Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.PhosphoproteinsPolymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nerve Tissue ProteinsCytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Filamins: A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Colipases: Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Tropomodulin: An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Actin polymerization: Where the WASP stings. (1/274)

How do extracellular signals induce actin polymerization, as required for many cellular responses? Key signal transducers, such as the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, have now been shown to link via proteins of the WASP family to the Arp2/3 complex, which nucleates actin polymerization.  (+info)

Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex. (2/274)

The Arp2/3 complex, a stable assembly of two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) with five other subunits, caps the pointed end of actin filaments and nucleates actin polymerization with low efficiency. WASp and Scar are two similar proteins that bind the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, but their effect on the nucleation activity of the complex was not known. We report that full-length, recombinant human Scar protein, as well as N-terminally truncated Scar proteins, enhance nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. By themselves, these proteins either have no effect or inhibit actin polymerization. The actin monomer-binding W domain and the p21-binding A domain from the C terminus of Scar are both required to activate Arp2/3 complex. A proline-rich domain in the middle of Scar enhances the activity of the W and A domains. Preincubating Scar and Arp2/3 complex with actin filaments overcomes the initial lag in polymerization, suggesting that efficient nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex requires assembly on the side of a preexisting filament-a dendritic nucleation mechanism. The Arp2/3 complex with full-length Scar, Scar containing P, W, and A domains, or Scar containing W and A domains overcomes inhibition of nucleation by the actin monomer-binding protein profilin, giving active nucleation over a low background of spontaneous nucleation. These results show that Scar and, likely, related proteins, such as the Cdc42 targets WASp and N-WASp, are endogenous activators of actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Relationship between Arp2/3 complex and the barbed ends of actin filaments at the leading edge of carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. (3/274)

Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently after stimulation and remains confined almost exclusively to the extreme outer edge of the extending lamellipod (within 100-200 nm of the plasma membrane). This is accompanied by an increase in filament density at the leading edge and a general decrease in filament length, with a specific loss of long filaments. Concomitantly, the Arp2/3 complex is recruited with a 1.5-fold increase throughout the entire cortical filament network extending 1-1.5 microm in depth from the membrane at the leading edge. The recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex at the membrane of the extending lamellipod indicates that Arp2/3 may be involved in initial generation of growing filaments. However, only a small subset of the complex present in the cortical network colocalizes near free barbed ends. This suggests that the 100-200-nm submembraneous compartment at the leading edge of the extending lamellipod constitutes a special biochemical microenvironment that favors the generation and maintenance of free barbed ends, possibly through the locally active Arp2/3 complex, severing or decreasing the on-rate of capping protein. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis suggesting uncapping is the dominant mechanism responsible for the generation of nucleation activity. However, they support the hypothesis of an Arp2/3-mediated capture of actin oligomers that formed close to the membrane by other mechanisms such as severing. They also support pointed-end capping by the Arp2/3 complex, accounting for its wide distribution at the leading edge.  (+info)

The interaction between N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex links Cdc42-dependent signals to actin assembly. (4/274)

Although small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family have been implicated in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton, the exact nature of the linkage has remained obscure. We describe a novel mechanism that links one Rho family member, Cdc42, to actin polymerization. N-WASP, a ubiquitously expressed Cdc42-interacting protein, is required for Cdc42-stimulated actin polymerization in Xenopus egg extracts. The C terminus of N-WASP binds to the Arp2/3 complex and dramatically stimulates its ability to nucleate actin polymerization. Although full-length N-WASP is less effective, its activity can be greatly enhanced by Cdc42 and phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate. Therefore, N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex comprise a core mechanism that directly connects signal transduction pathways to the stimulation of actin polymerization.  (+info)

Rho-family GTPases require the Arp2/3 complex to stimulate actin polymerization in Acanthamoeba extracts. (5/274)

BACKGROUND: Actin filaments polymerize in vivo primarily from their fast-growing barbed ends. In cells and extracts, GTPgammaS and Rho-family GTPases, including Cdc42, stimulate barbed-end actin polymerization; however, the mechanism responsible for the initiation of polymerization is unknown. There are three formal possibilities for how free barbed ends may be generated in response to cellular signals: uncapping of existing filaments; severing of existing filaments; or de novo nucleation. The Arp2/3 complex localizes to regions of dynamic actin polymerization, including the leading edges of motile cells and motile actin patches in yeast, and in vitro it nucleates the formation of actin filaments with free barbed ends. Here, we investigated actin polymerization in soluble extracts of Acanthamoeba. RESULTS: Addition of actin filaments with free barbed ends to Acanthamoeba extracts is sufficient to induce polymerization of endogenous actin. Addition of activated Cdc42 or activation of Rho-family GTPases in these extracts by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTPgammaS stimulated barbed-end polymerization, whereas immunodepletion of Arp2 or sequestration of Arp2 using solution-binding antibodies blocked Rho-family GTPase-induced actin polymerization. CONCLUSIONS: For this system, we conclude that the accessibility of free barbed ends regulates actin polymerization, that Rho-family GTPases stimulate polymerization catalytically by de novo nucleation of free barbed ends and that the primary nucleation factor in this pathway is the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Activation of the yeast Arp2/3 complex by Bee1p, a WASP-family protein. (6/274)

The Arp2/3 complex is a highly conserved cytoskeletal component that has been implicated in the nucleation of actin filament assembly. Purified Arp2/3 complex has a low intrinsic actin nucleation activity, leading to the hypothesis that an unidentified cellular activator is required for the function of this complex. We showed previously that mutations in the Arp2/3 complex and in Bee1p/Las17p, a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein(WASP) family, lead to a loss of cortical actin structures (patches) in yeast. Bee1p has also been identified as an essential nucleation factor in the reconstitution of actin patches in vitro. Recently, it was reported that WASP-like proteins might interact directly with the Arp2/3 complex through a conserved carboxy-terminal domain. Here, we have shown that Bee1p and the Arp2/3 complex co-immunoprecipitate when expressed at endogenous levels, and that this interaction requires both the Arc15p and Arc19p subunits of the Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, the carboxy-terminal domain of Bee1p greatly stimulated the nucleation activity of purified Arp2/3 complex in vitro, suggesting a direct role for WASP-family proteins in the activation of the Arp2/3 complex. Interestingly, deletion of the carboxy-terminal domain of Bee1p neither abolished the localization of the Arp2/3 complex, as had been suggested, nor resulted in a severe defect in cortical actin assembly. These results indicate that the function of Bee1p is not mediated entirely through its interaction with the Arp2/3 complex, and that factors redundant with Bee1p might exist to activate the nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein directs actin-based motility by stimulating actin nucleation with the Arp2/3 complex. (7/274)

Actin polymerization at the cell cortex is thought to provide the driving force for aspects of cell-shape change and locomotion. To coordinate cellular movements, the initiation of actin polymerization is tightly regulated, both spatially and temporally. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), encoded by the gene that is mutated in the immunodeficiency disorder Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome [1], has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells [2] [3] [4] [5]. The Arp2/3 complex, an actin-nucleating factor that consists of seven polypeptide subunits [6] [7] [8], was recently shown to physically interact with WASP [9]. We sought to determine whether WASP is a cellular activator of the Arp2/3 complex and found that WASP stimulates the actin nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex in vitro. Moreover, WASP-coated microspheres polymerized actin, formed actin tails and exhibited actin-based motility in cell extracts, similar to those behaviors displayed by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. In extracts depleted of the Arp2/3 complex, WASP-coated microspheres and L. monocytogenes were non-motile and exhibited only residual actin polymerization. These results demonstrate that WASP is sufficient to direct actin-based motility in cell extracts and that this function is mediated by the Arp2/3 complex. WASP interacts with diverse signaling proteins and may therefore function to couple signal transduction pathways to Arp2/3-complex activation and actin polymerization.  (+info)

Arp2/3 complex and actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin in dendritic organization and treadmilling of actin filament array in lamellipodia. (8/274)

