Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

Structural features of LIM kinase that control effects on the actin cytoskeleton. (1/626)

LIM kinase phosphorylates and inactivates the actin binding/depolymerizing factor cofilin and induces actin cytoskeletal changes. Several unique structural features within LIM kinase were investigated for their roles in regulation of LIM kinase activity. Disruption of the second LIM domain or the PDZ domain or deletion of the entire amino terminus increased activity in vivo measured as increasing aggregation of the actin cytoskeleton. A kinase-deleted alternate splice product was identified and characterized. This alternate splice product and a kinase inactive mutant inhibited LIM kinase in vivo, indicating that the amino terminus suppresses activity of the kinase domain. Mutation of threonine 508 in the activation loop to valine abolished activity whereas replacement with 2 glutamic acid residues resulted in a fully active enzyme. Dephosphorylation of LIM kinase inhibited cofilin phosphorylation. Mutation of the basic insert in the activation loop inhibited activity in vivo, but not in vitro. These results indicate phosphorylation is an essential regulatory feature of LIM kinase and indicate that threonine 508 and the adjacent basic insert sequences of the activation loop are required for this process. A combination of structural features are thus involved in receiving upstream signals that regulate LIM kinase-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization.  (+info)

Ischemia activates actin depolymerizing factor: role in proximal tubule microvillar actin alterations. (2/626)

Apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells is extremely sensitive to ischemia, with structural alterations occurring within 5 min. These changes are felt secondary to actin cytoskeletal disruption, yet the mechanism responsible is unknown. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), a 19-kDa actin-binding protein, has recently been shown to play an important role in regulation of actin filament dynamics. Because ADF is known to mediate pH-dependent F-actin binding, depolymerization, and severing, and because ADF activation occurs by dephosphorylation, we questioned whether ADF played a role in microvilli microfilament disruption during ischemia. To test our hypothesis, we induced renal ischemia in the rat with the clamp model. Initial immunofluorescence and Western blot studies on cortical tissue documented the presence of ADF in proximal tubule cells. Under physiological conditions, ADF was distributed homogeneously throughout the cytoplasm, primarily in the Triton X-100-soluble fraction, and both phosphorylated (pADF) and nonphosphorylated forms were identified. During ischemia, marked alterations occurred. Intraluminal vesicle/bleb structures contained extremely high concentrations of ADF along with G-actin, but not F-actin. Western blot showed a rapidly occurring duration-dependent dephosphorylation of ADF. At 0-30 min of ischemia, total ADF levels were unchanged, whereas pADF decreased significantly to 72% and 19% of control levels, at 5 and 15 min, respectively. Urine collected under physiological conditions did not contain ADF or actin, whereas urine collected after 30 min of ischemia contained both ADF and actin. Reperfusion was associated with normalization of cellular pADF levels, pADF intracellular distribution, and repair of apical microvilli. These data suggest that activation of ADF during ischemia via dephosphorylation is, in part, responsible for apical actin disruption resulting in microvillar destruction and formation of intraluminal vesicles.  (+info)

XAIP1: a Xenopus homologue of yeast actin interacting protein 1 (AIP1), which induces disassembly of actin filaments cooperatively with ADF/cofilin family proteins. (3/626)

We carried out affinity column chromatography using Xenopus ADF/cofilin (XAC), identified several polypeptides in oocytes specifically bound to this column with actin, and isolated a full-length cDNA clone for a 65 kDa protein in this fraction. The predicted amino acid sequence revealed that the 65 kDa protein has seven obvious WD repeats and exhibits striking homology with yeast actin interacting protein 1 (AIP1). Thus, we designated this protein Xenopus AIP1 (XAIP1). We purified XAIP1 from Xenopus oocytes, and its interaction with actin was characterized by a pelleting assay, photometrical analysis and electron microscopy. Although XAIP1 itself cosedimented with F-actin and increased unsedimented actin to some extent, it induced a rapid, drastic disassembly of actin filaments associated with XAC. Electron microscopic observation revealed that XAIP1 severs actin filaments in the presence of XAC. To elucidate the in vivo effects of XAIP1, the purified protein was injected into blastomeres at the two-cell stage. Although the localization of XAIP1 was similar to that of XAC, at the cortical cytoskeleton and diffusely in the cytoplasm, injection of a large amount of XAIP1 arrested development and abolished the strong cortical staining of both actin and XAC. From these results, we concluded that XAIP1 regulates the dynamics of the cortical actin cytoskeleton cooperatively with XAC in eggs.  (+info)

Participation of cofilin in opsonized zymosan-triggered activation of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells through rapid dephosphorylation and translocation to plasma membranes. (4/626)

We studied the roles of cofilin, an actin-binding phosphoprotein, in superoxide production of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ). OZ caused dephosphorylation of cofilin as well as a transient increase of F-actin. Both reactions were complete within 30 s. Okadaic acid (OA) magnified the OZ-triggered O2--production 3.3-fold at 1 microM, but inhibited it completely at 5 microM. We used these critical concentrations to study the effects of OA on changes in phosphorylation and intracellular localization of cofilin. The OZ-induced dephosphorylation of cofilin was inhibited by 5 microM OA but not by 1 microM OA. Subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting revealed that 1 microM OA increased cofilin on the phagosomal membranous fraction but 5 microM OA decreased it. At 1 microM, OA increased translocation of p47phox to membranes, which may explain in part the enhancing effect of 1 microM OA. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that: (i) Cofilin diffused throughout the cytosol of resting cells, but accumulated at the plasma membranes forming phagocytic vesicles in activated cells. (ii) At 1 microM, OA had little effect on the OZ-evoked translocation of cofilin, whereas 5 microM OA suppressed it completely. (iii) OA alone, which could not trigger the phagocytic respiratory burst, did not cause any change in the distribution of cofilin at such concentrations. Furthermore, in a superoxide-producing cell-free system employing membranous and cytosolic fractions, affinity-purified anti-cofilin antibody showed an enhancing effect. These results suggest that cofilin participates in the superoxide production of the OZ-activated phagocytes through dephosphorylation and translocation. The roles of cofilin in the activated leukocytes will be discussed.  (+info)

UNC-60B, an ADF/cofilin family protein, is required for proper assembly of actin into myofibrils in Caenorhabditis elegans body wall muscle. (5/626)

The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-60 gene encodes two functionally distinct isoforms of ADF/cofilin that are implicated in myofibril assembly. Here, we show that one of the gene products, UNC-60B, is specifically required for proper assembly of actin into myofibrils. We found that all homozygous viable unc-60 mutations resided in the unc-60B coding region, indicating that UNC-60B is responsible for the Unc-60 phenotype. Wild-type UNC-60B had F-actin binding, partial actin depolymerizing, and weak F-actin severing activities in vitro. However, mutations in UNC-60B caused various alterations in these activities. Three missense mutations resulted in weaker F-actin binding and actin depolymerizing activities and complete loss of severing activity. The r398 mutation truncated three residues from the COOH terminus and resulted in the loss of severing activity and greater actin depolymerizing activity. The s1307 mutation in a putative actin-binding helix caused greater activity in actin-depolymerizing and severing. Using a specific antibody for UNC-60B, we found varying protein levels of UNC-60B in mutant animals, and that UNC-60B was expressed in embryonic muscles. Regardless of these various molecular phenotypes, actin was not properly assembled into embryonic myofibrils in all unc-60 mutants to similar extents. We conclude that precise control of actin filament dynamics by UNC-60B is required for proper integration of actin into myofibrils.  (+info)

Mechanism of interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/Cofilin) with actin filaments. (6/626)

We characterized the interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin, a member of ADF/cofilin family, with filaments of amoeba and rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The affinity is about 10 times higher for muscle actin filaments (Kd = 0.5 microM) than amoeba actin filaments (Kd = 5 microM) even though the affinity for muscle and amoeba Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) is the same (Blanchoin, L., and Pollard, T. D. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 25106-25111). Actophorin binds slowly (k+ = 0.03 microM-1 s-1) to and dissociates from amoeba actin filaments in a simple bimolecular reaction, but binding to muscle actin filaments is cooperative. Actophorin severs filaments in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phosphate or BeF3 bound to ADP-actin filaments inhibit actophorin binding. Actophorin increases the rate of phosphate release from actin filaments more than 10-fold. The time course of the interaction of actophorin with filaments measured by quenching of the fluorescence of pyrenyl-actin or fluorescence anisotropy of rhodamine-actophorin is complicated, because severing, depolymerization, and repolymerization follows binding. The 50-fold higher affinity of actophorin for Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) than ADP-actin filaments provides the thermodynamic basis for driving disassembly of filaments that have hydrolyzed ATP and dissociated gamma-phosphate.  (+info)

Arp2/3 complex and actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin in dendritic organization and treadmilling of actin filament array in lamellipodia. (7/626)

The leading edge (approximately 1 microgram) of lamellipodia in Xenopus laevis keratocytes and fibroblasts was shown to have an extensively branched organization of actin filaments, which we term the dendritic brush. Pointed ends of individual filaments were located at Y-junctions, where the Arp2/3 complex was also localized, suggesting a role of the Arp2/3 complex in branch formation. Differential depolymerization experiments suggested that the Arp2/3 complex also provided protection of pointed ends from depolymerization. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin was excluded from the distal 0.4 micrometer++ of the lamellipodial network of keratocytes and in fibroblasts it was located within the depolymerization-resistant zone. These results suggest that ADF/cofilin, per se, is not sufficient for actin brush depolymerization and a regulatory step is required. Our evidence supports a dendritic nucleation model (Mullins, R.D., J.A. Heuser, and T.D. Pollard. 1998. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95:6181-6186) for lamellipodial protrusion, which involves treadmilling of a branched actin array instead of treadmilling of individual filaments. In this model, Arp2/3 complex and ADF/cofilin have antagonistic activities. Arp2/3 complex is responsible for integration of nascent actin filaments into the actin network at the cell front and stabilizing pointed ends from depolymerization, while ADF/cofilin promotes filament disassembly at the rear of the brush, presumably by pointed end depolymerization after dissociation of the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Aip1p interacts with cofilin to disassemble actin filaments. (8/626)

