Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Actin polymerization: Where the WASP stings. (1/274)

How do extracellular signals induce actin polymerization, as required for many cellular responses? Key signal transducers, such as the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, have now been shown to link via proteins of the WASP family to the Arp2/3 complex, which nucleates actin polymerization.  (+info)

Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex. (2/274)

The Arp2/3 complex, a stable assembly of two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) with five other subunits, caps the pointed end of actin filaments and nucleates actin polymerization with low efficiency. WASp and Scar are two similar proteins that bind the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, but their effect on the nucleation activity of the complex was not known. We report that full-length, recombinant human Scar protein, as well as N-terminally truncated Scar proteins, enhance nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. By themselves, these proteins either have no effect or inhibit actin polymerization. The actin monomer-binding W domain and the p21-binding A domain from the C terminus of Scar are both required to activate Arp2/3 complex. A proline-rich domain in the middle of Scar enhances the activity of the W and A domains. Preincubating Scar and Arp2/3 complex with actin filaments overcomes the initial lag in polymerization, suggesting that efficient nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex requires assembly on the side of a preexisting filament-a dendritic nucleation mechanism. The Arp2/3 complex with full-length Scar, Scar containing P, W, and A domains, or Scar containing W and A domains overcomes inhibition of nucleation by the actin monomer-binding protein profilin, giving active nucleation over a low background of spontaneous nucleation. These results show that Scar and, likely, related proteins, such as the Cdc42 targets WASp and N-WASp, are endogenous activators of actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Relationship between Arp2/3 complex and the barbed ends of actin filaments at the leading edge of carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. (3/274)

Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently after stimulation and remains confined almost exclusively to the extreme outer edge of the extending lamellipod (within 100-200 nm of the plasma membrane). This is accompanied by an increase in filament density at the leading edge and a general decrease in filament length, with a specific loss of long filaments. Concomitantly, the Arp2/3 complex is recruited with a 1.5-fold increase throughout the entire cortical filament network extending 1-1.5 microm in depth from the membrane at the leading edge. The recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex at the membrane of the extending lamellipod indicates that Arp2/3 may be involved in initial generation of growing filaments. However, only a small subset of the complex present in the cortical network colocalizes near free barbed ends. This suggests that the 100-200-nm submembraneous compartment at the leading edge of the extending lamellipod constitutes a special biochemical microenvironment that favors the generation and maintenance of free barbed ends, possibly through the locally active Arp2/3 complex, severing or decreasing the on-rate of capping protein. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis suggesting uncapping is the dominant mechanism responsible for the generation of nucleation activity. However, they support the hypothesis of an Arp2/3-mediated capture of actin oligomers that formed close to the membrane by other mechanisms such as severing. They also support pointed-end capping by the Arp2/3 complex, accounting for its wide distribution at the leading edge.  (+info)

The interaction between N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex links Cdc42-dependent signals to actin assembly. (4/274)

Although small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family have been implicated in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton, the exact nature of the linkage has remained obscure. We describe a novel mechanism that links one Rho family member, Cdc42, to actin polymerization. N-WASP, a ubiquitously expressed Cdc42-interacting protein, is required for Cdc42-stimulated actin polymerization in Xenopus egg extracts. The C terminus of N-WASP binds to the Arp2/3 complex and dramatically stimulates its ability to nucleate actin polymerization. Although full-length N-WASP is less effective, its activity can be greatly enhanced by Cdc42 and phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate. Therefore, N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex comprise a core mechanism that directly connects signal transduction pathways to the stimulation of actin polymerization.  (+info)

Rho-family GTPases require the Arp2/3 complex to stimulate actin polymerization in Acanthamoeba extracts. (5/274)

BACKGROUND: Actin filaments polymerize in vivo primarily from their fast-growing barbed ends. In cells and extracts, GTPgammaS and Rho-family GTPases, including Cdc42, stimulate barbed-end actin polymerization; however, the mechanism responsible for the initiation of polymerization is unknown. There are three formal possibilities for how free barbed ends may be generated in response to cellular signals: uncapping of existing filaments; severing of existing filaments; or de novo nucleation. The Arp2/3 complex localizes to regions of dynamic actin polymerization, including the leading edges of motile cells and motile actin patches in yeast, and in vitro it nucleates the formation of actin filaments with free barbed ends. Here, we investigated actin polymerization in soluble extracts of Acanthamoeba. RESULTS: Addition of actin filaments with free barbed ends to Acanthamoeba extracts is sufficient to induce polymerization of endogenous actin. Addition of activated Cdc42 or activation of Rho-family GTPases in these extracts by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTPgammaS stimulated barbed-end polymerization, whereas immunodepletion of Arp2 or sequestration of Arp2 using solution-binding antibodies blocked Rho-family GTPase-induced actin polymerization. CONCLUSIONS: For this system, we conclude that the accessibility of free barbed ends regulates actin polymerization, that Rho-family GTPases stimulate polymerization catalytically by de novo nucleation of free barbed ends and that the primary nucleation factor in this pathway is the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Activation of the yeast Arp2/3 complex by Bee1p, a WASP-family protein. (6/274)

The Arp2/3 complex is a highly conserved cytoskeletal component that has been implicated in the nucleation of actin filament assembly. Purified Arp2/3 complex has a low intrinsic actin nucleation activity, leading to the hypothesis that an unidentified cellular activator is required for the function of this complex. We showed previously that mutations in the Arp2/3 complex and in Bee1p/Las17p, a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein(WASP) family, lead to a loss of cortical actin structures (patches) in yeast. Bee1p has also been identified as an essential nucleation factor in the reconstitution of actin patches in vitro. Recently, it was reported that WASP-like proteins might interact directly with the Arp2/3 complex through a conserved carboxy-terminal domain. Here, we have shown that Bee1p and the Arp2/3 complex co-immunoprecipitate when expressed at endogenous levels, and that this interaction requires both the Arc15p and Arc19p subunits of the Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, the carboxy-terminal domain of Bee1p greatly stimulated the nucleation activity of purified Arp2/3 complex in vitro, suggesting a direct role for WASP-family proteins in the activation of the Arp2/3 complex. Interestingly, deletion of the carboxy-terminal domain of Bee1p neither abolished the localization of the Arp2/3 complex, as had been suggested, nor resulted in a severe defect in cortical actin assembly. These results indicate that the function of Bee1p is not mediated entirely through its interaction with the Arp2/3 complex, and that factors redundant with Bee1p might exist to activate the nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein directs actin-based motility by stimulating actin nucleation with the Arp2/3 complex. (7/274)

Actin polymerization at the cell cortex is thought to provide the driving force for aspects of cell-shape change and locomotion. To coordinate cellular movements, the initiation of actin polymerization is tightly regulated, both spatially and temporally. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), encoded by the gene that is mutated in the immunodeficiency disorder Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome [1], has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells [2] [3] [4] [5]. The Arp2/3 complex, an actin-nucleating factor that consists of seven polypeptide subunits [6] [7] [8], was recently shown to physically interact with WASP [9]. We sought to determine whether WASP is a cellular activator of the Arp2/3 complex and found that WASP stimulates the actin nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex in vitro. Moreover, WASP-coated microspheres polymerized actin, formed actin tails and exhibited actin-based motility in cell extracts, similar to those behaviors displayed by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. In extracts depleted of the Arp2/3 complex, WASP-coated microspheres and L. monocytogenes were non-motile and exhibited only residual actin polymerization. These results demonstrate that WASP is sufficient to direct actin-based motility in cell extracts and that this function is mediated by the Arp2/3 complex. WASP interacts with diverse signaling proteins and may therefore function to couple signal transduction pathways to Arp2/3-complex activation and actin polymerization.  (+info)

Arp2/3 complex and actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin in dendritic organization and treadmilling of actin filament array in lamellipodia. (8/274)

The leading edge (approximately 1 microgram) of lamellipodia in Xenopus laevis keratocytes and fibroblasts was shown to have an extensively branched organization of actin filaments, which we term the dendritic brush. Pointed ends of individual filaments were located at Y-junctions, where the Arp2/3 complex was also localized, suggesting a role of the Arp2/3 complex in branch formation. Differential depolymerization experiments suggested that the Arp2/3 complex also provided protection of pointed ends from depolymerization. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin was excluded from the distal 0.4 micrometer++ of the lamellipodial network of keratocytes and in fibroblasts it was located within the depolymerization-resistant zone. These results suggest that ADF/cofilin, per se, is not sufficient for actin brush depolymerization and a regulatory step is required. Our evidence supports a dendritic nucleation model (Mullins, R.D., J.A. Heuser, and T.D. Pollard. 1998. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95:6181-6186) for lamellipodial protrusion, which involves treadmilling of a branched actin array instead of treadmilling of individual filaments. In this model, Arp2/3 complex and ADF/cofilin have antagonistic activities. Arp2/3 complex is responsible for integration of nascent actin filaments into the actin network at the cell front and stabilizing pointed ends from depolymerization, while ADF/cofilin promotes filament disassembly at the rear of the brush, presumably by pointed end depolymerization after dissociation of the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

We next used electron microscopy and image analysis to identify conformational changes that occur upon activation of wild-type Arp2/3 complex. In addition, because the Arp2/3 complex containing the arp2-Y306A mutant exhibited constitutive activity similar to wild-type Arp2/3 complex activated by Las17 WCA (Fig. 6 G), we tested whether the arp2-Y306A mutation mimics the Arp2/3 complex activation step induced by NPF binding. Non-activated wild-type Arp2/3 complex, the arp2-Y306A Arp2/3 mutant, and wild-type Arp2/3 complex bound to Las17 WCA, were imaged by electron microscopy in negative stain (Fig. 7). Single-particle analysis resulted in three reconstructions at ∼2.5 nm resolution (Fig. 7 E), considerably higher than the 3.9 nm resolution previously reported for the yeast Arp2/3 complex (Volkmann et al., 2001). Fitting the atomic model of the nonactivated bovine Arp2/3 complex (Robinson et al., 2001) into the three-dimensional maps revealed that the overall morphology of all three ...
Complete information for ACTR5 gene (Protein Coding), Actin Related Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
bin/bash #Set the parameters passed to this script to meaningful variable names. connection_type=$1 essid=$2 bssid=$3 if [ ${connection_type} == wireless ]; then #Change below to match your networks. case $essid in YOUR-NETWORK-NAME-ESSID) arp -s 192.168.0.1 00:11:22:33:44:55 ;; Netgear01923) arp -s 192.168.0.1 10:11:20:33:40:50 ;; ANOTHER-ESSID) arp -s 192.168.0.1 11:33:55:77:99:00 ;; *) echo Static ARP not set. No network defined. ;; esac fi ...
Actin-Related Protein 3 (Arp3) [Homo Sapiens] P: 61168: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/5031573 Family: Arp 3 belongs to actin family and Arp 3 subfamily, which consists of 20 proteins from different species. It is a subunit of ARP2/3 complex, along with Arp 2 and other 5 subunits, i.e. p40 (ARPC1), p35 (ARPC2), p19 (ARPC3), p18 (ARPC4), and p14 (ARPC5).…
Actin-Related Protein 2 (Arp2) [Homo Sapiens] P61160: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/p61160 Family: Arp 2 belongs to actin family and Arp 2 subfamily, which consists of 21 proteins form different species. It is a subunit of ARP2/3 complex, along with Arp 3 and other 5 subunits, i.e. p40 (ARPC1), p35 (ARPC2), p19 (ARPC3), p18 (ARPC4), and p14 (ARPC5). It…
Actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF). The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility. In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA. The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs).
Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament (By similarity).
The ability of the actin cytoskeleton to reorganize rapidly in response to external stimuli and internal cues is indispensable for changes in cell shape and motility and also for a variety of intracellular functions. Our data provide clear evidence that syndapins, members of the diverse F-BAR protein superfamily, are critically involved in Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization controlled by N-WASP. In vitro reconstitutions of actin polymerization with purified components revealed that syndapins activate the Arp2/3 complex via relieving the autoinhibition of its catalytic activator N-WASP.. The physiological importance of the ability of syndapins to interface with N-WASP-driven actin nucleation, which was demonstrated by our in vitro reconstitution and overexpression experiments, for neuronal morphogenesis is underscored by two findings. First, protein complexes of endogenous syndapin I and N-WASP were indeed detected in brain (Qualmann et al., 1999). Second, the increased axonal branching ...
We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. Subunits ARPC2 p34 and ARPC4 p20 in the core of the complex associate through long carboxyl-terminal α helices and have similarly folded amino-terminal α/β domains. ARPC1 p40 is a seven-blade β propeller with an insertion that may associate with the side of an actin filament. ARPC3 p21 and ARPC5 p16 are globular α-helical subunits. We predict that WASp/Scar proteins activate Arp2/3 complex by bringing Arp2 into proximity with Arp3 for nucleation of a branch on the side of a preexisting actin filament. ...
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides comprehensive integrated biological information for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Model for Myo5 function in anchoring actin assembly to the PM at endocytic sites. (A) Myo5 (yellow bananas) restricts activation of the Arp2/3 complex (gray avocados) by the WASP complex (blue widgets) to a discrete location, generating an actin array that grows predominantly in the same direction to generate force. (B) Absent this critical linkage, Arp2/3 activators splinter off of the PM, leading to Arp2/3 complex activation throughout the actin network. Delocalized Arp2/3 complex activation results in disordered actin arrays that fail to produce force. In the most catastrophic cases, the Arp2/3 complex and its activators pull away from the PM completely to form cytoplasmic actin comets (lower left of zoom). ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Arp2 protein (ab112388). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Supplementary Materials Supplemental Data supp_285_9_6781__index. 1A binds to PI(4 preferentially,5)P2-containing liposomes and that PI(4,5)P2 antagonizes the ability of Coronin 1A to disassemble actin filament branches, indicating a spatiotemporal regulation of Coronin 1A via a direct interaction with the plasma membrane lipid. Collectively, our proteomics data provide a list of potential acidic phospholipid-binding protein candidates ranging from the actin PF 429242 cost regulatory proteins to translational regulators. and structural studies showed that actin-binding sites of these ABPs are overlapped with PI(4,5)P2-binding sites and that the activity of ABPs is inhibited by PI(4,5)P2 (6,C8). Therefore, the activity of ABPs have thought to be inhibited by PI(4,5)P2 binding that occludes F-actin-binding sites and to be activated by PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis when phospholipase C (PLC) PF 429242 cost is activated by receptor stimulation (5). Indeed, recent study have reported that Cofilin, an ...
ACTR1B antibody, C-term (ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog B, centractin beta (yeast)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-ACTR1B pAb (GTX89761) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
ACTRT1 antibody (actin-related protein T1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-ACTRT1 pAb (GTX120431) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Pace Performance offers the best pricing on products offered by ARP. Including ARP1001212 - ARP Header Bolt Kit- Chevy Big Block - 3/8
ARPC1A overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa (ARPC1A), transcript variant 2
KEY: NRC= North Range Classroom, MRC=Main Range Classroom, IR=Indoor Range, MR=Main Range, TC=Trap Range Classroom, T=Trap Range, A=Archery Range m1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. ...
In trecut, diagnosticul de hiperaldosteroidism primar se suspiciona numai in contextul unei hipertensiuni asociata cu hipopotasemie. La ora actuala se estimeaza ca aproximativ 5-13% din totalul pacientilor cu HTA, au ARP scazute in contextul unei excretii crescute de aldosteron si multi dintre ei...
T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization is considered to be actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex dependent. We therefore examined the requirement for Arp2/3- and formin-dependent F-actin nucleation during T cell activation. We demonstrated that without Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation, stimulated T cells could not form an F-actin-rich lamellipod, but instead produced polarized filopodia-like structures. Moreover, the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC, or centrosome), which rapidly reorients to the immunological synapse through an unknown mechanism, polarized in the absence of Arp2/3. Conversely, the actin-nucleating formins, Diaphanous-1 (DIA1) and Formin-like-1 (FMNL1), did not affect TCR-stimulated F-actin-rich structures, but instead displayed unique patterns of centrosome colocalization and controlled TCR-mediated centrosome polarization. Depletion of FMNL1 or DIA1 in cytotoxic lymphocytes abrogated cell-mediated killing. Altogether, our results have identified Arp2/3 complex
CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. Here, we show that loss of ARPC1B led to loss of CTL cytotoxicity, with the defect arising at 2 different levels. First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. Loss ...
The coiled coil domain of Crn1 inhibits Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. (A) Inhibition of Arp2/3 complex by the carboxy terminus of Crn1. Assembly kinetics for 2 μM monomeric actin in the presence or absence of 20 nM Arp2/3 complex, 200 nM WA fragment of Las17/Bee1, and 500 nM Crn1 or Crn1 fragments. Curve A, Arp2/3 complex, WA, and Crn1 (1-600); curve B, Arp2/3 complex and WA; curve C, Arp2/3 complex, WA, and 500 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve D, Arp2/3 complex, WA, and 500 nM Crn1 (1-651); curve E, Arp2/3 complex; curve F, actin alone. (B) Dose-responsive inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex by Crn1 (400-651). The graph shows assembly of 2 μM monomeric actin (10% pyrene labeled) in the presence of 20 nM Arp2/3 complex, 200 nM WA, and 0-1,000 nM Crn1 (400-651). Curve A, no Crn1 added; curve B, 67.5 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve C, 250 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve D, 500 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve E, 1,000 nM Crn1 (400-651); curve F, actin alone. (C) Graph showing the concentration-dependent effects of ...
The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is an actin nucleator that generates a branched actin network in mammalian cells. In addition to binding nucleation promoting factors, LeClaire et al. demonstrated that its phosphorylation state is essential key for its activity (LeClaire et al., 2008). In cells, the ARP2/3 complex is phosphorylated on threonine and tyrosine residues of the ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC1 subunits (Vadlamudi et al., 2004; LeClaire et al., 2008; Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). In particular, phosphorylation of threonine 237 and 238 of the ARP2 subunit is necessary to allow a change in the ARP2/3 complex structure to its active conformation (Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). While important for many functions in eukaryotic cells, ARP2/3 complex activity also benefits several cellular pathogens (Haglund and Welch, 2011; Welch and Way, 2013). Recently, we demonstrated that the bacterial pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, manipulates ARP2/3 complex
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DHCP Snooping on the Layer-3 switches with redundant links:. In the above topology, the ARP for the host 10.0.0.100 is learned on the VLAN 10 through the Layer-2 interface Te 0/1.. Dell# show arp ip 10.0.0.100. Protocol Address Age(min) Hardware Address Interface VLAN CPU. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Internet 10.0.0.100 9 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10 CP. If the DHCP snooping is enabled, the switch will capture the DHCP messages from the host and build the DHCP snooping binding table.. Dell#show ip dhcp snooping binding. Codes : S - Static D - Dynamic. IP Address MAC Address Expires(Sec) Type VLAN Interface. ====================================================. 10.0.0.100 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef 86008 D Vl 10 Te 0/1. This binding will internally created a static ARP for the host as below.. Dell#Show _arp. Vrf-ID:0 Owner:0 Clients:0 Service:0x2 Asked:0IsMgid:0Mgid:0. Internet 10.0.0.100 - 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10. As mentioned ...
DHCP Snooping on the Layer-3 switches with redundant links:. In the above topology, the ARP for the host 10.0.0.100 is learned on the VLAN 10 through the Layer-2 interface Te 0/1.. Dell# show arp ip 10.0.0.100. Protocol Address Age(min) Hardware Address Interface VLAN CPU. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Internet 10.0.0.100 9 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10 CP. If the DHCP snooping is enabled, the switch will capture the DHCP messages from the host and build the DHCP snooping binding table.. Dell#show ip dhcp snooping binding. Codes : S - Static D - Dynamic. IP Address MAC Address Expires(Sec) Type VLAN Interface. ====================================================. 10.0.0.100 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef 86008 D Vl 10 Te 0/1. This binding will internally created a static ARP for the host as below.. Dell#Show _arp. Vrf-ID:0 Owner:0 Clients:0 Service:0x2 Asked:0IsMgid:0Mgid:0. Internet 10.0.0.100 - 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10. As mentioned ...
Since their discovery in the mid-1990s, nuclear actin-related proteins (ARPs) have gained attention for their roles as structural components of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. These remodelers can move nucleosomes along the DNA, evict them from chromatin, and exchange histone variants to alter chromatin states locally. Chromatin-remodeling facilitates DNA-templated processes such as transcription regulation, DNA replication, and repair. Consistent with a role for ARPs in shaping chromatin structure, recent genetic studies show that they affect developmental and cell-type specific transcriptional programming. Here, we focus on recent results that suggest a specific contribution of ARPs to long-range interactions in the nucleus, and review evidence indicating that some ARPs may act independently of chromatin-remodeling machines.. ...
Backgrounds: Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein, N-WASP, a member of the WASP family proteins is a regulator of ARP2/3 and cytoskeleton in the cells and has been implicated in regulating cell motility and morphology. N-WASP has been implicated in the development and progression of certain solid tumours. In the present study, we initially investigated the expression levels of N-WASP in a cohort of human colorectal cancers and explored the relationship between N-WASP and clinical outcome. We further examined the impact of N-WASP on the biological functions of colon cancer cells. Material and methods: A cohort of fresh frozen human colon tissues were used. N-WASP protein in tissues was analysed using an immunohistochemical method. N-WASP transcripts in the tissues were quantified using real-time quantitative PCR methods and correlated with clinical and pathological information of the patients together with clinical outcome. Human colon cancer cell line, HRT18, weakly positive for N-WASP was ...
A guidewire useful for feeding a medical catheter through a body duct network to a distant target site within the body has a flexible distal portion. The distal portion facilitates threading the guidewire in a tortuous path through acute bends at branch junctions in the duct network. The guidewire end is able to feed into very delicate vessels such as ventricles of the brain and the spinal canal without puncturing the walls or damaging organs. The novel guidewire includes beads displaced longitudinally at the distal end of a core wire. The beads are separated by a gap distance. The core wire can flex at points within the gaps between beads which allows the dial end of the guidewire to bend at branch junctions and to conform to the curvature in the vessel duct. The beads can be fixed to the core wire or they can move freely along the distal portion. Also, beads freely sliding along the core wire can be compressed against each other to control the degrees of stiffness and curvature of the distal portion
structure of nucleotide-free bovine actin related ptotein(Arp)2/3 complex showed minimal contacts between Arp2 and Arp3 compared with the close association of adjacent subunits in the helical actin filament; Activation of the Arp2/3 involves the complex binding an existing filament and a nucleation-promoting factor, such as WASp or Scar, that brings along an actin monomer; interactions are thermodynamically coupled, In the presence of a nucleation promoting factor, actin monomer, and mother filament, Arp2 hydrolyzes ATP with a rate constant > 0.05 s^1; Arp3 binds ATP, but appreciable hydrolysis of the nucleotide by this subunit was not detected in either the active or inactive Arp2/3 ...