The leading edge (approximately 1 microgram) of lamellipodia in Xenopus laevis keratocytes and fibroblasts was shown to have an extensively branched organization of actin filaments, which we term the dendritic brush. Pointed ends of individual filaments were located at Y-junctions, where the Arp2/3 complex was also localized, suggesting a role of the Arp2/3 complex in branch formation. Differential depolymerization experiments suggested that the Arp2/3 complex also provided protection of pointed ends from depolymerization. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin was excluded from the distal 0.4 micrometer++ of the lamellipodial network of keratocytes and in fibroblasts it was located within the depolymerization-resistant zone. These results suggest that ADF/cofilin, per se, is not sufficient for actin brush depolymerization and a regulatory step is required. Our evidence supports a dendritic nucleation model (Mullins, R.D., J.A. Heuser, and T.D. Pollard. 1998. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95:6181-6186) for lamellipodial protrusion, which involves treadmilling of a branched actin array instead of treadmilling of individual filaments. In this model, Arp2/3 complex and ADF/cofilin have antagonistic activities. Arp2/3 complex is responsible for integration of nascent actin filaments into the actin network at the cell front and stabilizing pointed ends from depolymerization, while ADF/cofilin promotes filament disassembly at the rear of the brush, presumably by pointed end depolymerization after dissociation of the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

*Gelsolin

While the multiple repeats have yet to be related to any known function of the actin-severing proteins, the superfamily appears ... Actin can be cross-linked into a gel by actin cross-linking proteins. Gelsolin can turn this gel into a sol, hence the name ... Gelsolin is an actin-binding protein that is a key regulator of actin filament assembly and disassembly. Gelsolin is one of the ... Comparison of protein sequence with human gelsolin and other actin-severing proteins shows strong homologies and evidence for ...

*Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPIN gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor". Retrieved 2017-06-21. Deng WS, Zhang J, Ju H, Zheng HM, Wang J, Wang S, Zhang DL ...

*ARPC1A

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1A gene. This gene encodes one ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa". Human ARPC1A genome location and ARPC1A gene details ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ... This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1B. The ...

*ARPC3

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC3 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC3 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3, 21kDa". Welch MD, Iwamatsu A, Mitchison TJ (1997). "Actin ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through ...

*ARPC2

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC2 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34kDa". Weed SA, Karginov AV, Schafer DA, Weaver AM, Kinley AW ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through ...

*ARPC5

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC5 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC5 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa". Millard TH, Behrendt B, Launay S, Fütterer K, Machesky ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through ...

*ACTR2

"The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... Actin-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR2 gene. The specific function of this gene has not ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR2 ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast)". Bearer EL, Prakash JM, Li Z (2002). "Actin dynamics in ...

*ARPC4

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC4 gene. This gene encodes one of ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC4 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa". "Dysmorphology data for Arpc4". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through ...

*ARPC1B

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1B gene. This gene encodes one ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1B actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B, 41kDa". "Isoform diversity in the Arp2/3 complex determines ... "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily ... Welch MD, Iwamatsu A, Mitchison TJ (Jan 1997). "Actin polymerization is induced by Arp2/3 protein complex at the surface of ...

*ACTR3

Actin-related protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3 gene. The specific function of this gene has not ... "The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR3 ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast)". Weed SA, Karginov AV, Schafer DA, Weaver AM, Kinley AW, ... Machesky LM, Insall RH (1999). "Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton ...

*HCLS1

2003). "Haematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) promotes actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex-mediated actin ... Chen, Y R; Kori R; John B; Tan T H (Nov 2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ... Chen YR, Kori R, John B, Tan TH (2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ... Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCLS1 gene. HCLS1 has been shown to ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... actin-related protein 3 MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.100 - myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.200 - myosin light chains ... groel protein MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.100 - fusion proteins, bcr-abl MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.320 - fusion proteins, gag-onc ... oncogene protein v-maf MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.875 - oncogene proteins v-abl MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.882 - oncogene proteins ... fusion proteins, gag-pol MeSH D12.776.964.775.350.400 - hiv core protein p24 MeSH D12.776.964.775.375.325 - fusion proteins, ...

*Chromosome 12 (human)

... encoding protein ADP-ribosylation-like factor 6 interacting protein 4 ARPC3: encoding protein Actin-related protein 2/3 complex ... encoding protein La-related protein 4 LEPREL2: encoding enzyme Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3 LMBR1L: encoding protein Protein LMBR1L ... encoding protein Protein asunder homolog (Asun) ATG101: Autophagy-related protein 101 BCAT1: encoding protein Branched chain ... encoding protein a protein of 377 amino acid residues FAM60A: encoding protein FAM60A FAM186B: encoding protein Protein FAM186B ...

*List of MeSH codes (D05)

... actin-related protein 3 MeSH D05.750.078.730.250 --- actins MeSH D05.750.078.730.281 --- cortactin MeSH D05.750.078.730.350 ... microfilament proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032 --- actin capping proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.500 --- capz actin capping ... actin-related protein 2-3 complex MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.500 --- actin-related protein 2 MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.750 --- ... wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein family MeSH D05.750.078.730.912.500 --- wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein MeSH D05.750.078.730. ...

*Actin assembly-inducing protein

NPFs in the mammalian cell recruit and bind to the already existing actin-related-protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) and ... The Actin assembly-inducing protein (ActA) is a protein encoded and used by Listeria monocytogenes to propel itself through a ... an actin monomer binding protein, which itself promotes polymerization at barbed ends of actin filaments. Furthermore, VASP ... In the cytosol they start to polymerize actin on their surface by the help of the ActA protein. It has been shown that ActA is ...

*Chromosome 2 (human)

... encoding protein Actin-related protein 2 ADI1: encoding enzyme 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene dioxygenase AFF3: ... encoding protein Transmembrane protein C2orf18 C2orf28: encoding protein Apoptosis-related protein 3 CAPG: capping acting ... encoding protein Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 5 ERICH2: encoding protein Glutamate rich protein 2 FASTKD1: FAST ... UBX domain-containing protein 4 UXS1: UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase 1 XIRP2: Xin actin-binding repeat-containing protein 2 ...

*Microfilament

Filament end-tracking protein (e.g., formins, VASP, N-WASP) Filament-nucleator known as the Actin-Related Protein-2/3 (or Arp2/ ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... These structures are regulated by many other classes of actin-binding proteins, including motor proteins, branching proteins, ... globular actin, or G-actin), which as part of the fiber are referred to as filamentous actin, or F-actin. Each microfilament is ...

*ACTL6A

"Alternative splicing products of the gene for a human nuclear actin-related protein, hArpNbeta/Baf53, that encode a protein ... Actin-like protein 6A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL6A gene. This gene encodes a family member of actin- ... related proteins (ARPs), which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have ... Kuroda Y, Oma Y, Nishimori K, Ohta T, Harata M (November 2002). "Brain-specific expression of the nuclear actin-related protein ...

*SMARCD2

SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily D member 2 is a protein that in humans is ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase ... Ring HZ, Vameghi-Meyers V, Wang W, Crabtree GR, Francke U (Sep 1998). "Five SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent ... "Entrez Gene: SMARCD2 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 2". Wang W ...

*Dynactin

... an actin-related protein is a component of a filament that resembles F-actin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 126 (2): 403-412. ... "Dynamics of cytoplasmic dynein in living cells and the effect of a mutation in the dynactin complex actin-related protein Arp1 ... "Analysis of Dynactin Subcomplexes Reveals a Novel Actin-Related Protein Associated with the Arp1 Minifilament Pointed End". The ... At the barbed end the capping protein (CapZαβ) binds the Arp1 filament in the same way that it binds actin, although with more ...

*DCTN1

Bingham JB, Schroer TA (1999). "Self-regulated polymerization of the actin-related protein Arp1". Curr. Biol. 9 (4): 223-6. doi ... "The p150Glued component of the dynactin complex binds to both microtubules and the actin-related protein centractin (Arp-1)". ... "Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". J. ... Blangy A, Arnaud L, Nigg EA (1997). "Phosphorylation by p34cdc2 protein kinase regulates binding of the kinesin-related motor ...

