Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Arabidopsis contains ancient classes of differentially expressed actin-related protein genes. (1/347)

Actin-related proteins (ARPs) share less than 60% amino acid sequence homology with conventional actins and have roles in diverse cytoskeletal processes in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The genome of Arabidopsis was explored for possible ARP gene family members. Eight potential ARP gene sequences were found dispersed on three of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes. AtARP2 and AtARP3 are protein orthologs of their similarly named counterparts in other kingdoms. AtARP4, AtARP5, and AtARP6 are orthologs of two classes of nuclear ARPs previously characterized in animals and fungi, BAF53s and ARP6s. AtARP7 and AtARP8 appear to be novel proteins that are not closely related to any known animal or fungal ARPs, and may be plant specific. The complex Arabidopsis ARP gene structures each contain from five to 20 exons. Expressed transcripts were identified and characterized for AtARP2 through AtARP8, but not for AtARP9, and transcripts representing two splice variants were found for AtARP8. The seven expressed genes are predicted to encode proteins ranging from 146 to 471 amino acids in length. Relative to conventional actin and the other ARPs, AtARP2 and AtARP3 transcripts are expressed at very low levels in all organs. AtARP5, AtARP6, and AtARP8 each have distinct transcript expression patterns in seedlings, roots, leaves, flowers, and siliques. Using isovariant-specific monoclonal antibodies, AtARP4 and AtARP7 proteins were shown to be most highly expressed in flowers. The likely involvement of plant ARPs in actin nucleation, branching of actin filaments, chromatin restructuring, and transcription are briefly discussed.  (+info)

Arabidopsis CROOKED encodes for the smallest subunit of the ARP2/3 complex and controls cell shape by region specific fine F-actin formation. (2/347)

The generation of a specific cell shape requires differential growth, whereby specific regions of the cell expand more relative to others. The Arabidopsis crooked mutant exhibits aberrant cell shapes that develop because of mis-directed expansion, especially during a rapid growth phase. GFP-aided visualization of the F-actin cytoskeleton and the behavior of subcellular organelles in different cell-types in crooked and wild-type Arabidopsis revealed that localized expansion is promoted in cellular regions with fine F-actin arrays but is restricted in areas that maintain dense F-actin. This suggested that a spatiotemporal distinction between fine versus dense F-actin in a growing cell could determine the final shape of the cell. CROOKED was molecularly identified as the plant homolog of ARPC5, the smallest sub-unit of the ARP2/3 complex that in other organisms is renowned for its role in creating dendritic arrays of fine F-actin. Rescue of crooked phenotype by the human ortholog provides the first molecular evidence for the presence and functional conservation of the complex in higher plants. Our cell-biological and molecular characterization of CROOKED suggests a general actin-based mechanism for regulating differential growth and generating cell shape diversity.  (+info)

Mutations in actin-related proteins 2 and 3 affect cell shape development in Arabidopsis. (3/347)

ACTIN-RELATED PROTEINS 2 and 3 form the major subunits of the ARP2/3 complex, which is known as an important regulator of actin organization in diverse organisms. Here, we report that two genes, WURM and DISTORTED1, which are important for cell shape control in Arabidopsis, encode the plant ARP2 and ARP3 orthologs, respectively. Mutations in these genes result in misdirected expansion of various cell types: trichome expansion is randomized, pavement cells fail to produce lobes, hypocotyl cells curl out of the normal epidermal plane, and root hairs are sinuous. At the subcellular level, cell shape changes are linked to severe filamentous actin aggregation and compromised vacuole fusion. Because all seven subunits of the ARP2/3 complex are present in plants, our data indicate that this complex may play a pivotal role during plant cell morphogenesis.  (+info)

Requirements for Arabidopsis ATARP2 and ATARP3 during epidermal development. (4/347)

Plant cells employ the actin cytoskeleton to stably position organelles, as tracks for long distance transport, and to reorganize the cytoplasm in response to developmental and environmental cues. While diverse classes of actin binding proteins have been implicated in growth control, the mechanisms of cytoskeletal reorganization and the cellular functions of specific actin filament arrays are unclear. Arabidopsis trichome morphogenesis includes distinct requirements for the microtubule and actin filament cytoskeletons. It also is a genetically tractable process that is providing new knowledge about cytoskeleton function in plants. The "distorted group" of mutants defines a class of at least eight genes that are required during the actin-dependent phase of trichome growth. Using map-based cloning and a candidate gene approach, we identified mutations in ARP3 (ATARP3) and ARP2 (ATARP2) genes as the cause of the distorted1 (dis1) and wurm (wrm) phenotypes, respectively. ARP2 and ARP3 are components of the evolutionarily conserved ARP2/3 complex that nucleates actin filament polymerization [3]. Mutations in DIS1 and WRM caused severe trichome growth defects but had relatively mild effects on shoot development. DIS1 rescued the phenotype of Deltaarp3 when overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Developing dis1 trichomes had defects in cytoplasmic actin bundle organization and reduced relative amounts of cytoplasmic actin filaments in developing branches.  (+info)

The putative Arabidopsis arp2/3 complex controls leaf cell morphogenesis. (5/347)

The evolutionarily conserved Arp2/3 complex has been shown to activate actin nucleation and branching in several eukaryotes, but its biological functions are not well understood in multicellular organisms. The model plant Arabidopsis provides many advantages for genetic dissection of the function of this conserved actin-nucleating machinery, yet the existence of this complex in plants has not been determined. We have identified Arabidopsis genes encoding homologs of all of the seven Arp2/3 subunits. The function of the putative Arabidopsis Arp2/3 complex has been studied using four homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC5/p16. All four mutants display identical defects in the development of jigsaw-shaped epidermal pavement cells and branched trichomes in the leaf. These loss-of-function mutations cause mislocalization of diffuse cortical F-actin to the neck region and inhibit lobe extension in pavement cells. The mutant trichomes resemble those treated with the actin-depolymerizing drug cytochalasin D, exhibiting stunted branches but dramatically enlarged stalks due to depolarized growth suggesting defects in the formation of a fine actin network. Our data demonstrate that the putative Arabidopsis Arp2/3 complex controls cell morphogenesis through its roles in cell polarity establishment and polar cell expansion. Furthermore, our data suggest a novel function for the putative Arp2/3 complex in the modulation of the spatial distribution of cortical F-actin and provide evidence that the putative Arp2/3 complex may activate the polymerization of some types of actin filaments in specific cell types.  (+info)

p41-Arc subunit of human Arp2/3 complex is a p21-activated kinase-1-interacting substrate. (6/347)

The formation of new branched actin filament networks at the cell cortex of migrating cells is choreographed by the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex. Despite the fundamental role of the Arp2/3 complex in actin nucleation and branching, upstream signals that control the functions of p41-Arc, a putative regulatory component of the mammalian Arp2/3 complex, remain unidentified. Here we show that p41-Arc interacts with p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) both in vitro and in vivo. Pak1 phosphorylation of p41-Arc regulates its localization with the Arp2/3 complex in the cortical nucleation regions of cells. Pak1 phosphorylates p41-Arc on threonine 21 in the first WD repeat, and its mutation has functional implications in vivo. Threonine 21 phosphorylation by Pak1 is required for both constitutive and growth-factor-induced cell motility. Pak1 regulation of p41-Arc activation status represents a novel mechanism by which signalling pathways may influence the functions of the Arp2/3 complex, leading to motility in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Arabidopsis GNARLED encodes a NAP125 homolog that positively regulates ARP2/3. (7/347)

In migrating cells, the actin filament nucleation activity of ARP2/3 is an essential component of dynamic cell shape change and motility. In response to signals from the small GTPase Rac1, alterations in the composition and/or subcellular localization of the WAVE complex lead to ARP2/3 activation. The human WAVE complex subunit, WAVE1/SCAR1, was first identified in Dictyostelium and is a direct ARP2/3 activator. In the absence of an intact WAVE complex, SCAR/WAVE protein is destabilized. Although the composition of the five-subunit WAVE complex is well characterized, the means by which individual subunits and fully assembled WAVE complexes regulate ARP2/3 in vivo are unclear. The molecular genetics of trichome distortion in Arabidopsis is a powerful system to understand how signaling pathways and ARP2/3 control multicellular development. In this paper we prove that the GNARLED gene encodes a homolog of the WAVE subunit NAP125. Despite the moderate level of amino acid identity between Arabidopsis and human NAP125, both homologs were functionally interchangeable in vivo and interacted physically with the putative Arabidopsis WAVE subunit ATSRA1. gnarled trichomes had nearly identical cell shape and actin cytoskeleton phenotypes when compared to ARP2/3 subunit mutants, suggesting that GRL positively regulates ARP2/3.  (+info)

Arabidopsis NAP1 is essential for Arp2/3-dependent trichome morphogenesis. (8/347)

The dynamic nature of the eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton is essential for the locomotion of animal cells and the morphogenesis of plant and fungal cells. The F-actin nucleating/branching activity of the Arp2/3 complex is a key function for all of these processes. The SCAR/WAVE family represents a group of Arp2/3 activators that are associated with lamellipodia formation. A protein complex of PIR121, NAP1, ABI, and HSPC300 is required for SCAR regulation by cell signaling pathways, but the exact nature of this interaction is controversial and represents a continually evolving model. The mechanism originally proposed was of a SCAR trans repressing complex supported by evidence from in vitro experiments. This model was reinforced by genetic studies in the Drosophila central nervous system and Dictyostelium, where the knockout of certain SCAR-complex components leads to excessive SCAR-mediated actin polymerization. Conflicting data have steadily accumulated from animal tissue culture experiments suggesting that the complex activates rather than represses in vivo SCAR activity. Recent biochemical evidence supports the SCAR-complex activator model. Here, we show that genetic observations in Arabidopsis are compatible with an activation model and provide one potential mechanism for the regulation of the newly identified Arabidopsis Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Schroer, T. A., Heuser, J. E., Helfman, D. M., Leesmiller, J. P. (September 1992) Actin-Rpv - the Major Component of the Dynactin Complex - Activator of Cytoplasmic Dynein. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3. A2-A2. ISSN 1059-1524 ...
Membrane targeting is a crucial aspect in the spatial and temporal control of Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation in various cellular and developmental processes. Whereas previous studies suggested that membrane association is mediated by Scar/WAVE and WASP proteins, our data show that phosphoinositides do not exclusively act on Arp2/3-activators. We reveal that Abp1 is physically and functionally interfacing with Scar and that a subpool of Abp1 is membrane-associated by interactions with PS, PIP2 and PIP3. This creates a layer of Abp1-mediated Arp2/3 regulation specifically at the cell cortex.. Our in vitro reconstitutions proved that Abp1s lipid interactions are direct, specific and strong enough to withstand floatation through sucrose. The in vivo relevance of this novel Abp1 function is supported by subcellular fractionations and by colocalization of Abp1 with PIP3 especially at the plasma membrane of S2 cells.. The need for tight control of the membrane-associated pool of Abp1 is evident from ...
Actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF). The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility. In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA. The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs).
Introduction The Arp2/3 complex is responsible for nucleation of actin filaments to form branches at a distinct 70 degrees angle from the mother filament; ATP, an actin monomer, a mother filament and a nucleation promoting-factor needed to activate the complex which is intrinsically inactive. Several factors are known to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, most…
Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament (By similarity).
WASP homolog associated with actin, membranes and microtubules (WHAMM) is a newly discovered nucleation-promoting factor that links actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and regulates transport from the
structure of nucleotide-free bovine actin related ptotein(Arp)2/3 complex showed minimal contacts between Arp2 and Arp3 compared with the close association of adjacent subunits in the helical actin filament; Activation of the Arp2/3 involves the complex binding an existing filament and a nucleation-promoting factor, such as WASp or Scar, that brings along an actin monomer; interactions are thermodynamically coupled, In the presence of a nucleation promoting factor, actin monomer, and mother filament, Arp2 hydrolyzes ATP with a rate constant > 0.05 s^1; Arp3 binds ATP, but appreciable hydrolysis of the nucleotide by this subunit was not detected in either the active or inactive Arp2/3 ...
One component of our work is directed toward understanding how actin nucleation factors, including the Arp2/3 complex, formin proteins and so-called WH2 based nucleators, generate new actin filaments de novo from actin monomers. We also study how upstream regulators of these factors, particularly proteins in the WASP family, receive and integrate diverse signals to control actin nucleation. In each case we are interested in the structure and dynamics of the relevant molecules, and how these physical properties control biochemical and cellular activities. For example, we study how nucleation factors bind and organize actin monomers, how these complexes dynamically rearrange as a nascent filament grows, and how such rearrangements affect filament elongation rates and nucleation efficiency. We also study how WASP proteins bind multiple upstream ligands, and how thermodynamic cooperativity between these ligands is achieved and yields high specificity of WASP activation in vitro and in cells. This ...
The Arp2/3-complex in activated form will promote actin nucleation, causing the growth of a new filament under a 70° angle. The Arp2/3 complex contacts three actin subunits along one helix of the actin mother filament, led by subunits p34 and p40 [1]; as structural data already suggested, the two Arp-subunits are capable of dimerizing with…
CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. Here, we show that loss of ARPC1B led to loss of CTL cytotoxicity, with the defect arising at 2 different levels. First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. Loss ...
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human WHAMM protein. WHAMM (AAI67774.1, 1 a.a. ~ 809 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00123720-B01P) - Products - Abnova
We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. Subunits ARPC2 p34 and ARPC4 p20 in the core of the complex associate through long carboxyl-terminal α helices and have similarly folded amino-terminal α/β domains. ARPC1 p40 is a seven-blade β propeller with an insertion that may associate with the side of an actin filament. ARPC3 p21 and ARPC5 p16 are globular α-helical subunits. We predict that WASp/Scar proteins activate Arp2/3 complex by bringing Arp2 into proximity with Arp3 for nucleation of a branch on the side of a preexisting actin filament. ...
