Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.PhosphoproteinsPolymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nerve Tissue ProteinsCytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Filamins: A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Colipases: Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Tropomodulin: An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Arabidopsis contains ancient classes of differentially expressed actin-related protein genes. (1/347)

Actin-related proteins (ARPs) share less than 60% amino acid sequence homology with conventional actins and have roles in diverse cytoskeletal processes in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The genome of Arabidopsis was explored for possible ARP gene family members. Eight potential ARP gene sequences were found dispersed on three of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes. AtARP2 and AtARP3 are protein orthologs of their similarly named counterparts in other kingdoms. AtARP4, AtARP5, and AtARP6 are orthologs of two classes of nuclear ARPs previously characterized in animals and fungi, BAF53s and ARP6s. AtARP7 and AtARP8 appear to be novel proteins that are not closely related to any known animal or fungal ARPs, and may be plant specific. The complex Arabidopsis ARP gene structures each contain from five to 20 exons. Expressed transcripts were identified and characterized for AtARP2 through AtARP8, but not for AtARP9, and transcripts representing two splice variants were found for AtARP8. The seven expressed genes are predicted to encode proteins ranging from 146 to 471 amino acids in length. Relative to conventional actin and the other ARPs, AtARP2 and AtARP3 transcripts are expressed at very low levels in all organs. AtARP5, AtARP6, and AtARP8 each have distinct transcript expression patterns in seedlings, roots, leaves, flowers, and siliques. Using isovariant-specific monoclonal antibodies, AtARP4 and AtARP7 proteins were shown to be most highly expressed in flowers. The likely involvement of plant ARPs in actin nucleation, branching of actin filaments, chromatin restructuring, and transcription are briefly discussed.  (+info)

Arabidopsis CROOKED encodes for the smallest subunit of the ARP2/3 complex and controls cell shape by region specific fine F-actin formation. (2/347)

The generation of a specific cell shape requires differential growth, whereby specific regions of the cell expand more relative to others. The Arabidopsis crooked mutant exhibits aberrant cell shapes that develop because of mis-directed expansion, especially during a rapid growth phase. GFP-aided visualization of the F-actin cytoskeleton and the behavior of subcellular organelles in different cell-types in crooked and wild-type Arabidopsis revealed that localized expansion is promoted in cellular regions with fine F-actin arrays but is restricted in areas that maintain dense F-actin. This suggested that a spatiotemporal distinction between fine versus dense F-actin in a growing cell could determine the final shape of the cell. CROOKED was molecularly identified as the plant homolog of ARPC5, the smallest sub-unit of the ARP2/3 complex that in other organisms is renowned for its role in creating dendritic arrays of fine F-actin. Rescue of crooked phenotype by the human ortholog provides the first molecular evidence for the presence and functional conservation of the complex in higher plants. Our cell-biological and molecular characterization of CROOKED suggests a general actin-based mechanism for regulating differential growth and generating cell shape diversity.  (+info)

Mutations in actin-related proteins 2 and 3 affect cell shape development in Arabidopsis. (3/347)

ACTIN-RELATED PROTEINS 2 and 3 form the major subunits of the ARP2/3 complex, which is known as an important regulator of actin organization in diverse organisms. Here, we report that two genes, WURM and DISTORTED1, which are important for cell shape control in Arabidopsis, encode the plant ARP2 and ARP3 orthologs, respectively. Mutations in these genes result in misdirected expansion of various cell types: trichome expansion is randomized, pavement cells fail to produce lobes, hypocotyl cells curl out of the normal epidermal plane, and root hairs are sinuous. At the subcellular level, cell shape changes are linked to severe filamentous actin aggregation and compromised vacuole fusion. Because all seven subunits of the ARP2/3 complex are present in plants, our data indicate that this complex may play a pivotal role during plant cell morphogenesis.  (+info)

Requirements for Arabidopsis ATARP2 and ATARP3 during epidermal development. (4/347)

Plant cells employ the actin cytoskeleton to stably position organelles, as tracks for long distance transport, and to reorganize the cytoplasm in response to developmental and environmental cues. While diverse classes of actin binding proteins have been implicated in growth control, the mechanisms of cytoskeletal reorganization and the cellular functions of specific actin filament arrays are unclear. Arabidopsis trichome morphogenesis includes distinct requirements for the microtubule and actin filament cytoskeletons. It also is a genetically tractable process that is providing new knowledge about cytoskeleton function in plants. The "distorted group" of mutants defines a class of at least eight genes that are required during the actin-dependent phase of trichome growth. Using map-based cloning and a candidate gene approach, we identified mutations in ARP3 (ATARP3) and ARP2 (ATARP2) genes as the cause of the distorted1 (dis1) and wurm (wrm) phenotypes, respectively. ARP2 and ARP3 are components of the evolutionarily conserved ARP2/3 complex that nucleates actin filament polymerization [3]. Mutations in DIS1 and WRM caused severe trichome growth defects but had relatively mild effects on shoot development. DIS1 rescued the phenotype of Deltaarp3 when overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Developing dis1 trichomes had defects in cytoplasmic actin bundle organization and reduced relative amounts of cytoplasmic actin filaments in developing branches.  (+info)

The putative Arabidopsis arp2/3 complex controls leaf cell morphogenesis. (5/347)

The evolutionarily conserved Arp2/3 complex has been shown to activate actin nucleation and branching in several eukaryotes, but its biological functions are not well understood in multicellular organisms. The model plant Arabidopsis provides many advantages for genetic dissection of the function of this conserved actin-nucleating machinery, yet the existence of this complex in plants has not been determined. We have identified Arabidopsis genes encoding homologs of all of the seven Arp2/3 subunits. The function of the putative Arabidopsis Arp2/3 complex has been studied using four homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC5/p16. All four mutants display identical defects in the development of jigsaw-shaped epidermal pavement cells and branched trichomes in the leaf. These loss-of-function mutations cause mislocalization of diffuse cortical F-actin to the neck region and inhibit lobe extension in pavement cells. The mutant trichomes resemble those treated with the actin-depolymerizing drug cytochalasin D, exhibiting stunted branches but dramatically enlarged stalks due to depolarized growth suggesting defects in the formation of a fine actin network. Our data demonstrate that the putative Arabidopsis Arp2/3 complex controls cell morphogenesis through its roles in cell polarity establishment and polar cell expansion. Furthermore, our data suggest a novel function for the putative Arp2/3 complex in the modulation of the spatial distribution of cortical F-actin and provide evidence that the putative Arp2/3 complex may activate the polymerization of some types of actin filaments in specific cell types.  (+info)

p41-Arc subunit of human Arp2/3 complex is a p21-activated kinase-1-interacting substrate. (6/347)

