts, processes that regulate immune response, signal transduction, and metabolic pathways related to cell ... actin related protein 2/3 complex; PPP, pentose phosphate pathway; FA, fatty acids; AA, amino acids; TCA, tricarboxylic acid ... 6-bisphosphatase TIGAR suppresses NF-κB signaling by directly inhibiting the linear ubiquitin assembly complex LUBAC. J Biol ... Transcripts such as Protein disulfide-isomerase (PDIA4), Ribosome biogenesis protein (NOP53), Golgi apparatus protein 1 (GSLG1 ...
In this study, piglets were infected with APP and differentially expressed proteins of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and ... In our study, the protein expression levels of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 (ARPC5) and neural Wiskott-Aldrich ... In the late stage of infection (120 h), complex networks were formed, and the number of related molecules increased. There were ... ELISA analysis of proteins of interest in BALF and serum. TUBA4A, SOD1 and EIF4A proteins in serum and BALF samples were ...
... associated with mutations in the SDHx genes and SDH assembly factor-coding genes that lead to disruptions in the SDH complex. ... complex. In a patient, we found a novel variant of the IDH2 gene that was predicted as pathogenic by a series of algorithms ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 (ARPC5) contributes to cell migration and invasion and is directly regulated by ... For example, the ARPC5 gene encodes for the actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 that can affect tumor cell growth, ...
Actin Related Protein 2/3 complex) is named after being identified by affinity chromatography from Acanthamoeba castellanii.[ ... "Purification of a cortical complex containing two unconventional actins from Acanthamoeba by affinity chromatography on ... Isner publishes a report of 17 deaths associated with low-quality liquid protein VLCD, due to heart-related causes.[122] ... This is a timeline of proteins, a class of macromolecules in the form of polymer chains made of amino acids. Proteins are ...
... actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (Arp2/3 complex), and cystatin B. Conclusion. Our study is the first reporting the ... actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (Arp2/3 complex), and cystatin B. Conclusion. Our study is the first reporting the ... Both previously identified and newly identified proteins were detected in WS using a proteomic approach. Some of these proteins ... Both previously identified and newly identified proteins were detected in WS using a proteomic approach. Some of these proteins ...
Listing of Chemical-related topic pages on the NIOSH Web site. ... formation of the Fas-related death-inducing signaling complex ( ... Lamin A and beta-actin are involved in the process of apoptosis. Activation of Akt and Bcl-2 may play an important role in ... In addition, activation of antiapoptotic factors including phospho-Akt (protein kinase B) and Bcl-2 was detected. Further ... Furthermore, lamin A and beta-actin were cleaved. Moreover, we found that apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was up-regulated and ...
  • Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS , and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments. (
  • A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. (
  • This reorganization of actin filaments occurs through the interactions between actin and actin binding proteins. (
  • Actin-binding proteins regulate the polymerization and depolymerization of actin, connect actin-based structures to membranes and to other cytoskeletal elements, power the movement of actin filaments, and cross-link actin filaments into bundles. (
  • Using electron tomography (ET), we have shown that lamellipodia are formed via the generation of subsets of actin filaments joined by branch junctions. (
  • By applying ET, we have shown that baculovirus generates at its rear a fishbone-like array of subsets of branched actin filaments, with an average of only four filaments engaged in pushing at any one time. (
  • Actin filament severing by cofilin dismantles actin patches and produces mother filaments for new patches . (
  • For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin) that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy. (
  • [ 3 ] The exact function of WASp is not fully elucidated, but it seems to function as a bridge between signaling and movement of the actin filaments in the cytoskeleton. (
  • Next, gelsolin (activated by Ca ++ ) severs actin filaments to create barbed ends, but then must be uncapped from the filament by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphonate and Rac to proceed with polymerization. (
  • Also called actin filaments that form the part of the cytoskeleton and are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells composed of polymers of actin are microfilaments. (
  • The spatially regulated polymerization of actin monomers into filaments provides a widely used mechanism underlying cell morphology and motility. (
  • Filaments of another protein called actin (purple) are seen here as the fine meshwork in the cell periphery. (
  • We show now, for the very first Guanabenz acetate time, that like its family gelsolin and villin, advillin can nucleate, cover and sever actin filaments (Fig.?5cCe). (