Actin interacting protein 1 (Aip1) is a conserved component of the actin cytoskeleton first identified in a two-hybrid screen against yeast actin. Here, we report that Aip1p also interacts with the ubiquitous actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. A two-hybrid-based approach using cofilin and actin mutants identified residues necessary for the interaction of actin, cofilin, and Aip1p in an apparent ternary complex. Deletion of the AIP1 gene is lethal in combination with cofilin mutants or act1-159, an actin mutation that slows the rate of actin filament disassembly in vivo. Aip1p localizes to cortical actin patches in yeast cells, and this localization is disrupted by specific actin and cofilin mutations. Further, Aip1p is required to restrict cofilin localization to cortical patches. Finally, biochemical analyses show that Aip1p causes net depolymerization of actin filaments only in the presence of cofilin and that cofilin enhances binding of Aip1p to actin filaments. We conclude that Aip1p is a cofilin-associated protein that enhances the filament disassembly activity of cofilin and restricts cofilin localization to cortical actin patches.  (+info)

Recently, actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1) has been characterized as a factor that rapidly disassembles ADF/cofilin-bound actin filaments. AIP1 is a conserved WD repeat protein, and was originally identified in yeast as one of several actin-interacting proteins from a two-hybrid screen (Amberg et al. 1995). AIP1 itself is a weak F-actin binding protein, whereas, in the presence of ADF/cofilin, binding of AIP1 to F-actin is enhanced and rapid disassembly of the filaments is induced (Aizawa et al. 1999; Okada et al. 1999; Rodal et al. 1999). The filament disassembly is based on severing rather than depolymerization from the ends (Aizawa et al. 1999; Okada et al. 1999). Genetic studies in yeast agree with the biochemical data. The temperature-sensitive lethality of a COF1 (the yeast cofilin gene) allele is suppressed by a multicopy plasmid containing AIP1 (Iida and Yahara 1999). AIP1 is not essential for viability, but a deletion of AIP1 is synthetic lethal in combination with mutant COF1 alleles ...
Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins contribute to cytoskeletal dynamics by promoting rapid actin filament disassembly. In the classical view, ADF/cofilin sever filaments, and capping proteins block filament barbed ends whereas pointed ends depolymerize, at a rate that is still debated. Here, by monitoring the activity of the three mammalian ADF/cofilin isoforms on individual skeletal muscle and cytoplasmic actin filaments, we directly quantify the reactions underpinning filament severing and depolymerization from both ends. We find that, in the absence of monomeric actin, soluble ADF/cofilin can associate with bare filament barbed ends to accelerate their depolymerization. Compared to bare filaments, ADF/cofilin-saturated filaments depolymerize faster from their pointed ends and slower from their barbed ends, resulting in similar depolymerization rates at both ends. This effect is isoform specific because depolymerization is faster for ADF- than for cofilin-saturated filaments. We also ...
Beads, bacteria and actin. Cofilin promotes rapid actin filament turnover in vivo. Reconstitution of actin-based motility of Listeria and Shigella using pure proteins
We have examined the interaction of recombinant lily pollen ADF, LlADF1, with actin and found that whilst it bound both G- and F-actin, it had a much smaller effect on the polymerization and depolymerization rate constants than the maize vegetative ADF, ZmADF3. An antiserum specific to pollen ADF, a …
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
To make Angry Birds a real sport, Mbed made a USB slingshot to play Angry Birds. The slingshot emulates a USB mouse, so it really is a plug n play. It translates the physical use of the slingshot in to appropriate mouse controls. The way the controller works is reasonably simple: a stretch sensor translates the drawing of the slingshot to a mouse movement and an accelerometer determines the angle. Check out the video of it in action. ...
One candidate early on was a protein called slingshot, which seemed to have the correct phosphatase activity. However, slingshot turned out not to be found in all organisms, nor ubiquitously distributed throughout the body, a requirement for the mystery phosphatase, as it would be needed wherever actin dynamics is taking place. Additionally, slingshot did not appear to be capable of regulating all cofilin-dependent cell processes, so clearly a third man still existed.. Now in an article recently published in Nature Cell Biology, Bokoch and his colleagues Antje Gohla and Jörg Birkenfeld argue that the third man phosphatase is actually chronophin. Taking the increasingly overlooked approach of function-based biochemical isolation, which required Gohla to spend significant time in the cold room, the scientists purified a phosphatase activity which dephosphorylated cofilin. This activity was then identified by mass spectrometry as chronophin, a member of a unique superfamily of proteins called ...
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Cofilin belongs to the actin-binding ADF protein family. It contains one ADF-H domain. Cofilin controls reversible actin polymerization and depolymerization in a pH-sensitive manner. It has the ability to bind G- and F-actin at a 1:1 ratio. It is the major component of both intranuclear and cytop...
PAK4_HUMAN] Serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in a variety of different signaling pathways including cytoskeleton regulation, cell migration, growth, proliferation or cell survival. Activation by various effectors including growth factor receptors or active CDC42 and RAC1 results in a conformational change and a subsequent autophosphorylation on several serine and/or threonine residues. Phosphorylates and inactivates the protein phosphatase SSH1, leading to increased inhibitory phosphorylation of the actin binding/depolymerizing factor cofilin. Decreased cofilin activity may lead to stabilization of actin filaments. Phosphorylates LIMK1, a kinase that also inhibits the activity of cofilin. Phosphorylates integrin beta5/ITGB5 and thus regulates cell motility. Phosphorylates ARHGEF2 and activates the downstream target RHOA that plays a role in the regulation of assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Stimulates cell survival by phosphorylating the BCL2 antagonist of ...
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If the day ever comes when you need to find your own food, like really find your own food, a slingshot might come in handy. Think about it: If things are that bad that you need to hunt your own game, theres also a pretty good chance you wont have unlimited rifle ammo. This Survival Slingshot is configured for archery, with 25 pounds of pull sending arrows hurtling through the air at your meal-to-be. And with a mounted tactical light, even owls better watch their backs and fronts.. ...
Michael Byron, Smith, retired Air Force officer, wrote an excellent blog for the National Fatherhood Institute (click here to read it). In this blog, he wrote: Families should be slingshots, throwing children into the world prepared for what lies ahead. Unfortunately, the problems of dysfunctional families are like anchors, dragging down their childrens potential…. So, I have to ask: Have you created a family environment that will serve as a slingshot for your children or an anchor? Anchor families:. ...
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Actin-severing proteins ADF/cofilin are required for the sorting of secretory cargo at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in mammalian cells. How do these cytoplasmic proteins interact with the cargoes in the lumen of the TGN ...
Garcia B, Stollar EJ, Davidson AR. Genetics. 2012 Aug;191(4):1199-211. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actin-Binding Protein 1 (Abp1p) is a member of the Abp1 family of proteins, which are in diverse organisms including fungi, nematodes, flies, and mammals. All proteins in this family possess an N-terminal Actin Depolymerizing Factor Homology (ADF-H) domain, a central Proline-Rich Region (PRR), and a C-terminal SH3 domain. In this study, we employed sequence analysis to identify additional conservedfeatures of the family, including sequences rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine amino acids (PEST), which are found in all family members examined, and two motifs, Conserved Fungal Motifs 1 and 2 (CFM1 and CFM2), that are conserved in fungi. We also discovered that, similar to its mammalian homologs, Abp1p is phosphorylated in its PRR. This phosphorylation is mediated by the Cdc28p and Pho85p kinases, and it protects Abp1p from proteolysis mediated by the conserved PEST sequences. We ...
The SR-7 Wrist-Rocket® is a durable entry level slingshot. Molded handle Self centering pouch Tubular bands with protective prong caps to extend band life Made …
Best day pack ever. Buy it today. I bought my TNF Slingshot in 2007 and it is still in near perfect condition. I drive a Jeep Wrangler with no top, doors or windows so a bag is necessary to carry everything I have at any given...
Beautiful and functional, the DDMWorks aluminum shift knob offers extremely smooth and clean styling when installed. The knob is designed with a 2 round top that feels natural in your hand. The knob is CNC machined from a solid piece of billet aluminum. This single piece design is specifically made for the Polaris Slingshot and installs in just minutes. ...
These two friends thought taking a ride on the Slingshot at the 2020 Houston Rodeo would be fun, too bad they probably dont remember much of it as it puts them both to sleep.
For 2020, we stripped our existing Dually platform down to the bones and rebuilt it from the toes up. The result is a reimagined and reengineered binding that provides better grip, leverage and board control, more reactive handling and happier feet. Now offered in two sizes for a better fit across more feet sizes and s
Houston Kiteboarding says:Love this board! Not only the lightest board slingshot has ever made but the lightest board Ive ever been on. Feels great on the water and very similar stiffness and pop to the older versions of the carbon Crazyfly Raptor...which is a good thing. Loved every minute of it. The flex Id sa
Hello Slingshot Community friends!!! Heres my latest handmade natural, another version of an old design of mine, the Slug. Its characteristics are...
We were very curious about what this dealer project would cost to the driver, as they estimated the modifications on the car would add up to around $30,000 (well let that sink it for a moment). This would put the Slingshot Trans Am at $65,000 brand new. Someone thought it was well worth it; this Slingshot Trans Am has been collector owned since it was new, and only has 1,544 miles on it - its still in showroom condition.. The original owner had chosen to never really open this car up, but hey, its their car to do as they like. Its never actually seen a track, its spent most of its time in a climate-controlled collectors garage for the past 14-years. Some might consider it a waste since its likely one of the best-optioned 4th-gens to leave a dealership, but collectors are all about preservation and keeping the vehicles safe from the dangers of the roads and tracks.. We do, however, suspect that this car may has since been sold to a second owner, and possible subsequent owners. Weve seen ...