*DCTN2

"Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". J. ... Yue L, Lu S, Garces J, Jin T, Li J (2000). "Protein kinase C-regulated dynamitin-macrophage-enriched myristoylated alanine-rice ... Berrueta L, Tirnauer JS, Schuyler SC, Pellman D, Bierer BE (1999). "The APC-associated protein EB1 associates with components ... "Protein kinase C-regulated dynamitin-macrophage-enriched myristoylated alanine-rice C kinase substrate interaction is involved ...

*List of A1 genes, proteins or receptors

This is a list of genes, proteins or receptors named A1 or Alpha-1 : Actin, alpha 1 Actinin, alpha 1 Adaptor-related protein ... alpha 1 BCL2-related protein A1 Butyrophilin, subfamily 1, member A1 Butyrophilin, subfamily 3, member A1 Capping protein ( ... an actin-binding protein NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), alpha 1 Nucleolar protein, member A1 PCDHA4 Phospholipase A1 ... alpha 1 RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 1, member A1 Replication protein A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1 Sec61 ...

*DCTN5

"Analysis of Dynactin Subcomplexes Reveals a Novel Actin-Related Protein Associated with the Arp1 Minifilament Pointed End". The ... The encoded protein is a component of the pointed-end subcomplex and is thought to bind membranous cargo. A pseudogene of this ... Dynactin 5 (p25) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DCTN5 gene. This gene encodes a subunit of dynactin, a component ... 147 (2): 307-320. doi:10.1083/jcb.147.2.307. PMC 2174220 . PMID 10525537. Parisi, G.; Fornasari, M.; Echave, J. (2004). " ...

*DCTN6

"Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... "Analysis of dynactin subcomplexes reveals a novel actin-related protein associated with the arp1 minifilament pointed end". The ... which is important for recruitment of spindle assembly checkpoint proteins such as Mad1 and proper kinetochore-microtubule ... 147 (2): 307-20. doi:10.1083/jcb.147.2.307. PMC 2174220 . PMID 10525537. Eckley, DM; Gill, SR; Melkonian, KA; Bingham, JB; ...

*EPS8L1

This gene encodes a protein that is related to epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (EPS8), a substrate for the ... 2004). "The eps8 Family of Proteins Links Growth Factor Stimulation to Actin Reorganization Generating Functional Redundancy in ... Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8-like protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EPS8L1 gene. ... 2004). "Large-scale cDNA transfection screening for genes related to cancer development and progression". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...