  • These studies reveal a role for intersectin-l in a novel mechanism of N-WASP activation and in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON . (
  • In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA (PubMed:29925947). (
  • Cellular morphology, adhesion, and motility occur through the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Actins and tubulins, as ubiquitous components of the cytoskeleton, play essential roles in fundamental cellular processes including motility, macromolecular transport, signal transduction, and cell division ( 1 ). (
  • With the development of super-resolution microscopy in the past few years, previously unknown structures of the actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered: a periodic lattice consisting of actin and spectrin seems to pervade not only the whole axon, but also dendrites and even the necks of dendritic spines. (
  • In light of novel discoveries related to the role and organization of neuronal F-actin, in this review we will focus on the mechanisms and molecular players that fine-tune the actin cytoskeleton, thereby controlling dendrite morphology and function. (
  • [ 4 ] that interfere with the protein binding to Cdc42 and Rac GTPases, among other binding partners, most of which are involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton of lymphocytes. (
  • The actin cytoskeleton is responsible for cellular functions such as growth, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytokinesis. (
  • The polymers of tubulin protein that form the part of the cytoskeleton and gives shape and structure to plant cell are microtubules. (
  • Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, Edinburgh cytoskeleton coupling proteins ( tccP or tccP2 ) ( 5 ). (
  • Non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that plays an essential role in regulating cell migration, adhesion, spreading, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, formation and disassembly of focal adhesions and cell protrusions, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • The cytoskeleton is made from protein structures called microtubules, made visible by fluorescently tagging a protein called doublecortin (orange). (
  • HEXIM P-TEFb complex subunit 1 [S. (
  • RESULTS: Actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A (ARPC1A) was identified as the hub gene. (
  • This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1B. (
  • The similarity between these two proteins suggests that they both may function as p41 subunit of the human Arp2/3 complex that has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. (
  • It is possible that the p41 subunit is involved in assembling and maintaining the structure of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. (
  • These spots were identified to be cyclophilin A, calgranulin B, psoriasin, beta(2)-microglobulin, calgranutin A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (Arp2/3 complex), and cystatin B. Conclusion. (
  • The Arp2 and Arp3 subunits may nucleate actin polymerization, while the p41-Arc subunit is a WD repeat-containing protein that may regulate both the activity and localization of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • The present study characterized mice with a null mutation in Pfdn1 , which encodes the first subunit of the Prefoldin complex. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC73969","clpA","Escherichia coli","ATPase and specificity subunit of ClpA-ClpP ATP-dependent serine protease, chaperone activity [Ensembl]. (
  • This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. (
  • Actin and tubulin subunits assemble in a head-to-tail manner by a regulated, energy-consuming process ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Efficient synthesis of actin and tubulin subunits requires two protein complexes, Prefoldin and TRiC/CCT (Tcp1 ring complex/chaperonin-containing Tcp1) that facilitate protein folding (reviewed in Ref. 6 ). (
  • Highly similar developmental requirements are found for subunits of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. (
  • In addition, activation of antiapoptotic factors including phospho-Akt (protein kinase B) and Bcl-2 was detected. (
  • Only extracts enriched in the mitotic cyclin Clb2 were competent for actin cable assembly, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity was indispensible. (
  • Our studies possess demonstrated that the main transmission helps to enrich a C2 website protein kinase, EhC2PK, at RBC-attachment sites [30]. (
  • EhC2PK recruits calcium mineral joining protein EhCaBP1 [15, 30], which in change brings in atypical kinase EhAK1 at the site of attachment [31]. (
  • Here , we report the solution structures of the extended murine PTPN13 PDZ3 domain in its apo form and in complex with its physiological ligand , the carboxy-terminus of protein kinase C-related kinase-2 (PRK2), determined by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. (
  • However, 5-azanucleosides exerted long-lasting effects, reducing cell viability, changing cell morphology, and affecting phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. (
  • Promotes activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the AKT1 signaling cascade. (
  • [ 22 ] As the receptor is phosphorylated, it becomes a docking site for several proteins, most importantly a tyrosine kinase known as Syk. (