Neurospora crassa RO12 protein: a p25 subunit of the actin-related protein 1 pointed-end complex of Neurospora crassa; amino acid sequence in first source
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid sequence identity to…
Localization of Arp2/3 complex at actin filament branching points. Xenopus keratocytes and fibroblasts were treated with CD (0.2 μM for 30 min or 0.5...
Human ARPC5L partial ORF ( NP_112240, 1 a.a. - 100 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00081873-Q01) - Products - Abnova
This part is legal for sale or use on Emissions Controlled Vehicles, Uncontrolled (Non-Emissions Controlled) Vehicles, and Racing Use Only Vehicles because it does not affect vehicle emissions and is not covered by emissions regulations. ...
Behringer has revealed plans to release clones of a studio full of classic analog synthesizers, including the ARP 2600 & SYNTHI VCS3.
Behringer has revealed plans to release clones of a studio full of classic analog synthesizers, including the ARP 2600 & SYNTHI VCS3.
This session welcomes contributions on experimental, theoretical, and computational studies of phenomena related to nucleation and growth, including vapor-to-liquid (droplet) nucleation, liquid-to-vapor (bubble) nucleation and crystallization.. ...
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Migration of cells is critical to development of the central nervous system. Reelin, which was identified from the reeler mutant mice having a defect in the multilamellar structure of the brain, is thought to be a key signalling molecule that functions as a cue for determination of cell position. mDab1 (mouse Disabled homologue 1) functions downstream of Reelin. However, the mechanism by which mDab1 regulates cell migration during brain development is unknown. In the present paper, we show that mDab1 associates with N-WASP (neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) in vitro and in brains of embryonic mice. mDab1 activates N-WASP directly, and induces actin polymerization through the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3) complex. mDab1 induces formation of filopodia when it is overexpressed in COS-7 cells. This filopodium formation is dependent on N-WASP, because expression of an N-WASP mutant that cannot induce Arp2/3-complex-mediated actin polymerization suppressed filopodium formation. The PTB ...
Observations of diverse plant cell types have shown that the cytoskeleton plays a vital role during cell morphogenesis (Kost and Chua, 2002). In general, microtubules are believed to play a role in determining and maintaining cell polarity, whereas actin microfilaments ensure the targeted delivery of vesicles that carry plasma membrane and cell wall components to the site of growth (Mathur and Hülskamp, 2002). Among other model cell types, leaf epidermal cells (trichomes) in Arabidopsis have emerged as an attractive system and have been used to dissect the role of microtubules and microfilaments during cell morphogenesis (Mathur et al., 1999; Szymanski et al., 1999; Mathur and Chua, 2000; Schwab et al., 2003). Arabidopsis trichomes are unicellular, with precisely angled branches, and develop through a well-coordinated sequence of morphogenetic events (Hülskamp et al., 1994; Szymanski et al., 2000). Thus, after branch initiation, the trichome cell undergoes rapid elongation, producing, ...
Membrane targeting is a crucial aspect in the spatial and temporal control of Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation in various cellular and developmental processes. Whereas previous studies suggested that membrane association is mediated by Scar/WAVE and WASP proteins, our data show that phosphoinositides do not exclusively act on Arp2/3-activators. We reveal that Abp1 is physically and functionally interfacing with Scar and that a subpool of Abp1 is membrane-associated by interactions with PS, PIP2 and PIP3. This creates a layer of Abp1-mediated Arp2/3 regulation specifically at the cell cortex.. Our in vitro reconstitutions proved that Abp1s lipid interactions are direct, specific and strong enough to withstand floatation through sucrose. The in vivo relevance of this novel Abp1 function is supported by subcellular fractionations and by colocalization of Abp1 with PIP3 especially at the plasma membrane of S2 cells.. The need for tight control of the membrane-associated pool of Abp1 is evident from ...
Predicted to have actin filament binding activity. Predicted to be involved in Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. Predicted to localize to the Arp2/3 protein complex and tubulobulbar complex. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in gastritis and myelodysplastic syndrome. Orthologous to human ARPC1B (actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B ...
Aktin adalah protein globular dengan massa sekitar 42-kDa dengan berbagai fungsi dasar, hingga disebut protein sambi (bahasa Inggris: moonlighting protein), dengan peran dalam proses seluler dari migrasi sel hingga transpor membran.[1] Aktin ditemukan pada semua organisme eukariota, paling tidak terdapat 8 jenis protein yang mengandung aktin, disebut actin-related proteins (ARPs). Walaupun banyak ARP bersifat sitoskeletal, studi biokimia dan genetika akhir-akhir ini telah menunjukkan bahwa beberapa ARP memiliki fungsi di dalam inti sel selain di dalam sitoplasma,[2] seperti ekspresi gen, regulasi faktor transkripsi dan motilitas intra-inti. Aktin inti berperan dalam transkripsi ketiga enzim polimerase RNA, dalam remodelling kromatin dan dalam pembentukan kompleks ribonukleoprotein inti, dan pada pencerapan histon.[3]. Aktin juga merupakan stimulan ekspresi faktor transkripsi mitokondrial p43.[4] Ekspresi tersebut akan menginduksi aktivitas mitokondria, dan lintasan mitokondriogenesis, ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Context: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a fatal, devastating disease with ill-defined treatment modalities, which affects young boys. Classic WAS is
Eukaryotic cells use actin polymerization to change shape, move, and internalize extracellular materials by phagocytosis and endocytosis, and to form contractile structures. In addition, several pathogens have evolved to use host cell actin assembly for attachment, internalization, and cell-to-cell …
Resized: The new size makes it easier to visualize your patch and also allows you to use shorter patch cables The ARP 2600 is arguably the most iconic and recognizable synthesizer of all time. Sitemap The key word here is programming, as every signal path must be patched from scratch before the synth will even make a sound. Having been used in countless records, film scores, TV shows and game soundtracks since its appearance from the 70s through to today, the ARP 2600s sound remains an essential part of the music world. Phone Hours , Most of the patch points are arranged in a single row below the controls of the individual sound modules. The Manual Start button allows the Envelopes to be re-triggered at any time, without using the keyboard. The mission of the ARP Foundation is to celebrate Pearlman by making his inventions publicly accessible, and inspiring future generations to imagine and create. With that said, modular systems offer flexibility that non-modular systems cannot. The second ...
19 products from 7 suppliers. Compare and order ARPC2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
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Euro NCAP Peugeot 208 2019 güvenlik değerlendirmeleri: ayrıntılı sonuçlar, çarpışma testi resimleri, videoları ve yorumlar
Euro NCAP Kia Sorento 2014 güvenlik değerlendirmeleri: ayrıntılı sonuçlar, çarpışma testi resimleri, videoları ve yorumlar
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid ... "Entrez Gene: ACTL6B actin-like 6B". Oma Y, Nishimori K, Harata M (February 2003). "The brain-specific actin-related protein ... Harata M, Mochizuki R, Mizuno S (1999). "Two isoforms of a human actin-related protein show nuclear localization and mutually ... Kuroda Y, Oma Y, Nishimori K, Ohta T, Harata M (2003). "Brain-specific expression of the nuclear actin-related protein ...
"Alternative splicing products of the gene for a human nuclear actin-related protein, hArpNbeta/Baf53, that encode a protein ... Actin-like protein 6A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL6A gene. This gene encodes a family member of actin- ... related proteins (ARPs), which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have ... Kuroda Y, Oma Y, Nishimori K, Ohta T, Harata M (November 2002). "Brain-specific expression of the nuclear actin-related protein ...
... ubiquitous actin monomer binding protein. Studies have linked expression of CCDC113 in cancerous tissues to mutations present ... Missense mutations at location 86 from Arginine to Tryptophan (R86Y) and at R180C are related to adenocarcinomas of the colon. ... a G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP, the cytoplasmic protein HAP1; Huntingtin-associated protein 1, IMMT, an ... Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 113 also known as HSPC065, GC16Pof6842 and GC16P044152, is a protein that in humans is ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1A gene. This gene encodes one ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human ARPC1A ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ... This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1B. The ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC2 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Weed SA, ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1B gene. This gene encodes one ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1B actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B, 41kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Isoform ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q58CQ2 (Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ...
"The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... Actin-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR2 gene. The specific function of ACTR2 has not yet ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR2 ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast)". Bearer EL, Prakash JM, Li Z (2002). "Actin dynamics in ...
This subunit, like ACTR1A, is an actin-related protein. These two proteins are of equal length and share 90% amino acid ... Eckley DM, Schroer TA (2004). "Interactions between the evolutionarily conserved, actin-related protein, Arp11, actin, and Arp1 ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR1B ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog B, centractin beta (yeast)". Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, et al ... characterization and distribution of a new member of the centractin family of actin-related proteins". Mol Biol Cell. 5 (12): ...
The encoded protein contains an actin-binding site and an ATP-binding site. It is most closely related to twinfilin (PTK9), a ... Rohwer A, Kittstein W, Marks F, Gschwendt M (Aug 1999). "Cloning, expression and characterization of an A6-related protein". ... "Entrez Gene: TWF2 twinfilin, actin-binding protein, homolog 2 (Drosophila)". Yamada S, Uchimura E, Ueda T, et al. (2007). " ... The protein encoded by this gene was identified by its interaction with the catalytic domain of protein kinase C-zeta. ...
Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIP1R gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Brett TJ, Legendre-Guillemin V, McPherson PS, Fremont DH (Feb 2006). "Structural definition of the F-actin-binding THATCH ... "Entrez Gene: HIP1R huntingtin interacting protein 1 related". Parker JA, Metzler M, Georgiou J, et al. (2007). "Huntingtin- ... 2005). "Analysis of a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the huntingtin interacting protein-1 related gene for ...
Zhao L, Gregoire F, Sul HS (Jun 2000). "Transient induction of ENC-1, a Kelch-related actin-binding protein, is required for ... encodes an actin-binding protein.[supplied by OMIM] ENC1 has been shown to interact with Retinoblastoma protein. Model ... Ectoderm-neural cortex protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ENC1 gene. DNA damage and/or hyperproliferative ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
"Analysis of Dynactin Subcomplexes Reveals a Novel Actin-Related Protein Associated with the Arp1 Minifilament Pointed End". The ... The encoded protein is a component of the pointed-end subcomplex and is thought to bind membranous cargo. A pseudogene of this ... Dynactin 5 (p25) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DCTN5 gene. This gene encodes a subunit of dynactin, a component ... 147 (2): 307-320. doi:10.1083/jcb.147.2.307. PMC 2174220. PMID 10525537. Parisi, G.; Fornasari, M.; Echave, J. (2004). " ...
... an actin-related protein is a component of a filament that resembles F-actin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 126 (2): 403-12. ... It is built around a short filament of actin related protein-1 (Arp1). Dynactin was identified as an activity that allowed ... "Dynamics of cytoplasmic dynein in living cells and the effect of a mutation in the dynactin complex actin-related protein Arp1 ... "Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ...
"Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... "Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... In molecular biology, DCTN6 is that subunit of the dynactin protein complex that is encoded by the p27 gene. Dynactin is the ... which is important for recruitment of spindle assembly checkpoint proteins such as Mad1 and proper kinetochore-microtubule ...
"Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... Yue L, Lu S, Garces J, Jin T, Li J (August 2000). "Protein kinase C-regulated dynamitin-macrophage-enriched myristoylated ... Yue L, Lu S, Garces J, Jin T, Li J (August 2000). "Protein kinase C-regulated dynamitin-macrophage-enriched myristoylated ... Berrueta L, Tirnauer JS, Schuyler SC, Pellman D, Bierer BE (April 1999). "The APC-associated protein EB1 associates with ...
2013 Phosphorylation of actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) is required for normal development and cAMP chemotaxis in Dictyostelium ... The current focus is on the transcriptional events linked to these actin dynamics. The final main focus of her research is on ... 2008 Cofilin is a pH sensor for actin free barbed end formation. J. Cell Biol. 183:865-879 (Highlighted in Journal; Cited in ... 2009 The Na-H exchanger NHE1 is an Akt substrate necessary for actin filament reorganization by growth factors. J Biol Chem. ...
Machesky LM, Insall RH (1998). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ... The WH2 domain binds to actin monomers and can facilitate the assembly of actin monomers into actin filaments. Human genes ... It is found in WASP proteins which control actin polymerisation, therefore, WH2 is important in cellular processes such as cell ... WH2 proteins occur in eukaryotes from yeast to mammals, in insect viruses, and in some bacteria. The WH2 domain is found as a ...
Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (June 2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 ... October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. ... Protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R2 gene. PPP1R2 has been shown to interact ... "Entrez Gene: PPP1R2 protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2". Wang H, Brautigan DL (December 2002). "A novel ...
... and the encoded protein, in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. It is thought that this ... Sumi T, Matsumoto K, Shibuya A, Nakamura T (Jun 2001). "Activation of LIM kinases by myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42- ... Although zinc fingers usually function by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. ... "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin reorganization activities of testicular protein kinase 2 and its predominant expression in ...
Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP). This IcsA/N-WASP complex then activates the Actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 ... S. flexneri is a rod shaped, nonflagellar bacterium that relies on actin-based motility. It produces the protein actin in a ... The IcsA protein is first localized to one pole of the bacterium where it will then bind with the host's protein, ... the Cdc42 Effector N-Wasp by the Shigella flexneri Icsa Protein Promotes Actin Nucleation by Arp2/3 Complex and Bacterial Actin ...
Joly EC, Sévigny G, Todorov IT, Bibor-Hardy V (Mar 1994). "cDNA encoding a novel TCP1-related protein". Biochimica et ... The complex folds various proteins, including actin and tubulin. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different ... T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCT3 gene. This gene encodes a molecular ... Yuryev A, Wennogle LP (Feb 2003). "Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC4 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC4 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa". "Dysmorphology data for Arpc4". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through ...
Kuroda Y, Oma Y, Nishimori K, Ohta T, Harata M (Nov 2002). "Brain-specific expression of the nuclear actin-related protein ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is highly similar to the brahma protein of ... "Entrez Gene: SMARCA2 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2". Wang W ... "Functional domains of the SYT and SYT-SSX synovial sarcoma translocation proteins and co-localization with the SNF protein BRM ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC5 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC5 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa". Millard TH, Behrendt B, Launay S, Fütterer K, Machesky ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through ...
It is an actin-related protein, and is approximately 60% identical at the amino acid level to conventional actin. ARP1 forms a ... Eckley DM, Schroer TA (2003). "Interactions between the evolutionarily conserved, actin-related protein, Arp11, actin, and Arp1 ... an actin-related protein is a component of a filament that resembles F-actin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 126 (2): 403-412. ... Lees-Miller JP, Helfman DM, Schroer TA (Oct 1992). "A vertebrate actin-related protein is a component of a multisubunit complex ...
Actin-related protein 3B also known as ARP3-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3B gene. Pseudogenes of this ... This gene encodes a member of the actin-related proteins (ARP), which form multiprotein complexes and share 35-55% amino acid ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3B ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog B (yeast)". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human ACTR3B ... the gene encoding a new human actin-related protein, is alternatively spliced and predominantly expressed in brain neuronal ...
Actin-related protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3 gene. The specific function of this gene has not ... "The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3 ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast)". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Weed SA, Karginov AV ... Machesky LM, Insall RH (1999). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ...
Didsbury J, Weber RF, Bokoch GM, Evans T, Snyderman R (1989). "rac, a novel ras-related family of proteins that are botulinum ... Tamura M, Kai T, Tsunawaki S, Lambeth JD, Kameda K (2000). "Direct interaction of actin with p47(phox) of neutrophil NADPH ... Kwong CH, Malech HL, Rotrosen D, Leto TL (1993). "Regulation of the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase by rho-related G-proteins". ... Kinsella BT, Erdman RA, Maltese WA (1991). "Carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation of ras-related GTP-binding proteins encoded by ...
2004). "The Sprouty-related protein, Spred, inhibits cell motility, metastasis, and Rho-mediated actin reorganization". ... Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPRED2 gene. SPRED2 is a member ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Legius syndrome SPRED1 Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 v t e. ... 2001). "Spred is a Sprouty-related suppressor of Ras signalling". Nature. 412 (6847): 647-51. Bibcode:2001Natur.412..647W. doi: ...
This gene encodes a protein related to talin 1, a cytoskeletal protein that plays a significant role in the assembly of actin ... "Desmoplakin and talin2 are novel mRNA targets of fragile X-related protein-1 in cardiac muscle". Circulation Research. 109 (3 ... Borowsky ML, Hynes RO (Oct 1998). "Layilin, a novel talin-binding transmembrane protein homologous with C-type lectins, is ... Undifferentiated myoblasts primarily express talin-1, and both mRNA and protein expression of talin-2 is upregulated during ...
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... LMNA-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy. 19 September 2013. PMID 20301717. NBK1674.. In GeneReviews *OMIM Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, ... Association of emerin with nuclear and cytoplasmic actin is regulated in differentiating myoblasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ...
"The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related ... Through the interaction of β-catenin and α-catenin, actin and E-cadherin are linked, providing the cell with a means of stable ... A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. B-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Additional ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ...
Adducin is a heterodimeric protein that consists of related subunits, which are produced from distinct genes but share a ... phosphorylation in the MARCKS-related domain inhibits activity in promoting spectrin-actin complexes and occurs in many cells, ... Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ...
Levesque G (1999). "Presenilins interact with armadillo proteins including neural-specific plakophilin-related protein and beta ... "Interaction of presenilins with the filamin family of actin-binding proteins". J. Neurosci. 18 (3): 914-22. PMC 2042137. PMID ... protein processing. • protein maturation. • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation. • autophagy. • protein glycosylation. • ... positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • T cell activation involved in immune response. • cellular protein metabolic ...
related:. *NOS1. *Caveolin 3. Sarcomere/. (a, i, and h bands;. z and m lines). *Myofilament *thin filament/actin ... 2011). "Chapter 2 - Overview of the Microstructure of the Nervous System". Gray's Clinical Neuroanatomy: The Anatomic Basis for ... 2) Fusimotor set: Gamma motoneurons are activated according to the novelty or difficulty of a task. Whereas static gamma ... Secondary type II sensory fibers (medium diameter) end adjacent to the central regions of the static bag and chain fibres.[2] ...
Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea,[89] and filaments form within their cells, ... "An actin homolog of the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum that retains the ancient characteristics of eukaryotic actin". J. ... The proteins that archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes share form a common core of cell function, relating mostly to transcription ... but is most closely related to the Crenarchaeota.[21][22] Other recently detected species of archaea are only distantly related ...
TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... The TATA box is also found in 40% of the core promoters of genes that code for the actin cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus ... In specific cell types or on specific promoters TBP can be replaced by one of several TBP-related factors (TRF1 in Drosophila, ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ...
... another Ras-related GTP-binding protein, is implicated in the regulation of the actin organisation in presence of extracellular ... In addition, the inactivation of Rho protein by ADP-ribosylation in Rac1 microinjection reduced the formation of actin stress ... "The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth ... It was already known that other Ga proteins could induce Rho activation (i.e. Ga13 activates p115 Rho GEF, which in turn ...
... actin) myofilament (muscle filaments or proteins) that overlaps to format a cross-bridge bond (attachment)".[1] ... While eccentric stress is related to the injury, high force eccentric exercises are needed to maximize recovery.[23] ... shortening of a muscle occurs as the myosin and actin cross bridges repeatedly attach and detach to draw the actin across the ... While typically these disorders are directly related to eccentric muscle movements, the ability for a muscle to strengthen and ...
positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ... Humbert S, Dhavan R, Tsai L (2000). "p39 activates cdk5 in neurons, and is associated with the actin cytoskeleton". J. Cell Sci ... Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 and ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 activator activity. • lipid binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cyclin-dependent ...
These proteins, generated by plasma cells, normally bind to pathogens, targeting them for destruction. Absent B cells with a ... which is a basic line of defence that is independent of the more advanced lymphocyte-related systems. Many of these conditions ... Beta-actin deficiency Localized juvenile periodontitis Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome Specific granule deficiency Shwachman-Diamond ... Complement deficiencies are the result of a lack of any of these proteins. They may predispose to infections but also to ...
In APS there are also antibodies binding to Protein S, which is a co-factor of protein C. Thus, anti-protein S antibodies ... APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage ... Protein C deficiency/Activated protein C resistance/Protein S deficiency/Factor V Leiden ... Levels of protein C, free and total protein S, factor VIII, antithrombin, plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and ...
... another cytoskeletal protein, to create stable and integrated cytoskeletal networks.[58] Actins have a variety of roles in ... BDNF is a critical mediator of vulnerability to stress, memory of fear/trauma, and stress-related disorders such as post- ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
"An actin homolog of the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum that retains the ancient characteristics of eukaryotic actin". J. ... 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. PMID 11755525. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01) ... Gupta R.S. (1998). "What are archaebacteria: life's third domain or monoderm prokaryotes related to gram-positive bacteria? A ... Nguyen L, Paulsen IT, Tchieu J, Hueck CJ, Saier MH (2000). "Phylogenetic analyses of the constituents of Type III protein ...
"Cloning from the thyroid of a protein related to actin binding protein that is recognized by Graves disease immunoglobulins". ... identical protein binding. • protein binding. • actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... Xu W, Xie Z, Chung DW, Davie EW (1998). "A novel human actin-binding protein homologue that binds to platelet glycoprotein ...
protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... cortical actin cytoskeleton organization. • embryonic digestive tract development. • leukocyte migration. • lipopolysaccharide- ... Activation of the MAPK pathways: Of the three major MAPK cascades, TNF induces a strong activation of the stress-related JNK ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ...
Many of these, such as phagocytosis and podosome formation, related to its role in regulating the polymerization of actin ... protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase ... protein complex assembly. • actin filament organization. • negative regulation of cell motility. • blood coagulation. • ... a protein associated with wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein, induces actin polymerization and redistribution in lymphoid cells" ...
Muscle cells are filled with proteins called actin and myosin. These are the proteins that make the muscle contract (get ... Related pages[change , change source]. *Bodybuilding. *Strength training. *Trapezius muscle. References[change , change source] ... This calcium sticks to the specialized proteins actin and myosin. This triggers these proteins to contract the muscle. ... These holes are proteins that are called calcium channels. The calcium ions rush into the cell. Calcium also comes out of a ...
... using the CAS-related proteins (p130Cas, NEDD9/HEF1 and EFS) mRNAs as templates. Singh et al. subsequently cloned and ... "Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene.[5] ... Protein family[edit]. In vertebrates, the CAS protein family contains four members: p130Cas/BCAR1, NEDD9/HEF1, EFS and CASS4. ...