The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is an actin nucleator that generates a branched actin network in mammalian cells. In addition to binding nucleation promoting factors, LeClaire et al. demonstrated that its phosphorylation state is essential key for its activity (LeClaire et al., 2008). In cells, the ARP2/3 complex is phosphorylated on threonine and tyrosine residues of the ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC1 subunits (Vadlamudi et al., 2004; LeClaire et al., 2008; Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). In particular, phosphorylation of threonine 237 and 238 of the ARP2 subunit is necessary to allow a change in the ARP2/3 complex structure to its active conformation (Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). While important for many functions in eukaryotic cells, ARP2/3 complex activity also benefits several cellular pathogens (Haglund and Welch, 2011; Welch and Way, 2013). Recently, we demonstrated that the bacterial pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, manipulates ARP2/3 complex
WHAMM (WAS protein homolog associated with actin, golgi membranes and microtubules), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Supplementary Materials Supplemental Data supp_285_9_6781__index. 1A binds to PI(4 preferentially,5)P2-containing liposomes and that PI(4,5)P2 antagonizes the ability of Coronin 1A to disassemble actin filament branches, indicating a spatiotemporal regulation of Coronin 1A via a direct interaction with the plasma membrane lipid. Collectively, our proteomics data provide a list of potential acidic phospholipid-binding protein candidates ranging from the actin PF 429242 cost regulatory proteins to translational regulators. and structural studies showed that actin-binding sites of these ABPs are overlapped with PI(4,5)P2-binding sites and that the activity of ABPs is inhibited by PI(4,5)P2 (6,C8). Therefore, the activity of ABPs have thought to be inhibited by PI(4,5)P2 binding that occludes F-actin-binding sites and to be activated by PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis when phospholipase C (PLC) PF 429242 cost is activated by receptor stimulation (5). Indeed, recent study have reported that Cofilin, an ...
The structure of the Arp2/3-actin branch will open many possible lines of future research. The work of Rouiller et al. (2008) provides critical information that will allow the complete elucidation of the pathway that leads to branch formation. It is known that the Arp2/3 complex, an actin filament, a nucleation-promoting protein such as SCAR or WASP, and an actin monomer must converge to form a branch, but the specific temporal sequence and the interrelationship between these binding events are incompletely understood. This question has important implications for how and where Arp2/3 branches form in cells. Another area that this structure could potentially illuminate is the role of nucleotide hydrolysis by the Arp2 and Arp3 subunits in branch structure and debranching. Nucleotide binding and hydrolysis by both subunits are important for Arp2/3 complex activity in yeast (Martin et al., 2006), and the structure of the inactive complex is affected by bound nucleotide (Nolen and Pollard, 2007). ...
ARPC1A overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa (ARPC1A), transcript variant 2
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Human ARPC5L partial ORF ( NP_112240, 1 a.a. - 100 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00081873-Q01) - Products - Abnova
19 products from 7 suppliers. Compare and order ARPC2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
KEY: NRC= North Range Classroom, MRC=Main Range Classroom, IR=Indoor Range, MR=Main Range, TC=Trap Range Classroom, T=Trap Range, A=Archery Range m1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. ...
The ARP2/3 complex and formins are the only known plant actin nucleators. Besides their actin-related functions, both systems also modulate microtubule organization and dynamics. Loss of the main housekeeping Arabidopsis thaliana Class I membrane-targeted formin FH1 (At3g25500) is known to increase cotyledon pavement cell lobing, while mutations affecting ARP2/3 subunits exhibit an opposite effect. Here we examine the role of FH1 and the ARP2/3 complex subunit ARPC5 (At4g01710) in epidermal cell morphogenesis with focus on pavement cells and trichomes using a model system of single fh1 and arpc5, as well as double fh1 arpc5 mutants. While cotyledon pavement cell shape in double mutants mostly resembled single arpc5 mutants, analysis of true leaf epidermal morphology, as well as actin and microtubule organization and dynamics, revealed a more complex relationship between the two systems and similar, rather than antagonistic, effects on some parameters. Both fh1 and arpc5 mutations increased actin network
Proteins residing at the plus and minus ends of microtubules have been thought not to communicate with each other, but recent findings on bona fide nucleation factors also regulating microtubule dynamics have challenged this notion. New work by Bouissou et al (2014) in The EMBO Journal now reveals that interplay between the nucleation factor γ‐TuRC and the plus‐end tracking protein EB1 controls mitotic spindle positioning by affecting the stability and dynamics of astral microtubules.. See also: A Bouissou et al (January 2014) ...
ARPC FORM 123 PDF - By order of the secretary of the air force air force instruction 22 november incorporating change 1, 30 september personnel. requires AF Form 10 to be
Localization of Arp2/3 complex at actin filament branching points. Xenopus keratocytes and fibroblasts were treated with CD (0.2 μM for 30 min or 0.5...
Daniels genome tests revealed a mutation as yet unknown to medical science. The defect appeared in a gene known as ARPC1B, known to produce a protein required by the bodys cells to change shape, move, divide and perform other vital bodily functions. And Daniels ARPC1B gene expressed none of this critical protein. Two other patients, related to one another but not to Daniel, also were discovered to have a mutation leaving them with very little ARPC1B protein. And over time another 20 children globally have also been identified with this same genetic mutation ...
Reaktivität: Fledermaus, Huhn, Rind (Kuh) and more. 34 verschiedene PHACTR3 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
bin/bash #Set the parameters passed to this script to meaningful variable names. connection_type=$1 essid=$2 bssid=$3 if [ ${connection_type} == wireless ]; then #Change below to match your networks. case $essid in YOUR-NETWORK-NAME-ESSID) arp -s 00:11:22:33:44:55 ;; Netgear01923) arp -s 10:11:20:33:40:50 ;; ANOTHER-ESSID) arp -s 11:33:55:77:99:00 ;; *) echo Static ARP not set. No network defined. ;; esac fi ...
WAS is associated with mutations in a gene on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp11.23) that was originally termed the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein gene and is officially known as WAS (Gene ID: 7454).[8] X-linked thrombocytopenia is also linked to WAS mutations, although they differ from those that cause full-blown WAS. The rare disorder X-linked neutropenia has also been linked to a specific subset of WAS mutations.[9]. The protein product of WAS is known as WASp. It contains 502 amino acids and is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells (the cells in the bone marrow that develop into blood cells). The main function of WASp is to activate actin polymerization by serving as a nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) for the Arp2/3 complex, which generates branched actin filaments. Several proteins can serve as NPFs, and it has been observed that in WAS platelets the Arp2/3 complex functions normally, indicating that WASp is not required for its activation in platelets.[10] In T-cells, WASp is ...
Intracellular transport is vital for the function, survival and architecture of every eukaryotic cell. Long-range transport in animal cells is thought to depend exclusively on microtubule tracks. This study reveals an unexpected actin-dependent but microtubule-independent mechanism for long-range transport of vesicles in mouse oocytes. Vesicles organize their own actin tracks by recruiting the actin nucleation factors Spire1, Spire2 and Formin-2, which assemble an extensive actin network from the vesicles surfaces. The network connects the vesicles with one another and with the plasma membrane. Vesicles move directionally along these connections in a myosin-Vb-dependent manner to converge and to reach the cell surface. The overall outward-directed movement of the vesicle-actin network is driven by recruitment of vesicles to the plasma membrane in the periphery of the oocyte. Being organized in a dynamic vesicle-actin network allows vesicles to move in a local random manner and a global directed ...
The WAVE/SCAR complex promotes actin nucleation through the Arp2/3 complex, in response to Rac signaling. We show that loss of WVE-1/GEX-1, the only C. elegans WAVE/SCAR homolog, by genetic mutation or by RNAi, has the same phenotype as loss of GEX-2/Sra1/p140/PIR121, GEX-3/NAP1/HEM2/KETTE, or ABI-1/ABI, the three other components of the C. elegans WAVE/SCAR complex. We find that the entire WAVE/SCAR complex promotes actin-dependent events at different times and in different tissues during development. During C. elegans embryogenesis loss of CED-10/Rac1, WAVE/SCAR complex components, or Arp2/3 blocks epidermal cell migrations despite correct epidermal cell differentiation. 4D movies show that this failure occurs due to decreased membrane dynamics in specific epidermal cells. Unlike myoblasts in Drosophila, epidermal cell fusions in C. elegans can occur in the absence of WAVE/SCAR or Arp2/3. Instead we find that subcellular enrichment of F-actin in epithelial tissues requires the Rac-WAVE/SCAR-Arp2/3
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic interaction of amphiphysin with N-WASP regulates actin assembly. AU - Yamada, Hiroshi. AU - Padilla-Parra, Sergi. AU - Park, Sun Joo. AU - Itoh, Toshiki. AU - Chaineau, Mathilde. AU - Monaldi, Ilaria. AU - Cremona, Ottavio. AU - Benfenati, Fabio. AU - De Camilli, Pietro. AU - Coppey-Moisan, Maïté. AU - Tramier, Marc. AU - Galli, Thierry. AU - Takei, Kohji. PY - 2009/12/4. Y1 - 2009/12/4. N2 - Amphiphysin 1, an endocytic adaptor concentrated at synapses that couples clathrin-mediated endocytosis to dynamin-dependentfission, wasalsoshowntohavearegulatoryroleinactindynamics. Here, we report that amphiphysin 1 interacts with N-WASP and stimulates N-WASP- and Arp2/ 3-dependent actin polymerization. Both the Src homology 3 and the N-BAR domains are required for this stimulation. Acidic liposome-triggered, N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization is strongly impaired in brain cytosol of amphiphysin 1 knock-out mice. FRET-FLIM analysis of Sertoli cells, where endogenously ...
Microtubule inhibiting agents (MIAs) characteristically induce phosphorylation of the major anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and while this leads to Mcl-1 degradation, the role of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL phosphorylation in mitotic death has remained controversial. We used siRNA knockdown of the anaphase-promoting complex activator, Cdc20, as a defined molecular system to investigate the role, specifically in mitotic death, of individual anti- apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and their phosphorylated forms. We show that Cdc20 knockdown in HeLa cells induces mitotic arrest and subsequent mitotic death. Knockdown of Cdc20 in HeLa cells stably overexpressing untagged wild-type Bcl-2, Bcl-xL or Mcl-1 promoted phosphorylation of the overexpressed proteins in parallel with their endogenous counterparts. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL blocked mitotic death induced by Cdc20 knockdown, phospho-defective mutants were more protective than wild-type proteins, and phospho-mimic Bcl-xL was unable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishment of the Major Compatibility Complex-Dependent Development of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells by the Cbl Family Proteins. AU - Huang, Fang. AU - Kitaura, Yasuyuki. AU - Jang, Ihn Kyung. AU - Naramura, Mayumi. AU - Kole, Hemanta H H.. AU - Liu, Liping. AU - Qin, Haiyan. AU - Schlissel, Mark S S.. AU - Gu, Hua. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Casitas B cell lymphoma (Cbl) proteins are negative regulators for T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. Their role in thymocyte development remains unclear. Here we show that simultaneous inactivation of c-Cbl and Cbl-b in thymocytes enhanced thymic negative selection and altered the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, the mutant thymocytes developed into CD4+- and CD8+-lineage T cells independent of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), indicating that the CD4+- and CD8+-lineage development programs are constitutively active in the absence of c-Cbl and Cbl-b. The mutant double-positive (DP) thymocytes exhibited ...
Short Talk: Cell Basal Polarity Complex Scribble Is Required for Leukemic Initiation and Propagation through Negative Regulation of Apical Polarity Complex Activator Cdc42 and Hypoxia Inducing Factor-1α ...
Model for Myo5 function in anchoring actin assembly to the PM at endocytic sites. (A) Myo5 (yellow bananas) restricts activation of the Arp2/3 complex (gray avocados) by the WASP complex (blue widgets) to a discrete location, generating an actin array that grows predominantly in the same direction to generate force. (B) Absent this critical linkage, Arp2/3 activators splinter off of the PM, leading to Arp2/3 complex activation throughout the actin network. Delocalized Arp2/3 complex activation results in disordered actin arrays that fail to produce force. In the most catastrophic cases, the Arp2/3 complex and its activators pull away from the PM completely to form cytoplasmic actin comets (lower left of zoom). ...
I used mutagenesis in the rescue scheme to determine whether a direct interaction between Spir and Capu is necessary during oogenesis. Previously, a point mutation was described in the Spir-KIND domain (Y232K) that abolishes interaction between Spir and Capu in binding assays and in pyrene actin polymerization assays (Vizcarra et al., 2011). In the same studies, SpirD with this mutation fails to colocalize with full-length Capu in tissue culture (S2) cells (Vizcarra et al., 2011). I, therefore, asked, what happens when I replace wild-type Spir with SpirB(Y232K)-GFP in flies? This construct failed to rescue the mutant phenotype in every aspect assayed. Flies expressing SpirB(Y232K)-GFP were sterile, had no detectable actin mesh during mid-oogenesis and consistently exhibited premature streaming (Fig. 3A,B, Table 1). Furthermore, streaming velocities were indistinguishable from the spir mutant (Fig. 3M). SpirB(Y232K)-GFP did not have a detectable effect on later stages of oogenesis in that, as ...
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Recruitment of EPLIN, which is not expressed in all cell types but is found exclusively in AJ, has also been shown to be tension dependent [14][15][16]. In this case EPLIN binds to the sides of F-actin where it stabilizes and/or crosslinks bundles of actin filaments to prevent Arp2/3 binding and subsequently, filament branching [14]. Whilst serving this role, EPLIN may also interact with α-catenin in complex with cadherin and stabilize actin filament bundles that span from one AJ to the next (i.e. the adhesion belt) [15]. In vitro experiments have shown that whilst monomers of α-catenin could not bind actin filaments, EPLIN could. Moreover, depletion of EPLIN from epithelial cells resulted in disruption of the adhesion belt, with the cell-cell contacts taking on a more immature appearance i.e. radial actin filaments terminating at puncta of E-cadherin present at contact sites [15]. Collectively these studies [14][15] suggest EPLIN may promote AJ maturation by linking the catenin-cadherin ...