  • One observation that's particularly illustrative may be the altered amount of transcription of over 900 genes (2-fold transformation in appearance), following deletion of (a PPIP5K homologue) in person in the inositol phosphate kinase signaling family members. (
  • PAPbeta, a protein that binds to and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2, contains several modular signaling domains including a pleckstrin homology domain, an SH3 domain, ankyrin repeats and an ARF-GAP domain. (
  • Prefoldin is a hexameric chaperone that facilitates posttranslational folding of actins and other cytoskeletal proteins by the Tcp1-containing ring complex chaperonin, TriC. (
  • Chemotaxis of neutrophils involves movement of pseudopodia and polymerization of cytoskeletal proteins or actin. (
  • Protein phosphatase 2C is responsible for VP-induced dephosphorylation of AQP2 serine 261. (
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13, also known as PTP-BL in mice, is a large multi-domain non-transmembrane scaffolding protein with a molecular mass of 270 kDa. (
  • The modular structure of PTPN13 consists of an N-terminal KIND domain, a FERM domain, and five PDZ domains, followed by a C-terminal protein tyrosine phosphatase domain. (
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13, also known as PTP-BL in mice, represents a large multi-domain non-transmembrane scaffolding protein that contains five consecutive PDZ domains. (
  • It binds to Arp2/3 complex, stabilizes the inactive state of the complex and prevents movement into active conformation. (
  • When calcium levels are low, the troponin complex binds to the thin filament. (
  • Additionally, 4HR downregulated the expression of oncogenesis-related proteins, i.e., a unfavorable regulator of apoptosis (survivin, 14.8 at eight h), an anti-adhesive glycoprotein that contributes to tumor improvement and metastasis (mucin four, five.7 at 24 h), and a potent oncogene that binds to 14-3-3 (YAP, 20.6 at eight h). (
  • This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 28 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database. (
  • The gene product, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASp) is a 502 amino acid protein expressed within the cytoplasm of non-erythroid hematopoietic cells. (
  • In general, WAS gene mutations that cause absent protein expression result in classic WAS. (
  • The TNNI3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cardiac troponin I, which is found solely in the heart (cardiac) muscle. (
  • Most TNNI3 gene mutations in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the cardiac troponin I protein. (
  • We further conducted protein-protein interaction analysis, Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, gene set enrichment analysis, and gene-gene interaction analysis to explore the function and regulation networks of ERCC6 and ERCC8 in GC. (
  • Bioinformatics analyses showed ERCC6 and ERCC8 were associated with nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, and six and ten gene sets were figured out to be related with ERCC6 and ERCC8, respectively. (
  • KEGG pathway showed that ERCC6/ERCC8 related gene sets were mainly involved in the regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. (
  • We found parallel adaptation to global change conditions in genes related to stress response, gene expression regulation, actin regulation, developmental processes, and energy production. (
  • In fact, in people with mutations in the gene that encodes this protein, neurons fail to migrate properly during development. (
  • Strategies and Components Plasmids and antibodies To create the Flag-MTR4, Flag-ZCCHC7 and Flag-RBM7, the coding series of the related gene was put into p3xFlag-CMV-10 (Sigma). (
  • The regulation of gene expression is a complex control mechanism that is coordinated by a number of mechanisms, including by transcription factors (TFs). (
  • Fiber asymmetry enables actin and tubulin cytoskeletons to orchestrate rapid and spatially localized changes in cell structure and function involved in diverse processes from axon outgrowth to immune synapse signaling ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (
  • The main difference between microtubules and microfilaments is that microtubules are formed of tubulin protein units and normally are long, and hollow cylinders, whereas microfilaments are produced by actin proteins, and usually are double-stranded helical polymers. (
  • Needlessly Guanabenz acetate to say, in mouse enteroids advillin co-localizes using the cytoskeletal protein F-actin and tubulin (Fig.?4b). (
  • EM studies showed that unbranched actin filament bundles were reconstituted successfully in the yeast extracts. (
  • Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of neurites. (
  • Utilizing a regular sedimentation assay for actin bundling we have now show that site in advillin can be functional which advillin bundles actin like the villin proteins (Fig.?5b). (
  • Moreover, in vivo studies reveal that stimulation of Cdc42 by intersectin-l accelerates actin assembly via N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • El complejo Arp2-3 se une a la PROTEÍNA WASP y a los FILAMENTOS DE ACTINA existentes y nuclea la formación de nuevas ramificaciones filamentosas. (