The formation of new branched actin filament networks at the cell cortex of migrating cells is choreographed by the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex. Despite the fundamental role of the Arp2/3 complex in actin nucleation and branching, upstream signals that control the functions of p41-Arc, a putative regulatory component of the mammalian Arp2/3 complex, remain unidentified. Here we show that p41-Arc interacts with p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) both in vitro and in vivo. Pak1 phosphorylation of p41-Arc regulates its localization with the Arp2/3 complex in the cortical nucleation regions of cells. Pak1 phosphorylates p41-Arc on threonine 21 in the first WD repeat, and its mutation has functional implications in vivo. Threonine 21 phosphorylation by Pak1 is required for both constitutive and growth-factor-induced cell motility. Pak1 regulation of p41-Arc activation status represents a novel mechanism by which signalling pathways may influence the functions of the Arp2/3 complex, leading to motility in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Arabidopsis GNARLED encodes a NAP125 homolog that positively regulates ARP2/3. (7/347)

In migrating cells, the actin filament nucleation activity of ARP2/3 is an essential component of dynamic cell shape change and motility. In response to signals from the small GTPase Rac1, alterations in the composition and/or subcellular localization of the WAVE complex lead to ARP2/3 activation. The human WAVE complex subunit, WAVE1/SCAR1, was first identified in Dictyostelium and is a direct ARP2/3 activator. In the absence of an intact WAVE complex, SCAR/WAVE protein is destabilized. Although the composition of the five-subunit WAVE complex is well characterized, the means by which individual subunits and fully assembled WAVE complexes regulate ARP2/3 in vivo are unclear. The molecular genetics of trichome distortion in Arabidopsis is a powerful system to understand how signaling pathways and ARP2/3 control multicellular development. In this paper we prove that the GNARLED gene encodes a homolog of the WAVE subunit NAP125. Despite the moderate level of amino acid identity between Arabidopsis and human NAP125, both homologs were functionally interchangeable in vivo and interacted physically with the putative Arabidopsis WAVE subunit ATSRA1. gnarled trichomes had nearly identical cell shape and actin cytoskeleton phenotypes when compared to ARP2/3 subunit mutants, suggesting that GRL positively regulates ARP2/3.  (+info)

Arabidopsis NAP1 is essential for Arp2/3-dependent trichome morphogenesis. (8/347)

The dynamic nature of the eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton is essential for the locomotion of animal cells and the morphogenesis of plant and fungal cells. The F-actin nucleating/branching activity of the Arp2/3 complex is a key function for all of these processes. The SCAR/WAVE family represents a group of Arp2/3 activators that are associated with lamellipodia formation. A protein complex of PIR121, NAP1, ABI, and HSPC300 is required for SCAR regulation by cell signaling pathways, but the exact nature of this interaction is controversial and represents a continually evolving model. The mechanism originally proposed was of a SCAR trans repressing complex supported by evidence from in vitro experiments. This model was reinforced by genetic studies in the Drosophila central nervous system and Dictyostelium, where the knockout of certain SCAR-complex components leads to excessive SCAR-mediated actin polymerization. Conflicting data have steadily accumulated from animal tissue culture experiments suggesting that the complex activates rather than represses in vivo SCAR activity. Recent biochemical evidence supports the SCAR-complex activator model. Here, we show that genetic observations in Arabidopsis are compatible with an activation model and provide one potential mechanism for the regulation of the newly identified Arabidopsis Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Membrane targeting is a crucial aspect in the spatial and temporal control of Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation in various cellular and developmental processes. Whereas previous studies suggested that membrane association is mediated by Scar/WAVE and WASP proteins, our data show that phosphoinositides do not exclusively act on Arp2/3-activators. We reveal that Abp1 is physically and functionally interfacing with Scar and that a subpool of Abp1 is membrane-associated by interactions with PS, PIP2 and PIP3. This creates a layer of Abp1-mediated Arp2/3 regulation specifically at the cell cortex.. Our in vitro reconstitutions proved that Abp1s lipid interactions are direct, specific and strong enough to withstand floatation through sucrose. The in vivo relevance of this novel Abp1 function is supported by subcellular fractionations and by colocalization of Abp1 with PIP3 especially at the plasma membrane of S2 cells.. The need for tight control of the membrane-associated pool of Abp1 is evident from ...
Introduction The Arp2/3 complex is responsible for nucleation of actin filaments to form branches at a distinct 70 degrees angle from the mother filament; ATP, an actin monomer, a mother filament and a nucleation promoting-factor needed to activate the complex which is intrinsically inactive. Several factors are known to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, most…
Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament (By similarity).
WASP homolog associated with actin, membranes and microtubules (WHAMM) is a newly discovered nucleation-promoting factor that links actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and regulates transport from the
structure of nucleotide-free bovine actin related ptotein(Arp)2/3 complex showed minimal contacts between Arp2 and Arp3 compared with the close association of adjacent subunits in the helical actin filament; Activation of the Arp2/3 involves the complex binding an existing filament and a nucleation-promoting factor, such as WASp or Scar, that brings along an actin monomer; interactions are thermodynamically coupled, In the presence of a nucleation promoting factor, actin monomer, and mother filament, Arp2 hydrolyzes ATP with a rate constant > 0.05 s^1; Arp3 binds ATP, but appreciable hydrolysis of the nucleotide by this subunit was not detected in either the active or inactive Arp2/3 ...
One component of our work is directed toward understanding how actin nucleation factors, including the Arp2/3 complex, formin proteins and so-called WH2 based nucleators, generate new actin filaments de novo from actin monomers. We also study how upstream regulators of these factors, particularly proteins in the WASP family, receive and integrate diverse signals to control actin nucleation. In each case we are interested in the structure and dynamics of the relevant molecules, and how these physical properties control biochemical and cellular activities. For example, we study how nucleation factors bind and organize actin monomers, how these complexes dynamically rearrange as a nascent filament grows, and how such rearrangements affect filament elongation rates and nucleation efficiency. We also study how WASP proteins bind multiple upstream ligands, and how thermodynamic cooperativity between these ligands is achieved and yields high specificity of WASP activation in vitro and in cells. This ...
The Arp2/3-complex in activated form will promote actin nucleation, causing the growth of a new filament under a 70° angle. The Arp2/3 complex contacts three actin subunits along one helix of the actin mother filament, led by subunits p34 and p40 [1]; as structural data already suggested, the two Arp-subunits are capable of dimerizing with…
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human WHAMM protein. WHAMM (AAI67774.1, 1 a.a. ~ 809 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00123720-B01P) - Products - Abnova
We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. Subunits ARPC2 p34 and ARPC4 p20 in the core of the complex associate through long carboxyl-terminal α helices and have similarly folded amino-terminal α/β domains. ARPC1 p40 is a seven-blade β propeller with an insertion that may associate with the side of an actin filament. ARPC3 p21 and ARPC5 p16 are globular α-helical subunits. We predict that WASp/Scar proteins activate Arp2/3 complex by bringing Arp2 into proximity with Arp3 for nucleation of a branch on the side of a preexisting actin filament. ...