Instances are collagen[3] family of proteins, tendon, muscle proteins like actin, cell proteins like microtubules and many ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fibers.. *Ceramic matrix composite. *Dietary fiber ... Biological fibers also known as fibrous proteins or protein filaments consist largely of biologically relevant and biologically ... Animal fibers consist largely of particular proteins. Instances are silkworm silk, spider silk, sinew, catgut, wool, sea silk ...
... another cytoskeletal protein, to create stable and integrated cytoskeletal networks.[54] Actins have a variety of roles in ... In addition to mediating transient effects on NMDAR activation to promote memory-related molecular changes, BDNF should also ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
... attaches to the actin cytoskeleton through anchor proteins that are still poorly characterized. ... protein binding. • calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. ... an EGF-like domain and a complement-binding protein-like domains (same as complement regulatory proteins: CRP) having short ... calcium-dependent protein binding. • glycosphingolipid binding. • fucose binding. • carbohydrate binding. • sialic acid binding ...
CENP-E is a 312kDa protein from the kinesin motor protein family. CENP-F is a 367kDa protein from the nuclear matrix that ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Table 6-2 in: Elizabeth D ... 54kDa and 60kDa proteins and RNA. The 60kDa DNA/RNA binding protein and 52kDa T-cell regulatory protein are the best ... The retroviral gag protein shows similarity to the La protein and is proposed as a possible example for molecular mimicry in ...
... which generates branched actin filaments. Several proteins can serve as NPFs, and it has been observed that in WAS platelets ... The current gold standard for diagnosis is genomic DNA sequence analysis, which can detect WAS and the related disorders XLT ... The protein product of WAS is known as WASp. It contains 502 amino acids and is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells (the ... Alleles that produce no or truncated protein have more severe effects than missense mutations.[12] Although autoimmune disease ...
... cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes ... Media related to muscles at Wikimedia Commons. *University of Dundee article on performing neurological examinations ( ... that were present in all bilaterians muscle ancestors and that of these for necessary Z-disc components only an actin protein ... Within the cells of the muscle are myofibrils, which themselves are bundles of protein filaments. The term "myofibril" should ...
Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton ... Proteins are not entirely rigid molecules. In addition to these levels of structure, proteins may shift between several related ... Main article: Protein domain. Many proteins are composed of several protein domains, i.e. segments of a protein that fold into ... globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and membrane proteins. Almost all globular proteins are soluble and many are enzymes. ...
... green fluorescent protein with the protein of interest).. Techniques used for horizontal scanning[edit]. Four types of confocal ... Example of a stack of confocal microscope images showing the distribution of actin filaments throughout a cell. ... Two-photon excitation microscopy: Although they use a related technology (both are laser scanning microscopes), multiphoton ... GFP fusion protein being expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. The fluorescence is visible by confocal microscopy. ...
These polypeptides usually have a related function (they often are the subunits composing a final complex protein) and their ... actin mRNA associates with ZBP1 and the 40S subunit. The complex is bound by a motor protein and is transported to the target ... binding protein. eIF-4E and eIF-4G block the decapping enzyme (DCP2), and poly(A)-binding protein blocks the exosome complex, ... Proteins that are needed in a particular region of the cell can also be translated there; in such a case, the 3' UTR may ...
Several different proteins can be affected, and the specific protein that is absent or defective identifies the specific type ... Desmin: Desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy. *Dilated cardiomyopathy 1I. *GFAP: Alexander disease. *Peripherin: Amyotrophic ... Among the proteins affected in LGMD are α, β, γ and δ sarcoglycans. The sarcoglycanopathies could be possibly amenable to gene ... Protein MYOT (also known as TTID one of the many genes whose mutations are responsible for this condition). ...
The activity of A2A adenosine receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor family member, is mediated by G proteins that activate ... myosin light chain plus actin → bronchoconstriction[citation needed] ... age related changes as well as injury repair. ... This protein also interacts with netrin-1, which is involved in ... The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors[1]) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as the ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. actin-related protein 2. Names. ARP2 actin related ... Related articles in PubMed * Actin-Related Protein 2 (ARP2) and Virus-Induced Filopodia Facilitate Human Respiratory Syncytial ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_001005386.2 → NP_001005386.1 actin-related protein 2 isoform a ... evidence of a direct protein-protein interaction between PKD2 and Arp2/3 Title: Protein Interaction Network of Human Protein ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1 (IPR017383) *Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141) ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141). Short name: ARC1B ...
Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These ... The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Previous Names: "actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 (16 kD)", "actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5, 16kDa" ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, ... Seems to contact the pointed end of the daughter actin filament. In podocytes, required for the formation of lamellipodia ... The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin ... The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility. ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ... mRNA and Protein(s) * XM_006498389.3 → XP_006498452.1 actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein isoform X2 ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_028809.1 → NP_083085.1 actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein ... actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-likeprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1921442 See related. Ensembl: ...
... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament. ... Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,B5FYW3,B5FYW3_TAEGU Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 OS=Taeniopygia guttata OX=59729 PE=2 SV=1 ...
Compare actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used ... Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A (ARPC1A) ELISA Kit ... Canine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A (ARPC1A) ELISA Kit ...
Compare actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits. Clear ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well- ... Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein (ARPC5L) ELISA Kit ...
... protein-containing complex binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN response to estradiol (ortholog); response to estrogen (ortholog); ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits actin filament binding (ortholog); ... actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. Orthologs:. Homo sapiens (human) : ARPC1B (actin related protein 2/3 complex ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. Description:. ENCODES a protein that exhibits actin filament binding (ortholog); ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: ... Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). Need help ... Discover more about diseases related to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). ... Learn more about PTMs related to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). ...
similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 Symbol and Name status set to provisional. 70820. PROVISIONAL. ... Gene: LOC686150 (similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) Rattus norvegicus. {{ watchLinkText }} ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ... Aging & Age-Related Disease Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Developmental Disease Diabetes Hematologic Disease Immune & ...
The Schizosaccharomyces pombe actin-related protein, Arp3, is a component of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and interacts with ... Mutations in Actin-Related Proteins 2 and 3 Affect Cell Shape Development in Arabidopsis. Jaideep Mathur, Neeta Mathur, Birgit ... ACTIN-RELATED PROTEINS 2 and 3 form the major subunits of the ARP2/3 complex, which is known as an important regulator of actin ... Moreau, V., Galan, J.-M., DeVilliers, G., Haguenauer-Tsapis, R., and Winsor, B. (1997). The yeast actin-related protein Arp2p ...
OMIM: ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2/3 COMPLEX, SUBUNIT 1A; ARPC1A*Gene Ontology: Arpc1a *Mouse Phenome DB: Arpc1a *UCSC: Chr.5: ... actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A. Synonyms: 0610010H08Rik, 1110030K07Rik, Sid32. Gene nomenclature, locus ...
... form irregular protrusions by assembling a branched network of actin filaments. In mammalian cells, the actin-related protein 2 ... Coexpression of Actin-Related Protein 2 and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Family Verproline-Homologous Protein 2 in Adenocarcinoma ... Coexpression of Actin-Related Protein 2 and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Family Verproline-Homologous Protein 2 in Adenocarcinoma ... Coexpression of Actin-Related Protein 2 and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Family Verproline-Homologous Protein 2 in Adenocarcinoma ...
What is actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5? Meaning of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 medical term. ... What does actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 mean? ... Looking for online definition of actin related protein 2/3 ... complex, subunit 5 in the Medical Dictionary? actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 explanation free. ... redirected from actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) ARPC5. A gene on chromosome 1q25.3 that encodes p16, one of the ...
... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. [The UniProt Consortium] ... Functions as component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an ... ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A ... Customer review for "ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A" ...
Recombinant human ARPC5 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional ... Recombinant Mouse ARPC5 Protein. +Inquiry. ARPC5-696H. Recombinant Human actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa, ... Recombinant Human Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 5, 16kDa, His-tagged. ARPC5 Related Products By Species ... Recombinant Human Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 5, 16kDa, His-tagged ARPC5-4975H. ...
This apparent paradoxical outcome could be related to different pools of F-actin: a cytochalasin B-sensitive pool at ... The protein-loading membrane was then incubated with antibodies against actin (rabbit, 1:300), tERK2, for 4 h at room ... The involvement of astrocytic F-actin in burst generation may be related to additional retractions of astrocytic processes from ... Possibly, the negative influence of disturbing F-actin dynamics on burst generation is related to dissociation of newly ...
What is actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4? Meaning of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 medical term. What ... Looking for online definition of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 in the Medical Dictionary? actin-related protein 2 ... redirected from actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4) ARPC4. A gene on chromosome 3p25.3 that encodes p20, one of the ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 , definition of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 by Medical dictionary ...
Non-enzymatic BRD containing proteins. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical ... actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 - ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator ... Non-enzymatic BRD containing proteins: SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2. ...
The human Arp2/3 complx is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin ... 1997; 138(2):375-384. (2) Narayanan, A., LeClaire, L.L., Barber, D.L. andJacobson, M.P. Phosphorylation of the Arp2 subunit ... The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex. Molecular Exploration Project - The Principles of Cellular Control (CELL2007) ... The human Arp2/3 complx is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. ... Compartment GO Terms for Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. ... This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1A. The ... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex ...
... an actin monomer, a mother filament and a nucleation promoting-factor needed to activate the complex which is intrinsically ... Introduction The Arp2/3 complex is responsible for nucleation of actin filaments to form branches at a distinct 70 degrees ... The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex. Molecular Exploration Project - The Principles of Cellular Control (CELL2007) ... The Arp2/3 complex is responsible for nucleation of actin filaments to form branches at a distinct 70 degrees angle from the ...
We demonstrated that without Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation, stimulated T cells could not form an F-actin-rich lamellipod, ... the actin-nucleating formins, Diaphanous-1 (DIA1) and Formin-like-1 (FMNL1), did not affect TCR-stimulated F-actin-rich ... We therefore examined the requirement for Arp2/3- and formin-dependent F-actin nucleation during T cell activation. ... mediated cytoskeletal reorganization is considered to be actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex dependent. ...
Gerke, V. and Weber, K. (1985). Calcium-dependent conformational changes in the 36-kDa subunit of intestinal protein I related ... Tir recruits the adaptor protein Nck and in turn a number of actin-regulating proteins such as N-WASP and the Arp 2/3 complex. ... The F-actin-binding site maps to the core domain whereas the N-terminal domain harbors the binding site for another protein ... bisphosphate binding protein recruited to actin assembly sites at cellular membranes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex. Laura M. Machesky, R. Dyche ... actin monomers with 29 nM Scar-PWA/15 nM amoeba Arp2/3 complex A; (▴) actin monomers with 300 nM actin filaments; (●) actin ... Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex ... Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3 superfamily (IPR036753). Add your Annotation. Your annotation. You may suggest ...
Related Articles. Cited By.... More in this TOC Section. Research Articles. *. Tracking transient changes in the neural ... The MT-associated protein tau is known to mediate actin/MT interactions in cell-free systems but the role of tau in regulating ... The Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau Mediates the Organization of Microtubules and Their Dynamic Exploration of Actin-Rich ... The Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau Mediates the Organization of Microtubules and Their Dynamic Exploration of Actin-Rich ...