The results of this study indicate that NOSTRIN interacts directly with the M3R and is required for its correct spatial localization at the plasma membrane in aortic endothelial cells. In the absence of NOSTRIN, the function of the M3R was markedly impaired, resulting in abolition of the calcium response to acetylcholine, an impaired activation of eNOS, and the inhibition of vascular relaxation. These changes at the cellular level were reflected in vivo in the existence of elevated blood pressure and diastolic dysfunction in NOSTRINΔEC mice.. The interaction of NOSTRIN with the M3R is to our knowledge the first example of an F-BAR protein interacting with a Gαq/11-protein-coupled receptor. The interaction is direct and involves the SH3 domain of NOSTRIN. The SH3 domain alone was not sufficient to bind to the M3R, indicating that additional motifs in NOSTRIN might be required. On the side of the M3R, the interaction with NOSTRIN involved the i3loop, which comprises 240 amino acids but contains ...
Eukaryotic cells use actin polymerization to change shape, move, and internalize extracellular materials by phagocytosis and endocytosis, and to form contractile structures. In addition, several pathogens have evolved to use host cell actin assembly for attachment, internalization, and cell-to-cell …
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The GAP first draft also has added the elements of NCDs Global Monitoring Framework (including twenty-five indicators) and Voluntary Global Targets (nine targets) finalised in the WHO meeting of member states late last year (5-7 November 2012). However the stakeholders want the 25 indicators of Global Monitoring Framework (GMF) and 9 voluntary global targets should be integrated in GAP alongwith evidence based interventions. Let us examine the GMF and GAP in some detail: ...
Having an existing gmfgen file and a generated diagram plug-in, but trying to generate the same diagram plug-in results in different java classes structure ...
Having an existing gmfgen file and a generated diagram plug-in, but trying to generate the same diagram plug-in results in different java classes structure ...
This session welcomes contributions on experimental, theoretical, and computational studies of phenomena related to nucleation and growth, including vapor-to-liquid (droplet) nucleation, liquid-to-vapor (bubble) nucleation and crystallization.. ...
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In trecut, diagnosticul de hiperaldosteroidism primar se suspiciona numai in contextul unei hipertensiuni asociata cu hipopotasemie. La ora actuala se estimeaza ca aproximativ 5-13% din totalul pacientilor cu HTA, au ARP scazute in contextul unei excretii crescute de aldosteron si multi dintre ei...
ב-3 בנובמבר 2019, העלה וסט בכורה את האופרה שלו נבוכדנצר, שכללה את השיר Wash Us in the Blood.[5] באפריל 2020, דיווח העיתונאי וויל וולש ממגזין GQ, כי שמע כמה שירים חדשים בזמן שהיה במקסיקו יחד עם וסט.[6] וולש שיתף את מקהלת השיר והשווה את הצליל התעשייתי שלו לאלבום האולפן השישי של וסט Yeezus, שיצא בשנת 2013. ב-25 במאי 2020, חשף הבמאי ארתור יפה כי צילם לאחרונה וידאו קליפ עם וסט.[7] ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1A gene. This gene encodes one ... Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human ARPC1A ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1B gene. This gene encodes one ... Isoforms of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. Indeed, it ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1B actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B, 41kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Isoform ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q58CQ2 (Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC2 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Weed SA, ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "Cortactin localization to sites of actin assembly in lamellipodia requires interactions with F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex". J ...
Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP). This IcsA/N-WASP complex then activates the Actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 ... S. flexneri is a rod shaped, nonflagellar bacterium that relies on actin-based motility. It produces the protein actin in a ... It then uses another IpaBC complex to make a pore and enter the next cell. VacJ is a protein that is also needed by S. flexneri ... The IcsA protein is first localized to one pole of the bacterium where it will then bind with the host's protein, ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC3 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC3 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3, 21kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Welch MD, ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... Marchand JB, Kaiser DA, Pollard TD, Higgs HN (2001). "Interaction of WASP/Scar proteins with actin and vertebrate Arp2/3 ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC4 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC4 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa". "Dysmorphology data for Arpc4". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC5 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC5 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa". Millard TH, Behrendt B, Launay S, Fütterer K, Machesky ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ...
"The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... Actin-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR2 gene. The specific function of ACTR2 has not yet ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR2 ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast)". Bearer EL, Prakash JM, Li Z (2002). "Actin dynamics in ...
... encoding protein ADP-ribosylation-like factor 6 interacting protein 4 ARPC3: encoding protein Actin-related protein 2/3 complex ... encoding protein Intermediate filament family orphan 1 KANSL2: encoding protein KAT8 regulatory NSL complex subunit 2 (KANSL2) ... encoding protein Protein asunder homolog (Asun) ATG101: Autophagy-related protein 101 BCAT1: encoding protein Branched chain ... encoding protein a protein of 377 amino acid residues FAM60A: encoding protein FAM60A FAM186B: encoding protein Protein FAM186B ...
"The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... Actin-related protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3 gene. The specific function of this gene has not ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3 ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast)". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Weed SA, Karginov AV ... Machesky LM, Insall RH (1999). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ...
Filament end-tracking protein (e.g., formins, VASP, N-WASP). *Filament-nucleator known as the Actin-Related Protein-2/3 (or ... The polymerization cofactor profilin and the ATP·actin combine to form a profilin-ATP-actin complex that then binds to the end- ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin.. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... These structures are regulated by many other classes of actin-binding proteins, including motor proteins, branching proteins, ...
2003). "Haematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) promotes actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex-mediated actin ... Chen, Y R; Kori R; John B; Tan T H (Nov 2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ... Chen YR, Kori R, John B, Tan TH (2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ... Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCLS1 gene. HCLS1 has been shown to ...
NPFs in the mammalian cell recruit and bind to the already existing actin-related-protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) and ... The Actin assembly-inducing protein (ActA) is a protein encoded and used by Listeria monocytogenes to propel itself through a ... an actin monomer binding protein, which itself promotes polymerization at barbed ends of actin filaments. Furthermore, VASP ... In the cytosol they start to polymerize actin on their surface by the help of the ActA protein. It has been shown that ActA is ...
... actin-related protein 2-3 complex MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.500 - actin-related protein 2 MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.750 - actin- ... photosystem i protein complex MeSH D05.500.562.496 - photosystem ii protein complex MeSH D05.500.562.500 - proteasome ... actin capping proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.500 - capz actin capping protein MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.750 - tropomodulin ... related protein 3 MeSH D05.750.078.730.250 - actins MeSH D05.750.078.730.281 - cortactin MeSH D05.750.078.730.350 - gelsolin ...
Actin, alpha 1 Actinin, alpha 1 Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 Aldehyde ... mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha 1 BCL2-related protein A1 Butyrophilin, subfamily 1, member A1 Butyrophilin, subfamily 3, ... DP alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 Myosin light chain A1, an actin-binding protein NADH ... alpha 1 RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 1, member A1 Replication protein A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1 Sec61 ...
Filament end-tracking protein (e.g., formins, VASP, N-WASP) Filament-nucleator known as the Actin-Related Protein-2/3 (or Arp2/ ... complex Filament cross-linkers (e.g., α-actinin, fascin, and fimbrin) Actin monomer-binding proteins profilin and thymosin β4 ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... These structures are regulated by many other classes of actin-binding proteins, including motor proteins, branching proteins, ...
Machesky LM, Insall RH (1998). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ... The WH2 domain binds to actin monomers and can facilitate the assembly of actin monomers into actin filaments. Human genes ... It is found in WASP proteins which control actin polymerisation, therefore, WH2 is important in cellular processes such as cell ... WH2 proteins occur in eukaryotes from yeast to mammals, in insect viruses, and in some bacteria. The WH2 domain is found as a ...
... expression of the nuclear actin-related protein ArpNalpha and its involvement in mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex ... Actin-like protein 6A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL6A gene. This gene encodes a family member of actin- ... related proteins (ARPs), which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have ... "Alternative splicing products of the gene for a human nuclear actin-related protein, hArpNbeta/Baf53, that encode a protein ...
2013 Phosphorylation of actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) is required for normal development and cAMP chemotaxis in Dictyostelium ... The current focus is on the transcriptional events linked to these actin dynamics. The final main focus of her research is on ... 2008 Cofilin is a pH sensor for actin free barbed end formation. J. Cell Biol. 183:865-879 (Highlighted in Journal; Cited in ... 2009 The Na-H exchanger NHE1 is an Akt substrate necessary for actin filament reorganization by growth factors. J Biol Chem. ...
The complex folds various proteins, including actin and tubulin. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different ... Joly EC, Sévigny G, Todorov IT, Bibor-Hardy V (Mar 1994). "cDNA encoding a novel TCP1-related protein". Biochimica et ... T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCT3 gene. This gene encodes a molecular ... This complex consists of two identical stacked rings, each containing eight different proteins. Unfolded polypeptides enter the ...
"Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... In molecular biology, DCTN6 is that subunit of the dynactin protein complex that is encoded by the p27 gene. Dynactin is the ... "Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... Dynactin p27 forms a hetero-dimer with the other dynactin pointed-end complex subunit p25/DCTN5 in 1:1 ratio, and it is ...
"Dynamics of cytoplasmic dynein in living cells and the effect of a mutation in the dynactin complex actin-related protein Arp1 ... an actin-related protein is a component of a filament that resembles F-actin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 126 (2): 403-12. ... Dynamin related protein 1) have been documented as vital to the attachment of mitochondria to the dynactin complex. Dynactin ... It is built around a short filament of actin related protein-1 (Arp1). Dynactin was identified as an activity that allowed ...
ActA Actibind Actin Actinfilin Actinogelin Actin-regulating kinases Actin-Related Proteins Actobindin Actolinkin Actopaxin ... Actin-binding proteins (also known as ABPs) are proteins that bind to actin. This may mean ability to bind actin monomers, or ... Many actin-binding proteins, including α-actinin, β-spectrin, dystrophin, utrophin and fimbrin, do this through the actin- ... related to the ERM proteins) Myosins MAP-1C Metavinculin Moesin (the M of ERM proteins) Myosin light chain kinase MAL Mip-90 ...
This gene encodes a member of the actin-related proteins (ARP), which form multiprotein complexes and share 35-55% amino acid ... Actin-related protein 3B also known as ARP3-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3B gene. Pseudogenes of this ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3B ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog B (yeast)". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human ACTR3B ... the gene encoding a new human actin-related protein, is alternatively spliced and predominantly expressed in brain neuronal ...
Enz R (March 2002). "The actin-binding protein Filamin-A interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7". FEBS ... "Homer regulates the association of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with multivalent complexes of homer-related, ... "Actin-binding protein alpha-actinin-1 interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5b and modulates the cell surface ... The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the ...
... links with other proteins and serves as a core component of two distinct protein complexes, mTOR complex 1 and mTOR ... mTOR signaling appears to be closely related to the presence of soluble amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau proteins, which aggregate and ... mTORC2 has been shown to function as an important regulator of the actin cytoskeleton through its stimulation of F-actin stress ... This complex functions as a nutrient/energy/redox sensor and controls protein synthesis. The activity of mTORC1 is regulated by ...
Coronin, actin binding protein, 1B also known as CORO1B is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CORO1B gene. Members of ... Studies related to this protein are as follows: Coronin 1B antagonizes cortactin and remodels Arp2/3-containing actin branches ... Okumura M, Kung C, Wong S, Rodgers M, Thomas ML (September 1998). "Definition of family of coronin-related proteins conserved ... "Entrez Gene: CORO1B coronin, actin binding protein, 1B". Cai L, Makhov AM, Schafer DA, Bear JE (September 2008). "Coronin 1B ...
Alpha-catenins are proteins of about 100 kDa which are evolutionary related to vinculin. In terms of their structure the most ... The association of catenins to cadherins produces a complex which is linked to the actin filament network, and which seems to ... In addition to actin, vinculin interacts with other structural proteins such as talin and alpha-actinins. Vinculin is a large ... Vinculin is a eukaryotic protein that seems to be involved in the attachment of the actin-based microfilaments to the plasma ...
"Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... a macromolecular complex consisting of 23 subunits (11 individual proteins ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD). The subunit is ... "The APC-associated protein EB1 associates with components of the dynactin complex and cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain". ... Yue L, Lu S, Garces J, Jin T, Li J (August 2000). "Protein kinase C-regulated dynamitin-macrophage-enriched myristoylated ...
This is accomplished through the use of an actin and myosin complex. The complexes require an actin cytoskeleton to perform ... Both protists use protein complexes similar to those that are formed by the gregarines for gliding motility and invading target ... Carreno RA, Martin DS, Barta JR (November 1999). "Cryptosporidium is more closely related to the gregarines than to coccidia as ... In the proposed 'capping' model, an uncharacterized protein complex moves rearward, moving the parasites forward. The ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... "The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related ... Through the interaction of β-catenin and α-catenin, actin and E-cadherin are linked, providing the cell with a means of stable ... it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. β- ...
... phosphorylation in the MARCKS-related domain inhibits activity in promoting spectrin-actin complexes and occurs in many cells, ... Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... Adducin is a heterodimeric protein that consists of related subunits, which are produced from distinct genes but share a ... "Identification of the spectrin subunit and domains required for formation of spectrin/adducin/actin complexes". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Levesque G (1999). "Presenilins interact with armadillo proteins including neural-specific plakophilin-related protein and beta ... protein complex. • axon. • nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • integral component of ... "Interaction of presenilins with the filamin family of actin-binding proteins". J. Neurosci. 18 (3): 914-22. PMC 2042137. PMID ... protein processing. • protein maturation. • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation. • autophagy. • protein glycosylation. • ...
Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea,[89] and filaments form within their cells, ... "An actin homolog of the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum that retains the ancient characteristics of eukaryotic actin". J. ... 13 June 2017). "A Complex Endomembrane System in the Archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis Tapped by Nanoarchaeum equitans". Frontiers ... The proteins that archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes share form a common core of cell function, relating mostly to transcription ...
... such as protein-DNA complexes, which include the TATA binding motif. Compounds that trap the protein-DNA intermediate could ... The TATA box is also found in 40% of the core promoters of genes that code for the actin cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus ... In specific cell types or on specific promoters TBP can be replaced by one of several TBP-related factors (TRF1 in Drosophila, ... Additional factors, including the Mediator complex, transcriptional regulatory proteins, and nucleosome-modifying enzymes also ...