The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is an actin nucleator that generates a branched actin network in mammalian cells. In addition to binding nucleation promoting factors, LeClaire et al. demonstrated that its phosphorylation state is essential key for its activity (LeClaire et al., 2008). In cells, the ARP2/3 complex is phosphorylated on threonine and tyrosine residues of the ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC1 subunits (Vadlamudi et al., 2004; LeClaire et al., 2008; Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). In particular, phosphorylation of threonine 237 and 238 of the ARP2 subunit is necessary to allow a change in the ARP2/3 complex structure to its active conformation (Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). While important for many functions in eukaryotic cells, ARP2/3 complex activity also benefits several cellular pathogens (Haglund and Welch, 2011; Welch and Way, 2013). Recently, we demonstrated that the bacterial pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, manipulates ARP2/3 complex
Type-I myosin implicated in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Required for proper actin cytoskeleton polarization. At the cell cortex, assembles in patch-like structures together with proteins from the actin-polymerizing machinery and promotes actin assembly. Functions as actin nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) for the Arp2/3 complex (By similarity).
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Supplementary Materials Supplemental Data supp_285_9_6781__index. 1A binds to PI(4 preferentially,5)P2-containing liposomes and that PI(4,5)P2 antagonizes the ability of Coronin 1A to disassemble actin filament branches, indicating a spatiotemporal regulation of Coronin 1A via a direct interaction with the plasma membrane lipid. Collectively, our proteomics data provide a list of potential acidic phospholipid-binding protein candidates ranging from the actin PF 429242 cost regulatory proteins to translational regulators. and structural studies showed that actin-binding sites of these ABPs are overlapped with PI(4,5)P2-binding sites and that the activity of ABPs is inhibited by PI(4,5)P2 (6,C8). Therefore, the activity of ABPs have thought to be inhibited by PI(4,5)P2 binding that occludes F-actin-binding sites and to be activated by PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis when phospholipase C (PLC) PF 429242 cost is activated by receptor stimulation (5). Indeed, recent study have reported that Cofilin, an ...
The structure of the Arp2/3-actin branch will open many possible lines of future research. The work of Rouiller et al. (2008) provides critical information that will allow the complete elucidation of the pathway that leads to branch formation. It is known that the Arp2/3 complex, an actin filament, a nucleation-promoting protein such as SCAR or WASP, and an actin monomer must converge to form a branch, but the specific temporal sequence and the interrelationship between these binding events are incompletely understood. This question has important implications for how and where Arp2/3 branches form in cells. Another area that this structure could potentially illuminate is the role of nucleotide hydrolysis by the Arp2 and Arp3 subunits in branch structure and debranching. Nucleotide binding and hydrolysis by both subunits are important for Arp2/3 complex activity in yeast (Martin et al., 2006), and the structure of the inactive complex is affected by bound nucleotide (Nolen and Pollard, 2007). ...
ARPC1A overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa (ARPC1A), transcript variant 2
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Human ARPC5L partial ORF ( NP_112240, 1 a.a. - 100 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00081873-Q01) - Products - Abnova
19 products from 7 suppliers. Compare and order ARPC2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
KEY: NRC= North Range Classroom, MRC=Main Range Classroom, IR=Indoor Range, MR=Main Range, TC=Trap Range Classroom, T=Trap Range, A=Archery Range m1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. ...
The ARP2/3 complex and formins are the only known plant actin nucleators. Besides their actin-related functions, both systems also modulate microtubule organization and dynamics. Loss of the main housekeeping Arabidopsis thaliana Class I membrane-targeted formin FH1 (At3g25500) is known to increase cotyledon pavement cell lobing, while mutations affecting ARP2/3 subunits exhibit an opposite effect. Here we examine the role of FH1 and the ARP2/3 complex subunit ARPC5 (At4g01710) in epidermal cell morphogenesis with focus on pavement cells and trichomes using a model system of single fh1 and arpc5, as well as double fh1 arpc5 mutants. While cotyledon pavement cell shape in double mutants mostly resembled single arpc5 mutants, analysis of true leaf epidermal morphology, as well as actin and microtubule organization and dynamics, revealed a more complex relationship between the two systems and similar, rather than antagonistic, effects on some parameters. Both fh1 and arpc5 mutations increased actin network
Proteins residing at the plus and minus ends of microtubules have been thought not to communicate with each other, but recent findings on bona fide nucleation factors also regulating microtubule dynamics have challenged this notion. New work by Bouissou et al (2014) in The EMBO Journal now reveals that interplay between the nucleation factor γ‐TuRC and the plus‐end tracking protein EB1 controls mitotic spindle positioning by affecting the stability and dynamics of astral microtubules.. See also: A Bouissou et al (January 2014) ...
Localization of Arp2/3 complex at actin filament branching points. Xenopus keratocytes and fibroblasts were treated with CD (0.2 μM for 30 min or 0.5...
Daniels genome tests revealed a mutation as yet unknown to medical science. The defect appeared in a gene known as ARPC1B, known to produce a protein required by the bodys cells to change shape, move, divide and perform other vital bodily functions. And Daniels ARPC1B gene expressed none of this critical protein. Two other patients, related to one another but not to Daniel, also were discovered to have a mutation leaving them with very little ARPC1B protein. And over time another 20 children globally have also been identified with this same genetic mutation ...
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bin/bash #Set the parameters passed to this script to meaningful variable names. connection_type="$1" essid="$2" bssid="$3" if [ "${connection_type}" == "wireless" ]; then #Change below to match your networks. case "$essid" in YOUR-NETWORK-NAME-ESSID) arp -s 192.168.0.1 00:11:22:33:44:55 ;; Netgear01923) arp -s 192.168.0.1 10:11:20:33:40:50 ;; ANOTHER-ESSID) arp -s 192.168.0.1 11:33:55:77:99:00 ;; *) echo "Static ARP not set. No network defined." ;; esac fi ...
WAS is associated with mutations in a gene on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp11.23) that was originally termed the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein gene and is officially known as WAS (Gene ID: 7454).[8] X-linked thrombocytopenia is also linked to WAS mutations, although they differ from those that cause full-blown WAS. The rare disorder X-linked neutropenia has also been linked to a specific subset of WAS mutations.[9]. The protein product of WAS is known as WASp. It contains 502 amino acids and is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells (the cells in the bone marrow that develop into blood cells). The main function of WASp is to activate actin polymerization by serving as a nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) for the Arp2/3 complex, which generates branched actin filaments. Several proteins can serve as NPFs, and it has been observed that in WAS platelets the Arp2/3 complex functions normally, indicating that WASp is not required for its activation in platelets.[10] In T-cells, WASp is ...