*ACTR1B

This subunit, like ACTR1A, is an actin-related protein. These two proteins are of equal length and share 90% amino acid ... Eckley DM, Schroer TA (2004). "Interactions between the evolutionarily conserved, actin-related protein, Arp11, actin, and Arp1 ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR1B ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog B, centractin beta (yeast)". Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, et al ... characterization and distribution of a new member of the centractin family of actin-related proteins". Mol Biol Cell. 5 (12): ...
Author Summary Actin and the structurally similar actin-related proteins (ARPs) are major components of nucleosome remodeling complexes in the nucleus. Here we show that budding yeast Arp6 has functions independent of its catalytic chromatin remodeling partner, Swr1. Arp6 binds to multiple promoters and subtelomeric zones at which Swr1 does not bind, and this association increases in strains lacking an intact SWR-C remodeling complex. We show that Arp6 can mediate the association of the ribosomal protein gene promoters to which it binds, with the nuclear envelope. The loss of Arp6 led to an up-regulation of these ribosomal protein genes, yet had the opposite effect on the galactose-induced GAL1 promoter, where it binds together with Swr1 and the histone H2A variant H2A.Z. Indeed, loss of Arp6 and nuclear envelope binding delays galactose-induced activation of GAL1. The two opposing functions of Arp6 correlate with different pathways of anchoring mediated by Arp6: one requires that the intact SWR-C
1IVY: Three-dimensional structure of the human protective protein: structure of the precursor form suggests a complex activation mechanism.
bin/bash #Set the parameters passed to this script to meaningful variable names. connection_type="$1" essid="$2" bssid="$3" if [ "${connection_type}" == "wireless" ]; then #Change below to match your networks. case "$essid" in YOUR-NETWORK-NAME-ESSID) arp -s 192.168.0.1 00:11:22:33:44:55 ;; Netgear01923) arp -s 192.168.0.1 10:11:20:33:40:50 ;; ANOTHER-ESSID) arp -s 192.168.0.1 11:33:55:77:99:00 ;; *) echo "Static ARP not set. No network defined." ;; esac fi ...
Actin-Related Protein 2 (Arp2) [Homo Sapiens] P61160: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/p61160 Family: Arp 2 belongs to actin family and Arp 2 subfamily, which consists of 21 proteins form different species. It is a subunit of ARP2/3 complex, along with Arp 3 and other 5 subunits, i.e. p40 (ARPC1), p35 (ARPC2), p19 (ARPC3), p18 (ARPC4), and p14 (ARPC5). It…
Actin-Related Protein 3 (Arp3) [Homo Sapiens] P: 61168: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/5031573 Family: Arp 3 belongs to actin family and Arp 3 subfamily, which consists of 20 proteins from different species. It is a subunit of ARP2/3 complex, along with Arp 2 and other 5 subunits, i.e. p40 (ARPC1), p35 (ARPC2), p19 (ARPC3), p18 (ARPC4), and p14 (ARPC5).…
Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament.
Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the mother actin filament (By similarity).
We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. Subunits ARPC2 p34 and ARPC4 p20 in the core of the complex associate through long carboxyl-terminal α helices and have similarly folded amino-terminal α/β domains. ARPC1 p40 is a seven-blade β propeller with an insertion that may associate with the side of an actin filament. ARPC3 p21 and ARPC5 p16 are globular α-helical subunits. We predict that WASp/Scar proteins activate Arp2/3 complex by bringing Arp2 into proximity with Arp3 for nucleation of a branch on the side of a preexisting actin filament. ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Arp2 protein (ab112388). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
ACTR1B antibody, C-term (ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog B, centractin beta (yeast)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-ACTR1B pAb (GTX89761) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
ACTRT1 antibody (actin-related protein T1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-ACTRT1 pAb (GTX120431) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
ARPC1A overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa (ARPC1A), transcript variant 2
ARPC4山羊多克隆抗体(ab80502)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
In trecut, diagnosticul de hiperaldosteroidism primar se suspiciona numai in contextul unei hipertensiuni asociata cu hipopotasemie. La ora actuala se estimeaza ca aproximativ 5-13% din totalul pacientilor cu HTA, au ARP scazute in contextul unei excretii crescute de aldosteron si multi dintre ei...
Cytoplasmic dynein is a multisubunit, microtubule-dependent mechanochemical enzyme that has been proposed to function in a variety of intracellular movements, including minus-end-directed transport of organelles. Dynein-mediated vesicle transport is stimulated in vitro by addition of the Glued/dynactin complex raising the possibility that these two complexes interact in vivo. We report here that a class of phenotypically identical mutants of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa are defective in genes encoding subunits of either cytoplasmic dynein or the Glued/dynactin complex. These mutants, defined as ropy, have curled hyphae with abnormal nuclear distribution. ro-1 encodes the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein, while ro-4 encodes an actin-related protein that is a probable homologue of the actin-related protein Arpl (formerly referred to as actin-RPV or centractin), the major component of the glued/dynactin complex. The phenotypes of ro-1 and ro-4 mutants suggest that cytoplasmic dynein, ...
T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization is considered to be actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex dependent. We therefore examined the requirement for Arp2/3- and formin-dependent F-actin nucleation during T cell activation. We demonstrated that without Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation, stimulated T cells could not form an F-actin-rich lamellipod, but instead produced polarized filopodia-like structures. Moreover, the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC, or centrosome), which rapidly reorients to the immunological synapse through an unknown mechanism, polarized in the absence of Arp2/3. Conversely, the actin-nucleating formins, Diaphanous-1 (DIA1) and Formin-like-1 (FMNL1), did not affect TCR-stimulated F-actin-rich structures, but instead displayed unique patterns of centrosome colocalization and controlled TCR-mediated centrosome polarization. Depletion of FMNL1 or DIA1 in cytotoxic lymphocytes abrogated cell-mediated killing. Altogether, our results have identified Arp2/3 complex
The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is an actin nucleator that generates a branched actin network in mammalian cells. In addition to binding nucleation promoting factors, LeClaire et al. demonstrated that its phosphorylation state is essential key for its activity (LeClaire et al., 2008). In cells, the ARP2/3 complex is phosphorylated on threonine and tyrosine residues of the ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC1 subunits (Vadlamudi et al., 2004; LeClaire et al., 2008; Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). In particular, phosphorylation of threonine 237 and 238 of the ARP2 subunit is necessary to allow a change in the ARP2/3 complex structure to its active conformation (Narayanan et al., 2011; LeClaire et al., 2015). While important for many functions in eukaryotic cells, ARP2/3 complex activity also benefits several cellular pathogens (Haglund and Welch, 2011; Welch and Way, 2013). Recently, we demonstrated that the bacterial pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, manipulates ARP2/3 complex
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DHCP Snooping on the Layer-3 switches with redundant links:. In the above topology, the ARP for the host 10.0.0.100 is learned on the VLAN 10 through the Layer-2 interface Te 0/1.. Dell# show arp ip 10.0.0.100. Protocol Address Age(min) Hardware Address Interface VLAN CPU. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Internet 10.0.0.100 9 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10 CP. If the DHCP snooping is enabled, the switch will capture the DHCP messages from the host and build the DHCP snooping binding table.. Dell#show ip dhcp snooping binding. Codes : S - Static D - Dynamic. IP Address MAC Address Expires(Sec) Type VLAN Interface. ====================================================. 10.0.0.100 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef 86008 D Vl 10 Te 0/1. This binding will internally created a static ARP for the host as below.. Dell#Show _arp. Vrf-ID:0 Owner:0 Clients:0 Service:0x2 Asked:0IsMgid:0Mgid:0. Internet 10.0.0.100 - 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10. As mentioned ...
DHCP Snooping on the Layer-3 switches with redundant links:. In the above topology, the ARP for the host 10.0.0.100 is learned on the VLAN 10 through the Layer-2 interface Te 0/1.. Dell# show arp ip 10.0.0.100. Protocol Address Age(min) Hardware Address Interface VLAN CPU. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Internet 10.0.0.100 9 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10 CP. If the DHCP snooping is enabled, the switch will capture the DHCP messages from the host and build the DHCP snooping binding table.. Dell#show ip dhcp snooping binding. Codes : S - Static D - Dynamic. IP Address MAC Address Expires(Sec) Type VLAN Interface. ====================================================. 10.0.0.100 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef 86008 D Vl 10 Te 0/1. This binding will internally created a static ARP for the host as below.. Dell#Show _arp. Vrf-ID:0 Owner:0 Clients:0 Service:0x2 Asked:0IsMgid:0Mgid:0. Internet 10.0.0.100 - 00:00:00:ab:cd:ef Te 0/1 Vl 10. As mentioned ...
Binding of 18348" target="_blank">1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate to Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASL) allosterically relieves an auto-inhibitory intramolecular interaction in Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASL), which becomes active ...
A guidewire useful for feeding a medical catheter through a body duct network to a distant target site within the body has a flexible distal portion. The distal portion facilitates threading the guidewire in a tortuous path through acute bends at branch junctions in the duct network. The guidewire end is able to feed into very delicate vessels such as ventricles of the brain and the spinal canal without puncturing the walls or damaging organs. The novel guidewire includes beads displaced longitudinally at the distal end of a core wire. The beads are separated by a gap distance. The core wire can flex at points within the gaps between beads which allows the dial end of the guidewire to bend at branch junctions and to conform to the curvature in the vessel duct. The beads can be fixed to the core wire or they can move freely along the distal portion. Also, beads freely sliding along the core wire can be compressed against each other to control the degrees of stiffness and curvature of the distal portion
Neurospora crassa RO12 protein: a p25 subunit of the actin-related protein 1 pointed-end complex of Neurospora crassa; amino acid sequence in first source
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid sequence identity to…
The actin family is a diverse and evolutionarily ancient group of proteins that provide the supportive framework to the three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic cells. It provides the forces that enable the cell to adopt a variety of shapes and to [...]
Human ARPC5L partial ORF ( NP_112240, 1 a.a. - 100 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00081873-Q01) - Products - Abnova
Behringer has revealed plans to release clones of a studio full of classic analog synthesizers, including the ARP 2600 & SYNTHI VCS3.
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... (WAS, MIM #301000) is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp). The originally described features of WAS include susceptibility to infections (subsequently
Membrane targeting is a crucial aspect in the spatial and temporal control of Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation in various cellular and developmental processes. Whereas previous studies suggested that membrane association is mediated by Scar/WAVE and WASP proteins, our data show that phosphoinositides do not exclusively act on Arp2/3-activators. We reveal that Abp1 is physically and functionally interfacing with Scar and that a subpool of Abp1 is membrane-associated by interactions with PS, PIP2 and PIP3. This creates a layer of Abp1-mediated Arp2/3 regulation specifically at the cell cortex.. Our in vitro reconstitutions proved that Abp1s lipid interactions are direct, specific and strong enough to withstand floatation through sucrose. The in vivo relevance of this novel Abp1 function is supported by subcellular fractionations and by colocalization of Abp1 with PIP3 especially at the plasma membrane of S2 cells.. The need for tight control of the membrane-associated pool of Abp1 is evident from ...
Predicted to have actin filament binding activity. Predicted to be involved in Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation. Predicted to localize to the Arp2/3 protein complex and tubulobulbar complex. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in gastritis and myelodysplastic syndrome. Orthologous to human ARPC1B (actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B ...