... another Ras-related GTP-binding protein, is implicated in the regulation of the actin organisation in presence of extracellular ... unable to bind to their specific effector proteins showed that RalA and RalB isoforms promote branching through exocyst complex ... In addition, the inactivation of Rho protein by ADP-ribosylation in Rac1 microinjection reduced the formation of actin stress ... "The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 holoenzyme complex. • plasma membrane. • membrane. Biological process. • positive regulation ... Humbert S, Dhavan R, Tsai L (2000). "p39 activates cdk5 in neurons, and is associated with the actin cytoskeleton". J. Cell Sci ... Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 and ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 activator activity. • lipid binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ...
... it is a group of circulating proteins that can bind pathogens and form a membrane attack complex. Complement deficiencies are ... which is a basic line of defence that is independent of the more advanced lymphocyte-related systems. Many of these conditions ... Beta-actin deficiency Localized juvenile periodontitis Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome Specific granule deficiency Shwachman-Diamond ... deficiency Membrane cofactor protein (CD46) deficiency Membrane attack complex inhibitor (CD59) deficiency Paroxysmal nocturnal ...
... another cytoskeletal protein, to create stable and integrated cytoskeletal networks.[58] Actins have a variety of roles in ... BDNF is a critical mediator of vulnerability to stress, memory of fear/trauma, and stress-related disorders such as post- ... "Dock3 induces axonal outgrowth by stimulating membrane recruitment of the WAVE complex". Proceedings of the National Academy ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ...
"Cloning from the thyroid of a protein related to actin binding protein that is recognized by Graves disease immunoglobulins". ... identical protein binding. • protein binding. • actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... Xu W, Xie Z, Chung DW, Davie EW (1998). "A novel human actin-binding protein homologue that binds to platelet glycoprotein ...
positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... cortical actin cytoskeleton organization. • embryonic digestive tract development. • leukocyte migration. • lipopolysaccharide- ... Activation of the MAPK pathways: Of the three major MAPK cascades, TNF induces a strong activation of the stress-related JNK ... positive regulation of protein complex disassembly. • regulation of cell proliferation. • cellular response to amino acid ...
protein complex assembly. • actin filament organization. • negative regulation of cell motility. • blood coagulation. • ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein.. *MBInfo - WASP and other Nucleation Promotion Factors ... protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase ... a protein associated with wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein, induces actin polymerization and redistribution in lymphoid cells" ...
... using the CAS-related proteins (p130Cas, NEDD9/HEF1 and EFS) mRNAs as templates. Singh et al. subsequently cloned and ... "Dcas supports cell polarization and cell-cell adhesion complexes in development". PLOS ONE. 5 (8): e12369. Bibcode:2010PLoSO ... "Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene.[5] ...
... another cytoskeletal protein, to create stable and integrated cytoskeletal networks.[54] Actins have a variety of roles in ... In addition to mediating transient effects on NMDAR activation to promote memory-related molecular changes, BDNF should also ... "Dock3 induces axonal outgrowth by stimulating membrane recruitment of the WAVE complex". Proceedings of the National Academy ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ...
... attaches to the actin cytoskeleton through anchor proteins that are still poorly characterized. ... 1g1r: Crystal structure of P-selectin lectin/EGF domains complexed with SLeX ... protein binding. • calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. ... an EGF-like domain and a complement-binding protein-like domains (same as complement regulatory proteins: CRP) having short ...
Each of these antibody subtypes binds to different proteins or protein complexes within the nucleus. They are found in many ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Table 6-2 in: Elizabeth D ... CENP-E is a 312kDa protein from the kinesin motor protein family. CENP-F is a 367kDa protein from the nuclear matrix that ... 54kDa and 60kDa proteins and RNA. The 60kDa DNA/RNA binding protein and 52kDa T-cell regulatory protein are the best ...
... which generates branched actin filaments. Several proteins can serve as NPFs, and it has been observed that in WAS platelets ... The current gold standard for diagnosis is genomic DNA sequence analysis, which can detect WAS and the related disorders XLT ... The protein product of WAS is known as WASp. It contains 502 amino acids and is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells (the ... Alleles that produce no or truncated protein have more severe effects than missense mutations.[12] Although autoimmune disease ...
... cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes ... Myofibrils are complex strands of several kinds of protein filaments organized together into repeating units called sarcomeres ... Media related to muscles at Wikimedia Commons. *University of Dundee article on performing neurological examinations ( ... that were present in all bilaterians muscle ancestors and that of these for necessary Z-disc components only an actin protein ...
... and allow the assembly of large protein complexes that carry out many closely related reactions with a common biological ... Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton ... Main article: Protein domain. Many proteins are composed of several protein domains, i.e. segments of a protein that fold into ... a huge protein complex. A single protein subunit is highlighted. Chaperonins assist protein folding. ...
These polypeptides usually have a related function (they often are the subunits composing a final complex protein) and their ... actin mRNA associates with ZBP1 and the 40S subunit. The complex is bound by a motor protein and is transported to the target ... binding protein. eIF-4E and eIF-4G block the decapping enzyme (DCP2), and poly(A)-binding protein blocks the exosome complex, ... processed by Dicer are incorporated into a complex known as the RNA-induced silencing complex or RISC. This complex contains an ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amanita phalloides.. *UK Telegraph Newspaper (September 2008) - One woman dead, another ... The case of Claudius' poisoning is more complex. Claudius was known to have been very fond of eating Caesar's mushroom. ... essential protein synthesis and hence cell metabolism grind to a halt and the cell dies.[64] The liver is the principal organ ... "Phallotoxins bind to actins". FEBS Lett. 46 (1): 351-3. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(74)80404-7. PMID 4429639. S2CID 39255487 ...
Related cell processes[edit]. Cell rounding[edit]. Cell shape changes through mitosis for a typical animal cell cultured on a ... Generation of pressure is dependent on formin-mediated F-actin nucleation[71] and Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated myosin II ... Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes-complexes of tightly coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for ...
protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • Ras guanyl ... TSC1-TSC2 complex. • axon. • neuron projection. • intermediate filament. • axon cytoplasm. • neuromuscular junction. • Schaffer ... Neurofilament light polypeptide (NFL), also known as neurofilament light chain, is a neurofilament protein that in humans is ... protein polymerization. • intermediate filament bundle assembly. • neuromuscular process controlling balance. • neurofilament ...
The protein complex composed of actin myosin, contractile proteins, is sometimes referred to as "actomyosin". In striated ... may illumine the exact molecular nature of exercise-induced protein remodeling in muscle may be the study of related proteins ... Thin filaments, 7 nm in diameter, consist primarily of the protein actin, specifically fibrous (F) actin. Each F actin strand ... These proteins are thought to provide the cellular scaffolding necessary for the actin-myosin complex to undergo contraction. ...
Escape-time fractals - use a formula or recurrence relation at each point in a space (such as the complex plane); usually quasi ... ISBN 1-904555-05-5 (The book comes with a related DVD of the Arthur C. Clarke documentary introduction to the fractal concept ... Diego Krapf has shown that through branching processes the actin filaments in human cells assemble into fractals patterns.[60] ... "Mass fractal dimension and the compactness of proteins". Physical Review E. 71 (1): 011912. Bibcode:2005PhRvE..71a1912E. doi ...
actin binding. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • protein phosphatase binding. 細胞の構成要素. • 細胞質. • 細胞質基質. • 膜. • 焦点接着. • ... "Cell adhesion kinase beta forms a complex with a new member, Hic-5, of proteins localized at focal adhesions". The Journal of ... "Interaction of Hic-5, A senescence-related protein, with focal adhesion kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 273 (41): ... "Relocation of Syk protein-tyrosine kinase to the actin filament network and subsequent association with Fak". European
... anchorage of AMPA receptors by cadherins through neural plakophilin-related arm protein AMPA receptor-binding protein complexes ... Wu H, Nash JE, Zamorano P, Garner CC (August 2002). "Interaction of SAP97 with minus-end-directed actin motor myosin VI. ... a motor protein, are bound as a complex to the C-terminus of AMPARs. Following phosphorylation by CaMKII, the complex moves ... Calcineurin interacts with an endocytotic complex at the postsynaptic zone, explaining its effects on LTD.[62] The complex, ...
The S RNA encodes GP and NP (viral nucleocapsid protein) proteins, while L RNA encodes Z and L proteins. The L protein most ... dynamin and actin. Once within the cell the viruses are rapidly delivered to endosomes via vesicular trafficking albeit one ... complex into the cytoplasm. Viral RNA is unpacked, and replication and transcription initiate in the cytoplasm.[22] As ... This ensures an adequate supply of viral proteins for subsequent steps of replication, as the NP and L proteins are translated ...
This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Sharma M, Castro-Piedras I, Simmons GE, Pruitt K (July 2018). "Dishevelled: A masterful conductor of complex Wnt signals". ... which activates actin and cytoskeleton architecture in the cell. For the Rac branch, DVL activates the Rac GTPase.[3] ... These regions mediate protein-protein interactions and help DVL channel signals into either the β-catenin or the β-catenin ...
protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • metal ion binding. • GTP binding. • ... However, none of these diseases are related to an enzyme deficiency. Indeed, thus far no disease has been attributed to the ... The expression of tTG is regulated at the transcriptional level depending on complex signal cascades. Once synthesized, most of ... actin, and spectrin.[28] Evidence shows that intracellular tTG crosslinks itself to myosin. It is also believed that tTG may ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1 (IPR017383) *Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141) ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141). Short name: ARC1B ...
Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These ... and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon ... The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, ... Previous Names: "actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 (16 kD)", "actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5, 16kDa" ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ... mRNA and Protein(s) * XM_006498389.3 → XP_006498452.1 actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein isoform X2 ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_028809.1 → NP_083085.1 actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein ... actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-likeprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1921442 See related. Ensembl: ...
... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament. ... Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,B5FYW3,B5FYW3_TAEGU Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 OS=Taeniopygia guttata OX=59729 PE=2 SV=1 ...
Compare actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used ... Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A (ARPC1A) ELISA Kit ... Canine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A (ARPC1A) ELISA Kit ...
... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Arp2/3 complex plays a critical role in the control of cell morphogenesis ... Functions as component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,B1ALC0,B1ALC0_HUMAN Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ARPC5 PE=1 SV=1 ...
Compare actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits. Clear ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well- ... Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein (ARPC5L) ELISA Kit ...
... protein-containing complex binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN response to estradiol (ortholog); response to estrogen (ortholog); ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits actin filament binding (ortholog); ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits actin filament binding (ortholog); protein-containing complex binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN ... actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. Orthologs:. Homo sapiens (human) : ARPC1B (actin related protein 2/3 complex ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: ... Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). Need help ... Discover more about diseases related to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). ... Learn more about PTMs related to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). ...
similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 Symbol and Name status set to provisional. 70820. PROVISIONAL. ... Gene: LOC686150 (similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) Rattus norvegicus. {{ watchLinkText }} ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ... Aging & Age-Related Disease Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Developmental Disease Diabetes Hematologic Disease Immune & ...
OMIM: ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2/3 COMPLEX, SUBUNIT 1A; ARPC1A*Gene Ontology: Arpc1a *Mouse Phenome DB: Arpc1a *UCSC: Chr.5: ... actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A. Synonyms: 0610010H08Rik, 1110030K07Rik, Sid32. Gene nomenclature, locus ...
What is actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5? Meaning of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 medical term. ... What does actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 mean? ... Looking for online definition of actin related protein 2/3 ... complex, subunit 5 in the Medical Dictionary? actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 explanation free. ... redirected from actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) ARPC5. A gene on chromosome 1q25.3 that encodes p16, one of the ...
... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. [The UniProt Consortium] ... Functions as component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an ... ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A ... Customer review for "ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A" ...
Recombinant human ARPC5 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional ... Recombinant Mouse ARPC5 Protein. +Inquiry. ARPC5-696H. Recombinant Human actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa, ... Recombinant Human Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 5, 16kDa, His-tagged. ARPC5 Related Products By Species ... Recombinant Human Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 5, 16kDa, His-tagged ARPC5-4975H. ...
What is actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4? Meaning of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 medical term. What ... Looking for online definition of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 in the Medical Dictionary? actin-related protein 2 ... redirected from actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4) ARPC4. A gene on chromosome 3p25.3 that encodes p20, one of the ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 , definition of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 by Medical dictionary ...
1997; 138(2):375-384. (2) Narayanan, A., LeClaire, L.L., Barber, D.L. andJacobson, M.P. Phosphorylation of the Arp2 subunit ... The human Arp2/3 complx is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin ... The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex. Molecular Exploration Project - The Principles of Cellular Control (CELL2007) ... 1997; 138(2):375-384.. (2) Narayanan, A., LeClaire, L.L., Barber, D.L. andJacobson, M.P. Phosphorylation of the Arp2 subunit ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. ... Compartment GO Terms for Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. ... This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1A. The ... This protein also has a role in centrosomal homeostasis by being an activator and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. [provided ...
... an actin monomer, a mother filament and a nucleation promoting-factor needed to activate the complex which is intrinsically ... Introduction The Arp2/3 complex is responsible for nucleation of actin filaments to form branches at a distinct 70 degrees ... Several factors are known to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, most… ... The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex. Molecular Exploration Project - The Principles of Cellular Control (CELL2007) ...
... the actin-nucleating formins, Diaphanous-1 (DIA1) and Formin-like-1 (FMNL1), did not affect TCR-stimulated F-actin-rich ... and formin-dependent F-actin nucleation during T cell activation. We demonstrated that without Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation ... stimulated T cells could not form an F-actin-rich lamellipod, but instead produced polarized filopodia-like structures. ... Altogether, our results have identified Arp2/3 complex-independent cytoskeletal reorganization events in T lymphocytes and ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3 superfamily (IPR036753). Add your Annotation. Your annotation. You may suggest ...