Intracellular transport is vital for the function, survival and architecture of every eukaryotic cell. Long-range transport in animal cells is thought to depend exclusively on microtubule tracks. This study reveals an unexpected actin-dependent but microtubule-independent mechanism for long-range transport of vesicles in mouse oocytes. Vesicles organize their own actin tracks by recruiting the actin nucleation factors Spire1, Spire2 and Formin-2, which assemble an extensive actin network from the vesicles surfaces. The network connects the vesicles with one another and with the plasma membrane. Vesicles move directionally along these connections in a myosin-Vb-dependent manner to converge and to reach the cell surface. The overall outward-directed movement of the vesicle-actin network is driven by recruitment of vesicles to the plasma membrane in the periphery of the oocyte. Being organized in a dynamic vesicle-actin network allows vesicles to move in a local random manner and a global directed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic interaction of amphiphysin with N-WASP regulates actin assembly. AU - Yamada, Hiroshi. AU - Padilla-Parra, Sergi. AU - Park, Sun Joo. AU - Itoh, Toshiki. AU - Chaineau, Mathilde. AU - Monaldi, Ilaria. AU - Cremona, Ottavio. AU - Benfenati, Fabio. AU - De Camilli, Pietro. AU - Coppey-Moisan, Maïté. AU - Tramier, Marc. AU - Galli, Thierry. AU - Takei, Kohji. PY - 2009/12/4. Y1 - 2009/12/4. N2 - Amphiphysin 1, an endocytic adaptor concentrated at synapses that couples clathrin-mediated endocytosis to dynamin-dependentfission, wasalsoshowntohavearegulatoryroleinactindynamics. Here, we report that amphiphysin 1 interacts with N-WASP and stimulates N-WASP- and Arp2/ 3-dependent actin polymerization. Both the Src homology 3 and the N-BAR domains are required for this stimulation. Acidic liposome-triggered, N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization is strongly impaired in brain cytosol of amphiphysin 1 knock-out mice. FRET-FLIM analysis of Sertoli cells, where endogenously ...
Microtubule inhibiting agents (MIAs) characteristically induce phosphorylation of the major anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and while this leads to Mcl-1 degradation, the role of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL phosphorylation in mitotic death has remained controversial. We used siRNA knockdown of the anaphase-promoting complex activator, Cdc20, as a defined molecular system to investigate the role, specifically in mitotic death, of individual anti- apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and their phosphorylated forms. We show that Cdc20 knockdown in HeLa cells induces mitotic arrest and subsequent mitotic death. Knockdown of Cdc20 in HeLa cells stably overexpressing untagged wild-type Bcl-2, Bcl-xL or Mcl-1 promoted phosphorylation of the overexpressed proteins in parallel with their endogenous counterparts. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL blocked mitotic death induced by Cdc20 knockdown, phospho-defective mutants were more protective than wild-type proteins, and phospho-mimic Bcl-xL was unable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishment of the Major Compatibility Complex-Dependent Development of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells by the Cbl Family Proteins. AU - Huang, Fang. AU - Kitaura, Yasuyuki. AU - Jang, Ihn Kyung. AU - Naramura, Mayumi. AU - Kole, Hemanta H H.. AU - Liu, Liping. AU - Qin, Haiyan. AU - Schlissel, Mark S S.. AU - Gu, Hua. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Casitas B cell lymphoma (Cbl) proteins are negative regulators for T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. Their role in thymocyte development remains unclear. Here we show that simultaneous inactivation of c-Cbl and Cbl-b in thymocytes enhanced thymic negative selection and altered the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, the mutant thymocytes developed into CD4+- and CD8+-lineage T cells independent of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), indicating that the CD4+- and CD8+-lineage development programs are constitutively active in the absence of c-Cbl and Cbl-b. The mutant double-positive (DP) thymocytes exhibited ...
I used mutagenesis in the rescue scheme to determine whether a direct interaction between Spir and Capu is necessary during oogenesis. Previously, a point mutation was described in the Spir-KIND domain (Y232K) that abolishes interaction between Spir and Capu in binding assays and in pyrene actin polymerization assays (Vizcarra et al., 2011). In the same studies, SpirD with this mutation fails to colocalize with full-length Capu in tissue culture (S2) cells (Vizcarra et al., 2011). I, therefore, asked, what happens when I replace wild-type Spir with SpirB(Y232K)-GFP in flies? This construct failed to rescue the mutant phenotype in every aspect assayed. Flies expressing SpirB(Y232K)-GFP were sterile, had no detectable actin mesh during mid-oogenesis and consistently exhibited premature streaming (Fig. 3A,B, Table 1). Furthermore, streaming velocities were indistinguishable from the spir mutant (Fig. 3M). SpirB(Y232K)-GFP did not have a detectable effect on later stages of oogenesis in that, as ...
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Recruitment of EPLIN, which is not expressed in all cell types but is found exclusively in AJ, has also been shown to be tension dependent [14][15][16]. In this case EPLIN binds to the sides of F-actin where it stabilizes and/or crosslinks bundles of actin filaments to prevent Arp2/3 binding and subsequently, filament branching [14]. Whilst serving this role, EPLIN may also interact with α-catenin in complex with cadherin and stabilize actin filament bundles that span from one AJ to the next (i.e. the adhesion belt) [15]. In vitro experiments have shown that whilst monomers of α-catenin could not bind actin filaments, EPLIN could. Moreover, depletion of EPLIN from epithelial cells resulted in disruption of the adhesion belt, with the cell-cell contacts taking on a more immature appearance i.e. radial actin filaments terminating at puncta of E-cadherin present at contact sites [15]. Collectively these studies [14][15] suggest EPLIN may promote AJ maturation by linking the catenin-cadherin ...
The results of this study indicate that NOSTRIN interacts directly with the M3R and is required for its correct spatial localization at the plasma membrane in aortic endothelial cells. In the absence of NOSTRIN, the function of the M3R was markedly impaired, resulting in abolition of the calcium response to acetylcholine, an impaired activation of eNOS, and the inhibition of vascular relaxation. These changes at the cellular level were reflected in vivo in the existence of elevated blood pressure and diastolic dysfunction in NOSTRINΔEC mice.. The interaction of NOSTRIN with the M3R is to our knowledge the first example of an F-BAR protein interacting with a Gαq/11-protein-coupled receptor. The interaction is direct and involves the SH3 domain of NOSTRIN. The SH3 domain alone was not sufficient to bind to the M3R, indicating that additional motifs in NOSTRIN might be required. On the side of the M3R, the interaction with NOSTRIN involved the i3loop, which comprises 240 amino acids but contains ...
ACTR1B antibody, C-term (ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog B, centractin beta (yeast)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-ACTR1B pAb (GTX89761) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Buy our Recombinant Human GMF beta protein. Ab54143 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
The GAP first draft also has added the elements of NCDs Global Monitoring Framework (including twenty-five indicators) and Voluntary Global Targets (nine targets) finalised in the WHO meeting of member states late last year (5-7 November 2012). However the stakeholders want the 25 indicators of Global Monitoring Framework (GMF) and 9 voluntary global targets should be integrated in GAP alongwith evidence based interventions. Let us examine the GMF and GAP in some detail: ...