  • Though NPFs, such as WAVE, WASP and WASH are thought to become involved in service of Arp 2/3 complex during phagocytosis, in some situations (elizabeth.g. uptake of was analysed using mass spectrometry [12C14]. (
  • The family in mammals comprises as classical members haematopoietic WASP, the more ubiquitous and neuronally enriched N-WASP and three WAVE isoforms (1,2,3). (
  • WASP family proteins, more than Arp2/3 activators. (
  • WASH and WAVE actin regulators of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family are controlled by analogous structurally related complexes. (
  • Reduced WASp protein expression results in X-linked thrombocytopenia. (
  • WAS results from an X-linked genetic defect in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp). (
  • Nucleation, the rate-limiting step, is stimulated by a complex of actin-related protein Arp2/3 and WASp. (
  • Abbreviation used in this paper: WASp, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein. (
  • The Arp2/3 complex and its activators, Scar/WAVE and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp), promote actin polymerization in vitro and have been proposed to influence cell shape and motility in vivo. (
  • Remarkably, the single Drosophila WASp homologue, Wasp, is largely dispensable for these numerous Arp2/3-dependent functions, whereas SCAR does not contribute to cell fate decisions in which Wasp and Arp2/3 play an essential role. (
  • These results identify SCAR as a major component of Arp2/3-dependent cell morphology during Drosophila development and demonstrate that the Arp2/3 complex can govern distinct cell biological events in response to SCAR and Wasp regulation. (
  • Complejo de siete proteínas, incluidas la PROTEÍNA ARP2 y la PROTEÍNA ARP3, que tiene un papel esencial en el mantenimiento y ensamblaje del CITOESQUELETO. (
  • Actin related proteins (Arp) 2/3 complex is an actin polymerization inducing complex that includes Arp2, Arp3, p41-Arc, p34-Arc, p21-Arc, p20 Arc, and p16-Arc. (
  • In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking. (
  • This is a timeline of proteins , a class of macromolecules in the form of polymer chains made of amino acids . (
  • Around this time, nutritional research centers on the discovery of individual vitamins and amino acids , putting little interest in human protein requirements, or in the possibility of their not being met. (
  • Most of these mutations change single amino acids in the cardiac troponin I protein, which impairs the protein's function. (
  • The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. (
  • In addition, this pathway leads to the polymerization of actin and the subsequent membrane remodeling without which particle ingestion would be impossible. (
  • engulfment and cell motility 3 [S. (
  • The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility (PubMed:9230079). (
  • The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs) (PubMed:29925947). (
  • Component of the Arp2/3 complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) (PubMed:9230079). (
  • these results suggests a book mechanism of recruitment of Arp 2/3 complex during phagocytosis in is definitely the causative agent of amoebiasis and prospects to morbidity and mortality in developing countries. (
  • The pathways coupling phagocytosis initiation signals to actin characteristics possess been analyzed quite extensively in some model systems [3C5]. (
  • More specifically, TLR2 triggers phagocytosis upon binding to membrane proteins on Gram-positive bacteria, whereas TLR4 does the same for Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • This protein is crucial in Fc-mediated phagocytosis, as neutrophils from Syk-deficient mice are unable to ingest IgG-opsonized particles. (
  • Lamellipodia are sheet-like, leading edge protrusions in firmly adherent cells that contain Arp2/3-generated dendritic actin networks. (
  • However, compared with knowledge of how nucleation of dendritic actin filament arrays by the actin-related protein-2/3 complex is regulated, the in vivo regulatory mechanisms for actin cable formation are less clear. (
  • Silvin C, Belisle B, Abo A. A role for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein in T-cell receptor-mediated transcriptional activation independent of actin polymerization. (
  • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein: Emerging mechanisms in immunity. (
  • Expression of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein in dendritic cells regulates synapse formation and activation of naive CD8+ T cells. (
  • In this study, piglets were infected with APP and differentially expressed proteins of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral serum were identified by iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS, and differentially expressed genes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by RNA-seq. (
  • Moreover, likely pathogenic missense variants were also detected in SDHAF3 and SDHAF4 genes encoding for assembly factors for the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex. (
  • Results indicate a high heterogeneity among VPGLs, however, it seems that driver events in most cases are associated with mutations in the SDHx genes and SDH assembly factor-coding genes that lead to disruptions in the SDH complex. (
  • It was observed that among these silenced genes are many well-characterized tumor suppressor genes [ 3 , 5 ]. (