Aktin adalah protein globular dengan massa sekitar 42-kDa dengan berbagai fungsi dasar, hingga disebut protein sambi (bahasa Inggris: moonlighting protein), dengan peran dalam proses seluler dari migrasi sel hingga transpor membran.[1] Aktin ditemukan pada semua organisme eukariota, paling tidak terdapat 8 jenis protein yang mengandung aktin, disebut actin-related proteins (ARPs). Walaupun banyak ARP bersifat sitoskeletal, studi biokimia dan genetika akhir-akhir ini telah menunjukkan bahwa beberapa ARP memiliki fungsi di dalam inti sel selain di dalam sitoplasma,[2] seperti ekspresi gen, regulasi faktor transkripsi dan motilitas intra-inti. Aktin inti berperan dalam transkripsi ketiga enzim polimerase RNA, dalam remodelling kromatin dan dalam pembentukan kompleks ribonukleoprotein inti, dan pada pencerapan histon.[3]. Aktin juga merupakan stimulan ekspresi faktor transkripsi mitokondrial p43.[4] Ekspresi tersebut akan menginduksi aktivitas mitokondria, dan lintasan mitokondriogenesis, ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Context: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a fatal, devastating disease with ill-defined treatment modalities, which affects young boys. Classic WAS is
IFN-α inhibits Shigella-induced actin polymerization at the site of entry. Cells were challenged with Shigella expressing the AfaE adhesin, fixed after 10 min
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VCA Inc. (NASDAQ: WOOF), a leading animal healthcare company in the United States and Canada, today reported financial results for the second quarter
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Branched actin networks harness the free energy of actin filament assembly to generate forces required for many important cellular processes (Pollard & Cooper, 2009; Blanchoin et al, 2014). These self‐assembling, cytoskeletal structures push against loads (generally cellular membranes) by promoting nucleation and elongation of actin filaments near the load surface (Pollard et al, 2000). Filament nucleation in branched networks is controlled by membrane‐associated signaling molecules, which recruit nucleation‐promoting factors (NPFs) that, in turn, localize the Arp2/3 complex and stimulate its actin nucleation activity (Pollard et al, 2000; Rotty et al, 2013). Filament elongation near the membrane surface is generally assumed to occur via diffusion‐limited incorporation of actin monomers directly from solution (Pollard et al, 2000), with possible assistance from membrane‐associated actin polymerases, such as formins and Ena/VASP proteins (Dominguez, 2009). The fact that neither formins ...
What is Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome? Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome results in greater susceptibility to infections and abnormal bleeding. The latter occurs due to unusually small, dysfunctional platelets. What is the treatment for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome? This condition is often cured by stem transplantation from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or cord blood.
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) (OMIM 301000) is a rare X-linked immunodeficiency caused by mutations in a single gene, WAS, mapping to Xp11.22-Xp11.3 and coding for the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) 1. WASP is a critical regulator of actin signaling with expression limited to hematopoietic cells, and thus is required for multiple functions including T cell activation, dendritic cell migration and podosome formation, and B cell terminal development and function. WAS is characterized by microthrombocytopenia, recurrent infections, eczema and associated with a high incidence of auto-immunity and of lymphoid malignancies. Classic or severe WAS, is generally observed in patients with nonsense mutations or insertions/deletions resulting in frameshift or splice-site mutations or missense mutations and resulting in unstable protein 2. With few exceptions, WASP-negative patients have classical disease. Affected patients have a severely reduced life expectancy.. Currently, the only curative ...
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, and recurrent infections. However, the more than 500 patient mutations described are main
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome is also known as Wiskott-Aldrich-Huntley syndrome. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome is an X-linked recessive condition..
Migrating cellular material apply traction force pushes when shifting. actin nucleation in the leading advantage of the cell, transported by the ARP2/3 468740-43-4 IC50 complicated turned on through the Scar tissue/WAVE complicated, provides proven to end up being fundamental to the delivery of the cyclic motion and to the era of the grip pushes. 468740-43-4 IC50 The proteins PIR121, a known member of the Scar tissue/WAVE complicated, can be important to the correct control of the routine motion and the proteins Scar tissue, included in the Scar tissue/WAVE complicated also, can be required for the era of the grip pushes during migration. The proteins Myosin II, an essential F-actin electric motor and cross-linker proteins, can be important to cytoskeletal contractility and to the era and correct firm of the grip pushes during migration. 1.?Launch Migrating cells exert grip forces. These grip pushes are required in purchase to perform the locomotion procedure and are included in the era of the ...
The preliminary outcomes for the first four children enrolled in a US gene therapy trial for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) have shown promising results.
In this study, we investigated the role of the Arp2/3 complex and associated signaling in astrocytes. We demonstrate that the expansion of astrocytic cell bodies and processes is triggered by Arp2/3 inhibition in dissociated cultures and brain tissue. This phenomenon requires the activity of myosin II in conjunction with increased RhoA activity. Furthermore, we identified N-WASP and PICK1 as crucial Arp2/3 regulators in astrocyte morphological plasticity, and show that this mechanism underlies the rapid and drastic morphological changes exhibited by astrocytes under ischemic conditions.. In most studied cell types, inactivation of the Arp2/3 complex leads mainly to disappearance, outgrowth-inhibition or shrinkage of subcellular structures such as lamellipodia in fibroblasts and cancer cells (Steffen et al., 2006; Wu et al., 2012), or neurites and dendritic spines in neurons (Korobova and Svitkina, 2008; Hotulainen et al., 2009; Tahirovic et al., 2010; Nakamura et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2012). ...
The Wiskott-Aldrich Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to funding research to find improved cures for WAS ,providing up-to-date information and support for families living with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome worldwide. This website provides information, resources, and support for families coping with WAS. It is intended to bring together patients, researchers, and physicians to help with early diagnosis, better ways of managing the disease, and to spur the research necessary for a better cure.
The Wiskott-Aldrich Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to funding research to find improved cures for WAS ,providing up-to-date information and support for families living with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome worldwide. This website provides information, resources, and support for families coping with WAS. It is intended to bring together patients, researchers, and physicians to help with early diagnosis, better ways of managing the disease, and to spur the research necessary for a better cure.
ARP wave treatment is a form of neuro therapy consisting of a regimen of active range-of-motion and other exercise techniques geared to accelerate the bodys natural ability to recover, according to...
Hey all, Ive been reading about this whole arp poisoning thing. The only materials that I ve seen are all offensive (as apposed to defensive papers)-| would any one happen to know of some info. That I can find on this subject. How to protect against it; How to detect it, et cetera Thank You. TampaBay
The cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum was studied in detail regarding its structure and function relationships. The second part of the thesis describes the characterization of the novel actin-related protein filactin from D. discoideum. CAP homologs are multifunctional proteins: they are involved in signal dependent changes in the actin cytoskeleton, in vesicle transport and cell development. The binding of monomeric actin through the C-terminal domain represents a common feature of all CAPs. From four highly conserved regions in this domain the verprolin homology region of the D. discoideum CAP was analyzed in this work. Loss of this region led to a clear decrease, but not suppression of the actin-sequestering activity. In agreement to these data, stable complexes of the modified CAP-C with G-actin could be identified in chemical crosslinking experiments, and it could be shown that CAP-C is able to dimerize. Considering the high conservation of cyclase-associated ...
Acts as a nucleation-promoting factor at the surface of endosomes, where it recruits and activates the Arp2/3 complex to induce actin polymerization, playing a key role in the fission of tubules that serve as transport intermediates during endosome sorting. Involved in endocytic trafficking of EGF. Its assembly in the WASH core complex seems to inhibit its NPF activity and via FAM21 is required for its membrane targeting. Involved in transferrin receptor recycling. Regulates the trafficking of endosomal alpha5beta1 integrin to the plasma membrane and involved in invasive cell migration. In T-cells involved in endosome-to-membrane recycling of receptors including T-cell receptor (TCR), CD28 and ITGAL; proposed to be implicated in T-cell proliferation and effector function. In dendritic cells involved in endosome-to-membrane recycling of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II probably involving retromer and subsequently allowing antigen sampling, loading and presentation during T-cell ...
Medical Mnemonics - Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: Symptom Triad - Pathology Mnemonics - ABIM Exam Question Bank with videos, mnemonics, and flashcards to prepare for the IM Board Exam.
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
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Daniels genome tests revealed a mutation as yet unknown to medical science. The defect appeared in a gene known as ARPC1B, known to produce a protein required by the bodys cells to change shape, move, divide and perform other vital bodily functions. And Daniels ARPC1B gene expressed none of this critical protein. Two other patients, related to one another but not to Daniel, also were discovered to have a mutation leaving them with very little ARPC1B protein. And over time another 20 children globally have also been identified with this same genetic mutation ...
vch:VCA0860 K01176 alpha-amylase [EC:3.2.1.1] , (RefSeq) malS; alpha-amylase (A) MKLNALTLSLLSALALPALASPASTANLTVATTTNSRDFPLQADEPLVIPLTKGDYTLTI SGIGGDCPPVPEQEIKFNTPIALNCHVPTQLPLSIRFTGDYAFQWQAQNNTLTFVRQTTK AAKTEFHRPIPNVSCEVYQGGEVTLDLASSFADGTELQDAMTGQVVTIEQGKVRLTPSAN SGGLVLLEPKQTAKAEPKQPFTYRNANIYFVMVDRFYNADPSNDGSYGRHKDGQEEIGTF HGGDLKGVIAKLDHIQSLGTDAIWLSPIVEQVHGFVGGGEKGSFPFYAYHGYWTRDFTKI DANFGKDEDLQTLVREAHRRGIKILMDAVINHAGYATLADLQQDAVQVVNAPMLPERWND WKPSADENWHSFHQAIDYQSKNWQQWWGPDWVRAGLPGYPAPGSSDITMNLAGLPDFRTE SPQAVTPPQWLLNNPGTRVVSKPNYTVADYLIEWQSDWVRRFGIDGFRIDTVKHVEGEVW QRLKQRATESLAAWRKDNNQSGEPFWMMGEVWGHGAYRSPYFDDGFDALINFDIQKRMDN GAACLSQMAMVYRDYAQTLAKYPDFNPVSYMSSHDTELFFGRFKSLDMQRNAANALLLTP GAIQVYYGDEVAREAGPYADDFHQGTRSDMPWEWNAERQALLKHWQTLGQFRQRHPAIGT GEHREIAQSNAYVFTRTLGEDKVVVAFVGR ...
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In vitro studies with purified proteins showed that αE-catenin is an allosteric protein in which the monomer binds the cadherin-catenin complex and homodimer preferentially binds actin filaments and inhibits Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization (Drees et al., 2005; Yamada et al., 2005). These results intimated roles for αE-catenin in the regulation of actin-based membrane dynamics in addition to and perhaps independent of αE-catenin roles in cell-cell adhesion. In this study, we tested key predictions of these in vitro results in epithelial cells.. We identified multiple forms of αE-catenin in MDCK cells. A membrane-bound pool of αE-catenin was identified in the E-cadherin-catenin complex; formally, we do not know whether this pool is a monomer, homodimer, or both, although it is likely to be a monomer based upon structural evidence (Pokutta and Weis, 2000). In the cytosol, we identified αE-catenin monomer and homodimer, which had a relatively fast turnover rate. We also observed ...
In vitro studies with purified proteins showed that αE-catenin is an allosteric protein in which the monomer binds the cadherin-catenin complex and homodimer preferentially binds actin filaments and inhibits Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization (Drees et al., 2005; Yamada et al., 2005). These results intimated roles for αE-catenin in the regulation of actin-based membrane dynamics in addition to and perhaps independent of αE-catenin roles in cell-cell adhesion. In this study, we tested key predictions of these in vitro results in epithelial cells.. We identified multiple forms of αE-catenin in MDCK cells. A membrane-bound pool of αE-catenin was identified in the E-cadherin-catenin complex; formally, we do not know whether this pool is a monomer, homodimer, or both, although it is likely to be a monomer based upon structural evidence (Pokutta and Weis, 2000). In the cytosol, we identified αE-catenin monomer and homodimer, which had a relatively fast turnover rate. We also observed ...
Actin polymerization is a fundamental cellular process regulating immune cell functions and the immune response. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is an actin nucleation promoting factor, which is exclusively expressed in hematopoietic cells, where it plays a key regulatory role in cytoskeletal dynamics. WASp interacting protein (WIP) was first discovered as the binding partner of WASp, through the use of the yeast two hybrid system. WIP was later identified as a chaperone of WASp, necessary for its stability. Mutations occurring at the WASp homology 1 domain (WH1), which serves as the WIP binding site, were found to cause the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT). WAS manifests as an immune deficiency characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia, recurrent infections, and hematopoietic malignancies, demonstrating the importance of WIP for WASp complex formation and for a proper immune response. WIP deficiency was found to lead to different abnormalities in the