Having an existing gmfgen file and a generated diagram plug-in, but trying to generate the same diagram plug-in results in different java classes structure ...
Having an existing gmfgen file and a generated diagram plug-in, but trying to generate the same diagram plug-in results in different java classes structure ...
This session welcomes contributions on experimental, theoretical, and computational studies of phenomena related to nucleation and growth, including vapor-to-liquid (droplet) nucleation, liquid-to-vapor (bubble) nucleation and crystallization.. ...
In trecut, diagnosticul de hiperaldosteroidism primar se suspiciona numai in contextul unei hipertensiuni asociata cu hipopotasemie. La ora actuala se estimeaza ca aproximativ 5-13% din totalul pacientilor cu HTA, au ARP scazute in contextul unei excretii crescute de aldosteron si multi dintre ei...
ב-3 בנובמבר 2019, העלה וסט בכורה את האופרה שלו נבוכדנצר, שכללה את השיר "Wash Us in the Blood".[5] באפריל 2020, דיווח העיתונאי וויל וולש ממגזין GQ, כי שמע כמה שירים חדשים בזמן שהיה במקסיקו יחד עם וסט.[6] וולש שיתף את מקהלת השיר והשווה את הצליל התעשייתי שלו לאלבום האולפן השישי של וסט Yeezus, שיצא בשנת 2013. ב-25 במאי 2020, חשף הבמאי ארתור יפה כי צילם לאחרונה וידאו קליפ עם וסט.[7] ...
We next used electron microscopy and image analysis to identify conformational changes that occur upon activation of wild-type Arp2/3 complex. In addition, because the Arp2/3 complex containing the arp2-Y306A mutant exhibited constitutive activity similar to wild-type Arp2/3 complex activated by Las17 WCA (Fig. 6 G), we tested whether the arp2-Y306A mutation mimics the Arp2/3 complex activation step induced by NPF binding. Non-activated wild-type Arp2/3 complex, the arp2-Y306A Arp2/3 mutant, and wild-type Arp2/3 complex bound to Las17 WCA, were imaged by electron microscopy in negative stain (Fig. 7). Single-particle analysis resulted in three reconstructions at ∼2.5 nm resolution (Fig. 7 E), considerably higher than the 3.9 nm resolution previously reported for the yeast Arp2/3 complex (Volkmann et al., 2001). Fitting the atomic model of the nonactivated bovine Arp2/3 complex (Robinson et al., 2001) into the three-dimensional maps revealed that the overall morphology of all three ...
Trends Cell Biol. 2009 Jun;19(6):276-85. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2009.03.004. Epub 2009 May 4. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review
Actin polymerization-driven protrusion of the leading edge is a key element of cell motility. The important actin nucleators formins and the Arp2/3 complex are believed to have nonoverlapping functions in inducing actin filament bundles in filopodia and dendritic networks in lamellipodia, respective …
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1A gene. This gene encodes one ... Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa". Human ARPC1A genome location and ARPC1A gene details ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC4 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC4 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa". "Dysmorphology data for Arpc4". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC2 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34kDa". Weed SA, Karginov AV, Schafer DA, Weaver AM, Kinley AW ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "Cortactin localization to sites of actin assembly in lamellipodia requires interactions with F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex". J ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC3 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC3 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3, 21kDa". Welch MD, Iwamatsu A, Mitchison TJ (1997). "Actin ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... Marchand JB, Kaiser DA, Pollard TD, Higgs HN (2001). "Interaction of WASP/Scar proteins with actin and vertebrate Arp2/3 ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC5 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC5 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa". Millard TH, Behrendt B, Launay S, Fütterer K, Machesky ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1B gene. This gene encodes one ... Isoforms of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. Indeed it ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1B actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B, 41kDa". "Isoform diversity in the Arp2/3 complex determines ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ...
"The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... Actin-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR2 gene. The specific function of this gene has not ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR2 ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast)". Bearer EL, Prakash JM, Li Z (2002). "Actin dynamics in ...
"The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... Actin-related protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3 gene. The specific function of this gene has not ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3 ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast)". Weed SA, Karginov AV, Schafer DA, Weaver AM, Kinley AW, ... Machesky LM, Insall RH (1999). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ...
... encoding protein ADP-ribosylation-like factor 6 interacting protein 4 ARPC3: encoding protein Actin-related protein 2/3 complex ... encoding protein Intermediate filament family orphan 1 KANSL2: encoding protein KAT8 regulatory NSL complex subunit 2 (KANSL2) ... encoding protein Protein asunder homolog (Asun) ATG101: Autophagy-related protein 101 BCAT1: encoding protein Branched chain ... encoding protein a protein of 377 amino acid residues FAM60A: encoding protein FAM60A FAM186B: encoding protein Protein FAM186B ...
2003). "Haematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) promotes actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex-mediated actin ... Chen, Y R; Kori R; John B; Tan T H (Nov 2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ... Chen YR, Kori R, John B, Tan TH (2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ... Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCLS1 gene. HCLS1 has been shown to ...
Filament end-tracking protein (e.g., formins, VASP, N-WASP). *Filament-nucleator known as the Actin-Related Protein-2/3 (or ... The polymerization cofactor profilin and the ATP·actin combine to form a profilin-ATP-actin complex that then binds to the end- ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin.. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... These structures are regulated by many other classes of actin-binding proteins, including motor proteins, branching proteins, ...
NPFs in the mammalian cell recruit and bind to the already existing actin-related-protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) and ... The Actin assembly-inducing protein (ActA) is a protein encoded and used by Listeria monocytogenes to propel itself through a ... an actin monomer binding protein, which itself promotes polymerization at barbed ends of actin filaments. Furthermore, VASP ... In the cytosol they start to polymerize actin on their surface by the help of the ActA protein. It has been shown that ActA is ...
... actin-related protein 2-3 complex MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.500 --- actin-related protein 2 MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.750 --- ... photosystem i protein complex MeSH D05.500.562.496 --- photosystem ii protein complex MeSH D05.500.562.500 --- proteasome ... microfilament proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032 --- actin capping proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.500 --- capz actin capping ... actin-related protein 3 MeSH D05.750.078.730.250 --- actins MeSH D05.750.078.730.281 --- cortactin MeSH D05.750.078.730.350 ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPIN gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor". Retrieved 2017-06-21. Deng WS, Zhang J, Ju H, Zheng HM, Wang J, Wang S, Zhang DL ...
Actin, alpha 1 Actinin, alpha 1 Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 Aldehyde ... mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha 1 BCL2-related protein A1 Butyrophilin, subfamily 1, member A1 Butyrophilin, subfamily 3, ... DP alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 Myosin light chain A1, an actin-binding protein NADH ... alpha 1 RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 1, member A1 Replication protein A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1 Sec61 ...