  • Scotland are equivalent, prevalence of more virulent strains encoded from 2 genes, stxAB , with the genotypes simplifi ed is low, reducing human infection risk. (
  • The object of our study aimed to review and to correlate genes involved in ASD and those related to ultrasonic communication in animal model studies of language-based social behavior at the PubMed database. (
  • El objetivo de nuestro estudio tuvo como objetivo revisar y correlacionar genes involucrados en TEA y aquellos relacionados con la comunicación ultrasónica en estudios con modelos animales de comportamiento social basado en el lenguaje en la base de datos PubMed. (
  • Domatinostat reduced FOXM1 protein levels by downregulating mRNA expression and inducing proteasome-mediated protein degradation thus preventing nuclear translocation correlated with a reduction of FOXM1 target genes. (
  • 2) Genes implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders are active in human fetal brain, yet difficult to study in a longitudinal fashion. (
  • MADS-box genes encode proteins that share a highly conservative DNA-binding domain, the MADS domain, which recognizes similar 10-bp A/T-rich DNA sequences, the CArG-box [ 4 ]. (
  • In plants, MADS-box genes can be divided into two distinct groups, namely type I and type II lineages: type I MADS-box proteins have no keratin-like (K) domain and only have the MADS (M) domain, whereas type II proteins also possess an intervening (I) domain, a K domain, and a C-terminal region followed by an M domain [ 15 ]. (
  • Through the interleukin (IL) 4R α signaling pathway, the T helper (Th) 2 response regulates the alternative activation of macrophages and thus contributes to the intracellular persistence of MTB [ 17 ]. (
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (
  • Consistent with this finding, cells depleted of Arp2/3 fail to globally align focal adhesions, suggesting that one principle function of lamellipodia is to organize cell-matrix adhesions in a spatially coherent manner. (
  • complement C3d receptor 2 [Source. (
  • free fatty acid receptor 3 [Sourc. (
  • G protein-coupled receptor 75 [So. (
  • Western-blot analysis showed an activation of proapoptotic factors including Fas (CD95), Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), caspase-8, death receptor 3 (DR3) and BID in apoptotic cells induced by metallic nickel particles. (
  • The latter is the LPS receptor that transfers the bound complex to TLR4. (
  • transferrin receptor 2 [Sou. (
  • Polycystin 2 regulates mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling, bioenergetics, and dynamics through mitofusin 2. (
  • Nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons as well as oxidative markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and striatal dopamine levels were quantified for assessment of the neuroprotective efficacy of diapocynin. (
  • this leads to the phosphorylation of additional tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for scaffold proteins, effectors and substrates. (
  • Crystal structures of DNA complexes show that the dimers of the Rel-homology regions are structurally very similar. (
  • Perhaps the most striking F-actin-based structures in dendrites are so-called spines, small membranous protrusions that harbor synapses. (
  • We demonstrate that the Drosophila Scar homologue, SCAR , localizes to actin-rich structures and is required for normal cell morphology in multiple cell types throughout development. (
  • In the blastoderm, SCAR and Arp2/3 mutations result in a reduction in the amount of cortical filamentous actin and the disruption of dynamically regulated actin structures. (
  • In the hosts, processes that regulate immune response, signal transduction, and metabolic pathways related to cell proliferation were elicited. (
  • PDZ domains are among the most abundant protein modules and they play a crucial role in signal transduction of protein networks. (
  • Functions in integrin signal transduction, but also in signaling downstream of numerous growth factor receptors, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), EPHA2, netrin receptors and LDL receptors. (
  • Predicted to be part of subcortical maternal complex and transcription regulator complex. (
  • Promotes localized and transient activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and thereby modulates the activity of Rho family GTPases. (
  • 2002) 'Mice lacking skeletal muscle actin show reduced muscle strength and growth deficits and die during the neonatal period. (
  • Actin filament assembly involves both nucleation and elongation. (
  • During cell migration and axon extension, localized actin filament assembly occurs at the advancing cell surface ( Borisy and Svitkina, 2000 ). (
  • As a result, we found proteins that are involved in important processes during development, such as energy metabolism, control pathways and cellular communication. (
  • The molecular genetic pathways of drought stress tolerance uncovered in this study, as well as the DEGs co-localized with DT-related QTLs and introgressed intervals, will serve as useful resources for further functional dissection of the molecular mechanisms of drought stress response in rice. (
  • The family includes homodimers and heterodimers of five component proteins, which mediate different transcriptional responses and bind preferentially to different DNA sequences. (