While working in Rosen lab, I discovered a novel actin regulatory assembly, the WASH Regulatory Complex (SHRC). WASH is a recently discovered member of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) family, which stimulates Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation via a conserved C-terminal VCA element.. The activity of VCA is inhibited within the SHRC, which consists of four other core subunits in addition to WASH: FAM21, Strumpellin, SWIP, and CCDC53. The CapZ dimer also associates with the complex by interacting with the C-terminus of FAM21. Following reconstitution of the SHRC from insect cells, I elucidated its organizational architecture through bioinformatic, biochemical and electron microscopic analyses, and showed that it is distantly related to the well-known WAVE Regulatory Complex ...
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a genetic disorder that mostly affects males. Here we will discuss what this disorder is, the genes that are related to it, how it is inherited, its symptoms, how it affects patients, how it is diagnosed and treatment methods.
WASP homolog associated with actin, membranes and microtubules (WHAMM) is a newly discovered nucleation-promoting factor that links actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and regulates transport from the
WIPF1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_001070737), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a protein that plays an important role in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. The encoded protein binds to a region of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein that is frequently mutated in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, an X-linked recessive disorder. Impairment of the interaction between these two proteins may contribute to the disease. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene.
2A3Z: Actin-bound structures of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-homology domain 2 and the implications for filament assembly
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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Our son, Hunter, was diagnosed with a rare immuno-deficiency disease, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, in August of 2008. He was almost 14 months old at the time of his diagnosis. This blog will follow Hunters journey as he negotiates the ups and downs of his testing, potential procedures and future outlook.. ...
Our son, Hunter, was diagnosed with a rare immuno-deficiency disease, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, in August of 2008. He was almost 14 months old at the time of his diagnosis. This blog will follow Hunters journey as he negotiates the ups and downs of his testing, potential procedures and future outlook.. ...
There is one thing nice about posting here, You can go back,read the older threads and see the dumb and crazy things people post Time passing can prove this.Why dont we look back and put the links up.Lets see the status of the perdictions and concerns.
There is one thing nice about posting here, You can go back,read the older threads and see the dumb and crazy things people post Time passing can prove this.Why dont we look back and put the links up.Lets see the status of the perdictions and concerns.
Chain P, Lamerdin J, Larimer F, Regala W, Lao V, Land M, Hauser L, Hooper A, Klotz M, Norton J, Sayavedra-Soto L, Arciero D, Hommes N, Whittaker M, Arp D ...
We have developed a novel model for depleting mouse hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that has allowed us to clarify their contributions to hepatic injury and fibrosis. Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSV-Tk) driven by the mouse GFAP promoter were used to render proliferating HSCs susceptible to killing in response to ganciclovir (GCV). Effects of GCV were explored in primary HSCs and in vivo. Panlobular damage was provoked to maximize HSC depletion by combining CCl4 (centrilobular injury) with allyl alcohol (AA) (periportal injury), as well as in a bile duct ligation (BDL) model. Cell depletion in situ was quantified using dual immunofluorescence (IF) for desmin and GFAP. In primary HSCs isolated from both untreated wild-type (WT) and Tg mice, GCV induced cell death in ∼50% of HSCs from Tg, but not WT, mice. In TG mice treated with CCl4+AA+GCV, there was a significant decrease in GFAP and desmin-positive cells, compared to WT mice (∼65% reduction; ...
We purified native WASp (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein) from bovine thymus and studied its ability to stimulate actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. WASp alone is inactive in the presence or absence of 0.5 µM GTP-Cdc42. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) micelles allowed WASp to activate actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex, and this was further enhanced twofold by GTP-Cdc42. Filaments nucleated by Arp2/3 complex and WASp in the presence of PIP2 and Cdc42 concentrated around lipid micelles and vesicles, providing that Cdc42 was GTP-bound and prenylated. Thus, the high concentration of WASp in neutrophils (9 µM) is dependent on interactions with both acidic lipids and GTP-Cdc42 to activate actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. The results also suggest that membrane binding increases the local concentrations of Cdc42 and WASp, favoring their interaction ...
Fission yeast cells use Arp2/3 complex and formin to assemble diverse filamentous actin (F-actin) networks within a common cytoplasm for endocytosis, division, and polarization. Although these homeostatic F-actin networks are usually investigated separately, competition for a limited pool of actin monomers (G-actin) helps to regulate their size and density. However, the mechanism by which G-actin is correctly distributed between rival F-actin networks is not clear. Using a combination of cell biological approaches and in vitro reconstitution of competition between actin assembly factors, we found that the small G-actin binding protein profilin directly inhibits Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin assembly. Profilin is therefore required for formin to compete effectively with excess Arp2/3 complex for limited G-actin and to assemble F-actin for contractile ring formation in dividing cells.
Actin-like protein 7A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL7A gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have an actin fold, which is an ATP-binding cleft, as a common feature. The ARPs are involved in diverse cellular processes, including vesicular transport, spindle orientation, nuclear migration and chromatin remodeling. This gene (ACTL7A), and related gene, ACTL7B, are intronless, and are located approximately 4 kb apart in a head-to-head orientation within the familial dysautonomia candidate region on 9q31. Based on mutational analysis of the ACTL7A gene in patients with this disorder, it was concluded that it is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of dysautonomia. The ACTL7A gene is expressed in a wide variety of adult tissues, however, its exact function is not known. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187003 - ...
An Italian team funded by Telethon and S. Raffaele of Milan, was able to cure six kids affected by lethal genetic diseases (in Italian, English video): the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and the metachromatic leukodystrophy. This is the culmination of a project lasted 15 years, and which cost more than 30...
Urgent Prayer Request A former ARP minister, Rev. Ray Lanning, is currently hospitalized with a form of encephalitis, likely with its roots in some other disease. The doctors are still working on a proper diagnosis, so the long-term picture is still uncertain. Hes sometimes lucid, but very weak. As you can imagine, it has taken…
N-Wasp is a target of miR-142-3p. (A) Luciferase assay showing the specific targeting of the 3′UTR of the mRNA of Wasl by the miR-142-3p. Data are represented
Cortactin兔单克隆抗体[EP1922Y](ab81208)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
Aldolase plays essential catalytic roles in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, aldolase is a highly abundant protein that is remarkably promiscuous in its interactions with other cellular proteins. In particular, aldolase binds to highly acidic amino acid sequences, including the C terminus of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, an actin nucleation-promoting factor. Here we report the crystal structure of tetrameric rabbit muscle aldolase in complex with a C-terminal peptide of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. Aldolase recognizes a short, four-residue DEWD motif (residues 498-501), which adopts a loose hairpin turn that folds around the central aromatic residue, enabling its tryptophan side chain to fit into a hydrophobic pocket in the active site of aldolase. The flanking acidic residues in this binding motif provide further interactions with conserved aldolase active site residues Arg-42 and Arg-303, aligning their side chains and forming the sides of the hydrophobic pocket. The ...
One component of our work is directed toward understanding how actin nucleation factors, including the Arp2/3 complex, formin proteins and so-called WH2 based nucleators, generate new actin filaments de novo from actin monomers. We also study how upstream regulators of these factors, particularly proteins in the WASP family, receive and integrate diverse signals to control actin nucleation. In each case we are interested in the structure and dynamics of the relevant molecules, and how these physical properties control biochemical and cellular activities. For example, we study how nucleation factors bind and organize actin monomers, how these complexes dynamically rearrange as a nascent filament grows, and how such rearrangements affect filament elongation rates and nucleation efficiency. We also study how WASP proteins bind multiple upstream ligands, and how thermodynamic cooperativity between these ligands is achieved and yields high specificity of WASP activation in vitro and in cells. This ...
The Arp2/3 complex assembles branched actin filaments, which are key to many cellular processes, but its organismal roles remain poorly understood. Here, we employed conditional Arpc4 knockout mice to study the function of the Arp2/3 complex in the epidermis. We found that depletion of the Arp2/3 complex by knockout of Arpc4 results in skin abnormalities at birth that evolve into a severe psoriasis-like disease hallmarked by hyperactivation of transcription factor Nrf2. Knockout of Arpc4 in cultured keratinocytes was sufficient to induce nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, upregulation of Nrf2 target genes and decreased filamentous actin levels. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex unmasked the role of branched actin filaments in Nrf2 regulation. Consistent with this, we revealed that Nrf2 associates with the actin cytoskeleton in cells and binds to filamentous actin in vitro. Finally, we discovered that Arpc4 is downregulated in both human and mouse psoriatic epidermis. Thus, ...
Many signaling pathways control cell shape, and these pathways ultimately do so, at least in part, by regulating polymerization of actin. Members of the WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) family appear to integrate such signals and are thus subject to a complex array of regulatory mechanisms. Activation of WASP through the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 and interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) stimulate the Arp2/3 complex, which in turn promotes nucleation of actin filaments. Papers by Higgs and Pollard and Rohatgi et al. characterizing native WASP from bovine thymus and in vitro-translated N-WASP (where N refers to neuronal, even though this family member is widely expressed) and the Commentary by Zigmond provide new details of this multifaceted regulation. The NH2-terminus of WASP appears to interact with the COOH-terminus and block binding to Arp2/3. Activation by Cdc42 and PIP2 reduces the autoinhibitory binding and exposes the Arp2/3 binding region. Rohatgi et al. use ...
Many pathways activate NF‐κB by transducing signals to a core activation module consisting of the IKK complex, IκB, ubiquitylation machinery, proteasome, rel homo‐ or heterodimer and nuclear import factors. Pathway‐specific molecules function in the link between stimulus recognition and IKK complex activation in an interplay that must elicit an appropriate response to the stimulus, in part through the coordinate regulation of other transcription factor systems. In an effort to better understand the disparate mechanisms for NF‐κB activation, we have explored an expression cloning approach with the hope of finding new players, new mechanistic insights and, potentially, new pathways. To probe components used for lymphocyte signaling to NF‐κB, we screened a mouse thymus expression library and cloned the murine CARD11 cDNA.. Our data indicate that CARD11 functions in the activation of NF‐κB by TCR ligation and CD28 co‐stimulation. Expression of a CARD‐deleted CARD11 in Jurkat T ...
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Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome, often Missed: A Case Report and review - Welcome To IndiaHeartBeat.Com Indias Leading Online Doctor...Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome, often Missed: A Case Report and review - Welcome To IndiaHeartBeat.Com India's Leading Online Doctor...