Filament end-tracking protein (e.g., formins, VASP, N-WASP) Filament-nucleator known as the Actin-Related Protein-2/3 (or Arp2/ ... complex Filament cross-linkers (e.g., α-actinin, fascin, and fimbrin) Actin monomer-binding proteins profilin and thymosin β4 ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... These structures are regulated by many other classes of actin-binding proteins, including motor proteins, branching proteins, ...
... expression of the nuclear actin-related protein ArpNalpha and its involvement in mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex ... Actin-like protein 6A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL6A gene. This gene encodes a family member of actin- ... related proteins (ARPs), which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have ... "Alternative splicing products of the gene for a human nuclear actin-related protein, hArpNbeta/Baf53, that encode a protein ...
Machesky LM, Insall RH (1998). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ... The WH2 domain binds to actin monomers and can facilitate the assembly of actin monomers into actin filaments. Human genes ... It is found in WASP proteins which control actin polymerisation, therefore, WH2 is important in cellular processes such as cell ... WH2 proteins occur in eukaryotes from yeast to mammals, in insect viruses, and in some bacteria. The WH2 domain is found as a ...
This gene encodes a member of the actin-related proteins (ARP), which form multiprotein complexes and share 35-55% amino acid ... Actin-related protein 3B also known as ARP3-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3B gene. Pseudogenes of this ... ACTR3B ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog B (yeast)". Human ACTR3B genome location and ACTR3B gene details page in the UCSC ... the gene encoding a new human actin-related protein, is alternatively spliced and predominantly expressed in brain neuronal ...
The complex folds various proteins, including actin and tubulin. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different ... "cDNA encoding a novel TCP1-related protein". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1217 (2): 224-6. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(94)90041-8. ... T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCT3 gene. This gene encodes a molecular ... Yuryev A, Wennogle LP (Feb 2003). "Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid ...
Enz R (March 2002). "The actin-binding protein Filamin-A interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7". FEBS ... "Homer regulates the association of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with multivalent complexes of homer-related, ... "Actin-binding protein alpha-actinin-1 interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5b and modulates the cell surface ... Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GRM5 gene. The amino acid L- ...
ActA Actibind Actin Actinfilin Actinogelin Actin-regulating kinases Actin-Related Proteins Actobindin Actolinkin Actopaxin ... Actin-binding proteins (also known as ABP) are proteins that bind to actin. This may mean ability to bind actin monomers, or ... Many actin-binding proteins, including α-actinin, β-spectrin, dystrophin, utrophin and fimbrin, do this through the actin- ... related to the ERM proteins) Myosins MAP-1C Metavinculin Moesin (the M of ERM proteins) Myosin light chain kinase MAL Mip-90 ...
Coronin, actin binding protein, 1B also known as CORO1B is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CORO1B gene. Members of ... Studies related to this protein are as follows: Coronin 1B antagonizes cortactin and remodels Arp2/3-containing actin branches ... Okumura M, Kung C, Wong S, Rodgers M, Thomas ML (September 1998). "Definition of family of coronin-related proteins conserved ... "Entrez Gene: CORO1B coronin, actin binding protein, 1B". Cai L, Makhov AM, Schafer DA, Bear JE (September 2008). "Coronin 1B ...
mTOR links with other proteins and serves as a core component of two distinct protein complexes, mTOR complex 1 and mTOR ... mTOR signaling appears to be closely related to the presence of soluble amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau proteins, which aggregate and ... mTORC2 has been shown to function as an important regulator of the actin cytoskeleton through its stimulation of F-actin stress ... This complex functions as a nutrient/energy/redox sensor and controls protein synthesis. The activity of mTORC1 is regulated by ...
Alpha-catenins are proteins of about 100 kDa which are evolutionary related to vinculin. In terms of their structure the most ... The association of catenins to cadherins produces a complex which is linked to the actin filament network, and which seems to ... In addition to actin, vinculin interacts with other structural proteins such as talin and alpha-actinins. Vinculin is a large ... Vinculin is a eukaryotic protein that seems to be involved in the attachment of the actin-based microfilaments to the plasma ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... "The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related ... Through the interaction of β-catenin and α-catenin, actin and E-cadherin are linked, providing the cell with a means of stable ... it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. β- ...
The gene product is a protein that forms a multiprotein complex that links receptor kinases and actin. Binding to actin occurs ... Human ARPC2(Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2) ELISA Kit ... The gene product is a protein that forms a multiprotein complex that links receptor kinases and actin. Binding to actin occurs ... The gene product is a protein that forms a multiprotein complex that links receptor kinases and actin. Binding to actin occurs ...
WIP: a multifunctional protein. involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Eur J Cell. Biol 2006;85(3-4):295-304.. 17. Lum LG, ... is not related to a defect in proplatelet formation.. Blood 1999;94:509-18.. 9. Burns S, Cory GO, Vainchenker W, Thrasher AJ.. ... Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a complex and severe X-linked disorder characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, immunodefi ... The protein encoded by the WAS gene (WASP) is a hematopoietic specifi c regulator of actin nucleation in response to signals ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1 (IPR017383) *Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141) ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141). Short name: ARC1B ...
Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These ... and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon ... The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, ... Previous Names: "actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 (16 kD)", "actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5, 16kDa" ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ... mRNA and Protein(s) * XM_006498389.3 → XP_006498452.1 actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein isoform X2 ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_028809.1 → NP_083085.1 actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein ... actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-likeprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1921442 See related. Ensembl: ...
Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPIN gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor". Retrieved 2017-06-21. Deng WS, Zhang J, Ju H, Zheng HM, Wang J, Wang S, Zhang DL ...
... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Arp2/3 complex plays a critical role in the control of cell morphogenesis ... Functions as component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,B1ALC0,B1ALC0_HUMAN Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ARPC5 PE=1 SV=1 ...
... a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF). The Arp2/3 ... complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility. In addition ... repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks ( ... the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of ...
Compare actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits. Clear ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well- ... Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein (ARPC5L) ELISA Kit ...
... protein-containing complex binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN response to estradiol (ortholog); response to estrogen (ortholog); ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits actin filament binding (ortholog); ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits actin filament binding (ortholog); protein-containing complex binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN ... actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. Orthologs:. Homo sapiens (human) : ARPC1B (actin related protein 2/3 complex ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: ... Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). Need help ... Discover more about diseases related to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). ... Learn more about PTMs related to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). ...
similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 Symbol and Name status set to provisional. 70820. PROVISIONAL. ... Gene: LOC686150 (similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) Rattus norvegicus. {{ watchLinkText }} ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ... Aging & Age-Related Disease Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Developmental Disease Diabetes Hematologic Disease Immune & ...
OMIM: ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2/3 COMPLEX, SUBUNIT 1A; ARPC1A*Gene Ontology: Arpc1a *Mouse Phenome DB: Arpc1a *UCSC: Chr.5: ... actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A. Synonyms: 0610010H08Rik, 1110030K07Rik, Sid32. Gene nomenclature, locus ...