  • [ 2 ] Autoimmune disease is common and occurs in up to 40-70% of patients. (
  • [ 5 ] Actin filament growth occurs by rapid monomer addition (polymerization) to the barbed leading end of a nucleated site. (
  • 1] Neutrophils move to the site of invasion by means of chemotaxis, which occurs in response to microbial products, activated complement proteins, and cytokines. (
  • We used different protein tags that allowed for the visualization and purification of proteins produced specifically after the induction of strobilar development to identify proteins that might be involved in this process (temporally controlled and context-dependent). (
  • Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and system that translocates multiple effector proteins into enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are gastrointestinal host cells and manipulate host innate responses, which pathogens associated with asymptomatic carriage and are needed for colonization ( 5 - 7 ). (
  • However, the molecular mechanism of the same is definitely still mainly unfamiliar in as obstructing this process prospects to an inhibition of cell expansion and pathogenicity [1, 2]. (
  • The proteins responsible for the key molecular events leading to the structural changes between the developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus remain unknown. (
  • Despite intensive studies during the last 3 years, the pathology and underlying molecular mechanism of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain poorly defined. (
  • Image averaging produced a 2.9 nm resolution model of branch junctions in situ and revealed a close fit to the electron density map of the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3)-actin complex in vitro . (
  • To gain insights into mechanisms for regulating actin cable assembly, we reconstituted the assembly process in vitro by introducing microspheres functionalized with the C terminus of the budding yeast formin Bni1 into extracts prepared from yeast cells at different cell-cycle stages. (
  • The in vitro incorporation of AHA with different tags into newly synthesized proteins (NSPs) by PSCs was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and confocal microscopy. (
  • As an inner membrane transporter of MTB, transmembrane transport protein MmpL3 ( MMPL3 ) participants in the transport of trehalose monomycolate and is a novel target for the treatment of TB patients [ 14 ]. (
  • transmembrane protein 74B [Source. (
  • The generation of receptors specific for antigens is a unique and complex process that generates 1012 specific receptors for each cell type of the adaptive immune system, including T and B cells. (
  • Moreover, these effects can be enhanced when complement factors as C3bi, which is recognized by β 2 -integrin MAC-1, [ 22 ] or antibodies bind to receptors on the neutrophil membrane. (
  • Nitrogen regulatory protein P-II [Interproscan]. (
  • These proteins were mainly involved in metabolic, regulatory and signaling processes. (
  • Co-expression analysis of these DEGs represented a complex regulatory network, including the jasmonic acid and gibberellin pathway, involved in drought stress tolerance in H471. (
  • E7 from human papil omavirus type 16 cooperate to cancer: the European prospective investigation into doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp321 PMID:20047954 target the PDZ protein Na/H exchange regulatory cancer and nutrition study. (
  • High Mobility Group Protein A1a (HMGA1a) is a highly abundant nuclear protein, which plays a crucial role during embryogenesis, cell differentiation, and neoplasia. (
  • XIII" YMR047C 3 13 3 YMR047C "Nuclear pore complex protein that is member of GLFG repeat-containing family of nucleoporins and is,XIII" YMR049C 3 13 4 YMR049C "Ymr049cp,XIII" YMR051C 3 13 5 YMR051C "TyA Gag protein. (
  • AMMECR nuclear protein 1 [S. (
  • nuclear factor, erythroid 2. (
  • Thus, disease is associated with expansions of 12 or more uninterrupted alanines in this nuclear protein. (
  • MTR4 forms into different complexes that hyperlink the nuclear exosome to different classes of focus on RNAs. (
  • Your competition of MTR4 using the mRNA export adaptor ALYREF for associating using the nuclear cap-binding complicated (CBC) has an 2"-O-Galloylhyperin essential system for sorting export-defective mRNAs from export-competent types (9). (
  • The nucleus can be structured possesses multiple sub-nuclear constructions extremely, which concentrate-specific protein that perform similar procedures. (
  • ALYREF), are focused in 2"-O-Galloylhyperin the sub-nuclear framework primarily, nuclear speckles (NSs) (10C13). (
  • It is involved in the regulation of several cellular processes such as cytokinesis and actin-cytoskeletal rearrangement. (
  • [ 3 ] This ultrastructural component of cellular architecture is involved fundamentally in intracellular and cell substrate interactions and signaling via its role in cell morphology and movement. (
  • Microtubules allow cellular transport along with motor proteins and are capable of generating forces by contracting. (
  • Gc is a serum protein that complexes with intravascular actin released during cellular necrosis. (