Protein Coding), Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, ... Protein details for ARPC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. O15144-ARPC2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Actin-related ... ARPC2 Gene (Protein Coding) Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2. ... ARPC2 (Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Vesicle-mediated ...
p190 RhoGTPase-Activating Protein Links the β1 Integrin/Caveolin-1 Mechanosignaling Complex to RhoA and Actin Remodeling. ... p190 RhoGTPase-Activating Protein Links the β1 Integrin/Caveolin-1 Mechanosignaling Complex to RhoA and Actin Remodeling ... p190 RhoGTPase-Activating Protein Links the β1 Integrin/Caveolin-1 Mechanosignaling Complex to RhoA and Actin Remodeling ... p190 RhoGTPase-Activating Protein Links the β1 Integrin/Caveolin-1 Mechanosignaling Complex to RhoA and Actin Remodeling ...
  • however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. (nih.gov)
  • Actin-Related Protein 2 (ARP2) and Virus-Induced Filopodia Facilitate Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Spread. (nih.gov)
  • Actin-related protein (Arp2) inserts into artificial lipid membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Filamin A, the Arp2/3 complex, and the morphology and function of cortical actin filaments in human melanoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins involved in actin-filament-based processes, specifically CDC42 and members of the ARP2/3 complex are crucial for establishment of Japanese encephalitis virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • we show that drebrin and hCDC14A regulate the recruitment of the actin organizer Arp2 to centrosomes. (nih.gov)
  • The Arp2/3 complex binds to pre-existing actin filaments and nucleates new daughter filaments, and thus becomes incorporated into the dynamic actin network at the leading edge of motile cells and other actin-based protrusive structures [ PMID: 9600938 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The interaction of Arp2/3 complex with actin: nucleation, high affinity pointed end capping, and formation of branching networks of filaments. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • ATP-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF). (uniprot.org)
  • The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA. (uniprot.org)
  • The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs). (uniprot.org)
  • Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. (uniprot.org)
  • ACTIN-RELATED PROTEINS 2 and 3 form the major subunits of the ARP2/3 complex, which is known as an important regulator of actin organization in diverse organisms. (plantcell.org)
  • From other organisms, however, it is known that ARP2 and ARP3 associate with five other novel subunits to produce an ARP2/3 complex, which is acknowledged as a multifunctional modulator of the actin cytoskeleton ( Machesky and Gould, 1999 ). (plantcell.org)
  • In unicellular eukaryotes such as budding yeast, disruption of ARP2/3 complex subunits results in a slow-growth phenotype characterized by defects in cortical actin patches. (plantcell.org)
  • In mammalian cells, the actin-related protein 2 and 3 (Arp2/3) complex initiates actin assembly to form lamellipodial protrusions by binding to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WASP)/WASP family verproline-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Actin-related protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) and proteins of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WASP)/WASP family verproline-homologous protein (WAVE) family are involved in the process of lamellipodium formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Arp2/3 complex is located at the forks of branches and enables actin filaments to form branches ( 5 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Functions as component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin. (biomol.com)
  • Thought to play a role in maintaining the integrity of Arp2/3, ARPC5 is a substrate for MAPKAPK-2 which, through phosphorylation of ARPC5, may participate in Arp2/3 regulatory functions and remodeling of the Actin cytoskeleton. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Iwanatsu, A. and Mitchison, T.J. The human Arp2/3 complx is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin filament assembly. (wordpress.com)
  • (2) Narayanan, A., LeClaire, L.L., Barber, D.L. andJacobson, M.P. Phosphorylation of the Arp2 subunit relieves auto-inhibitory interactions for Arp2/3 complex activation. (wordpress.com)
  • This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. (nih.gov)
  • The similarity between these two proteins suggests that they both may function as p41 subunit of the human Arp2/3 complex that has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. (nih.gov)
  • Structural features of the complex as a whole and particular subunits reveal clues about the mechanism of action of the Arp2/3-complex in the process of actin filament formation. (wordpress.com)
  • The structural images are based on a crystallized structure of the residues of the bovine Arp2/3 complex, at an 2.0 Angstrom resolution, as published by Robinson and colleagues [1], and retrieved from the Protein Database (PDB). (wordpress.com)
  • 86% of the 1980 residues are included, with the major missing regions being subdomains 1 and 2 of the Arp2-subunit which showed a very weak electron density and steric clashing with Arp3 [2], indicating these subdomains are highly flexible. (wordpress.com)
  • We therefore examined the requirement for Arp2/3- and formin-dependent F-actin nucleation during T cell activation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effects of Scar constructs, Arp2/3 complex, and profilin on the time course of actin polymerization. (pnas.org)
  • 50 nM Scar-PWA ( A ) or 50 nM full length Scar ( B ). Without Arp2/3 complex, these concentrations of Scar constructs have no effect on actin polymerization in either the presence or absence of profilin-I or profilin-II. (pnas.org)
  • Dependence of the activation of actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex A on the concentrations of Scar-PWA ( A ) and Scar-WA ( B ). Conditions: 3.3 μM actin and 0.9 μM amoeba Arp2/3 complex A with Scar-WA or Scar-PWA as indicated by the micromolar concentrations beside each curve. (pnas.org)
  • The effect on the time course of polymerization of preincubating Arp2/3 complex and/or Scar constructs with actin filaments before the addition of actin monomers. (pnas.org)
  • The symbols used are defined in A , except that ○ indicates actin monomers with 300 nM actin filaments preincubated with 400 nM phalloidin/29 nM Scar-PWA/15 nM amoeba Arp2/3 complex A for 1 min. (pnas.org)
  • The association of Arp2/3 complex with Scar and the side of an actin filament activates nucleation of a new actin filament, which is capped at its pointed end by the Arp2/3 complex and which grows in the barbed direction as a branch of the older filament. (pnas.org)
  • Scar could bind to Arp2/3 complex before their association with the side of an actin filament. (pnas.org)
  • The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through evolution. (genecards.org)
  • We report the first evidence that E-cadherin associates with the Arp2/3 complex actin nucleator and demonstrate that cadherin binding can exert an active, instructive influence on cells to mark sites for actin assembly at the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • For over a decade, the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, a handful of nucleation-promoting factors and formins were the only molecules known to directly nucleate actin filament formation de novo. (nih.gov)
  • Newly recognized nucleation-promoting factors, such as WASP and SCAR homologue (WASH), WASP homologue associated with actin, membranes and microtubules (WHAMM), and junction-mediating regulatory protein (JMY), stimulate ARP2/3 activity at distinct cellular locations. (nih.gov)
  • Predicted to be involved in Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. (jax.org)
  • Predicted to localize to the Arp2/3 protein complex and tubulobulbar complex. (jax.org)
  • The Arp2/3 complex plays a key role in nucleating actin filaments branching. (bireme.br)
  • The glia maturation factor (GMF) competes with activators for interacting with the Arp2/3 complex and initiates the debranching of actin filaments. (bireme.br)
  • The ARP2/3 complex and formins are the only known plant actin nucleators. (frontiersin.org)
  • Formins and the ARP2/3 complex are the only two actin-nucleating systems found so far both in plants and opisthokonts, representing thus conserved molecular mechanisms inherited from the common eukaryotic ancestor (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • This period resulted in my cloning and characterization of several new proteins including the ARP2/3 complex and EB1-like proteins from plants. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Arabidopsis CROOKED encodes for the smallest subunit of the ARP2/3 complex and controls cell shape by region specific fine F-actin formation. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. (jci.org)
  • Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. (jci.org)
  • Downregulation of the ARP2/3 complex signaling pathway, a common final pathway for multiple signaling cascades that regulate the actin cytoskeleton, would compromise the structural stability of spines, leading to their loss. (genscript.com)
  • Title: Dynamics between actin and the VE-cadherin/catenin complex: novel aspects of the ARP2/3 complex in regulation of endothelial junctions. (genscript.com)
  • mDab1 activates N-WASP directly, and induces actin polymerization through the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3) complex. (portlandpress.com)
  • This filopodium formation is dependent on N-WASP, because expression of an N-WASP mutant that cannot induce Arp2/3-complex-mediated actin polymerization suppressed filopodium formation. (portlandpress.com)
  • We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. (sciencemag.org)
  • We predict that WASp/Scar proteins activate Arp2/3 complex by bringing Arp2 into proximity with Arp3 for nucleation of a branch on the side of a preexisting actin filament. (sciencemag.org)
  • WASP family proteins, more than Arp2/3 activators. (medscape.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Arp2. (genetex.com)
  • Arp2 antibody [N1C3] detects Arp2 protein at cytoplasm by immunofluorescent analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Green: Arp2 protein stained by Arp2 antibody [N1C3] (GTX103311) diluted at 1:100. (genetex.com)
  • Arp2 antibody [N1C3] detects Arp2 protein at cytosol on mouse stomach by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Both polymerization and depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton were associated with bursts, but only polymerization facilitated OT-evoked bursts. (jneurosci.org)
  • This is the first demonstration that OT mediation of suckling-evoked bursts/milk ejections is via interactions between pERK1/2 and actin cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) and actin cytoskeleton are strong candidates for burst transition. (jneurosci.org)
  • Proper organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton are essential for growth cone behaviors during axon growth and guidance. (jneurosci.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Growth cones are the motile tips of growing axons whose guidance behaviors require interaction of the dynamic actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cadherin cell adhesion molecules are major determinants of tissue patterning which function in cooperation with the actin cytoskeleton. (nih.gov)
  • THE actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in a diverse set of cellular processes, including cell polarization, cytokinesis, cell adhesions, and endocytosis. (genetics.org)
  • The dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton is spatially and temporally regulated. (genetics.org)
  • How the actin cytoskeleton assembles and functions, including how its assembly relates to its function, are fundamental questions in cell biology. (genetics.org)
  • The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model system for studies of the actin cytoskeleton dynamics because yeast cells have a relatively simple actin cytoskeleton and offer powerful experimental tools. (genetics.org)
  • Throughout the yeast cell cycle, precisely choreographed changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton underlie spatial control of cell-surface growth and thereby determine cell morphology. (genetics.org)
  • An Arf GTPase-activating protein of the centaurin β family, ASAP1 (also known as centaurin β4), binds Arf and two other known regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, the tyrosine kinase Src and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. (pnas.org)
  • 1980 ) Villin is a major protein of the microvillus cytoskeleton which binds both G and F actin in a calcium-dependent manner. (biologists.org)
  • This involves multi-colour imaging of living plants with an emphasis on the cytoskeleton and its regulatory proteins, subcellular cross talk and plant-environment interactions. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Plant cells employ the actin cytoskeleton to stably position organelles, as tracks for long distance transport, and to reorganize the cytoplasm in response to developmental and environmental cues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This entry represents actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (ARC1B) from vertebrates. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Your search returned 13 actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 27 actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Western Blot: actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody [NBP1-90114] - Analysis in human cell lines SK-MEL-30 and HEK293 using Anti-ARPC1B antibody. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody [NBP1-90114] - Staining of human lymph node shows strong cytoplasmic positivity in lymphoid cells outside reaction centra. (novusbio.com)
  • Western Blot: actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody [NBP1-90114] - Analysis in mouse cell line NIH-3T3 and rat cell line NBT-II. (novusbio.com)
  • Western Blot: actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody [NBP1-90114] - Analysis in human cell line RT-4. (novusbio.com)
  • This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1A. (nih.gov)
  • The exact role of the protein encoded by this gene, the p34 subunit, has yet to be determined. (genecards.org)
  • ARPC2 (Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Orthologous to human ARPC1B (actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B). (jax.org)
  • Actin control over microtubules suggested by DISTORTED2 encoding the Arabidopsis ARPC2 subunit homolog. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The SMARCA2 gene provides instructions for making one piece (subunit) of a group of similar protein complexes known as SWI/SNF complexes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • FOXF1 repressed cell growth and expression of collagen-1 and actin-related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2. (genscript.com)
  • This subunit, like ACTR1A, is an actin-related;protein. (creativebiomart.net)