What is actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5? Meaning of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 medical term. ... What does actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 mean? ... Looking for online definition of actin related protein 2/3 ... complex, subunit 5 in the Medical Dictionary? actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 explanation free. ... redirected from actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) ARPC5. A gene on chromosome 1q25.3 that encodes p16, one of the ...
... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. [The UniProt Consortium] ... Functions as component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an ... ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A ... Customer review for "ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A" ...
What is actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4? Meaning of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 medical term. What ... Looking for online definition of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 in the Medical Dictionary? actin-related protein 2 ... redirected from actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4) ARPC4. A gene on chromosome 3p25.3 that encodes p20, one of the ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 , definition of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 by Medical dictionary ...
1997; 138(2):375-384. (2) Narayanan, A., LeClaire, L.L., Barber, D.L. andJacobson, M.P. Phosphorylation of the Arp2 subunit ... The human Arp2/3 complx is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin ... The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex. Molecular Exploration Project - The Principles of Cellular Control (CELL2007) ... 1997; 138(2):375-384.. (2) Narayanan, A., LeClaire, L.L., Barber, D.L. andJacobson, M.P. Phosphorylation of the Arp2 subunit ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. ... Compartment GO Terms for Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. ... This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1A. The ... This protein also has a role in centrosomal homeostasis by being an activator and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. [provided ...
... an actin monomer, a mother filament and a nucleation promoting-factor needed to activate the complex which is intrinsically ... Introduction The Arp2/3 complex is responsible for nucleation of actin filaments to form branches at a distinct 70 degrees ... Several factors are known to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, most… ... The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex. Molecular Exploration Project - The Principles of Cellular Control (CELL2007) ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. ...
... the actin-nucleating formins, Diaphanous-1 (DIA1) and Formin-like-1 (FMNL1), did not affect TCR-stimulated F-actin-rich ... and formin-dependent F-actin nucleation during T cell activation. We demonstrated that without Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation ... stimulated T cells could not form an F-actin-rich lamellipod, but instead produced polarized filopodia-like structures. ... Altogether, our results have identified Arp2/3 complex-independent cytoskeletal reorganization events in T lymphocytes and ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3 superfamily (IPR036753). Add your Annotation. Your annotation. You may suggest ...
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Polyclonal Antibody to Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 4 (ARPC4) - Mouse ... Polyclonal Antibody to Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 4 (ARPC4) - Mouse by USCNK ...
Protein Coding), Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, ... a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) (PubMed:9230079 ... Protein details for ARPC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. O15144-ARPC2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Actin-related ... ARPC2 Gene (Protein Coding) Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2. ...
  • Should the Mouse Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family, Member 2 (WASF2) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (lotusbiotechnologies.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family, Member 2 (WASF2) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (lotusbiotechnologies.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family, Member 2 (WASF2) in Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (lotusbiotechnologies.com)
  • Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPIN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include actin filament binding and kinesin binding . (genecards.org)
  • The 3′-end of the human β-actin gene enhances activity of the β-actin expression vector system: construction of improved vectors," Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 1997, vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 63-72. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This is an efficient and useful way to name large numbers of related genes, and already works well for a number of established gene groupings. (genenames.org)
  • AFG3 ATPase family gene 3-like 2 (S. ce. (broadinstitute.org)
  • boomerang dysplasia clinically differs from aoi and aoiii because of the boomerang shaped bowing of the femur and occasionally observed encephalocele and omphalocele.etiologybd results from missense mutations or small in-frame deletions in the flnb gene reported in exons 2-5, normally expected to translate full length but biochemically abnormal filamin b protein.diagnostic methodsdiagnosis can be confirmed from skeletal radiographs, chondro-osseous histopathology and genetic testing. (malacards.org)
  • I could show that dock interacts genetically with the FC-specific gene rols, which encodes for an adaptor protein that binds to the intracellular domain of Duf, and with the FCM-specific cell adhesion molecule hbs. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results indicate that OsPOP5 is a stress-related gene in rice and it may play an important role in plant tolerance to abiotic stress. (mdpi.com)
  • Together, my experiments revised models for how RNA polymerase II assembles onto gene sequences and how transcriptional activator proteins stimulate this process. (yale.edu)
  • Miller, A.L., Wang, Y., Mooseker, M., and Koleske, A.J. (2004) The Abl-related gene (Arg) requires its F-actin:microtubule crosslinking activity to regulate lamellipodial dynamics during fibroblast adhesion. (yale.edu)
  • We identified other SCARN-like proteins in legumes and phylogeny analyses suggested that SCARN may have arisen from a gene duplication and acquired specialized functions in root nodule symbiosis. (jic.ac.uk)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a major component of the inner surface of caveolae, small invaginations of the plasma membrane, and is involved in essential cellular functions, including signal transduction, lipid metabolism, cellular growth control and apoptosis. (cancerindex.org)
  • This gene and related family member (CAV1) are located next to each other on chromosome 7, and express colocalizing proteins that form a stable hetero-oligomeric complex. (cancerindex.org)
  • What does this gene/protein do? (cancerindex.org)
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • Among these was the S100 calcium-binding protein A7 gene (Psoriasin), which expresses protein products that have been proposed to be associated with keratinocyte differentiation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In order to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of cell toxicity and compensatory cellular defenses related to cadmium exposure, we profiled the global gene expression in HPT cells exposed to increasing concentrations of this metal during short-term (1 day) and long-term (13 days) exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is attributable to the tightly packed actin filament bundles sandwiched between cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and the apposing Sertoli cell plasma membrane at the basal ES, the hallmark ultrastructure of the BTB ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • A and B ) Conditions: 2.8 μM Acanthamoeba actin monomers, 50 mM KCl, 1 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM DTT, 0.1 mM CaCl 2 , 0.2 mM ATP, 3 mm NaN 3 , and 10 mM imidazole (pH 7.0) at 22°C. The polymerization of actin was monitored by pyrene fluorescence. (pnas.org)
  • To date, the best characterized of the predicted ATs of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei is BimA, a predicted trimeric AT mediating actin-based motility which varies in sequence and mode of action between Burkholderia species. (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings indicate that Pdlim5 binds AMPK directly and promotes the recruitment of AMPK onto F-actin, a process mediated by α-actinin. (nih.gov)
  • NIMA-related protein kinase 2 (Nek2), which stimulates centrosome separation, binds to and phosphorylates β-catenin. (stanford.edu)
  • We found that bovine profilins I and II have similar affinities for actin and that profilin I has a higher affinity for PIP 2 while profilin II binds more strongly to poly- l -proline. (asm.org)