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Bovine Proteins. Bovine Albumin Bovine Transferrin CellMaxx Thrombin >> View All Bovine Proteins Empowered. Amino Acids and ... Bovine Albumin Bovine Transferrin CellMaxx Thrombin >> View All Bovine Proteins Food & Biodiesel Analysis. Platforms, Analyzers ... FastDNA™ Isolation Kits FastRNA™ Isolation Kits FastProtein™ Isolation Kits >> View All DNA™, RNA™ & Protein™ Kits Purification ... Instruments Proteins, Enzymes & Peptides Radiochemicals Rare & Fine Chemicals >> View All Life Sciences Research. Apoptosis ...
Polyclonal Antibody to Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 4 (ARPC4) - Mouse ... Polyclonal Antibody to Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 4 (ARPC4) - Mouse by USCNK ...
Protein Coding), Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, ... a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) (PubMed:9230079 ... Protein details for ARPC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. O15144-ARPC2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Actin-related ... ARPC2 Gene (Protein Coding) Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2. ...
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 3 Pseudogene 3, including: function, ... ARPC3P3 (Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 3 Pseudogene 3) is a Pseudogene. ... Search Origene for Purified Proteins, MassSpec and Protein Over-expression Lysates for ARPC3P3 ...
... complex, a handful of nucleation-promoting factors and formins were the only molecules known to directly nucleate actin ... However, the past several years have seen a surge in the discovery of mammalian proteins with … ... For over a decade, the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, a handful of nucleation-promoting factors and formins were ... However, the past several years have seen a surge in the discovery of mammalian proteins with roles in actin nucleation and ...
The actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is a central player in this regulation. A decade of study has begun to shed ... The cellular functions of the actin cytoskeleton require precise regulation of both the initiation of actin polymerization and ... The actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is a central player in this regulation. A decade of study has begun to shed ... The cellular functions of the actin cytoskeleton require precise regulation of both the initiation of actin polymerization and ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4. Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 UniProtKBInterProSTRINGInteractive Modelling. 169 aa; Sequence (Fasta) ...
actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B. MGI:1343142 Go Annotations as Summary Text (Tabular View) (GO Graph). Automated ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B).. Go Annotations in Tabular Form (Text View) (GO Graph) Filter annotations by: ... Predicted to have actin filament binding activity. Predicted to be involved in Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. ... Predicted to localize to the Arp2/3 protein complex and tubulobulbar complex. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in ...
  • The Arp2/3 complex binds to pre-existing actin filaments and nucleates new daughter filaments, and thus becomes incorporated into the dynamic actin network at the leading edge of motile cells and other actin-based protrusive structures [ PMID: 9600938 ]. (
  • The interaction of Arp2/3 complex with actin: nucleation, high affinity pointed end capping, and formation of branching networks of filaments. (
  • Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. (
  • Arp2/3 complex plays a critical role in the control of cell morphogenesis via the modulation of cell polarity development. (
  • Functions as component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin. (
  • p16-ARC, also known as ARPC5, is a 151 amino acid subunit of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Thought to play a role in maintaining the integrity of Arp2/3, ARPC5 is a substrate for MAPKAPK-2 which, through phosphorylation of ARPC5, may participate in Arp2/3 regulatory functions and remodeling of the Actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Iwanatsu, A. and Mitchison, T.J. The human Arp2/3 complx is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin filament assembly. (
  • (2) Narayanan, A., LeClaire, L.L., Barber, D.L. andJacobson, M.P. Phosphorylation of the Arp2 subunit relieves auto-inhibitory interactions for Arp2/3 complex activation. (
  • This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. (
  • The similarity between these two proteins suggests that they both may function as p41 subunit of the human Arp2/3 complex that has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. (
  • It is possible that the p41 subunit is involved in assembling and maintaining the structure of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Several factors are known to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, most notably WASp. (
  • Structural features of the complex as a whole and particular subunits reveal clues about the mechanism of action of the Arp2/3-complex in the process of actin filament formation. (
  • The structural images are based on a crystallized structure of the residues of the bovine Arp2/3 complex, at an 2.0 Angstrom resolution, as published by Robinson and colleagues [1], and retrieved from the Protein Database (PDB). (
  • 86% of the 1980 residues are included, with the major missing regions being subdomains 1 and 2 of the Arp2-subunit which showed a very weak electron density and steric clashing with Arp3 [2], indicating these subdomains are highly flexible. (
  • The complex is crystallized in its inactive form, with the Arp2 and Arp3 at a considerable distance from each other: earlier mentioned promoting factors are presumably involved in bringing Arp2 in closer proximity to Arp3, to allow nucleation to occur. (
  • We therefore examined the requirement for Arp2/3- and formin-dependent F-actin nucleation during T cell activation. (
  • Filopodia formation in the absence of functional WAVE- and Arp2/3-complexes. (
  • The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through evolution. (
  • Actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) (PubMed:9230079). (
  • The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility (PubMed:9230079). (
  • In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA (PubMed:29925947). (
  • The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs) (PubMed:29925947). (
  • For over a decade, the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, a handful of nucleation-promoting factors and formins were the only molecules known to directly nucleate actin filament formation de novo. (
  • Newly recognized nucleation-promoting factors, such as WASP and SCAR homologue (WASH), WASP homologue associated with actin, membranes and microtubules (WHAMM), and junction-mediating regulatory protein (JMY), stimulate ARP2/3 activity at distinct cellular locations. (
  • The actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is a central player in this regulation. (
  • Predicted to be involved in Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. (
  • Predicted to localize to the Arp2/3 protein complex and tubulobulbar complex. (
  • Rapid actin polymerization depends on nucleation promoting factors, including the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. (
  • The Arp2/3 complex requires activation by the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family of proteins, which contain an autoinhibitory and GTPase-binding domain, an SH3 domain-binding proline-rich domain, and an Arp2/3 complex-activating verprolin-central-acidic (VCA) domain. (
  • Ligands such as the small GTPase Cdc42 and SH3 domain proteins release WASp autoinhibitory interactions, leading to Arp2/3 complex activation ( Stradal and Scita, 2006 ). (
  • Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. (
  • Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. (
  • Exogenous expression of phosphomimetic S177D-Pdlim5 inhibits cell migration and attenuates lamellipodia formation.Notably, S177D-Pdlim5, but not WT-Pdlim5, attenuates the association with Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors at the cell periphery.Taken together, our findings indicate that phosphorylation of Pdlim5 on Ser177 by AMPK mediates inhibition of cell migration by suppressing the Rac1-Arp2/3 signalling pathway. (
  • Consistent with this observation, S177D-Pdlim5 suppresses Rac1 activity at the cell periphery and displaces the Arp2/3 complex from the leading edge. (
  • Taken together, our findings indicate that phosphorylation of Pdlim5 on Ser177 by AMPK mediates inhibition of cell migration by suppressing the Rac1-Arp2/3 signalling pathway. (
  • Altered Expression of ARP2/3 Complex Signaling Pathway Genes in Prefrontal Layer 3 Pyramidal Cells in Schizophrenia. (
  • Downregulation of the ARP2/3 complex signaling pathway, a common final pathway for multiple signaling cascades that regulate the actin cytoskeleton, would compromise the structural stability of spines, leading to their loss. (
  • In concert with findings from deletion of the ARP2/3 complex in mice, these findings support the idea that spine deficits in the DLPFC may contribute to subcortical hyperdopaminergia in schizophrenia. (
  • Recent reports now demonstrate a novel aspect of the ARP2/3 complex and the nucleating-promoting factors in the maintenance of endothelial barrier function and junction remodeling of established endothelial cell junctions. (
  • Title: Dynamics between actin and the VE-cadherin/catenin complex: novel aspects of the ARP2/3 complex in regulation of endothelial junctions. (
  • Here, we report a 9.0 Å resolution structure of the actin filament Arp2/3 complex branch junction in cells using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging. (
  • This allows us to generate an accurate model of the active Arp2/3 complex in the branch junction and its interaction with actin filaments. (
  • Notably, our model reveals a previously undescribed set of interactions of the Arp2/3 complex with the mother filament, significantly different to the previous branch junction model. (
  • Indeed, it has recently been shown that variants of the Arp2/3 complex differ in their ability to promote actin assembly, with complexes containing ARPC1B and ARPC5L being better at this than those containing ARPC1A and ARPC5. (
  • mDab1 activates N-WASP directly, and induces actin polymerization through the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3) complex. (
  • This filopodium formation is dependent on N-WASP, because expression of an N-WASP mutant that cannot induce Arp2/3-complex-mediated actin polymerization suppressed filopodium formation. (
  • B ) SDS/PAGE of 10 μg of purified Arp2/3 complexes. (
  • B, amoeba Arp2/3 complex B. H, human Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Effects of Scar constructs, Arp2/3 complex, and profilin on the time course of actin polymerization. (
  • 50 nM Scar-PWA ( A ) or 50 nM full length Scar ( B ). Without Arp2/3 complex, these concentrations of Scar constructs have no effect on actin polymerization in either the presence or absence of profilin-I or profilin-II. (
  • Dependence of the activation of actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex A on the concentrations of Scar-PWA ( A ) and Scar-WA ( B ). Conditions: 3.3 μM actin and 0.9 μM amoeba Arp2/3 complex A with Scar-WA or Scar-PWA as indicated by the micromolar concentrations beside each curve. (
  • The effect on the time course of polymerization of preincubating Arp2/3 complex and/or Scar constructs with actin filaments before the addition of actin monomers. (
  • The symbols used are defined in A , except that ○ indicates actin monomers with 300 nM actin filaments preincubated with 400 nM phalloidin/29 nM Scar-PWA/15 nM amoeba Arp2/3 complex A for 1 min. (
  • The association of Arp2/3 complex with Scar and the side of an actin filament activates nucleation of a new actin filament, which is capped at its pointed end by the Arp2/3 complex and which grows in the barbed direction as a branch of the older filament. (
  • Scar could bind to Arp2/3 complex before their association with the side of an actin filament. (
  • Human actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3), required for actin filament branching, has two ARPC1 component isoforms, with ARPC1B prominently expressed in blood cells. (
  • Platelet lysates reveal no ARPC1B protein and greatly reduced Arp2/3 complex. (
  • ARPC1B-deficient platelets are microthrombocytes similar to those seen in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome that show aberrant spreading consistent with loss of Arp2/3 function. (
  • The mammalian Arp2/3 complex contains five unique components: ARP2, ARP3, ARPC2, ARPC3 and ARPC4, together with one molecule each of the isoform pairs ARPC1A and ARPC1B, and ARPC5A and ARPC5B. (
  • To our knowledge no inherited human deficiency of ARPC1B or other Arp2/3 components has been previously reported. (
  • Patient 1 with p.Val91Trpfs*30 ARPC1B mutation that results in complete loss of ARPC1B protein and decreased Arp2/3 complex in platelets, leading to microthrombocytopenia, decreased platelet dense granules, defective platelet spreading with prominent filopodia but limited lammellipodia. (
  • Cortactin has a multidomain structure consisting of binding regions for the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3) complex and F-actin. (
  • The Arp2/3 complex is a multiprotein complex consisting of seven subunits including Arp2 and Arp3. (
  • Although WASP and SCAR are activated differently to induce Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization, they share a common proline-rich region, which is known to bind to SH3 domain containing proteins. (
  • The machinery is the actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3), a large assembly of seven proteins that stick together. (
  • The Arp2/3 complex is very highly conserved, like actin. (
  • Nolen, also a member of the UO's Institute of Molecular Biology, began studying the Arp2/3 complex's role in cytoskeletal network formation during postdoctoral research at Yale University, where he was part of a team that in 2009 identified two distinct classes of molecules that inhibited normal activity of the machinery. (
  • More importantly, they were able to capture exactly where the molecules docked, or bound, with the much larger macromolecular Arp2/3 complex. (
  • What was seen in the Arp2/3 complex, Nolen said, will help to understand precisely how actin is controlled in cells. (
  • A lot of studies are showing that the Arp2/3 complex is very important for cell motility. (
  • So if we can figure out the Arp2/3 complex works, we can better understand how it affects things like cellular motility and, therefore, how we might affect things like metastasis of tumors. (
  • In the second paper, placed online July 28 in advance of regular publication in the journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology , Nolen and Quing Luan, a research technician in the UO's Institute of Molecular Biology, report the first crystal structure of the Arp2/3 complex while bound with a natural occurring inhibitor, glial maturation factor, known as GMF. (
  • We have determined the three-dimensional structure of all of the atoms that make up each of the sub-units of the Arp2/3 complex, and we've created a 3-D picture of where this regulator binds to the complex by using X-ray crystallography," Nolen said. (
  • What this tells us is the structural basis for how GMF regulates the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Analysis of the interactions between GMF and Arp2/3 complex in two binding sites by molecular dynamics simulation. (
  • The Arp2/3 complex plays a key role in nucleating actin filaments branching. (
  • The glia maturation factor (GMF) competes with activators for interacting with the Arp2/3 complex and initiates the debranching of actin filaments. (
  • In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of interactions between GMF and the Arp2/3 complex and identified new amino acid residues involved in GMF binding to the Arp2/3 complex at two separate sites, revealed by X-ray and single particle EM techniques. (
  • We identified the specific amino acid residues in GMF and Arp2/3 complex that stabilize the interactions and estimated the mean force profile for the GMF using umbrella sampling. (
  • Phylogenetic and structural analyses of the recently defined GMF binding site on the Arp3 subunit indicate a new mechanism for Arp2/3 complex inactivation that involves interactions between the Arp2/3 complex and GMF at two binding sites. (
  • GRB2 links signaling to actin assembly by enhancing interaction of neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp) with actin-related protein (ARP2/3) complex. (
  • Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Sequential interaction of actin-related proteins 2 and 3 (Arp2/3) complex with neural Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and cortactin during branched actin filament network formation. (
  • Different WASP family proteins stimulate different Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin-nucleating activities. (
  • Identification of another actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex binding site in neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) that complements actin polymerization induced by the Arp2/3 complex activating (VCA) domain of N-WASP. (