  • WASP/WAVE family proteins act as a switch to activate actin polymerization and five members of the family are known: WASP, N-WASP, WAVE1, WAVE2, and WAVE3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Blocking ERK1/2 activation blocked OT-evoked actin polymerization, whereas depolymerizing F-actin increased pERK1/2 expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • OT can cause actin polymerization in OT neurons ( Wang and Hatton, 2006 ) and its contraction in myoepithelium or myometrium ( Gimpl and Fahrenholz, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • A and B ) Conditions: 2.8 μM Acanthamoeba actin monomers, 50 mM KCl, 1 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM DTT, 0.1 mM CaCl 2 , 0.2 mM ATP, 3 mm NaN 3 , and 10 mM imidazole (pH 7.0) at 22°C. The polymerization of actin was monitored by pyrene fluorescence. (pnas.org)
  • Here actin polymerization has been proposed to drive cell surfaces together, although F-actin reorganization also occurs as cell contacts mature. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, the Spire, cordon-bleu and leiomodin nucleators have revealed new ways of overcoming the kinetic barriers to actin polymerization. (nih.gov)
  • The isolation of suppressors of the BNI1 Δ N phenotype may provide a useful system for identification of actin amino-acid residues that are important for formin-mediated actin polymerization and mutations that affect the availability of actin monomers. (genetics.org)
  • p21-ARC is part of a complex implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. (abcam.com)
  • RhoA promotes F-actin polymerization and the activity of the non-muscle myosin II ( Fig. 1B ), and its activation represents a key step in furrow formation and ingression. (biologists.org)
  • The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is a key regulator of actin polymerization in hematopoietic cells. (medscape.com)
  • Silvin C, Belisle B, Abo A. A role for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein in T-cell receptor-mediated transcriptional activation independent of actin polymerization. (medscape.com)
  • 35 ARP3 Actin-Related Protein 3 Homolog B (Yeast) (ACTR3B) Antikörper von 10 Herstellern verfügbar auf www.antikoerper-online.de. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • 1994 ) Drosophila singed, a fascin homolog, is required for actin bundle formation during oogenesis and bristle extension. (biologists.org)
  • IRREGULAR TRICHOME BRANCH1 in Arabidopsis encodes a plant homolog of the actin-related protein2/3 complex activator Scar/WAVE that regulates actin and microtubule organization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • At the subcellular level, cell shape changes are linked to severe filamentous actin aggregation and compromised vacuole fusion. (plantcell.org)
  • Using supraoptic nuclei in brain slices from lactating rats, we examined the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and filamentous actin (F-actin) in burst generation by oxytocin (OT) neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • The abundant network of cytoplasmic filamentous actin, established at the onset of fast transport, is absent in quail mutant egg chambers. (biologists.org)
  • We report that recombinant Quail can bind and bundle filamentous actin in vitro in a manner similar to villin at a physiological calcium concentration. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast to villin, Quail is unable to sever or cap filamentous actin, or to promote nucleation of new actin filaments at a high calcium concentration. (biologists.org)
  • 15d-PGJ 2 was shown to decrease migration, stimulate focal-adhesion disassembly and cause extensive F-actin (filamentous actin) reorganization at low concentrations (0.03-0.3 μM). (biochemj.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include actin filament binding and kinesin binding . (genecards.org)
  • Protein sequence for the given gene in S288C and other strains, when available. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Actin-like protein 6B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL6B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin-like protein 6A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL6A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identified mutations that suppressed both the lethality and the excessive actin cable formation caused by overexpression of a truncated Bni1p ( BNI1 Δ N ). Two recessive mutations, act1-301 in the actin gene and sla2-82 in a gene involved in cortical actin patch assembly, were identified. (genetics.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein that binds the 5' UTR of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA and regulates its translation. (nih.gov)
  • This is an efficient and useful way to name large numbers of related genes, and already works well for a number of established gene groupings. (genenames.org)
  • Almost all SMARCA2 gene mutations that cause Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These changes occur in an area near the SMARCA2 gene called the promoter region, which controls the production of the SMARCA2 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The reduced gene activity likely decreases or alters protein production, which would lead to changes in SWI/SNF complexes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Arenite resistance gene 2 (ARS2), first identified in an arsenite-resistant hamster cell line, contains multiple nuclear-localization signals and a zinc finger-like domain 11 . (nature.com)
  • Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AFG3 ATPase family gene 3-like 2 (S. ce. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that stabilizes microtubules in neurons and in cell-free systems regulates actin-microtubule interaction. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present study demonstrates that the PI3-kinase signaling pathway regulates rearrangement of actin microfilaments in response to oxidative stress and that depolymerization of actin causes a complex of Nrf2 bound with actin to translocate into nucleus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • So we concluded that CA regulates the proteins located in the upstream of multiple cell signal pathways which can reduce the LPS-induced activation of NF- κ B and MAPKs, thus weakening the inflammatory response and maintaining cell structure and function, which accordingly inhibit apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • In the testis, MTMR2 interacts and co-localizes with c-Src/phospho-Src-(Tyr 416 ), a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that regulates the phosphorylation state of proteins at the apical ES (ectoplasmic specialization), a unique type of cell junction found between Sertoli cells and elongating/elongated spermatids. (biochemj.org)
  • Molluscan muscle twitchin, a titin/connectin-related giant protein, regulates interactions between actin and myosin filaments at low Ca 2+ concentrations. (springer.com)
  • Nwk (Nervous Wreck) is a presynaptic F-BAR/SH3 protein that regulates synaptic growth signaling in Drosophila melanogaster . (rupress.org)
  • ACTR2 (AAH14546.1, 1 a.a. ~ 394 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. (abnova.com)
  • Transgenic plants for the AtRop genes display changes in actin organization ( Yang, 2002 ) but not the dis phenotype. (plantcell.org)
  • includes protein coordinates for the domain, a domain Description, a Source and corresponding accession ID, and the number of S. cerevisiae genes that share the same domain. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Expression of phase II detoxifying genes is regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response element (ARE) activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • sla2-82 also interacted genetically with genes involved in actin cable assembly. (genetics.org)
  • The most common mutations affect the Notch ligand, JAG1 (ALGS type 1) or the NOTCH2 receptor (ALGS type 2) genes, and have a significant impact on multiple organ systems. (els.net)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Alpha Actinin 2. (novusbio.com)
  • SMARCD2 is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. (abcam.com)
  • Genes that are regulated more than 2-fold on the arrays in T47D-r versus T47D are listed. (mcponline.org)
  • The mRNA expression levels of the proapoptotic genes Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and Bak were significantly increased by bortezomib treatment and combination therapy with IR. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arabidopsis contains ancient classes of differentially expressed actin-related protein genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In view of the fact that the signaling pathway of PI3-kinase controls microfilaments and translocation of actin-associated proteins, the current study was designed to investigate the PI3-kinase-mediated nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the interaction of Nrf2 with actin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The increased pERK1/2 was tightly correlated with spatiotemporal actin dynamics. (jneurosci.org)
  • The MT-associated protein tau is known to mediate actin/MT interactions in cell-free systems but the role of tau in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics in living neurons is unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the past several years have seen a surge in the discovery of mammalian proteins with roles in actin nucleation and dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increased lysine-199 acetylation on CapZβ1, which increased Kfrap of CapZ and stimulated actin dynamics. (selleckchem.com)
  • analyzed the dynamics of 5-HT 6 R interactions with other proteins and found that after its previously characterized interaction with and phosphorylation by the kinase Cdk5, the 5-HT 6 R interacted with GPRIN1, a promoter of neurite extension. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent studies indicate that Anillin-related proteins interact not only with the structural components of the contractile ring, but also with the signalling factors that control their dynamics. (biologists.org)
  • Besides their actin-related functions, both systems also modulate microtubule organization and dynamics. (frontiersin.org)
  • While cotyledon pavement cell shape in double mutants mostly resembled single arpc5 mutants, analysis of true leaf epidermal morphology, as well as actin and microtubule organization and dynamics, revealed a more complex relationship between the two systems and similar, rather than antagonistic, effects on some parameters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Microfilament organization and dynamics are regulated by numerous proteins, including de novo actin nucleators. (frontiersin.org)
  • A novel localization pattern for an EB1-like protein links microtubule dynamics to endo-membrane organization. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Proteins modulating membrane dynamics and organization are thus well positioned to control the sorting and activities of signaling complexes during endosomal processing. (rupress.org)
  • She utilized these tools to reveal the architectural blueprint and dynamics of protein-based nano-machines that self-assemble in cells to generate, organize, and transmit the forces that drive cell movement, and she defined molecular pathways governing the orchestration of these protein machines in space and time. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Coupling actin dynamics and membrane dynamics during endocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For example, WAVE2 generates membrane-protrusive structures containing actin filaments at the tips of lamellipodia in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and WAVE1 then stabilizes these structures through cell-substrate adhesion ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both fh1 and arpc5 mutations increased actin network density and increased cell shape complexity in pavement cells and trichomes of first true leaves, in contrast to cotyledons. (frontiersin.org)
  • These mutations are located within an area of the protein that attaches to ATP and is responsible for providing energy to the SWI/SNF complexes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Three transcript variants that encode two different protein isoforms have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle isoforms are localized to the Z disc and analogous dense bodies, where they help anchor the myofibrillar actin filaments. (novusbio.com)
  • Here we describe the use of two large-scale western blot assays to identify over 600 proteins expressed in undifferentiated hESCs, and highlight over 40 examples of multiple gel mobility variants, which are suspected protein isoforms and/or post-translational modifications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization is considered to be actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex dependent. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Each of these treatments attenuated actin reorganization induced by flow. (ahajournals.org)
  • CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. (jci.org)
  • First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. (jci.org)
  • Interestingly, the p38 inhibitor SB203580 was able to prevent both 15d-PGJ 2 -induced F-actin reorganization and focal-adhesion disassembly. (biochemj.org)
  • While diverse classes of actin binding proteins have been implicated in growth control, the mechanisms of cytoskeletal reorganization and the cellular functions of specific actin filament arrays are unclear. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, t -BHQ increased the level of nuclear actin, coimmunoprecipitated with Nrf2, which returned to that of control by pretreatment of the cells with PI3-kinase inhibitors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Nuclear actin family proteins, comprising of actin and actin-related proteins (Arps), are essential functional components of the multiple chromatin remodeling complexes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kapoor P, Shen X. Mechanisms of nuclear actin in chromatin-remodeling complexes . (mdanderson.org)
  • section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. (uniprot.org)
  • Binding studies with immobilized phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide-containing liposomes reveal that the purified annexin 2-p11 complex directly and specifically binds to PtdIns(4,5) P 2 with an affinity comparable to that of the PH domain of phospholipase Cδ1. (biologists.org)
  • The proline-rich FH1 domain binds to the actin-monomer-binding protein profilin (Pfy1p), whereas the FH2 domain is sufficient for actin filament nucleation in vitro . (genetics.org)
  • Binds to the 5'-UTR of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Binds to beta-actin/ACTB and MYC transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • These findings indicate that Pdlim5 binds AMPK directly and promotes the recruitment of AMPK onto F-actin, a process mediated by α-actinin. (nih.gov)
  • it is involved in regulating actin polymerisation and with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ATP, an actin monomer, a mother filament and a nucleation promoting-factor needed to activate the complex which is intrinsically inactive. (wordpress.com)
  • Experiments using individual subunits identify annexin 2 as the PtdIns(4,5) P 2 -binding entity. (biologists.org)