  • ATP -bound actin then itself binds the barbed end, and the ATP is subsequently hydrolyzed . (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon release, the free actin monomer slowly dissociates from ADP, which in turn rapidly binds to the free ATP diffusing in the cytosol , thereby forming the ATP-actin monomeric units needed for further barbed-end filament elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal domain of SCARN binds to ARPC3 and ectopic expression of the N-terminal SCAR-homology domain (but not the full length protein) inhibited nodulation. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Among Rho GTPases, Rac is activated at the leading edge of motile cells and induces the formation of actin-rich lamellipodia protrusions, which serves as a major driving force of cell movement ( Etienne-Manneville and Hall, 2002 ). (rupress.org)
  • 3 Briefly, the cellular processes that occur in a motile cell include polarization and extensions of actin-based protrusions, such as thin, finger-like filopodia and broader, sheet-like lamellipodia, in the direction of migration ( Figure 1A ). (dovepress.com)
  • Here, we characterizAQe the actin related protein 2/3 (Arp 2/3) complex, a regulator of peripheral branched actin polymerization, in human pulmonary EC barrier function through studies of transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), intercellular gap formation, peripheral cytoskeletal structures and lamellipodia. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunofluorescent microscopy reveals reduced lamellipodia formation after S1P and during thrombin recovery in Arp 2/3 inhibited cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These results establish a critical role for Arp 2/3 activity in determination of pulmonary endothelial barrier function and recovery through formation of EC lamellipodia and closure of intercellular gaps. (elsevier.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • An episomal expression vector system for monitoring sequence-specific effects on mRNA stability in human cell lines," Plasmid, 1995, vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 198-207. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The expression vector according to claim 5, wherein the recombinant nucleic acid according to claim 1 further comprises a protein coding sequence that encodes a reporter protein or a therapeutic protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. An isolated host cell comprising the expression vector of claim 5 wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. An isolated host cell which is obtained by in vivo injection of the expression vector of claim 5 into a cell, wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell comprises the expression vector of claim 5 and transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These sequences represent the protein coding region of the arpc5b cDNA ORF which is encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) sequence. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript guarantees 100% sequence accuracy of all synthetic DNA constructs we deliver, but we do not guarantee protein expression in your experimental system. (genscript.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human p41-ARCb. (genetex.com)
  • Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 596 amino acid residues with M w ≈ 67.29 kD. (mdpi.com)
  • Listed below are up to the top 10 sequence alignment matches, by species, for the PSI-BLAST search against the protein sequence for ARC15 . (yeastrc.org)
  • In 1998, it was estimated that chronic wounds would cost the National Health Service in the United Kingdom (UK) a total of £1 billion per year ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Regulation of the polarization of T cells toward antigen-presenting cells by Ras-related GTPase CDC42. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The permeability defect was caused by reduced levels of activated Rap1 (Ras-related protein 1) in endothelial cells and could be rescued by activating Rap1 via the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) exchange factor EPAC (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP). (rupress.org)
  • GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) enhance GTP hydrolysis, thereby accelerating RAC/ROP inactivation ( Berken and Wittinghofer, 2008 ). (plantcell.org)
  • The present invention describes the use of hybrid short 3′ untranslated (3′UTR) regions which are composed of two regions, one region from an 3′ untranslated region of a stable eukaryotic mRNA, and another region from the downstream end of an 3′ untranslated region of another eukaryotic mRNA that contains a polyadenylation (polyA) signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • docking protein 1, 62kDa (downstream of ty. (broadinstitute.org)
  • In the active GTP-bound state, RAC/ROPs interact with effector proteins to initiate downstream signaling ( Berken and Wittinghofer, 2008 ). (plantcell.org)
  • The present invention provides a recombinant DNA that is composed of a promoter, a protein coding region, and the hybrid 3′UTR in a continuous and directional orientation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The recombinant nucleic acid of claim 1, wherein said first region and said second region are in proximity to each other or are adjacent to each other or overlap with each other or one encompasses the other. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The recombinant nucleic acid of claim 2, wherein the 3′ end of the first region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the second region or the 3′ end of the second region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the first region or the first region is located within the second region. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We have expressed 16 of the novel proteins as recombinant fluorescent proteins in neurons and confirmed their localization in dendritic spines. (mcponline.org)
  • Human ARPC5L partial ORF ( NP_112240, 1 a.a. - 100 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (abnova.com)
  • The amino-terminal repeat region appears to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate actin binding, whereas the SH3 domain has no apparent effect on the actin-binding activity. (sdbonline.org)
  • However, the study was of PSDs from a subset of whole brain, and no attempt was made to confirm the localization of these proteins by independent means. (mcponline.org)
  • Length increase of the human α-globin 3′-untranslated region disrupts stability of the pre-mRNA but not that of the mature mRNA," Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2000, vol. 275, pp. 30248-30255. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Augmented AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity inhibits cell migration, possibly contributing to the clinical benefits of chemical AMPK activators in preventing atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and cancer metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • investigated the effect of GML on actin cytoskeletal rearrangements in human T cells by TIRF microscopy and found that GML provoked erroneous filapodial formation after TCR stimulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data suggest that GML also suppresses T cell responses by preventing appropriate actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. (sciencemag.org)
  • Together, our data suggest that GML alters actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and identify diverse functions for GML as a T cell-suppressive agent. (sciencemag.org)
  • p80/85 colocalizes with F-actin in peripheral extensions of normal cells and rosettes (podosomes) of src-transformed cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • 140 mouse brain proteins identified by Ca2+-calmodulin affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Like other members of the Ras small G protein family, RAC/ROPs bind GTP and GDP with high affinity and hydrolyze GTP inefficiently. (plantcell.org)
  • The results of Gieselmann and coworkers ( 14 ) were strikingly different and showed that human profilins I and II have similar affinities for PIP 2 and poly- l -proline, though profilin I has a five-times-higher affinity for actin. (asm.org)
  • A peptide fragment from the human COX3 protein disrupts association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence proteins ESAT-6 and CFP10, inhibits mycobacterial growth and mounts protective immune response. (jnu.ac.in)
  • The response to neurotransmitter (NT) 1 release at the synapse is provided by a protein matrix of NT receptors and supporting proteins collectively known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) (for review, see Refs. (mcponline.org)
  • The best-characterized adhesive structures, named focal adhesions, contain clusters of transmembrane integrin receptors that are tethered at one end to the ECM and at the other to actin stress fibers, which are responsible for cell traction and ECM reorganization. (biologists.org)
  • Reelin signaling involves the lipoprotein receptors apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), the adapter protein Disabled1 (Dab1), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). (jneurosci.org)
  • The concentrations given are those after a 6.7-fold dilution of the preincubated components into pyrenyl-actin monomers. (pnas.org)
  • Final conditions: 4 μM amoeba actin monomers, 50 mM KCl, 1 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM DTT, 0.1 mM CaCl 2 , 0.2 mM ATP, and 3 mM NaN 3 . (pnas.org)
  • End-capping proteins such as CapZ prevent the addition or loss of monomers at the filament end where actin turnover is unfavorable, such as in the muscle apparatus. (wikipedia.org)