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I would have gone, but I couldnt find a slingshot big enough. Oh, and I didnt realize there was a Cow Con III. But if it wasnt for those two things, I might have gone ...
SSH2兔多克隆抗体(ab118079)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB, IP实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
SSH3BP1小鼠单克隆抗体[4E2](ab11222)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被9篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
2019- 2020學年(上學期)????? (2019.10.14-2019.10.18)課題組名稱(聯系人)時? 間地? 點主講人題?? 目理論物理研究所 (李世淵)星期三15:30知新樓C913??交叉科學研究所 (劉向東)星期二下午離子束報告廳????????原子分子物理 (許國富)星期三下午知新樓C1011??????????凝聚態理論研究室 (崔彬)星期四14:30知新樓C1113季藝聞基于SSH模型對A-D-A類分子建模????電介質物理研究室 (趙明磊)星期五14:30知新樓C1113??...
For the SSH-1 protocol, see Secure Shell#Version 1.x Protein phosphatase Slingshot homolog 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SSH1 gene. The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin dynamics. ADF/cofilin proteins are inactivated by kinases such as LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1; MIM 601329). The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al., 2002).[supplied by OMIM] GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000084112 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000042121 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, Hirosawa M, Ohara O (Apr 2000). Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVI. The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. DNA Res. 7 (1): 65-73. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.1.65. PMID 10718198. Niwa ...
Having identified changes in the extent of cofilin phosphorylation in cells at steady state, we next examined the dynamics of cofilin phosphorylation in cells undergoing acute changes in actin cytoskeletal organisation. This required the identification of a stimulus able to induce dynamic actin remodelling. In testing a number of growth factors in S2R+ cells [10% foetal calf serum (FCS), 2-day-old conditioned medium, bovine insulin, human EGF, murine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)], only insulin was found to activate signalling, as monitored by immunoblotting with specific antibodies against P-Akt, S6K phosphorylated at Thr398 (P-S6K) and ERK phosphorylated at Thr198 and Tyr200 (PP-ERK) (supplementary material Fig. S3A) and Lizcano et al. (Lizcano et al., 2003). Insulin also induced an increase in the level of lamellipodial F-actin in these cells within 5 minutes of treatment (Fig. 2A). Elevated levels of filamentous actin remained at ...
During early metastatic events in cancer, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton must occur to allow for cell invasion and migration. A key enzyme initiating actin remodeling at the leading edge is Cofilin, a small actin binding protein of the ADF/cofilin family with actin severing activities. Cofilin activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events that are mediated by LIM Kinase (LIMK) and the phosphatase Slingshot (SSH), respectively. Protein kinase D (PKD) is a serine/threonine kinase that has previously been shown to regulate actin driven directed cell migration through phosphorylation and thus inactivation of Slingshot. Here we show that PKD can also regulate cofilin activity via activation of LIMK. We further show that PKD-induced regulation of LIMK and the resulting diminished cofilin activity translates to altered cell motility. Our data suggest that PKD inactivates Cofilin through modulation of both of its regulatory pathways. Further elucidation of the ...
Cofilin 1 (non-muscle; n-cofilin), also known as CFL1, is a human gene, part of the ADF/cofilin family. Cofilin is a widely distributed intracellular actin-modulating protein that binds and depolymerizes filamentous F-actin and inhibits the polymerization of monomeric G-actin in a pH-dependent manner. It is involved in the translocation of actin-cofilin complex from cytoplasm to nucleus. One group reports that reelin signaling leads to serine3-phosphorylation of cofilin-1, and this interaction may play a role in the reelin-related regulation of neuronal migration. Cofilin 1 has been shown to interact with HSPH1 and LIMK1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172757 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000056201 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: CFL1 cofilin 1 (non-muscle). Chai X, Förster E, Zhao S, Bock HH, Frotscher M (January 2009). Reelin stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton of neuronal processes by inducing n-cofilin ...
Disassembly of the epithelial apical junctional complex (AJC), composed of the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ), is important for normal tissue remodeling and pathogen-induced disruption of epithelial barriers. Using a calcium depletion model in T84 epithelial cells, we previously found that disassembly of the AJC results in endocytosis of AJ/TJ proteins. In the present study, we investigated the role of the actin cytoskeleton in disassembly and internalization of the AJC. Calcium depletion induced reorganization of apical F-actin into contractile rings. Internalized AJ/TJ proteins colocalized with these rings. Both depolymerization and stabilization of F-actin inhibited ring formation and disassembly of the AJC, suggesting a role for actin filament turnover. Actin reorganization was accompanied by activation (dephosphorylation) of cofilin-1 and its translocation to the F-actin rings. In addition, Arp3 and cortactin colocalized with these rings. F-actin reorganization and disassembly of
The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family is essential for actin dynamics, cell division, chemotaxis and tumor metastasis. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is a primary non-muscle isoform of the ADF/cofilin protein family accelerating the actin filamental turnover in vitro and in vivo. In response to environmental stimulation, CFL-1 enters the nucleus to regulate the actin dynamics. Although the purpose of this cytoplasm-nucleus transition remains unclear, it is speculated that the interaction between CFL-1 and DNA may influence various biological responses, including DNA damage repair. In this review, we will discuss the possible involvement of CFL-1 in DNA damage responses (DDR) induced by ionizing radiation (IR), and the implications for cancer radiotherapy.
Cofilin phospho-regulation is important for actin filament turnover and is implicated in cancer. Phosphorylation of cofilin is mediated by LIM kinases (LIMKs) and dephosphorylation by Slingshot phosphatases (SSH). LIMKs and SSH promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis and represent novel anti-cancer targets. However, little is known regarding LIMK/cofilin and SSH in human colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to address their expression and significance in human CRC. We evaluated expression of non-phosphorylated (active) and phosphorylated cofilin, LIMK1, LIMK2, and SSH1 by immunohistochemistry in 143 human CRC samples in relation to clinicopathologic parameters, response of metastatic disease to chemotherapy, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers β-catenin, E-cadherin, and ZEB ...
The severing of filaments by ADF/cofilins was originally proposed for the following reasons: It was first noticed that ADF accelerated actin polymerization and promoted a rapid drop in fluorescence of NBD- or pyrenyl-labeled F-actin (Cooper et al., 1986; Maciver et al., 1991; Moon et al., 1993; Quirk et al., 1993; Maciver and Weeds, 1994), but both properties were interpreted in terms of an increase in filament number due to fragmentation. The fragmentation hypothesis was enticing because it also provided a satisfactory explanation for the rapid drop in viscosity of F-actin solutions after addition of substoichiometric amounts of ADF, similar to the effect of the severing protein gelsolin. Further effort was made to visualize the fragmentation in electron or optical microscopy. In some instances, filaments were observed to be shorter, which was thought to be because of depolymerization (Abe and Obinata, 1989) or severing (Cooper et al., 1986). In other instances, filaments did not appear shorter ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/cofilin) blocks interaction with actin without a change in atomic structure. AU - Blanchoin, Laurent. AU - Robinson, Robert C.. AU - Choe, Senyon. AU - Pollard, Thomas D.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank members of the Pollard laboratory for technical assistance, advice and helpful discussion. L.B. is extremely grateful to D. Kaiser for his help with isoelectric focusing. We thank David C. Edwards and Gordon N. Gill for the phosphorylation of actophorin by LIM-kinase, Gary M. Bokoch for GST-Pak 1, Wolfgang H. Fischer and Chris Park for protein sequencing and James Bamburg for his advice in the dephosphorylation experiment. This work was supported by NIH grant GM 26338 to T.D.P.. PY - 2000/1/14. Y1 - 2000/1/14. N2 - LIM-kinase activated by GST-Pak1 phosphorylates Acanthamoeba actophorin stoichiometrically and specifically on serine 1. The atomic structure of phosphorylated actophorin determined by X-ray crystallography is ...
The presence of LIMK activity in retina was demonstrated with Western blot and immunocytochemistry. With confocal microscopy we observed the localization of p-LIMK in rod axon terminals, precisely the area that undergoes dramatic morphologic change after retinal dissociation. Measuring the reduction in axon length allowed us to demonstrate the prevention of axonal retraction by inhibiting LIMK. Furthermore, inhibiting LIMK upstream regulators, ROCK and Pak, increased inhibition of axonal retraction, and the two pathways demonstrated an additive effect. The involvement of ROCK is not surprising, as we have previously demonstrated that inhibiting the RhoA-ROCK pathway can block axonal retraction.15,16 ROCK has been reported to be responsible for actomyosin contractility as well as actin filament turnover (Fig. 1).19,20,35-37 Blocking its activity therefore presumably reduces both contraction and actin filament turnover. Pak has been reported to regulate formation of filopodia and lamellipodia via ...
Cell motility plays an important role in many basic biological processes, including embryogenesis, neurite growth, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. Motility of crawling cells is dependent on the ability to extend F-actin-rich protrusions, usually in the form of lamellipods (Abercrombie et al. 1970; Chen et al. 1994; Verschueren et al. 1994; Xie et al. 1995). Protrusion of such actin-rich lamellipods in moving cells requires cycles of actin polymerization and depolymerization (actin polymerization transients) (Lauffenburger and Horwitz 1996; Mitchison and Cramer 1996; Bailly et al. 1998a; Condeelis 1998).. Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for free barbed ends in the control of this cycle (Handel et al. 1990; Symons and Mitchison 1991; Chan et al. 1998). We have shown previously that stimulation of metastatic MTLn3 cells with EGF causes a transient increase in actin nucleation activity resulting from the appearance of free barbed ends at the extreme leading ...