  • The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein directs actin-based motility by stimulating actin nucleation with the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of Arp2/3 complex in 88 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and correlated it with the tumor type and grade. (
  • Expression of Arp2 and Arp3, indicative of the formation of the Arp2/3 complex, was seen in most OSCCs examined. (
  • The availability of Arp2/3 inhibitors that could be used in clinical practice warrants further study of the expression of Arp2/3 in OSCC. (
  • Georgopoulou, M. , Tosios, K. , Goutas, N. and Kouloukoussa, M. (2019) Arp2/3 Complex Is Expressed in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study of 88 Cases. (
  • Moreover, the expression Arp2/3 complex has been associated with malignant cell phenotypes, indicating the importance of these proteins in cancer cell migration and invasion [11] - [18]. (
  • The Arp2/3 complex consists of seven proteins with five unique subunits (ARPC1-5) forming the dimer Arp2/3 [19]. (
  • Cooperative interactions with ATP, nucleation promoting factors and the side chain of an actin filament activate Arp2/3 complex to initiate the production of a new actin filament [20]. (
  • However, silencing of any of the Arp2/3 complex subunits genes results in a significant decrease in the cell migratory capacity [11] [18]. (
  • In head and neck carcinomas, silencing of the ARPC5 gene that encodes one of the seven subunits of Arp2/3 complex led to changes in cell morphology, and suppression of cell migration and invasion [11]. (
  • Several actin nucleators, including Arp2/3 and various formins, control numerous cytoskeletal-based functions in vivo. (
  • NK cells lacking either Arp2/3 or the formin hDia1 were ineffective in target cell lysis, but for distinct reasons. (
  • Loss of Arp2/3 function led to defects in cell adhesion and actin assembly at the junction with the target cell (the lytic synapse). (
  • These studies reveal novel distinctions and relationships among the functions of Arp2/3, formins, and microtubules in cells. (
  • The NTA region interacts directly with the Arp2/3 complex based on affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation assays, and binding assays using purified components. (
  • Cortactin variants containing the NTA region are inefficient at promoting Arp2/3 actin nucleation activity. (
  • These data provide strong evidence that cortactin is specifically localized to sites of dynamic cortical actin assembly via simultaneous interaction with F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Cortactin binds to Arp2/3 complex, the essential molecular machine for nucleating actin filament assembly. (
  • Cortactin is shown to activate Arp2/3 complex, based on direct visualization of filament networks and pyrene actin assays. (
  • The actin-related protein-2/3 complex (Arp2/3 complex), composed of seven different polypeptides, was originally identified as a profilin binding complex ( 29 ). (
  • ACTIN-RELATED PROTEINS 2 and 3 form the major subunits of the ARP2/3 complex, which is known as an important regulator of actin organization in diverse organisms. (
  • Because all seven subunits of the ARP2/3 complex are present in plants, our data indicate that this complex may play a pivotal role during plant cell morphogenesis. (
  • From other organisms, however, it is known that ARP2 and ARP3 associate with five other novel subunits to produce an ARP2/3 complex, which is acknowledged as a multifunctional modulator of the actin cytoskeleton ( Machesky and Gould, 1999 ). (
  • In unicellular eukaryotes such as budding yeast, disruption of ARP2/3 complex subunits results in a slow-growth phenotype characterized by defects in cortical actin patches. (
  • Search for CKIP-1 binding partners identified ARPC1 subunit of Arp2/3 actin nucleation complex essential for myoblast fusion. (
  • We demonstrate that CKIP-1, through binding to plasma membrane phosphoinositides via its PH domain, regulates cell morphology and lamellipodia formation by recruiting the Arp2/3 complex at the plasma membrane. (
  • These results establish CKIP-1 as a regulator of cortical actin that recruits the Arp2/3 complex at the plasma membrane essential for muscle precursor elongation and fusion. (
  • Activated Arp2/3 complex induces rapid polymerization of actin and the formation of the branched actin filaments present in lamellipodia ( Pollard and Borisy, 2003 ). (
  • Cells treated with GML formed signaling microclusters that lacked an essential adaptor for actin rearrangement and mislocalized Arp2, a critical component of the actin polymerization complex. (
  • Instead, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy demonstrated mislocalization of actin nucleation protein Arp2 microclusters, but not those containing the adaptor proteins SLP-76 and WASp, or the actin nucleation protein ARPC3, which are necessary for TCR-induced actin rearrangement. (
  • The conserved C-terminal domains of SCAR proteins bind to and activate the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which can bind to actin filaments catalyzing new actin filament formation by nucleating actin branching. (
  • The Arp2/3 complex localizes within that network in vivo [3, 4] and nucleates actin polymerization and generates a branched network of actin filaments in vitro [5-7]. (
  • We prepared antibodies to the p34 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex that selectively inhibit side binding of the complex to F-actin. (
  • We demonstrate that side binding is required for efficient nucleation and branching by the Arp2/3 complex in vitro. (
  • These results indicate that while the side binding activity of the Arp2/3 complex is required for nucleation in vitro and for protrusive force in vivo, it is not required for EGF-stimulated increases in free barbed ends in vivo. (
  • This suggests that the branching activity of the Arp2/3 complex is essential for lamellipod extension, while the generation of nucleation sites for actin polymerization is not sufficient. (
  • Mechanisms for activating the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex have been the focus of many recent studies. (
  • Here, we identify a novel mode of Arp2/3 complex regulation mediated by the highly conserved actin binding protein coronin. (
  • Yeast coronin (Crn1) physically associates with the Arp2/3 complex and inhibits WA- and Abp1-activated actin nucleation in vitro. (
  • The inhibition occurs specifically in the absence of preformed actin filaments, suggesting that Crn1 may restrict Arp2/3 complex activity to the sides of filaments. (
  • Localization of Crn1 to actin patches in vivo and association of Crn1 with the Arp2/3 complex also require its coiled coil domain. (
  • Overexpression of CRN1 causes growth arrest and redistribution of Arp2 and Crn1p into aberrant actin loops. (
  • These defects are suppressed by deletion of the Crn1 coiled coil domain and by arc35-26, an allele of the p35 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Further in vivo evidence that coronin regulates the Arp2/3 complex comes from the observation that crn1 and arp2 mutants display an allele-specific synthetic interaction. (
  • This work identifies a new form of regulation of the Arp2/3 complex and an important cellular function for coronin. (
  • A wide variety of actin-interacting and scaffolding proteins are involved in invadopodia formation, including cortactin, tyrosine kinase substrate with five Src homology SH3 domains, fascin, neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), and actin-related protein complex 2/3 (Arp2/3 complex) ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • We found that gp120 enhanced the binding of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) and the Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex with β-actin, an interaction essential for the proper formation of podosomes, specialized adhesion structures required for the migration of iDCs through different tissues. (
  • We further identified Leukocyte-Specific Protein 1 (LSP1) as a novel component of the WASp-Arp2/3-β-actin complex. (
  • Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex, which is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin pa. (
  • The cellular functions of the actin cytoskeleton require precise regulation of both the initiation of actin polymerization and the organization of the resulting filaments. (
  • An important gene associated with Boomerang Dysplasia is FLNB (Filamin B), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cytoskeleton remodeling Regulation of actin cytoskeleton by Rho GTPases and Cytoskeletal Signaling . (
  • In summary, FAK-Tyr 407 phosphorylation promotes BTB integrity by strengthening the actin filament-based cytoskeleton. (
  • TGF-β) receptors, FAK plays a central role in transducing signals to the actin cytoskeleton to elicit F-actin remodeling (e.g., formation of lamellipodia and stress fibers) during cell adhesion and migration ( 1 , 7 ). (
  • For instance, FAK is known to interact with a number of guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, which, in turn, regulate the activation status of Rho family GTPases, such as Rac and Rho ( 8 , 9 ), and actin cytoskeleton ( 10 ). (
  • FAK has recently been shown to influence actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation, modulating actin cytoskeleton, through at least two mechanisms. (
  • In vertebrates, the homologue of Dock - called Nck - links cell adhesion during podocyte formation with actin cytoskeleton rearrangement by binding to the intracellular domain of Nephrin. (
  • These data indicate that Dock functions in both myoblast populations during myoblast fusion and serves as a linker to transfer the fusion signal from the cell adhesion molecules Duf and Hbs to the actin cytoskeleton, e.g. by interacting with WASP and WIP. (
  • This complex is critical to cell motility -the ability to move and perform myriad duties-and for initializing the construction of a network of filaments known as the actin cytoskeleton that provides structural support for cells. (
  • The cell loses control of the actin cytoskeleton in various diseased states, including certain viral infections, such as HIV and cancer, he said. (
  • Tumor-cell invasion across tissue barriers requires degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), as well as dynamic interactions between the ECM and the intracellular actin cytoskeleton that occur through organized adhesive structures. (
  • The multidomain structure of p80/85 and its colocalization with F-actin in normal and src-transformed cells suggest that these proteins may associate with components of the cytoskeleton and contribute to organization of cell structure (Wu, 1991). (
  • This study presents the first evidence that pp60(c-src) can directly regulate the activity of its substrate toward the cytoskeleton and implies a role for cortactin as an F-actin modulator in tyrosine kinase-regulated cytoskeleton reorganization (Huang, 1997). (
  • Changes in both cell shape and motility in response to extracellular signals require mechanical forces from the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Because of the critical role actin rearrangement plays in T cell effector function, we analyzed the effect of GML on the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton after TCR activation. (
  • Microfilaments , also called actin filaments , are filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that form part of the cytoskeleton and are primarily composed of polymers of actin , but in cells are modified by and interact with numerous other proteins . (
  • The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and WASP family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) family are a group of molecules that form a key link between GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Adhesions between the actin cytoskeleton of a migrating cell and the extracellular matrix (ECM) or neighboring cells stabilize protrusions and form traction sites to allow the cell to move over them. (
  • 5 Formation of the protrusions at the leading edges of the migrating cell is controlled by actin polymerization and regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Rhizobial infection of legume root hairs requires a rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton to enable the establishment of plant-made infection structures called infection threads. (
  • To investigate how AMPK signalling is transmitted to peripheral actin filaments, we examined the physical link between actin filaments, Pdlim5 and AMPK. (
  • Next, we performed an F-actin-binding assay, in which F-actin and its binding proteins are found in the pellet fraction, to determine whether Pdlim5 promotes the recruitment of AMPK onto actin filaments. (
  • The formation of new actin filaments at existing filaments is regulated by the actin-related protein complex (Arp)2/3. (
  • It binds to the side of pre-existing actin filaments , where it nucleates the growth of new filaments. (
  • It binds to the complex and blocks the initiation of Y-shaped branches that create new filaments. (
  • The invasiveness of cells is correlated with the presence of dynamic actin-rich membrane structures called invadopodia, which are membrane protrusions that are associated with localized polymerization of sub-membrane actin filaments. (
  • Invadopodia are built upon an N-WASP-dependent branched actin network, and the Rho GTPase Cdc42 is involved in inducing invadopodial-membrane protrusion, which is mediated by actin filaments that are organized in bundles to form an actin core. (
  • Electron microscopic analysis after negative staining further revealed that actin filaments in the presence of cortactin are cross-linked into bundles of various degrees of thickness. (
  • The formations of lamellipodia, focal contacts, the contractile ring during cytokinesis, and neuronal growth cone motility depend on the controlled polymerization-depolymerization of actin filaments ( 7 , 40 ). (
  • In vitro experiments have shown that profilin acts as an actin monomer-sequestering protein when barbed ends of filaments are capped (e.g., by gelsolin). (
  • Actin filaments are assembled in two general types of structures: bundles and networks. (
  • Much like microtubules , actin filaments are polarized. (
  • To investigate the role of cofilin in EGF-stimulated actin polymerization and lamellipod extension in MTLn3 cells, we examined in detail the temporal and spatial distribution of cofilin relative to free barbed ends and characterized the actin dynamics by measuring the changes in the number of actin filaments. (
  • These results support a model in which EGF stimulation recruits cofilin to the leading edge where its severing activity is activated, leading to the generation of short actin filaments with free barbed ends that participate in the nucleation of actin polymerization. (
  • The currently popular models propose that free barbed ends arise by either (A) uncapping of barbed ends, (B) severing of noncovalent bonds in F-actin to produce short filaments with free barbed ends, or (C) de novo nucleation of filaments from a nucleation template. (
  • Such protrusions are often in the form of a flat lamellipod with a leading edge composed of a dense network of actin filaments [3, 4]. (
  • This entry represents actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (ARC1B) from vertebrates. (
  • Your search returned 13 actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (
  • Your search returned 27 actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. (
  • Western Blot: actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody [NBP1-90114] - Analysis in human cell lines SK-MEL-30 and HEK293 using Anti-ARPC1B antibody. (
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody [NBP1-90114] - Staining of human lymph node shows strong cytoplasmic positivity in lymphoid cells outside reaction centra. (
  • Western Blot: actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody [NBP1-90114] - Analysis in mouse cell line NIH-3T3 and rat cell line NBT-II. (
  • Western Blot: actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody [NBP1-90114] - Analysis in human cell line RT-4. (
  • This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1A. (
  • Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. (
  • The exact role of the protein encoded by this gene, the p34 subunit, has yet to be determined. (
  • ARPC2 (Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Orthologous to human ARPC1B (actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B). (
  • FOXF1 repressed cell growth and expression of collagen-1 and actin-related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2. (
  • Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1A gene. (
  • Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1B gene. (
  • Danio rerio actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5B (arpc5b), mRNA. (
  • Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 OS=Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c). (
  • actin related protein 2/3 protein complex subunit p16 [Lumbricus rubellu. (
  • Antigen standard for actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa (ARPC5) is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (
  • The actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 complex nucleates branched actin filament networks pivotal for cell migration, endocytosis and pathogen infection. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include actin filament binding and kinesin binding . (
  • The 3′-end of the human β-actin gene enhances activity of the β-actin expression vector system: construction of improved vectors," Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 1997, vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 63-72. (