  • The SMARCA2 protein and other SWI/SNF subunits are thought to act as tumor suppressors, which keep cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled way. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Blocking phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) decreased miniature EPSCs and blocked OT-evoked bursts, as did intracellularly loading an antibody against pERK1/2. (jneurosci.org)
  • Consistent with this, mass spectrometry identified CapZβ1 phosphorylation on serine-204 and acetylation on lysine-199, two residues which are near the actin binding surface of CapZβ1. (selleckchem.com)
  • In the absence of F-actin, twitchin and its phosphorylation state did not affect Mg-ATPase activities in any of the conditions we tested. (springer.com)
  • Finally, numerous post-translational modifications are known to regulate protein function, including enzymatic cleavage, covalent coupling to other molecules, glycosylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Formins are a family of highly conserved eukaryotic proteins implicated in a wide range of actin-based processes. (genetics.org)
  • At the level of individual cell, several different WASP/WAVE family proteins are expressed together in the cytoplasm and they are thought to cooperate in cell migration by forming protrusions ( 1 , 15 - 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tir recruits the adaptor protein Nck and in turn a number of actin-regulating proteins such as N-WASP and the Arp 2/3 complex. (biologists.org)
  • In the present paper, we show that mDab1 associates with N-WASP (neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) in vitro and in brains of embryonic mice. (portlandpress.com)
  • This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. (nih.gov)
  • Simultaneous visualization of peroxisomes and cytoskeletal elements reveals actin and not microtubule-based peroxisome motility in plants. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Formins regulate the actin-related protein 2/3 complex-independent polarization of the centrosome to the immunological synapse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Formins share the conserved FH2 domain whose dimer can nucleate and cap actin filaments, usually accompanied by a profilin-G-actin-binding FH1 domain and by additional domains mediating regulatory or structural interactions that vary both within and between lineages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Typical plant Class I formins are transmembrane proteins that can anchor cytoskeletal structures to the plasmalemma, its distinct domains, and/or endomembranes (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Role of formins in actin assembly: nucleation and barbed-end association. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In general, microtubules are believed to play a role in determining and maintaining cell polarity, whereas actin microfilaments ensure the targeted delivery of vesicles that carry plasma membrane and cell wall components to the site of growth ( Mathur and Hülskamp, 2002 ). (plantcell.org)
  • A formin Bni1p nucleates actin to assemble actin cables, which guide the polarized transport of secretory vesicles in budding yeast. (genetics.org)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster protein Anillin, and its related proteins in other organisms, has a pivotal role in the organization of this scaffold in many species, ranging from yeast to humans. (biologists.org)
  • Lamellipodia are wide but thin in cross section, and this characteristic morphology is due to the construction of branched actin filament arrays within them ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Coimmunoprecipitation showed that suckling increased molecular interactions between pERK1/2 and actin. (jneurosci.org)
  • This study highlights the complex allosteric modulation of GPCRs by protein partners and demonstrates how dynamic interactions between GPCRs and their protein partners can control the different steps of highly coordinated cellular processes, such as dendritic tree morphogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, an understanding of the protein composition of the PSD is a prerequisite for modeling the molecular interactions regulating synaptic strength. (mcponline.org)
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • ACTR1B has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. (creativebiomart.net)
  • SNX16 promotes synaptic growth signaling by activated bone morphogenic protein receptors, and live imaging in neurons reveals that SNX16-positive early endosomes undergo transient interactions with Nwk-containing recycling endosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that ARS2 (arsenite-resistance protein 2), a zinc finger protein that is essential for early mammalian development, plays critical roles in GSC maintenance and M2-like TAM polarization. (nature.com)
  • Here, using super resolution microscopy, live-cell imaging, and tau knockdown, we show for the first time in living axonal growth cones that tau is important for microtubule bundling and microtubule exploration of the actin-rich growth cone periphery. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the context of stable adhesion, cadherin/catenin complexes are often envisaged to passively scaffold onto cortical actin filaments. (nih.gov)
  • Component of the multiprotein chromatin-remodeling complexes SWI/SNF: SWI/SNF-A (BAF), SWI/SNF-B (PBAF) and related complexes. (rcsb.org)
  • It is known that some of the chromatin remodeling complexes contain actin family proteins as essential subcomponents ( Oma and Harata, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For this purpose, a network of cytoskeletal proteins is built at the cleavage site to act as a scaffold for actomyosin filaments and to connect them to the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • To achieve successful cytokinesis, actomyosin filaments are assembled upon a network of cytoskeletal proteins (including septins) at the cleavage site that acts as a scaffold and might connect the filaments to the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Recombinant human ARPC5 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We therefore activated homophilic ligation using a specific functional recombinant protein. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha Actinin 2 Recombinant Protei. (novusbio.com)
  • We have expressed 16 of the novel proteins as recombinant fluorescent proteins in neurons and confirmed their localization in dendritic spines. (mcponline.org)
  • Antibody Reactive Against Recombinant Protein. (abnova.com)
  • However, the study was of PSDs from a subset of whole brain, and no attempt was made to confirm the localization of these proteins by independent means. (mcponline.org)
  • I also describe the different mechanisms that control localization of Anillin-related proteins and analyze the latest findings regarding the role of these proteins in the assembly of the contractile ring. (biologists.org)
  • The cortical cytoplasm also controls localization of membrane proteins including auxin transporters, contributing thus to cell differentiation and affecting tissue- and organ-scale developmental processes (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1 Several, now classic, studies 2 - 5 illustrate that in vitro and in vivo, actin stress fibers orient parallel to the direction of flow and are prominent in endothelial cells subjected to high shear velocities. (ahajournals.org)
  • Also interacts with several nuclear receptors including PPARG /NR1C3, RXRA /NR1F1, ESR1 , NR5A1 , NR5A2 /LRH1 and other transcriptional activators including the HLH protein SREBF1 /SREBP1 and the homeobox protein PBX1 (PubMed:14701856). (rcsb.org)
  • ARS2 directly activates its novel transcriptional target MGLL , encoding monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), to regulate the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of GSCs through production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), which stimulates β-catenin activation of GSC and M2-like TAM polarization. (nature.com)
  • Nevertheless, cataloguing the cellular transcriptome is only predictive of protein expression and typically does not shed light on post-transcriptional regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, these three proteins regulate the stress response via different mechanisms. (thermofisher.com)
  • Non-enzymatic BRD containing proteins: SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Ackermann MA, Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos A (2011) Myosin binding protein-C: a regulator of actomyosin interaction in striated muscle. (springer.com)
  • These data support a role for an Arf GTPase-activating protein, ASAP1, as a regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling and raise the possibility that the Arf pathway is a target for PDGF signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, defining the mechanisms by which the rate and direction of the flow of endosomal protein traffic are controlled is critical to determining how neuronal signal transduction pathways are tuned up and down after activation. (rupress.org)
  • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein: Emerging mechanisms in immunity. (medscape.com)
  • t -BHQ relocalized Nrf2 in concert with changes in actin microfilament architecture, as visualized by superposition of immunochemically stained Nrf2 and fluorescent phalloidin-stained actin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Actin cables, long bundles of actin filaments, are highly dynamic structures containing actin (Act1p), fimbrin (Sac6p), and tropomyosin (Tpm1p and Tpm2p). (genetics.org)
  • In this study, we combined biochemical experiments with observations in egg chambers to define more precisely the function of this protein in the regulation of actin-bundle assembly in nurse cells. (biologists.org)
  • Drosophila Quail protein is required for the completion of fast cytoplasm transport from nurse cells to the oocyte, an event critical for the production of viable oocytes. (biologists.org)
  • 1998 ) Drosophila fascin mutants are rescued by overexpression of the villin-like protein, quail. (biologists.org)
  • Migrating cells form cytoplasmic protrusions, such as lamellipodia, filopodia, or microspikes, and malignant cells have abnormal lamellipodia or protrusions known as invadopodia ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • RNA-binding factor that recruits target transcripts to cytoplasmic protein-RNA complexes (mRNPs). (nih.gov)
  • Specificity of antibody verified on a Protein Array containing target protein plus 383 other non-specific proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (novusbio.com)
  • Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. (yeastgenome.org)
  • These annotations have been derived from physical molecular interaction evidence extracted from the literature and cross-referenced in the entry, or by curator inference from information on homologs in closely related species or by inference from scientific background. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Here I review the structures and functions of Anillin and Anillin-related proteins in various model systems, and aim to highlight both the common and distinctive features of these essential organizers of the molecular machinery that drives furrow ingression. (biologists.org)
  • Based on these results, we propose a molecular mechanism for the catch, where twitchin alone does not interact with the myosin catalytic motor domain but its complex with F-actin does, forming the bridge between actin and myosin filaments and the myosin slowly hydrolyzes Mg-ATP in the catch state. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, recent findings show that integrin/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 15 and PECAM-1/vascular endothelial-cadherin 16 associations form important mechanosignaling complexes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The precise distribution of the related SMARCD1 , SMARCD2 and SMARCD3 proteins among these and other SWI/SNF nucleosome-remodeling complexes is not fully known. (rcsb.org)
  • These altered proteins are able to form SWI/SNF complexes, but these complexes are nonfunctional and cannot participate in chromatin remodeling. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. (jci.org)
  • Extension of the cell surface is preceded by the polarized organization of two actin-filament-containing structures: actin cables and cortical actin patches. (genetics.org)
  • Despite its widespread role in the organization of the contractile ring, there are several interspecies differences in the structure and function of Anillin-related proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Arf family GTP-binding proteins are best characterized as regulators of membrane traffic, but recent studies indicate an additional role in cytoskeletal organization. (pnas.org)
  • The INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, which is evolutionarily conserved and has roles in transcription, DNA replication and repair, consists of actin and actin-related proteins Arp4, Arp5, and Arp8. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, while the two actin nucleation systems have complementary roles in some aspects of cell morphogenesis in cotyledon pavement cells, they may act in parallel in other cell types and developmental stages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Battesti A, Gottesman S (2013) Roles of adaptor proteins in regulation of bacterial proteolysis. (springer.com)
  • Contains experimentally-derived protein half-life data obtained using stable isotope labeling by amino acids (SILAC) coupled with mass spectrometry. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Together with beta-actin, it is required for maximal ATPase activity of BRG1, and for the association of the BAF complex with chromatin/matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocytosis, organism-specific biosystem Endocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the combination therapy resulted in a synergistic decrease of the expression levels of survivin and its corresponding downstream pathway molecules, including heat shock protein 90, X‑linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, smad 2 and smad 3. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We selected proteins and molecules interacted with ACTR1B here. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We confirmed the expression of a subset of the identified proteins by immunofluorescence and correlated the expression of transcript and protein for key molecules in active signaling pathways in hESCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Events normally taking place in the terminal chondrocyte differentiation in the growth plate are also observed during osteoarthritis (OA) development, suggesting that molecules, such as Wnts and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulating chondrocyte activity in the growth plate, may play a key role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteins were categorized as being either regulated in parallel or inverse direction on the protein and mRNA level, as their regulation data being not well defined on the mRNA level, or as being not present on the array. (mcponline.org)
  • COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LRP-5, BMP-2, BMP-4, BMPR-IA, and LEF-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were found to be significantly upregulated in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared with normal. (biomedcentral.com)