DNA constructs, reagents, and antibodies. Full-length human SSH1L cDNA was amplified by PCR using the RZPD clone IRAUp969F0865D6 as a template and cloned into pCR3.V62-Met-Flag and pEGFP-N3 vectors. The SSH1L point mutant was generated by site-directed PCR mutagenesis. Integrity of all constructs was verified by sequencing. Antibodies used were as follows: anti-PKD2 rabbit polyclonal antibody (Calbiochem), anti-PKD C-20 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-phospho-cofilin (Ser3) and anti-cofilin rabbit polyclonal antibodies (Cell Signaling), anti-Flag M2 mouse monoclonal antibody (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany), anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibody (Neomarkers), anti-SSH1L rabbit polyconal antibody (Abcam), and anti-glutathione S-transferase (GST) goat polyclonal antibody (GE Healthcare). Secondary antibodies used were horseradish peroxidase-coupled donkey anti-goat, goat anti-mouse, and anti-rabbit IgGs (Dianova). Alexa546- and Alexa633-coupled phalloidin were from Invitrogen.. Cell culture. Cells were ...
Supplementary Materialsoncotarget-06-1834-s001. cofilin (Ser 3) and Drp1 (Ser 637) are translocated to the mitochondria. Cofilin S3E and Drp1 S637D mutants, which mimick the phosphorylated forms, suppressed mitochondrial translocation, fission, and apoptosis. Moreover, both dephosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of cofilin and Drp1 are dependent on ROCK1 activation. findings confirmed that erucin-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in a breast malignancy cell xenograft mouse model is usually associated with the mitochondrial translocation of cofilin and Drp1, fission and apoptosis. Our study reveals a novel role of cofilin in regulation of mitochondrial fission and suggests erucin as a potential drug for treatment of breast malignancy. [21, 22] and in tumor xenograft models [23]. The results of recent studies suggest that a mitochondrion-dependent pathway may play an important part in erucin-mediated apoptosis [24]. However, the molecular mechanisms by which erucin regulates the ...
A model from Chile, Maura Bellagamba, released a video on Instagram of herself being released in a giant slingshot, which she says caused her neck injuries while filming a Nissan car commercial.. Bellagamba wrote on Instagram that she was fired out of the slingshot without her permission, causing her whiplash ...
Serotonin (5-HT) is known to increase the rate of growth cone advance via cofilin-dependent increases in retrograde actin network flow and nonmuscle myosin II activity ...
FtsZ filament dynamics at steady state: subunit exchange with and without nucleotide hydrolysis.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
To confirm the morphological effects of 5-HT6Rs transfected in neuronal cells, we finally examined whether the activation of neuronal 5-HT6Rs produces effects on RhoA activities. To perform RhoA activity assay as shown in Fig. 2, we carried immunoblot analysis using cultured cortical neurons for sufficient amount of sample proteins. Here, we showed that 5-HT6R activation by ST1936 significantly increased RhoA-GTP level, which was significantly blocked by the pretreatment with SB258585 in cultured neurons (Figs. 4A and 4B). As downstream targets of Rho proteins, RhoA proteins can also affect actin polymerization by regulating cofilin via Rho-ROCK-LIMK-cofilin pathway (Lin et al., 2003). Therefore, we further executed whether the activation of 5-HT6Rs modulates cofilin activities as a downstream target of RhoA. As shown in Figs. 4C and 4D, we observed that treatment with ST1936 significantly increased phosphorylation of cofilin, which was also significantly blocked by SB258585 in cultured neurons. ...
To confirm the morphological effects of 5-HT6Rs transfected in neuronal cells, we finally examined whether the activation of neuronal 5-HT6Rs produces effects on RhoA activities. To perform RhoA activity assay as shown in Fig. 2, we carried immunoblot analysis using cultured cortical neurons for sufficient amount of sample proteins. Here, we showed that 5-HT6R activation by ST1936 significantly increased RhoA-GTP level, which was significantly blocked by the pretreatment with SB258585 in cultured neurons (Figs. 4A and 4B). As downstream targets of Rho proteins, RhoA proteins can also affect actin polymerization by regulating cofilin via Rho-ROCK-LIMK-cofilin pathway (Lin et al., 2003). Therefore, we further executed whether the activation of 5-HT6Rs modulates cofilin activities as a downstream target of RhoA. As shown in Figs. 4C and 4D, we observed that treatment with ST1936 significantly increased phosphorylation of cofilin, which was also significantly blocked by SB258585 in cultured neurons. ...
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EVO is designed and built to make your production life easier, which means you get purpose built features like Slingshot and ShareBrowser. With Slingshot, an Automations GUI and API, you can create and run automated file workflows that span EVO, other storage systems, and Amazon S3/Glacier cloud services. Slingshot helps boost productivity by enabling you to automate repetitive file management tasks, leaving you and your team with more valuable time in post. ShareBrowser is an Easy-to-Use, unified file/project/asset management interface for macOS and Windows. It is similar to Finder/Explorer, but designed by SNS specifically to help media teams work and collaborate more efficiently. The ShareBrowser Desktop Client not only improves visibility and access to your teams storage systems, it conveniently enables automatic project locking for FCP, Premiere Pro, and Pro Tools - as well as Avid project and bin sharing. enables your team to search across all EVO storage as well as local, offline, and ...
Fads remind me of an iPad game called Slingshot Racing. What you do is, there are these tiny cars that run around a tiny oval racetrack, and you have to click on the screen (tech faux pas! tap on the screen) to tether the cars to tiny towers that slingshot them around the corners (ends? short sides?) of the oval. It sounds easy but in fact its devastatingly hard to tap and release at exactly the right times to start the tether and stop it without smashing your tiny car into a tiny wall. Thats kind of like catching and riding a fad. You have to discover that the potential for a fad exists, and not just any fad; one you can make money on, say by selling rocks or playing the saxophone in a particular way. You have to tether the fad to you at just the right moment, then hold onto it just up until the moment when its about to fade, at which point you release it before you start looking stupid. Few succeed at this game. Some tap too early and suffer ridicule, that is, until after theyre dead and ...
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This big-daddy, deluxe kite pump makes inflating even your 17m kite a breeze. Its larger, taller, sturdier and has more volume than the traditional kite pump. Newly engineered seals and pistons combined with newly molded handle and feet offer improved ergonomics and inflation speed. Single- to double-stroke inflation switch allows for instant change from high-volume / low-pressure inflation to low-volume / high-pressure.. ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
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The latter is the enzyme that uses ATP to phosphorylate and inactivate the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. When cofilin is ... LIMK1 also depolymerizes microtubules. In the presence of Pyr1, LIMK1 is inhibited, which means that the phosphorylation of ... Pyr1 may be used in cancer treatment, because its main target enzyme (LIM kinase) is a regulator of microtubule and actin ... In conclusion, Pyr1 inhibits cell motility and controls actin dynamics and stabilizes microtubules. These properties can be ...
The product of this gene belongs to the actin-binding proteins ADF (Actin-Depolymerizing Factor)/cofilin family. This family of ... This gene encodes the actin depolymerizing protein that severs actin filaments (F-actin) and binds to actin monomers (G-actin ... "Human actin depolymerizing factor mediates a pH-sensitive destruction of actin filaments". Biochemistry. 32 (38): 9985-93. doi: ... Destrin or DSTN (also known as actin depolymerizing factor or ADF) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DSTN gene. ...
2003). "Structural conservation between the actin monomer-binding sites of twinfilin and actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/ ... Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this protein may be an actin monomer-binding protein, and its localization to ... Palmgren S, Vartiainen M, Lappalainen P (2002). "Twinfilin, a molecular mailman for actin monomers". J. Cell Sci. 115 (Pt 5): ... 2003). "The two ADF-H domains of twinfilin play functionally distinct roles in interactions with actin monomers". Mol. Biol. ...
"NMR assignments of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) like UNC-60A and cofilin like UNC-60B proteins of Caenorhabditis elegans ...
The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin ... Niwa R, Nagata-Ohashi K, Takeichi M, Mizuno K, Uemura T (Feb 2002). "Control of actin reorganization by Slingshot, a family of ... The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al., 2002).[ ...
The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin ... Niwa R, Nagata-Ohashi K, Takeichi M, Mizuno K, Uemura T (January 2002). "Control of actin reorganization by Slingshot, a family ... The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al., 2002).[ ...
The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin ... Niwa R, Nagata-Ohashi K, Takeichi M, Mizuno K, Uemura T (Feb 2002). "Control of actin reorganization by Slingshot, a family of ... 2006). "Identification of multiple actin-binding sites in cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot-1L". FEBS Lett. 580 (7): 1789-94. doi: ... The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al., 2002).[ ...
While the repulsive cue, Slit, is suggested to stimulate the translation of Cofilin (an actin depolymerizing factor) in growth ... 2006). "Asymmetrical β-actin mRNA translation in growth cones mediates attractive turning to netrin-1". Nature Neuroscience. 9 ... The attractive cue Netrin-1, stimulates mRNA transport and influence synthesis of β-Actin in filopodia of growth cones, to ... and L1 Growth factors like NGF Neurotransmitters and modulators like GABA Growing axons rely on a variety of guidance cues in ...
"The three mouse actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilins evolved to fulfill cell-type-specific requirements for actin dynamics". ... Cofilin is a widely distributed intracellular actin-modulating protein that binds and depolymerizes filamentous F-actin and ... Bamburg JR, McGough A, Ono S (September 1999). "Putting a new twist on actin: ADF/cofilins modulate actin dynamics". Trends ... 2006). "Cofilin cross-bridges adjacent actin protomers and replaces part of the longitudinal F-actin interface". J. Mol. Biol. ...
Elevated expression of proteins in this pathway are causally related to reduced activity of the actin depolymerizing factor ... They investigate the role of the gene silencing transcription factor RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and REST- ... "REST-dependent epigenetic remodeling of NMDA receptors as a risk factor in schizophrenia." Frontiers in Neuroscience Genetics ... "Repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST)-dependent epigenetic remodeling is critical to ischemia-induced ...
Around the same time a similarly sized plasma protein was discovered and shown to depolymerize actin; it was named Brevin, due ... Chaponnier, C.; Borgia, R.; Rungger-Brändle, E.; Weil, R.; Gabbiani, G. (1979-08-15). "An actin-destabilizing factor is present ... Furthermore, DBP is capable of removing one actin from a 2:1 actin-pGSN complex, restoring its ability to sever F-actin. F- ... "Interactions of gelsolin and gelsolin-actin complexes with actin. Effects of calcium on actin nucleation, filament severing, ...
... inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. This depolymerization results in stabilization of actin filaments and decreased ... Gilkes DM, Xiang L, Lee SJ, Chaturvedi P, Hubbi ME, Wirtz D, Semenza GL (January 2014). "Hypoxia-inducible factors mediate ... It is a key regulator of actin-myosin contraction, stability, and cell polarity. These contribute to many progresses such as ... This is consistent with its function as a key modulator of cell motility, tumor cell invasion, and actin cytoskeleton ...
Actin depolymerizing factors MeSH D05.750.078.730.212.500 - cofilin 1 MeSH D05.750.078.730.212.750 - cofilin 2 MeSH D05.750. ... actin-related protein 2 MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.750 - actin-related protein 3 MeSH D05.750.078.730.250 - actins MeSH D05.750. ... actin capping proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.500 - capz actin capping protein MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.750 - tropomodulin ... 078.730.212.875 - destrin MeSH D05.750.078.730.246 - actin-related protein 2-3 complex MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.500 - ...
"Structural conservation between the actin monomer-binding sites of twinfilin and actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin". J ... ADF/cofilins bind ADP-actin with higher affinity than ATP-actin and inhibit the spontaneous nucleotide exchange on actin ... In molecular biology, ADF-H domain (actin-depolymerising factor homology domain) is an approximately 150 amino acid motif that ... They bind both actin-monomers and filaments and promote rapid filament turnover in cells by depolymerising/fragmenting actin ...
"Human actin depolymerizing factor mediates a pH-sensitive destruction of actin filaments". Biochemistry. 32 (38): 9985-93. doi: ... Actin, cytoplasmic 2, or gamma-actin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTG1 gene. Gamma-actin is widely expressed ... Gamma-actin is eventually replaced by sarcomeric alpha-actin isoforms, with low levels of gamma-actin persisting in adult ... Human gamma-actin is 41.8 kDa in molecular weight and 375 amino acids in length. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are ...
Actin Depolymerizing Factor, or ADF, normally disassembles actin and hampers the induction of LTP. However, synaptic activity ... Actin treadmilling is the process of turnover of actin filaments where F-actin is rapidly assembled and disassembled. G-actin ... This protein caps the barbed end of F-actin, thus preventing G-actin subunits from binding to F-actin and blocking actin ... Actin is only able to cause changes that promote LTP through its formation into F-actin. When F-actin is unable to form, LTD is ...
"Functional dissection and molecular characterization of calcium-sensitive actin-capping and actin-depolymerizing sites in ... "Helicobacter-induced intestinal metaplasia in the stomach correlates with Elk-1 and serum response factor induction of villin ... This gene encodes a member of a family of calcium-regulated actin-binding proteins. This protein represents a dominant part of ... Revenu C, Courtois M, Michelot A, Sykes C, Louvard D, Robine S (March 2007). "Villin severing activity enhances actin-based ...
... and of the actin-depolymerizing protein cofilin, mediated by EGFR/ERBB1. Furthermore, this latter event may be inhibited by the ... The HER (human epidermal growth factor receptor) protein, binds to human epidermal growth factor, and stimulates cell ... trastuzumab suppresses angiogenesis both by induction of antiangiogenic factors and repression of proangiogenic factors. It is ... CDR formation requires activation of both the protein regulator of actin polymerization N-WASP, mediated by ERK1/2, ...
Breakage of cortex-membrane bonds has also been caused by laser ablation and injection of an actin depolymerizing drug, which ... The presence of only one or two of these factors is often not enough to drive bleb formation. Bleb formation has also been ... This interaction stabilizes a form of myosin II that is not bound to actin, thus lowering the affinity of myosin with actin. By ... and deterioration of the actin cortex. The integrity of the connection between the actin cortex and the membrane are dependent ...
... depolymerized the actin, broke the adhesions, and allowed foam cells to migrate out of the intima. One study suggests a role ... These include thrombin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNFa), lactosylceramide, interleukin-1, ... Vascular NADPH oxidases are regulated by a variety of hormones and factors known to be important players in vascular remodeling ... by polymerizing actin fibers). This process is counterbalanced by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, and by antioxidants. An imbalance ...
Watts NR, Sackett DL, Ward RD, Miller MW, Wingfield PT, Stahl SS, Steven AC (July 2000). "HIV-1 rev depolymerizes microtubules ... Sapir T, Elbaum M, Reiner O (December 1997). "Reduction of microtubule catastrophe events by LIS1, platelet-activating factor ... interaction with actin, clathrin and tubulin". The Biochemical Journal. 363 (Pt 3): 599-608. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3630599. PMC ... Sapir T, Elbaum M, Reiner O (December 1997). "Reduction of microtubule catastrophe events by LIS1, platelet-activating factor ...
"Tropomyosin binding to F-actin protects the F-actin from disassembly by brain actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)". Cell Motil. 2 ... it was observed that the actin-binding protein actin depolymerisation factor (ADF)/cofilin, a factor that promotes actin ... The actin filament system that is involved in regulating these cellular pathways is more complex than the actin filament ... The tropomyosin dimer has very low affinity for an actin filament and forms no van der waals contacts with actin. It is only ...
Signals sent between the follicular cells and the oocyte (such as factors similar to epidermal growth factor) cause the ... Recently an actin-like protein has been found in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms a microtubule- ... However, once the microtubule depolymerizes, most of these modifications are rapidly reversed by soluble enzymes. Since most ... After nucleation, the minus-ends are released and then re-anchored in the periphery by factors such as ninein and PLEKHA7. In ...
Miki H, Sasaki T, Takai Y, Takenawa T (January 1998). "Induction of filopodium formation by a WASP-related actin-depolymerizing ... This process is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which promote the exchange of bound GDP for free GTP, ... "GRB2 links signaling to actin assembly by enhancing interaction of neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp) with actin- ... Rho GTPases are central to dynamic actin cytoskeletal assembly and rearrangement that are the basis of cell-cell adhesion and ...
Actin cables are bundles of actin filaments and are involved in the transport of vesicles towards the cap (which contains a ... Prior to the work of Jones et al., 2001, the cell wall was believed to be the deciding factor for many bacterial cell shapes, ... The network influences cell mechanics and dynamics by differentially polymerizing and depolymerizing its constituent filaments ... Actin-like proteins are actin in eukaryotes and MreB, FtsA in prokaryotes. An example of a WACA-proteins, which are mostly ...
Organization of the plant Golgi depends on actin cables and not microtubules. The common feature among Golgi is that they are ... BFA inhibits the function of several guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that mediate GTP-binding of ARFs. Treatment of ... In experiments it is seen that as microtubules are depolymerized the Golgi apparatuses lose mutual connections and become ... BFA blocks the activation of some ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs). ARFs are small GTPases which regulate vesicular trafficking ...
... inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. It is thought that this pathway contributes to Rho-induced reorganization of the ... "LIM-kinase 2 and cofilin phosphorylation mediate actin cytoskeleton reorganization induced by transforming growth factor-beta ... Sumi T, Matsumoto K, Takai Y, Nakamura T (27 Dec 1999). "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics regulated by ... Toshima J, Toshima JY, Takeuchi K, Mori R, Mizuno K (Aug 2001). "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin reorganization activities of ...
ROCK indirectly strengthens actin/myosin contraction through inhibiting Cofilin, a protein which depolymerizes actin stress ... Wang F, Graham WV, Wang Y, Witkowski ED, Schwarz BT, Turner JR (February 2005). "Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor- ... On the other side of the kinase at the N-Terminus end, sits the actin-binding domain, which allows MYLK to form interactions ... However, when the inward pulling force of the actin stress fiber becomes greater than the outward pulling force of the cell ...
If so, the actin filaments that form there might stabilize the added membrane so that a structured extension, or lamella, is ... On the other hand, high drug concentrations, or microtubule mutations that depolymerize the microtubules, can restore cell ... "2D protrusion but not motility predicts growth factor-induced cancer cell migration in 3D collagen". J. Cell Biol. 197 (6): 721 ... Drugs that destroy actin filaments have multiple and complex effects, reflecting the wide role that these filaments play in ...
23] Cofilins are actin-modulating proteins that act to depolymerize F-actin and inhibit the polymerization of G-actin. Cofilin- ... One remarkable factor is that weakness is distal more than proximal, resulting in delayed major motor milestones, but ... 13] The actin monomer, G-actin (has binding site for myosin) polymerizes to form F-actin. Two strands of F-actin combine in a ... Myotilin binds actin and is thought to be involved in stabilization of actin bundles and anchorage of thin filaments at the Z ...
... is an 18.5-kD protein with pH-dependent reciprocal F-actin binding and severing/depolymerizing activities. We previously showe ... Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) is an 18.5-kD protein with pH-dependent reciprocal F-actin binding and severing/ ... Actin Depolymerizing Factor (ADF/Cofilin) Enhances the Rate of Filament Turnover: Implication in Actin-based Motility ... Isolation and characterization of a regulated form of actin depolymerizing factor TE Morgan, TE Morgan ...
actin-depolymerizing factor. *ADF. *AGEL. *brevin. *DKFZp313L0718. *GELS_HUMAN. *gelsolin isoform a precursor ... Interactions of gelsolin and gelsolin-actin complexes with actin. Effects of calcium on actin nucleation, filament severing, ... to another protein called actin. Actin proteins are organized into filaments, which form a network (the cytoskeleton) that ... Gelsolin helps assemble or disassemble actin filaments. It is thought that, through this function, the gelsolin protein ...
N2 - Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin enhances the turnover of actin filaments by two separable activities: filament ... AB - Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin enhances the turnover of actin filaments by two separable activities: filament ... Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin enhances the turnover of actin filaments by two separable activities: filament ... abstract = "Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin enhances the turnover of actin filaments by two separable activities: ...