  • This is an efficient and useful way to name large numbers of related genes, and already works well for a number of established gene groupings. (
  • AFG3 ATPase family gene 3-like 2 (S. ce. (
  • boomerang dysplasia clinically differs from aoi and aoiii because of the boomerang shaped bowing of the femur and occasionally observed encephalocele and omphalocele.etiologybd results from missense mutations or small in-frame deletions in the flnb gene reported in exons 2-5, normally expected to translate full length but biochemically abnormal filamin b protein.diagnostic methodsdiagnosis can be confirmed from skeletal radiographs, chondro-osseous histopathology and genetic testing. (
  • I could show that dock interacts genetically with the FC-specific gene rols, which encodes for an adaptor protein that binds to the intracellular domain of Duf, and with the FCM-specific cell adhesion molecule hbs. (
  • The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. (
  • The results indicate that OsPOP5 is a stress-related gene in rice and it may play an important role in plant tolerance to abiotic stress. (
  • However, metastatic behavior cannot be accurately predicted by histology or individual gene or protein expression/activity. (
  • Together, my experiments revised models for how RNA polymerase II assembles onto gene sequences and how transcriptional activator proteins stimulate this process. (
  • Miller, A.L., Wang, Y., Mooseker, M., and Koleske, A.J. (2004) The Abl-related gene (Arg) requires its F-actin:microtubule crosslinking activity to regulate lamellipodial dynamics during fibroblast adhesion. (
  • We identified other SCARN-like proteins in legumes and phylogeny analyses suggested that SCARN may have arisen from a gene duplication and acquired specialized functions in root nodule symbiosis. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a major component of the inner surface of caveolae, small invaginations of the plasma membrane, and is involved in essential cellular functions, including signal transduction, lipid metabolism, cellular growth control and apoptosis. (
  • This gene and related family member (CAV1) are located next to each other on chromosome 7, and express colocalizing proteins that form a stable hetero-oligomeric complex. (
  • What does this gene/protein do? (
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (
  • Among these was the S100 calcium-binding protein A7 gene (Psoriasin), which expresses protein products that have been proposed to be associated with keratinocyte differentiation. (
  • This product includes 3 vials: 1 vial of gene-specific cell lysate, 1 vial of control vector cell lysate, and 1 vial of loading buffer. (
  • A decade of study has begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which this powerful machine controls the polymerization, organization and recycling of actin-filament networks, both in vitro and in the living cell. (
  • Here, we show that Nwk interacts with the endocytic proteins dynamin and Dap160 and functions together with Cdc42 to promote WASp-mediated actin polymerization in vitro and to regulate synaptic growth in vivo . (
  • In the present paper, we show that mDab1 associates with N-WASP (neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) in vitro and in brains of embryonic mice. (
  • In vitro studies of protein organization and interactions in purified and reconstituted cell systems. (
  • Furthermore, pp60(c-src) phosphorylates cortactin in vitro, resulting in a dramatic reduction of its F-actin cross-linking activity in a manner depending on levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. (
  • Tandem repeat four was necessary for cortactin to stably bind F-actin in vitro. (
  • In vitro actin polymerization, or nucleation , starts with the self-association of three G-actin monomers to form a trimer . (
  • Actin polymerization mediated by Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and the actin-related protein 2/3 complex generates forces at multiple stages of endocytosis. (
  • FCH-BIN amphiphysin RVS (F-BAR)/SH3 domain proteins play key roles in this process by coordinating membrane deformation with WASp-dependent actin polymerization. (
  • However, it is not known how other WASp ligands, such as the small GTPase Cdc42, coordinate with F-BAR/SH3 proteins to regulate actin polymerization at membranes. (
  • The complex becomes activated by nucleation promoting factors (NPFs), i.e the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and the suppressor of CAMP-receptor (SCAR). (
  • Additionally, WASP is activated by the WASP-interacting protein Verprolin1 (WIP). (
  • These proteins act together in the WASP-WIP complex. (
  • Biochemical data provided in this study show that Dock is able to bind to the intracellular domain of Sns, Hbs, Duf and Rst and to the proline-rich region of the actin regulators WASP and WIP via its SH3 domains. (
  • Differential regulation of cortactin and N-WASP-mediated actin polymerization by missing in metastasis (MIM) protein. (
  • N-WASP, a novel actin-depolymerizing protein, regulates the cortical cytoskeletal rearrangement in a PIP2-dependent manner downstream of tyrosine kinases. (
  • The WASP-binding protein WIRE has a role in the regulation of the actin filament system downstream of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. (
  • The role of WASP/WAVE family proteins in the control of actin polymerization through activation of the actin-related protein 2/3 complex is critical in the formation of the actin-based membrane protrusions seen in cell migration and invasion. (
  • This review focuses on the role of the WASP/WAVE family in breast cancer cell invasion and migration and how this relates to the molecular mechanisms of WASP/WAVE activity, their exact contributions to the stages of cancer progression, and how this can lead to the development of anticancer drugs that target the WASP/WAVE family and related pathways. (
  • In the SCAR/WAVE (Suppressor of cAMP receptor defect/WASP family verpolin homologous protein) actin regulatory complex, the conserved N-terminal domains of SCAR proteins interact with other components of the SCAR/WAVE complex. (
  • Src kinase activity and cortactin phosphorylation are absolute requirements for invadopodia formation, through the phosphorylation of serine residues 405 and 418 within the PR domain of cortactin by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) or p21-activated kinase 1, which according to previous studies enhances cortactin SH3 domain binding to N-WASP ( 10 ). (
  • Pretreating iDCs with an active fragment of the secretory glycoprotein Slit2 (Slit2N) inhibited HIV-1-gp120-mediated migration and podosome formation, by inducing the cognate receptor Roundabout 1 (Robo1) to bind to and sequester WASp and LSP1 from β-actin. (
  • Two distinct sequence motifs of cortactin contribute to its interaction with the cortical actin network: the fourth of six tandem repeats and the amino-terminal acidic region (NTA). (
  • The proteomic data indicated that PLB inhibited cell proliferation, activated death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, remodeled epithelial adherens junctions pathway, and manipulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated oxidative stress response signaling pathway in SCC25 cells with the involvement of a number of key functional proteins. (
  • Formation of filopodia, lamellipodia and invadopodia is driven by spatially and temporally regulated actin polymerization at the leading edge of migrating and invading cells [6]. (
  • Cell motility requires actin inside the cell to constantly be remodeled," he said. (
  • To date, the best characterized of the predicted ATs of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei is BimA, a predicted trimeric AT mediating actin-based motility which varies in sequence and mode of action between Burkholderia species. (
  • In inducing cell motility , one end of the actin filament elongates while the other end contracts, presumably by myosin II molecular motors. (
  • However, the past several years have seen a surge in the discovery of mammalian proteins with roles in actin nucleation and dynamics. (
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (
  • Mammalian αE-catenin is an allosterically regulated actin-binding protein that binds the cadherin/β-catenin complex as a monomer and whose dimerization potentiates F-actin association. (
  • A and B ) Conditions: 2.8 μM Acanthamoeba actin monomers, 50 mM KCl, 1 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM DTT, 0.1 mM CaCl 2 , 0.2 mM ATP, 3 mm NaN 3 , and 10 mM imidazole (pH 7.0) at 22°C. The polymerization of actin was monitored by pyrene fluorescence. (
  • When the capping protein is removed, polymerization of actin can occur, and actin-profilin complexes can add to the fast-growing ends, thereby enhancing actin polymerization in the presence of thymosin β4 ( 22 , 34 ). (
  • Conversely, Y407F mutation reduced the rate of actin polymerization at the Sertoli cell BTB. (
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (
  • Therefore, an understanding of the protein composition of the PSD is a prerequisite for modeling the molecular interactions regulating synaptic strength. (
  • Translational efficiency is regulated by the length of the 3′ untranslated region," Molecular and Cellular Biology, 1996, vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 146-156. (
  • University of Oregon biochemists have determined how tiny synthetic molecules disrupt an important actin-related molecular machine in cells in one study and, in a second one, the crystal structure of that machine when bound to a natural inhibitor. (
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (
  • Biochemical and molecular analysis of protein sorting into vesicles, transport and docking of vesicles with specialized membrane domains. (
  • Molecular genetic approaches to disrupt cadherin and associated protein (catenins) functions. (
  • In vivo actin polymerization is catalyzed by a class of filament end-tracking molecular motors known as actoclampins . (
  • Furthermore, overexpression of cortactin, mutated at its major Src phosphorylation sites, enhanced actin turnover, suggesting that podosome dynamics in polarizing osteoclasts are attributable to the downregulation of cortactin activity by its Src-dependent phosphorylation. (
  • It has been proposed that these proteins acting in concert to regulate actin organization and dynamics at this site. (
  • In addition to cells having a lot of actin, they also have a lot of proteins that bind to actin to control its dynamics," said Nolen, who has just completed his second year as a Pew Scholar in the Biomedical Sciences. (
  • In this Commentary, we attempt to summarize recent insights into the actin dynamics of invadopodia and podosomes, and the forces that are transmitted through these invasive structures. (
  • Actin dynamics and associated forces might be key elements in discriminating between invadopodia, podosomes and focal adhesions. (
  • Profilin is a small, ubiquitous actin binding protein, thought to be a key regulatory of actin dynamics in living cells ( 8 , 41 ). (
  • Our studies at the cellular level have identified key roles for Abl1 and Abl2 as mediators between cell surface adhesion and growth factor receptors and the coordination of adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. (
  • 6 , 7 The Rho GTPase protein family members, Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 in particular, play a key role in coordinating the processes involved in cell migration and invasion through the control of actin dynamics. (
  • These findings indicate that Pdlim5 binds AMPK directly and promotes the recruitment of AMPK onto F-actin, a process mediated by α-actinin. (
  • We found that bovine profilins I and II have similar affinities for actin and that profilin I has a higher affinity for PIP 2 while profilin II binds more strongly to poly- l -proline. (
  • ATP -bound actin then itself binds the barbed end, and the ATP is subsequently hydrolyzed . (
  • Upon release, the free actin monomer slowly dissociates from ADP, which in turn rapidly binds to the free ATP diffusing in the cytosol , thereby forming the ATP-actin monomeric units needed for further barbed-end filament elongation. (
  • The C-terminal domain of SCARN binds to ARPC3 and ectopic expression of the N-terminal SCAR-homology domain (but not the full length protein) inhibited nodulation. (
  • p21-ARC is part of a complex implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. (
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (
  • First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. (
  • Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that is enriched within the lamellipodia of motile cells and in neuronal growth cones. (
  • Cortactin is localized with the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex at sites of actin polymerization within the lamellipodia. (
  • Among Rho GTPases, Rac is activated at the leading edge of motile cells and induces the formation of actin-rich lamellipodia protrusions, which serves as a major driving force of cell movement ( Etienne-Manneville and Hall, 2002 ). (
  • 3 Briefly, the cellular processes that occur in a motile cell include polarization and extensions of actin-based protrusions, such as thin, finger-like filopodia and broader, sheet-like lamellipodia, in the direction of migration ( Figure 1A ). (
  • They are polymers of actin subunits (globular actin, or G-actin), which as part of the fiber are referred to as filamentous actin, or F-actin. (
  • This polarity has been determined by the pattern created by the binding of myosin S1 fragments: they themselves are subunits of the larger myosin II protein complex . (
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (
  • Impaired rolling interactions were linked to contributions of β 2 -integrin ligands, and firm adhesion was compromised by reduced ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) clustering around neutrophils. (
  • To demonstrate that these protein interactions are relevant for myoblast fusion, I carried out double mutant experiments. (
  • The interactions of Prominin-1 with numerous cytoplasmic protein partners that regulate the structure of microvilli and cilia, have highlighted the role of Prominin-1 as an organizer of plasma membrane protrusions. (
  • The metastatic cascade involves many complex cellular interactions and pathways. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • Endocytosis, organism-specific biosystem Endocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. (
  • Many endocytic accessory proteins tie actin polymerization to membrane traffic, but their precise functions are not understood. (
  • Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. (
  • Cell extracts were prepared in lysis buffer, equal amounts of protein were separated on 10% bis-Tris gels, and transferred to nitrocellulose membrane. (
  • erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (ell. (
  • This is attributable to the tightly packed actin filament bundles sandwiched between cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and the apposing Sertoli cell plasma membrane at the basal ES, the hallmark ultrastructure of the BTB ( 1 ). (
  • Invasive cancer cells and Src-transformed cells display podosome-like actin-rich membrane protrusions called invadopodia, which are primary sites of rapid actin polymerization and which represent the major sites of matrix degradation in these cells ( Weaver, 2008 ). (
  • cell-cell and cell-substratum contact) and the reorganization of proteins in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. (
  • Once established, polarity is maintained by targeting and retention of proteins to functionally distinct apical and basal-lateral plasma membrane domains. (
  • Analysis of membrane and cytoplasmic protein sorting, targeting and distribution in established cell lines of polarized renal epithelia in tissue culture (eg. (
  • Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that actively invade host cells using their membrane-associated, actin-myosin motor. (
  • For example, ganglioside GM 1 -enriched lipid rafts that contain Prominin-1 are found in microvilli, while those enriched in GM 3 are associated with the planar portion of the apical membrane. (
  • In general, microtubules are believed to play a role in determining and maintaining cell polarity, whereas actin microfilaments ensure the targeted delivery of vesicles that carry plasma membrane and cell wall components to the site of growth ( Mathur and Hülskamp, 2002 ). (
  • Autotransporters (ATs) comprise a large and diverse family of secreted and outer membrane proteins that includes virulence-associated invasins, adhesins, proteases, and actin-nucleating factors. (
  • Autotransporters (ATs) are a large and diverse family of bacterial secreted and outer membrane (OM) proteins that are translocated from the bacterial cytoplasm via the Type V pathway, one of seven recognized secretion pathways in Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Boil the mixture for 10 min before loading (for membrane protein lysates, incubate the mixture at room temperature for 30 min). (
  • However we observed no effect of scarn mutations on trichome development or on the early actin cytoskeletal accumulation that is normally seen in root hair tips shortly after M. loti inoculation, distinguishing them from other symbiosis mutations affecting actin nucleation. (
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (
  • Recombinant human ARPC5 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques. (
  • We have expressed 16 of the novel proteins as recombinant fluorescent proteins in neurons and confirmed their localization in dendritic spines. (