WIP: a multifunctional protein. involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Eur J Cell. Biol 2006;85(3-4):295-304.. 17. Lum LG, ... is not related to a defect in proplatelet formation.. Blood 1999;94:509-18.. 9. Burns S, Cory GO, Vainchenker W, Thrasher AJ.. ... The protein encoded by the WAS gene (WASP) is a hematopoietic specifi c regulator of actin nucleation in response to signals ... The protein encoded by the WAS gene (WASP) is a hematopoietic specifi c regulator of actin nucleation in response to signals ...
more infohttp://www.indiaheartbeat.com/article/article-960.html?articletitle=Wiskott+Aldrich+Syndrome%2C+often+Missed%3A+A+Case+Report+and+review

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIActin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1 (IPR017383) *Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141) ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (IPR030141). Short name: ARC1B ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR030141

Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor - WikipediaActin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor - Wikipedia

Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPIN gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Actin related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor". Retrieved 2017-06-21. Deng WS, Zhang J, Ju H, Zheng HM, Wang J, Wang S, Zhang DL ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actin_related_protein_2/3_complex_inhibitor

Arpc5l actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-like [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBIArpc5l actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-like [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI

General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ... mRNA and Protein(s) * XM_006498389.3 → XP_006498452.1 actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein isoform X2 ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_028809.1 → NP_083085.1 actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein ... actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-likeprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1921442 See related. Ensembl: ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/?term=74192

ARP2 actin related protein 2 homolog ELISA Kits from antibodies-online | Biocompare.comARP2 actin related protein 2 homolog ELISA Kits from antibodies-online | Biocompare.com

Compare ARP2 actin related protein 2 homolog ELISA Kits from antibodies-online from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... ARP2 actin related protein 2 homolog ELISA Kits from antibodies-online. Clear ... ARP2 actin related protein 2 homolog ELISA Kits from antibodies-online. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well ... Your search returned 8 ARP2 actin related protein 2 homolog ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
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actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comactin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits. Clear ... actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well- ... Bovine Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5-like protein (ARPC5L) ELISA Kit ...
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ARPC5 - Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ARPC5 gene & proteinARPC5 - Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ARPC5 gene & protein

... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Arp2/3 complex plays a critical role in the control of cell morphogenesis ... Functions as component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an ... Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,B1ALC0,B1ALC0_HUMAN Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ARPC5 PE=1 SV=1 ...
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Arpc4 - Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Arpc4 gene & proteinArpc4 - Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Arpc4 gene & protein

In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, ... The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin ... The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility. ... a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF). ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P59999

actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114): Novus Biologicalsactin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114): Novus Biologicals

Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: ... Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). Need help ... Discover more about diseases related to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). ... Learn more about PTMs related to actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B Antibody (NBP1-90114). ...
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LOC686150 (similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) - Rat Genome DatabaseLOC686150 (similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) - Rat Genome Database

similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 Symbol and Name status set to provisional. 70820. PROVISIONAL. ... Gene: LOC686150 (similar to actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) Rattus norvegicus. {{ watchLinkText }} ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ... Aging & Age-Related Disease Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Developmental Disease Diabetes Hematologic Disease Immune & ...
more infohttps://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=1585449

ARPC1A (actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)ARPC1A (actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)

OMIM: ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2/3 COMPLEX, SUBUNIT 1A; ARPC1A*Gene Ontology: Arpc1a *Mouse Phenome DB: Arpc1a *UCSC: Chr.5: ... actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A. Synonyms: 0610010H08Rik, 1110030K07Rik, Sid32. Gene nomenclature, locus ...
more infohttps://www.komp.org/geneinfo.php?geneid=23773

Coexpression of Actin-Related Protein 2 and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Family Verproline-Homologous Protein 2 in Adenocarcinoma...Coexpression of Actin-Related Protein 2 and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Family Verproline-Homologous Protein 2 in Adenocarcinoma...