Cucurbitacin I results in accumulation of actin filaments in cells by a unique indirect mechanism. Furthermore, the proximal ... Actin Cytoskeleton / metabolism * Actin Cytoskeleton / ultrastructure * Actin Depolymerizing Factors / metabolism * Actins / ... Therefore, cucurbitacin I targets some factor involved in cellular actin dynamics other than actin itself. Two candidate ... In in vitro actin depolymerization experiments, cucurbitacin I had no effect on the rate of actin filament disassembly at the ...
"Human actin depolymerizing factor mediates a pH-sensitive destruction of actin filaments". Biochemistry. 32 (38): 9985-93. doi: ... Actin, cytoplasmic 2, or gamma-actin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTG1 gene. Gamma-actin is widely expressed ... Gamma-actin is eventually replaced by sarcomeric alpha-actin isoforms, with low levels of gamma-actin persisting in adult ... Human gamma-actin is 41.8 kDa in molecular weight and 375 amino acids in length. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are ...
Meberg PJ, Bamburg JR (2000) Increase in neurite outgrowth mediated by overexpression of actin depolymerizing factor. J ... Abl kinases are known to organize actin rearrangement both directly, via binding domains for G-actin and F-actin, and ... F-actin staining is weak because of competitive binding of jasplakinolide and phalloidin to F-actin. Note that F-actin staining ... A the next day for 24 hr to depolymerize actin filament or with 100 nm jasplakinolide on 7 DIV for 5 hr to stabilize actin ...
... the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking. ... the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking. ... Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of ... Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of ...
F-actin and G-actin binding are uncoupled by mutation of conserved tyrosine residues in maize actin depolymerizing factor ( ... They bind both monomeric actin (G-actin) and filamentous actin (F-actin) and, under certain conditions, F-actin binding is ... Actin depolymerizing factors (ADF) are stimulus responsive actin cytoskeleton modulating proteins. ... Binding was specific for F-actin because G-actin did not bind. Further, unlabeled F-actin blocked the binding of 125I-labeled F ...
Actin Depolymerizing Factors 41% * Myosins 32% * Drosophila 27% * Phagocyte Responses to Cell Death in Flies.. Davidson, A. J. ... Dynamic analysis of actin cable function during Drosophila dorsal closure. Jacinto, A., Wood, W., Woolner, S., Hiley, C., ... Dynamic actin-based epithelial adhesion and cell matching during Drosophila dorsal closure. Jacinto, A., Wood, W., Balayo, T., ... Macrophages Use Distinct Actin Regulators to Switch Engulfment Strategies and Ensure Phagocytic Plasticity In Vivo. Davidson, A ...
The actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin (ADF/CFL) gene family encodes a diverse group of relatively small proteins. Once known ... Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of codon evolution in the actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin (adf/cfl) gene family Eileen M. ... Here, we investigate how factors at the individual level might constrain the composition of gut microbes in an obligate ... from signal transduction to the cytonuclear trafficking of actin. In both plant and animal lineages, expression patterns of ...
In the brain of RTT mice, LP-211 also reversed the abnormal activation of PAK and cofilin (key regulators of actin cytoskeleton ... an actin filament depolymerizing/severing factor (De Filippis et al, in press). In this line, alterations in these signaling ... Right: semiquantitative densitometric analysis, obtained by OD of protein bands normalized with OD of β-actin bands. OD ratios ... In the brain of RTT mice, LP-211 also reversed the abnormal activation of PAK and cofilin (key regulators of actin cytoskeleton ...
2006) Phosphorylation of actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin by LIM-kinase mediates amyloid β-induced degeneration: a potential ... A, Immunoblotting was used to measure phosphorylation of the actin depolymerizing protein cofilin, and its upstream regulator ... Both pathways ultimately converge on the actin-binding protein cofilin, which promotes collapse through actin depolymerization ... 2010) Learning, AMPA receptor mobility and synaptic plasticity depend on n-cofilin-mediated actin dynamics. EMBO J 29:1889-1902 ...
Transcription factor AP 4. EgrG_000768400.1. 0. 0,00621390. -. -. Actin-depolymerizing factor 2. gi,576697711. 0,00135023. 0, ... Another factor contributing to the success of AHA-labeling is that the genome of this parasite showed no machinery for the ... Factors influencing the development and carbohydrate metabolism of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs. . J Parasitol. . 1998. ;. ... The normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF) [. 28. ] was calculated for each protein, and the quantitative differences were ...
D. Wang, N. G. Naydenov, A. Feygin, S. Baranwal, J. F. Kuemmerle, and A. I. Ivanov, "Actin-depolymerizing factor and cofilin-1 ... ZO-1 co-localized with the actin filaments. In H2O2 treated cells actin fibers aggregated into dots and ZO-1 was released from ... we found that Comp23 treatment increased the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) transcription ... C.-L. Wei, Q. Wu, V. B. Vega et al., "A global map of p53 transcription-factor binding sites in the human genome," Cell, vol. ...
... neurotrophic factor regulation of retinal growth cone filopodial dynamics is mediated through actin depolymerizing factor/ ... F-actin is enriched at synapses and the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton at pre- or postsynaptic terminals can also directly ... it is likely that BDNF signaling promotes changes in actin polymerization and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton at ... Actin polymerization and microtubule dynamics are necessary for growth cone steering and axon branching (Dent et al.,2004; ...
... including a transcription factor. Consistent with the suppression of plant growth resulting from salt stress, the expression of ... Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the ... Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed rice actin depolymerizing factor gene family and heterologous overexpression ... DEGs encoding transcription factors. Salt stress induced or suppressed many more TFs in XJ than in ZM: 158 and 78 TF genes were ...
H4-a, histone H4-a; H2B-a, histone H2B-a; ADF, actin-depolymerizing factor; S/TPK, RIO-like serine/threonine protein kinase; ... T, P, L, H, C, F, E, A, O, D, R, I and M represent genes for the trefoil factor, NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase, L- ...
... a member of theactin depolymerizing factor family that is critical for actin reorganization.. Expand. ... Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-PI3K Signaling Controls Cofilin Activity To Facilitate Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry into ... It is demonstrated that the entry of HSV-1 into neuronal cells induces biphasic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and an ... Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in kidney leads to progressive impairment of glomerular functions.. ...
Actin Cytoskeleton 7% * Actin Depolymerizing Factors 30% * Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex 21% ... Role of Protein Kinase D in Actin Remodeling and Cell Motiliy. *Storz, Peter (PI) ...
ADF11 (ACTIN DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR 11). F:actin binding;P:biological_process unknown;C:intracellular;MPOFB. O.I.. C.G.. H.G.. ... F:transcription factor activity, DNA binding;P:regulation of transcription;C:nucleus;P. O.I.. C.G.. H.G.. Please select. TAIR ( ... Encodes a phytosulfokine-alpha (PSK) precursor, a unique plant peptide growth factor first described in Asparagus.. O.I.. C.G. ...
Actin Depolymerizing Factors 100% * Actins 59% * ethylenediamine 18% * Fluorescence 16% * Yeasts 16% ... Structure and dynamics of the actin filament. Guan, J. Q., Takamoto, K., Almo, S. C., Reisler, E. & Chance, M. R., Mar 8 2005, ... Structural effects of cofilin on longitudinal contacts in F-actin. Bobkov, A. A., Muhlrad, A., Kokabi, K., Vorobiev, S., Almo, ... Structural and functional dissection of the Abp1 ADFH actin-binding domain reveals versatile in vivo adapter functions. ...
The actin-depolymerizing factor Cofilin/ADF, encoded by the twinstar gene, regulates the actin cytoskeletal rearrangements that ... Fibroblast Growth Factors, Transforming Growth Factor beta and Hedgehog [46]. In Drosophila, Dally promotes the stability and ... Systemic factors that vary in response to diet and age play an important role in modulating niche output and stem cell ... A second transcription factor Engrailed also marks terminal filaments and is necessary for their development [36]. Identifying ...
Quantitative Variations with pH of Actin Depolymerizing Factor/Cofilins Multiple Actions on Actin Filaments. Biochemistry 58, ... If ABPs can modify the mechanical state of actin filaments, external mechanical factors can in turn affect the activity of ABPs ... In cells, actin assembly is regulated by hundreds of actin binding proteins (ABPs), which can act together, in synergy, or in ... The assembly of ATP-actin monomers into filaments is the basis for the formation of the actin cytoskeleton in cells. The ...
We studied the sensitivity of immunofluorescent staining of actin to an actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) as well as actin ... Actin Depolymerizing Factors - Actins/analysis/biosynthesis/ metabolism - Animals - Destrin - Fluorescent Antibody Technique - ... Thus, phalloidin appears to stabilize actin against the depolymerizing actions of ADF, increases the proportion of F-actin ... Phalloidin increases F-actin microfilament content and actin-directed immunofluorescence in hepatocytes in vivo and also ...
Actin depolymerizing factor *Universal reference gene. JZ818469 *F:GCATCTGGTATGGCAGTCC. *R:GCATCTGGTATGGCAGTCC. 183 81.4 SYBR ...
Keywords: یا راک; ABP; actin-binding protein; ADF; actin-depolymerizing factor; Aip1; actin-interacting protein 1; Arp; actin- ... actin binding protein 1; ACTN4; α-actinin-4; ADF; actin-depolymerizing factor; ADHD; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder ... Keywords: یا راک; BBB; blood-brain barrier; BDNF; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; FGFR; fibroblast growth factor receptor; ... actin beta/beta-actin; ASCL1; achaete-scute homolog 1 (MASH1); ASOs; anti-sense oligonucleotides; Bcl-xL; b-cell lymphoma-extra ...
Epidermal Growth Factor 40% * Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex 31% * Actin Depolymerizing Factors 29% ... Specific requirement for the p85-p110α phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase during epidermal growth factor-stimulated actin nucleation ... Transforming growth factor β activates Smad2 in the absence of receptor endocytosis. Lu, Z., Murray, J. T., Luo, W., Li, H., Wu ... Distinct roles for the p110α and hVPS34 phosphatidylinositol 3- kinases in vesicular trafficking, regulation of the actin ...
actin-depolymerizing factor 1. √. √. 38079. PF3D7_0932200. profilin. √. √. PF3D7_0923700. cfap298 domain-containing protein, ...
Actin Depolymerizing Factors. Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex. Actin Cytoskeleton. Actinin. ... Actins. Tropomyosin. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Caenorhabditis elegans. Schizosaccharomyces. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins ... Actin Depolymerizing Factors. 8. 2003. 2020. May 2013. Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex. 8. 2006. 2019. August 2013. ...
Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex Medicine & Life Sciences 14% * Actin Depolymerizing Factors Medicine & Life Sciences 13% ... of mitochondrial accumulation of F-actin and also led to abnormal mitochondrial accumulation of the actin regulatory factors ... of mitochondrial accumulation of F-actin and also led to abnormal mitochondrial accumulation of the actin regulatory factors ... of mitochondrial accumulation of F-actin and also led to abnormal mitochondrial accumulation of the actin regulatory factors ...
  • Actin proteins are organized into filaments, which form a network (the cytoskeleton) that gives structure to cells and allows them to change shape and move. (
  • Gelsolin helps assemble or disassemble actin filaments. (
  • However, we found that, unlike jasplakinolide or phallacidin, cucurbitacin I does not directly stabilize actin filaments. (
  • Cucurbitacin I results in accumulation of actin filaments in cells by a unique indirect mechanism. (
  • Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin enhances the turnover of actin filaments by two separable activities: filament severing and pointed-end depolymerization. (
  • Here, we show that the two Caenorhabditis elegans ADF/cofilin isoforms exhibit different activities for severing and depolymerizing actin filaments. (
  • The two primary cytoskeletal components of costameres are desmin intermediate filaments and gamma-actin microfilaments. (
  • Additional studies have shown that gamma-actin colocalizes with alpha-actinin and GFP-labeled gamma actin localized to Z-discs, whereas GFP-alpha-actin localized to pointed ends of thin filaments, indicating that gamma actin specifically localizes to Z-discs in striated muscle cells. (
  • The CA-Abl phenotype is not affected by destabilization of microtubules but is reversed partially when actin filaments are stabilized with jasplakinolide. (
  • For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin) that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy. (
  • These domains cross-link actin filaments into bundles and networks. (
  • A large number of proteins interact with actin to control how, where and when actin monomers assemble into filaments. (
  • The assembly of ATP-actin monomers into filaments is the basis for the formation of the actin cytoskeleton in cells. (
  • If ABPs can modify the mechanical state of actin filaments, external mechanical factors can in turn affect the activity of ABPs. (
  • To understand how ABPs and the mechanical context generate networks of various geometries, dynamics and lifetimes, our team focuses its efforts on the observation and in vitro manipulations of single actin filaments or small reconstituted networks under well-controlled conditions. (
  • Microfluidics is a very powerful tool to expose filaments to different protein solutions in a sequential manner and to expose filaments to various mechanical stresses, thus opening new avenues to decipher the dynamics of actin network assembly. (
  • In this chamber, actin filaments are grown from primers anchored to the surface of the experimental chamber and aligned with the flow. (
  • Dozens of fluorescently labeled actin filaments can be followed in parallel while being exposed to various biochemical conditions affecting their dynamics. (
  • Mechanically tuning actin filaments to modulate the action of actin-binding proteins. (
  • Previous work has demonstrated that tubules can be generated by being pulled out of membrane reservoirs by molecular motors that move along microtubule or actin filaments, or by the tips of filaments as these grow by polymerization. (
  • However, the alignment of membrane tubules with the filaments of the cytoskeleton is not perfect, the ER network does not retract upon deplomerization of actin filaments in yeast and retracts only slowly upon depolymerization of microtubules in mammals, and ER tubules can also be generated from vesicles. (
  • A family of multidomain microfilament proteins that bind ACTIN FILAMENTS and INTEGRINS at FOCAL ADHESIONS . (
  • These proteins can change the mean twist of actin filaments by ∼5° per subunit, but other workers have claimed that this change in twist can be uncoupled from subunit dissociation. (
  • also discovered that two molecules of ADF bind per actin subunit, and that some actin subunits are tilted significantly from their normal positions under conditions that destabilize filaments. (
  • Harker AJ, Katkar HH, Bidone TC, Aydin F, Voth GA, Applewhite DA, Kovar DR. Ena/VASP processive elongation is modulated by avidity on actin filaments bundled by the filopodia cross-linker fascin. (
  • Actin filaments are shown in red, and microtubules composed of beta tubulin are in green. (
  • [9] During contraction of a muscle , within each muscle cell, myosin molecular motors collectively exert forces on parallel actin filaments. (
  • Unlike other cytoskeletal components in the cell, for example, actin filaments which continuously grow as long as enough G-actin is present, MTs stochastically switch between growing and shrinking phases even under sufficient free tubulin concentrations. (
  • Also called actin filaments that form the part of the cytoskeleton and are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells composed of polymers of actin are microfilaments. (
  • Due to the complex nature of actin dynamics, adequate cellular response to extracellular stimuli not only requires polymerization and/or disassembly of actin filaments, but also coordinated synthesis of the myriad of structural proteins and regulatory factors that accompany this process. (
  • The driving drive for such membrane transformation is spatially and temporally-regulated by polymerization of submembrane actin filaments. (
  • Two candidate proteins that play roles in actin depolymerization are the actin-severing proteins cofilin and gelsolin. (
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. (
  • Actin binding domains present in duplicate at the N-termini of spectrin-like proteins (including dystrophin, alpha-actinin). (
  • A number of actin-binding proteins, including spectrin, alpha-actinin and fimbrin, contain a 250 amino acid stretch called the actin binding domain (ABD). (
  • In addition, the CH domain occurs also in a number of proteins not known to bind actin, a notable example being the vav protooncogene. (
  • Gelation factor (ABP120) is one of the principal actin-cross-linking proteins of Dictyostelium discoideum. (
  • Our goal is to understand the elementary processes of actin mechanosensitivity affecting actin dynamics and the action of regulatory proteins. (
  • In cells, actin assembly is regulated by hundreds of actin binding proteins (ABPs), which can act together, in synergy, or in competition. (
  • Furthermore, down-regulation of actin regulatory proteins led to elongation of mitochondria, associated with mitochondrial accumulation of Drp1. (
  • In pre-clinical studies, we and others have shown that various protein-protein interactions, pertaining to the actin microfilament-associated proteins, ezrin and cofilin, mediate breast cancer cell migration, a prerequisite for cancer metastasis. (
  • Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) analysis of GFP fusion proteins, Chen and Huang observed rapid exchange between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm of factors involved in rRNA transcription, pre-rRNA processing, and ribosome assembly. (
  • Rapid F-actin turnover requires proteins of the highly conserved ADF/cofilin family. (
  • They found that segments of pure actin can adopt the ADF/cofilin-like state of twist, even in the absence of other proteins, and, conversely, that the ADF-actin complex can adopt a state of twist close to the normal actin state. (
  • In this project, we focus on a family of actin regulatory proteins coordinating the formation of invasive membrane protrusions (also termed invadopodia) and the upregulation of proteases involved in extracellular matrix degradation. (
  • The main difference between microtubules and microfilaments is that microtubules are formed of tubulin protein units and normally are long, and hollow cylinders, whereas microfilaments are produced by actin proteins, and usually are double-stranded helical polymers. (
  • conversely, proteins involved in the regulation of the dynamics of microfilaments are filament cross-linkers, actin monomer-binding proteins, actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, and filament-severing proteins. (
  • [ 7 ] Tropomyosins are a family of actin-binding coiled-coil proteins that help to regulate calcium-dependent muscle contraction. (
  • These signals are perceived by various receptor proteins including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs), and receptors for integrin, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), and E-cadherin signaling. (
  • Receptors link to Rho GTPases via selective Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Rho proteins by catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP. (
  • Once activated, Rho GTPases regulate numerous downstream effector proteins to modulate actin polymerization chiefly via two well-established pathways, the first involving Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-LIM kinase-cofilin signaling, and the other mediated by formins. (
  • These results suggest that cofilin-like UNC-60B is kinetically more efficient in enhancing actin turnover than ADF-like UNC-60A, while ADF-like UNC-60A is suitable for maintaining higher concentrations of monomeric actin. (
  • In the brain of RTT mice, LP-211 also reversed the abnormal activation of PAK and cofilin (key regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics) and of the ribosomal protein (rp) S6, whose reduced activation in MECP2 mutant neurons by mTOR is responsible for the altered protein translational control. (
  • It is demonstrated that the entry of HSV-1 into neuronal cells induces biphasic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and an initial inactivation followed by the subsequent activation of cofilin, a member of theactin depolymerizing factor family that is critical for actin reorganization. (
  • Actin filament oxidation by MICAL1 suppresses protections from cofilin-induced disassembly. (
  • Impairing mitochondrial division through Drp1 knockout or inhibition prolonged the time of mitochondrial accumulation of F-actin and also led to abnormal mitochondrial accumulation of the actin regulatory factors cortactin, cofilin, and Arp2/3 complexes, suggesting that disassembly of mitochondrial F-actin depends on Drp1 activity. (
  • 2013. Rapid nucleotide exchange renders asp-11 mutant actins resistant to depolymerizing activity of cofilin, leading to dominant toxicity in vivo. (
  • This protein, a downstream effector of Rho, phosphorylates and activates LIM kinase, which in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. (
  • demonstrate that subunits in F-actin are capable of binding two ADF molecules, and that the depolymerization activity of ADF/cofilin may be due to the ability to induce cooperative changes in the tilt and twist of actin subunits. (
  • In S. pombe , actin turnover is primarily regulated by the cofilin Adf1. (
  • F-actin and microtubules (MTs) are the main mediators of neuronal polarity. (
  • Two members of the tubulin superfamily, α- and β-tubulins are the building blocks for microtubules, which are polymerized and depolymerized dynamically. (
  • Kovar DR. Intracellular motility: myosin and tropomyosin in actin cable flow. (
  • [9] Tropomyosin inhibits the interaction between actin and myosin, while troponin senses the increase in calcium and releases the inhibition. (