  • Multiple and different cellular activities have already been related to the PP-InsPs, but an over-arching hypothesis sights them as performing as an user interface between energy fat burning capacity and cell-signaling [3,5,6]. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSC) targeting was studied by mRNA and protein expression of CSC markers, by limiting dilution assay, and by flow cytometric and immunofluorescent evaluation of CSC mitochondrial and cellular oxidative stress. (
  • They are involved in protein-protein interactions. (
  • Actin polymerization is harnessed by cells to generate lamellipodia for movement and by a subclass of pathogens to facilitate invasion of their infected hosts. (
  • In both of these studies, the application of ET of negatively stained cytoskeletons for higher filament resolution and cryo-ET for preserving overall 3D morphology was crucial for obtaining a complete structure-function analysis of actin-driven propulsion. (
  • Arp2/3 complex is definitely one of the main group of substances required for actin characteristics. (
  • Using the nucleotide-binding sites of proteins TNR kinases specifically at heart as drug-targets, several chemical libraries have already been curated that consist of substances either knownor forecasted and purified to homogeneity [8]. (
  • XV" YOL105C 1 15 18 YOL105C "Putative integral membrane protein containing novel cysteine motif. (
  • Secondary granules, or specific granules, can be identified by their lactoferrin content and membrane-bound carcino-embryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-8 (CD66b). (
  • Furthermore, using mass spectrometry, we identified components of the actin cables formed in yeast extracts, providing the basis for comprehensive understanding of cable assembly and regulation. (
  • Nearly twenty proteins were found to interact with EhCaBP1 as identified by affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry [30]. (
  • Arp2/3 complex healthy proteins EhARPC1 and EhARPC2 were also found when EhAK1 binding healthy proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry [31]. (
  • Cardiac troponin I is one of three proteins that make up the troponin protein complex in cardiac muscle cells. (
  • The troponin complex, along with calcium, helps regulate tensing (contraction) of cardiac muscle. (
  • 1997) 'Rescue of cardiac -actin-deficient mice by enteric smooth muscle -actin', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(9), pp. 4406-4411. (
  • Cohort 2 comprised retrospective patients (n = 987) who underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI (CMR) in 2019-2022. (
  • Sequences of ARF-GAP domains show no recognizable similarity to those of other GAPs, and contain a characteristic Cys-X(2)-Cys-X(16-17)-Cys-X(2)-Cys motif. (
  • RNA binding motif protein 3. (
  • Using fibroblasts derived from Ink4a/Arf-deficient mice, we generated a stable line depleted of Arp2/3 complex that lacks lamellipodia. (
  • Manganese promotes intracellular accumulation of AQP2 via modulating F-actin polymerization and reduces urinary concentration in mice. (
  • Conversely, mice that express human SOD3 within type II pneumocytes (TgSOD3) exhibited lower post-stroke levels of 4-HNE protein modification and vessel inflammation versus wildtype controls. (
  • on the other hand, the contractile protein which is known as actin protein mainly produce microfilaments. (
  • conversely, proteins involved in the regulation of the dynamics of microfilaments are filament cross-linkers, actin monomer-binding proteins, actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, and filament-severing proteins. (
  • on the other hand, microfilaments are mainly composed of a contractile protein called actin protein. (
  • F-actin and advillin localized mainly towards the eponymous apical tuft comprising actin microfilaments that terminate in the perinuclear area. (
  • The LC-MS/MS analysis of AHA-labeled NSPs by PSCs undergoing strobilation allowed for the identification of 365 proteins, of which 75 were differentially expressed in comparison between the presence or absence of strobilation stimuli and 51 were expressed exclusively in either condition. (
  • Hodges RS, Mills J, McReynolds S, Kirwan JP, Tripet B, Osguthorpe D. Identification of a unique "stability control region" that controls protein stability of tropomyosin: A two-stranded alpha-helical coiled-coil. (
  • The use of the cable-reconstitution system to test roles for the key actin-binding proteins tropomyosin, capping protein, and cofilin provided important insights into assembly regulation. (
  • Source of all serum proteins is from USDA inspected abattoirs located in the United States. (
  • Both subclones were grown as monolayers on -irradiated (5000 rads) Swiss Mouse 3T3 fibroblast feeder layers in INCB018424 biological activity F-medium (3:1 F12 and Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium) with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). (
  • During this talk, I will tell two such stories: 1) Structural variations in the human genome originate from different mechanisms related to DNA repair, replication, and retro-transposition. (
  • So far, research has been focused on the specific roles of actin in the axon, while it is becoming more and more apparent that in the dendrite, actin is not only confined to dendritic spines, but serves many additional and important functions. (