... form irregular protrusions by assembling a branched network of actin filaments. In mammalian cells, the actin-related protein 2 ... Coexpression of Actin-Related Protein 2 and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Family Verproline-Homologous Protein 2 in Adenocarcinoma ... Coexpression of Actin-Related Protein 2 and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Family Verproline-Homologous Protein 2 in Adenocarcinoma ... Coexpression of Actin-Related Protein 2 and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Family Verproline-Homologous Protein 2 in Adenocarcinoma ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/12/8/2449

Actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 | definition of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 by Medical dictionaryActin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 | definition of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 by Medical dictionary

What is actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5? Meaning of actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 medical term. ... What does actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 mean? ... Looking for online definition of actin related protein 2/3 ... complex, subunit 5 in the Medical Dictionary? actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5 explanation free. ... redirected from actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5) ARPC5. A gene on chromosome 1q25.3 that encodes p16, one of the ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/actin+related+protein+2%2F3+complex%2C+subunit+5

ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A | Proteins | Proteins and...ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A | Proteins | Proteins and...

... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. [The UniProt Consortium] ... Functions as component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an ... ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A ... Customer review for "ARPC5, Recombinant, Human, aa1-151, His-tag (Actin-related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 5 Protein, A" ...
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References | The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 ComplexReferences | The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex

The human Arp2/3 complx is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin ... 1997; 138(2):375-384. (2) Narayanan, A., LeClaire, L.L., Barber, D.L. andJacobson, M.P. Phosphorylation of the Arp2 subunit ... The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex. Molecular Exploration Project - The Principles of Cellular Control (CELL2007) ... The human Arp2/3 complx is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin ...
more infohttps://arp23.wordpress.com/fasta/references/

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1BActin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B

HCA RNA Cell Line for Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. ... Compartment GO Terms for Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B. ... This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1A. The ... mediates the formation of branched actin networks. This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/ARPC1B

Introduction | The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 ComplexIntroduction | The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex

... an actin monomer, a mother filament and a nucleation promoting-factor needed to activate the complex which is intrinsically ... Introduction The Arp2/3 complex is responsible for nucleation of actin filaments to form branches at a distinct 70 degrees ... The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex. Molecular Exploration Project - The Principles of Cellular Control (CELL2007) ... The Arp2/3 complex is responsible for nucleation of actin filaments to form branches at a distinct 70 degrees angle from the ...
more infohttps://arp23.wordpress.com/molecular-renderings/1-introduction/

Arpc3 - actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3 | International Mouse Phenotyping ConsortiumArpc3 - actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3 | International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium

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more infohttps://www.wwww.mousephenotype.org/data/genes/MGI:1928375

Formins regulate the actin-related protein 2/3 complex-independent polarization of the centrosome to the immunological synapse....Formins regulate the actin-related protein 2/3 complex-independent polarization of the centrosome to the immunological synapse....

We demonstrated that without Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation, stimulated T cells could not form an F-actin-rich lamellipod, ... the actin-nucleating formins, Diaphanous-1 (DIA1) and Formin-like-1 (FMNL1), did not affect TCR-stimulated F-actin-rich ... We therefore examined the requirement for Arp2/3- and formin-dependent F-actin nucleation during T cell activation. ... mediated cytoskeletal reorganization is considered to be actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex dependent. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Formins-regulate-the-actin-related-protein-2-3-com-Gomez-Kumar/af4e042e4f245c878d26e7bdf16548eddfae0931

Add your annotation to InterPro | InterPro | EMBL-EBIAdd your annotation to InterPro | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3 superfamily (IPR036753). Add your Annotation. Your annotation. You may suggest ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR036753/add-annotation

ARPC2 Gene - GeneCards | ARPC2 Protein | ARPC2 AntibodyARPC2 Gene - GeneCards | ARPC2 Protein | ARPC2 Antibody

Protein Coding), Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, ... Protein details for ARPC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. O15144-ARPC2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Actin-related ... ARPC2 Gene (Protein Coding) Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2. ... ARPC2 (Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Vesicle-mediated ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ARPC2

ARPC3P3 Gene - GeneCards | ARPC3P3 PseudogeneARPC3P3 Gene - GeneCards | ARPC3P3 Pseudogene

... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 3 Pseudogene 3, including: function, ... ARPC3P3 (Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex Subunit 3 Pseudogene 3) is a Pseudogene. ... Search Origene for Purified Proteins, MassSpec and Protein Over-expression Lysates for ARPC3P3 ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ARPC3P3

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 | Non-enzymatic BRD...SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 | Non-enzymatic BRD...

Non-enzymatic BRD containing proteins. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical ... actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 - ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator ... Non-enzymatic BRD containing proteins: SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2. ...
more infohttp://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=2739

ARP2 Protein | SGDARP2 Protein | SGD

Protein Product. actin-related protein 2 Feature Type. ORF , Verified Description. Essential component of the Arp2/3 complex; ... Protein Help ARP2 / YDL029W Protein Protein abundance data, domains, shared domains with other proteins, protein sequence ... This diagram displays domains (colored squares) shared between the given protein (yellow circle) and other proteins (gray ... Arp2/3 is a highly conserved actin nucleation center required for the motility and integrity of actin patches; involved in ...
more infohttps://www.yeastgenome.org/locus/S000002187/protein
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Protein abundance data, domains, shared domains with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, sequence-based physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Protein sequence for the given gene in S288C and other strains, when available. (yeastgenome.org)
  • More detailed evidence for these modification sites is presented in the Post-translational Modifications table, located just below the protein sequence. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Results revealed that all clinical isolates belonged to the T4 genotype, with T4/6 (4 isolates), T4/2 (3 isolates), T4/16 (2 isolates) and one new genotype T4 sequence (T4/36), being determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 140 mouse brain proteins identified by Ca2+-calmodulin affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Contains experimentally-derived protein half-life data obtained using stable isotope labeling by amino acids (SILAC) coupled with mass spectrometry. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Migrating cells form cytoplasmic protrusions, such as lamellipodia, filopodia, or microspikes, and malignant cells have abnormal lamellipodia or protrusions known as invadopodia ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This protein also has a role in centrosomal homeostasis by being an activator and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. (nih.gov)
  • This section also contains protein abundance data for both untreated and treated cells obtained from over 20 studies. (yeastgenome.org)
  • It has been shown that the adhesion of Acanthamoeba to host cells is mediated by the mannose binding protein (MBP) on the surface of trophozoites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the level of individual cell, several different WASP/WAVE family proteins are expressed together in the cytoplasm and they are thought to cooperate in cell migration by forming protrusions ( 1 , 15 - 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Visual representation of the locations of the domains within the protein, as listed in the Domains and Classification table. (yeastgenome.org)
  • In the present review, we highlight recent findings that have made a significant impact on our understanding of this protein family in normal cell function and in disease, with the emphasis on the role of MTMs and MTMRs in spermatogenesis. (biochemj.org)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)