  • The present invention provides a recombinant DNA that is composed of a promoter, a protein coding region, and the hybrid 3′UTR in a continuous and directional orientation. (
  • 2. The recombinant nucleic acid of claim 1, wherein said first region and said second region are in proximity to each other or are adjacent to each other or overlap with each other or one encompasses the other. (
  • 3. The recombinant nucleic acid of claim 2, wherein the 3′ end of the first region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the second region or the 3′ end of the second region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the first region or the first region is located within the second region. (
  • 7. The expression vector according to claim 5, wherein the recombinant nucleic acid according to claim 1 further comprises a protein coding sequence that encodes a reporter protein or a therapeutic protein. (
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human p41-ARCb. (
  • Human ARPC5L partial ORF ( NP_112240, 1 a.a. - 100 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (
  • The heterophilic interaction of these Ig-domain proteins leads to signal activation and results in the formation of F-actin at the sites of cell-cell contact. (
  • This was particularly noticeable with proteins involved in cell growth and maintenance (for example, fibrinogen γ chain (FGG) and ubiquinol cytochrome c) and cell-cell interaction and integrity (for example, fascin and actin). (
  • Local network topology in human protein interaction data predicts functional association. (
  • The use of high-throughput techniques to generate large volumes of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has increased the need for methods that systematically and automatically suggest functional relationships among proteins. (
  • Actin rearrangement is needed for the interaction of T cells with antigen-presenting cells and for migration to sites of infection. (
  • In 1998, it was estimated that chronic wounds would cost the National Health Service in the United Kingdom (UK) a total of £1 billion per year ( 2 ). (
  • Cortactin is a c-src substrate associated with sites of dynamic actin assembly at the leading edge of migrating cells. (
  • The enhanced dynamic reorganization of podosomes during osteoclast polarization was inversely related to the local levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of the Src substrate, cortactin. (
  • In this study, we analyzed in vivo whether these processes require the function of the actin nucleation-promoting factor cortactin. (
  • Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that promotes actin assembly ( Ammer and Weed, 2008 ). (
  • These domains are followed by a proline-rich region containing several serine/threonine/tyrosine residues that are targets for different kinases and an SH3 (Src homology 3) domain at the C terminus through which cortactin can bind to a plethora of different proteins ( Cosen-Binker and Kapus, 2006 ). (
  • A neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein-mediated pathway for localized activation of actin polymerization that is regulated by cortactin. (
  • Two related cellular proteins, p80 and p85 (cortactin), become phosphorylated on tyrosine in pp60src-transformed cells and in cells stimulated with certain growth factors. (
  • Cortactin is an F-actin-binding protein. (
  • The name cortactin is suggested, reflecting the cortical subcellular localization and its actin-binding activity (Wu, 1993). (
  • Cortactin, a prominent substrate for pp60(c-src), is a filamentous actin (F-actin) binding protein. (
  • Cortactin can promote sedimentation of F-actin at centrifugation forces under which F-actin is otherwise not able to be precipitated. (
  • Hence, cortactin is also an F-actin cross-linking protein. (
  • The optimal F-actin cross-linking activity of cortactin requires a physiological pH in a range of 7.3-7.5. (
  • In addition, pp60(c-src) moderately inhibits the F-actin binding activity of cortactin. (
  • Cortactin interacts via its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain with ZO-1 and the SHANK family of postsynaptic density 95/dlg/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domain-containing proteins, suggesting that cortactin contributes to the spatial organization of sites of actin polymerization coupled to selected cell surface transmembrane receptor complexes (Weed, 2000). (
  • The activation of RhoG recruits its effector ELMO2 and a Rac GEF Dock4 to form a complex with EphA2 at the tips of cortactin-rich protrusions in migrating breast cancer cells. (
  • In particular, the actin-bundling protein, cortactin, appears to play an integral role in invadopodia formation ( 6-9 ). (
  • protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor typ. (
  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, displays phosphorylation-dependent localization in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes. (
  • Transformation of cells by the src oncogene results in elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of two related proteins, p80 and p85 (p80/85). (
  • These roles of proteins at the cell cortex and Wnt signaling that involve β-catenin indicate a cross-talk between different sub-cellular sites in the cell at mitosis, and that different pools of β-catenin may co-ordinate centrosome functions and cell cycle progression. (
  • Tumor progression is a complex process consisting of several steps characterized by alterations in cellular behavior and morphology. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • An episomal expression vector system for monitoring sequence-specific effects on mRNA stability in human cell lines," Plasmid, 1995, vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 198-207. (
  • 8. An isolated host cell comprising the expression vector of claim 5 wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (
  • 9. An isolated host cell which is obtained by in vivo injection of the expression vector of claim 5 into a cell, wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell comprises the expression vector of claim 5 and transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (
  • These sequences represent the protein coding region of the arpc5b cDNA ORF which is encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) sequence. (
  • GenScript guarantees 100% sequence accuracy of all synthetic DNA constructs we deliver, but we do not guarantee protein expression in your experimental system. (
  • Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 596 amino acid residues with M w ≈ 67.29 kD. (
  • Listed below are up to the top 10 sequence alignment matches, by species, for the PSI-BLAST search against the protein sequence for ARC15 . (
  • Regulation of the polarization of T cells toward antigen-presenting cells by Ras-related GTPase CDC42. (
  • The permeability defect was caused by reduced levels of activated Rap1 (Ras-related protein 1) in endothelial cells and could be rescued by activating Rap1 via the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) exchange factor EPAC (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP). (
  • GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) enhance GTP hydrolysis, thereby accelerating RAC/ROP inactivation ( Berken and Wittinghofer, 2008 ). (
  • The present invention describes the use of hybrid short 3′ untranslated (3′UTR) regions which are composed of two regions, one region from an 3′ untranslated region of a stable eukaryotic mRNA, and another region from the downstream end of an 3′ untranslated region of another eukaryotic mRNA that contains a polyadenylation (polyA) signal. (
  • docking protein 1, 62kDa (downstream of ty. (
  • In the active GTP-bound state, RAC/ROPs interact with effector proteins to initiate downstream signaling ( Berken and Wittinghofer, 2008 ). (
  • Two transcripts encode different profilin II isoforms (designated IIa and IIb) that have similar affinities for actin but different affinities for polyphosphoinositides and proline-rich sequences. (
  • T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization is considered to be actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex dependent. (
  • CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. (
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that the levels of podosome-associated actin, and its reorganization in cultured osteoclasts, radically increase upon formation of podosome rings. (
  • At the peripheral ring, actin levels and dynamic reorganization were high, whereas paxillin, associated with the same adhesion super-structure, remained relatively stable. (
  • However, the BTB undergoes cyclical restructuring to allow the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment in the rat ( 1 , 2 ), implying that these filament bundles undergo extensive reorganization. (
  • The best-characterized adhesive structures, named focal adhesions, contain clusters of transmembrane integrin receptors that are tethered at one end to the ECM and at the other to actin stress fibers, which are responsible for cell traction and ECM reorganization. (
  • Augmented AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity inhibits cell migration, possibly contributing to the clinical benefits of chemical AMPK activators in preventing atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and cancer metastasis. (
  • 2 in all protein extracts derived from three independent cell culture experiments, 73 were picked from Coomassie-stained preparative gels and analyzed by MALDI MS. From these, 66 proteins were identified. (
  • FAK is an integrated component of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) involved in regulating Sertoli cell adhesion via its effects on the occludin-zonula occludens-1 complex. (
  • Furthermore, Y407E mutation induced the recruitment of actin-related protein 3 to the Sertoli cell-cell interface, where it became more tightly associated with neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, promoting actin-related protein 2/3 complex activity. (
  • FAK is known to regulate focal adhesion complexes, which are anchoring junctions at the cell-matrix interface in multiple epithelia and migrating cells. (
  • All of your cells are chock full of actin much like a yeast cell. (
  • Targeting actin-regulatory molecules that specifically promote invadopodium formation is an attractive strategy against cancer-cell invasion. (
  • For further reading, please see related articles: `Invadosomes at a glance' by Stefan Linder ( J. Cell Sci . (
  • Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein with critical roles in cell-cell adhesion, Wnt-signaling and the centrosome cycle. (
  • Additionally, proteins associated with cell-cell adhesion sites, such as dynein, regulate mitotic spindle positioning. (
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that these proteins are necessary for cell movement associated with cell migration and invasion. (
  • Host cell entry by apicomplexa parasites requires actin polymerization in the host cell. (
  • The current view is that host cell invasion by Apicomplexa requires the formation of a parasite-host cell junction, which has been termed the moving junction, but does not require the active participation of host actin. (
  • Plants do not have Ras proteins, but they contain Rho-like small G proteins called RACs or ROPs that, like fungal and metazoan Rhos, are regulators of cell polarity and may also undertake some Ras functions. (
  • Thompson, C.M., Koleske, A.J. , Chao, D.M. and Young, R.A. (1993) A multisubunit complex associated with the RNA polymerase II CTD and TATA-binding protein in yeast.Cell 73: 1361-1375. (
  • The verification results showed that PLB markedly induced cell cycle arrest at G 2 /M phase and extrinsic apoptosis, and inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in SCC25 cells. (
  • At the subcellular level, cell shape changes are linked to severe filamentous actin aggregation and compromised vacuole fusion. (
  • These data suggest that GML also suppresses T cell responses by preventing appropriate actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. (
  • Together, our data suggest that GML alters actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and identify diverse functions for GML as a T cell-suppressive agent. (
  • T cells encounter and respond to various stimuli by sensing specific peptide-MHC (major histocompatibility complex) complexes on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) through the T cell receptor (TCR) ( 1 ). (
  • TCR activation at the original point of contact between the T cell and the APC results in an expanding wave of lamellar actin that maximizes surface contact between these cells. (
  • This stimulates T cells to form a dense actin network at the periphery of the cell that is rich in adhesive structures, termed the distal supermolecular activation cluster (dSMAC) ( 3 ). (
  • Most eukaryotic cells rely on localized actin polymerization to generate and sustain the protrusion activity necessary for cell movement [1, 2]. (
  • This provides raw materials in the form of amino acids and other necessary small molecules that maintain cell survival ( 2 ). (
  • Invadopodia are actin-rich protrusions that localize proteolytic activity to areas of the cell in contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM). (
  • Dermal fibroblasts exhibit an age-related decrease in proliferation potential, or cell senescence, and it has previously been demonstrated that fibroblasts isolated from chronic wounds have a decreased or non-existent replicative ability ( 11 ). (
  • In the 1930s, Szent-Györgyi and collaborators, violating one of the canons of biochemistry , started to study the residue instead of the extract", that is, structural proteins and not enzymes , leading to the many discoveries related to microfilaments. (
  • Like other members of the Ras small G protein family, RAC/ROPs bind GTP and GDP with high affinity and hydrolyze GTP inefficiently. (
  • The amino-terminal repeat region appears to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate actin binding, whereas the SH3 domain has no apparent effect on the actin-binding activity. (
  • Genes that are regulated more than 2-fold on the arrays in T47D-r versus T47D are listed. (
  • Squares represent individual genes, and the "line of best fit" on each graph was used to calculate the coefficients of determination ( R 2 ). (
  • I identified an "initiation factor" required for RNA polymerase II to begin transcription of protein-coding genes in yeast. (
  • Transgenic plants for the AtRop genes display changes in actin organization ( Yang, 2002 ) but not the dis phenotype. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, the monomeric ATP-binding protein globular actin (G-actin) is assembled into dynamic filamentous actin (F-actin) in cytoskeletal structures. (
  • Prominin-1 acts on the architecture of microvilli and other actin-driven protrusions such as filopodia by interacting with phosphoinositide 3-kinase and actin-related protein-2/3 complex. (
  • 4 Specialized actin-rich protrusions, such as invadopodia, can also be formed by cancer cells, allowing them to degrade the ECM and invade into the surroundings. (
  • Length increase of the human α-globin 3′-untranslated region disrupts stability of the pre-mRNA but not that of the mature mRNA," Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2000, vol. 275, pp. 30248-30255. (
  • Proteins were categorized as being either regulated in parallel or inverse direction on the protein and mRNA level, as their regulation data being not well defined on the mRNA level, or as being not present on the array. (
  • Stimulation of metastatic MTLn3 cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a rapid and transient increase in actin nucleation activity resulting from the appearance of free barbed ends at the extreme leading edge of extending lamellipods. (
  • Here, we show that loss of ARPC1B led to loss of CTL cytotoxicity, with the defect arising at 2 different levels. (
  • Differential actin structure in hCTLs from ARPC1B-deficient patient. (
  • C ) Quantitation of the mean intensity of phalloidin staining (F-actin) in HD or ARPC1B-deficient patient hCTLs generated from images as exemplified in B (right panel) (see Methods for description). (
  • The synthetic versions in the first study, while binding to specific locations, did not block separate filament-building activators from also binding to the complex but instead stopped activation by locking the complex into a non-productive position. (
  • TCR signaling cascades connect extrinsic activation signals with actin polymerization pathways that regulate intracellular signaling, adhesion, and migration of T cells ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • The dSMAC surrounds a region rich in actomyosin structures called the peripheral supermolecular activation cluster (pSMAC), which contains large multiprotein signaling clusters ( 3 ). (
  • A Slow PH-dependent Conformational Transition Underlies a Novel Mode of Activation of the Epithelial Na+/H+ Exchanger-3 Isoform The Journal of Biological Chemistry. (
  • Although this allosteric effect was heretofore thought to occur almost instantaneously, we report here the occurrence of a slower secondary activation of the epithelial Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)-3 isoform. (
  • This slow activation mode developed over the course of minutes and was unique to NHE3 and the closely related isoform NHE5, but was not observed in NHE1 or NHE2. (
  • investigated the effect of GML on actin cytoskeletal rearrangements in human T cells by TIRF microscopy and found that GML provoked erroneous filapodial formation after TCR stimulation. (