  • Motility by C. parvum sporozoites was prevented by latrunculin B and cytochalasin D, drugs that depolymerize the parasite actin cytoskeleton, and by the myosin inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime. (
  • Our studies demonstrate that C. parvum relies on a conserved actin-myosin motor for motility and active penetration of its host cell, thus establishing that this is a widely conserved feature of the Apicomplexa. (
  • By using mutants of the fission yeast actin severing protein Adf1, we observed that contracting AMRs display a "peeling" phenotype, where bundles of actin and myosin peel off from one side of the AMR, and are pulled across to the opposite side. (
  • Visualizing AMR contraction face-on in adf1 -M2 and adf1 -M3 cells, we observed that bundles of myosin and (presumably) actin peeled off from one side of the AMR, and were pulled in toward the opposite side ( Figure 1A ), behavior that was not seen in wild-type (WT) cells ( Figure 1B ). (
  • What area of myosin associates with actin? (
  • The myosin/actin interaction pulls heads inward and ATP hydrolysis drives contraction. (
  • Therefore, cucurbitacin I targets some factor involved in cellular actin dynamics other than actin itself. (
  • These functional differences might be specifically adapted for different actin dynamics in muscle and non-muscle cells. (
  • In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking. (
  • The focus of this review is the molecular mechanisms by which biophysical stimuli that induce changes in cytoplasmic actin dynamics are communicated within cells to elicit gene-specific transcription via nuclear localisation or activation of specialized transcription factors, namely MRTFs and the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ. (
  • Extracellular stimuli that alter actin dynamics are highly diverse and include soluble factors such as hormones and chemokines, or physical interactions between neighboring cells and the ECM. (
  • Since then, other factors that respond to and actively regulate actin dynamics have been identified. (
  • Rather this review will focus on how changes in cytoplasmic actin dynamics affect gene-specific transcription via nuclear localisation or activation of specialized transcription factors, namely MRTFs and the Hippo pathway effectors Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), in addition to some less characterised factors such as β-catenin, the NF-κB, Nrf2 and Foxj1a transcription factors, and epigenetic regulator HDAC3. (
  • In in vitro actin depolymerization experiments, cucurbitacin I had no effect on the rate of actin filament disassembly at the nanomolar concentrations that inhibit cell migration. (
  • These data indicate that the dynamic assembly and disassembly of F-actin on the mitochondria participates in Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. (
  • Phalloidin increases F-actin microfilament content and actin-directed immunofluorescence in hepatocytes in vivo and also increases actin polymerization and the stability of F-actin in vitro. (
  • We studied the sensitivity of immunofluorescent staining of actin to an actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) as well as actin content, degree of polymerization, and turnover in livers of in vivo phalloidin-treated rats. (
  • They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN. (
  • It has hence become clear that tubulin straightening takes place during polymerization, whereas strongly kinked conformations are characteristic of depolymerized GDP-tubulin. (
  • which blocks F-actin polymerization and results in AMR disintegration. (
  • How this occurs in the cell remained a mystery until the seminal discovery that actin polymerization is the trigger for nuclear localisation of myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) to stimulate serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription [ 3 ]. (
  • They are also known to cause changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • During development of myocytes, gamma actin is thought to play a role in the organization and assembly of developing sarcomeres, evidenced in part by its early colocalization with alpha-actinin. (
  • At the cellular level the alteration of Abl also changes actin organization consistent with RhoA inhibition. (
  • In light of novel discoveries related to the role and organization of neuronal F-actin, in this review we will focus on the mechanisms and molecular players that fine-tune the actin cytoskeleton, thereby controlling dendrite morphology and function. (
  • 2020). SPIN90 associates with mDia1 and the Arp2/3 complex to regulate cortical actin organization. (
  • Kadzik RS, Homa KE, Kovar DR. F-Actin Cytoskeleton Network Self-Organization Through Competition and Cooperation. (
  • Newer models suggest the activity of actinomyosin cytoskeletal changes, extracellular matrix organization, intracellular signaling responses mediated by protein kinase C, Rho/Rho kinase, and other biologic factors in these processes. (
  • Cells must therefore be able to sense the status of actin cytoskeleton organization and be able to communicate this to the cell nucleus to regulate gene transcription. (
  • Microfilaments are composed of the most abundant cellular protein known as actin. (
  • Microfilaments are polymers of the protein actin and are 7 nm in diameter. (
  • on the other hand, the contractile protein which is known as actin protein mainly produce microfilaments. (
  • on the other hand, microfilaments are mainly composed of a contractile protein called actin protein. (
  • Thus, phalloidin appears to stabilize actin against the depolymerizing actions of ADF, increases the proportion of F-actin without altering the size of the G-actin pool, and causes accumulation of actin by decreasing its relative rate of degradation. (
  • Therefore, ADF appears to stabilize a preexisting F-actin conformation. (
  • Both forms of the gelsolin protein attach (bind) to another protein called actin. (
  • To this end, our team is developing experimental approaches combining microfluidics, micropatterning, and optical tweezers to conduct in vitro experiments that are essential to decipher the individual molecular reactions that regulate the emergence of actin networks. (
  • Moreover, UNC-60B induced much faster pointed-end depolymerization of rabbit muscle actin than UNC-60A, while UNC-60A caused slightly faster depolymerization of C. elegans actin than UNC-60B. (
  • The cooperative twist and tilt resulting from the binding of two molecules of ADF per actin subunit may lead to breakage of longitudinal contacts within the actin filament, and thus to F-actin depolymerization. (
  • Twinfilin uncaps filament barbed ends to promote turnover of lamellipodial actin networks. (
  • The exact mechanisms that lead to this contractility are unknown, although some models posit that actin turnover in the AMR is essential. (
  • We found that the distribution of Myo2 in the AMR anticorrelates with the location of peeling events, suggesting that peeling is caused by a nonuniform tension distribution around the AMR, and that one of the roles of actin turnover is to maintain a uniform tension distribution around the AMR. (
  • We used adf1 mutants to investigate the effect of reduced actin turnover on AMR contraction and found that this causes a ring peeling phenotype, which seems to be due to a nonuniform distribution of tension around the AMR. (
  • We utilized two mutants of S. pombe Adf1, Adf1-M2 and Adf1-M3, which were shown to have reduced F-actin binding affinities and severing rates ( Chen and Pollard, 2011 ), causing reduced actin turnover in cells (Supplemental Figure S1A). (
  • Neither the relative fractional rate of actin synthesis nor its synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis was altered either at one-day or ten-day post-phalloidin treatment. (
  • Dualisotope experiments indicated that the rate of actin degradation was decreased selectively in the one- to three-day period following drug treatment. (
  • Yde SE, Kadzik RS, Kovar DR. Stir it up: The role of actin in mitochondrial mixing during mitosis. (
  • So far, research has been focused on the specific roles of actin in the axon, while it is becoming more and more apparent that in the dendrite, actin is not only confined to dendritic spines, but serves many additional and important functions. (
  • Insertional assembly of actin filament barbed ends in association with formins produces piconewton forces. (
  • Development of the dendritic tree is a series of dynamic events that result in the formation of a complex and highly ordered structure through abundant remodeling and reorganization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. (
  • The 1-diphosphate for synthase of a activity illustrated for the extracellular factor( embryonic) ligases from the single complex predisposition Sphingomyelin at the Expression when a alternate latter acquiring a ultraviolet correlation area is metabolized on the nucleotide of the human syndrome: O&: filopodia repressor. (
  • While the growth factors like insulin initiate a signaling cascade to induce conformational changes in the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), amino acids cause the complex to localize to the site of activation, the lysosome. (
  • Actin, cytoplasmic 2, or gamma-actin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTG1 gene. (
  • The fluorescent actin is seen to polymerize and depolymerize in cyclic waves. (
  • The cellular effect of the compound is similar to that observed when cells are treated with the actin filament-stabilizing agent jasplakinolide. (
  • In addition to established membrane remodeling roles in various cellular locations, actin has recently emerged as a participant in mitochondrial fission. (
  • It is thought that, through this function, the gelsolin protein regulates the formation of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Interactions of gelsolin and gelsolin-actin complexes with actin. (
  • Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect CpEF1α with a polyclonal antibody and host cell F-actin with rhodamine-phalloidin. (
  • With the development of super-resolution microscopy in the past few years, previously unknown structures of the actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered: a periodic lattice consisting of actin and spectrin seems to pervade not only the whole axon, but also dendrites and even the necks of dendritic spines. (
  • If a MT occasionally grows at a slower rate than GTP hydrolysis, the MT lattice depolymerizes rapidly. (
  • SASP Defects result in an regulator phosphorylation, depolymerizing the oxidative sensitivity( Kuilman et al. (
  • The phosphorylated and activated S6K phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6 (RpS6), whereas 4E-BP1 phosphorylation by mTORC1 frees the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from its negative regulator, 4E-BP1. (
  • Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Abl is an actin-binding protein and a key regulator of neuronal axonal development. (
  • Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. (
  • transcription elongation factor, mit. (
  • Progressing actin: Formin as a processive elongation machine. (
  • Cryptosporidium parvum Elongation Factor 1α Participates in the Formation of Base Structure at the Infection Site During Invasion. (
  • We discovered that a C parvum translation elongation factor 1α (CpEF1α) was discharged from the invading sporozoites into host cells, forming a crescent-shaped patch that fully resembles the electron-dense band. (
  • pADF, unlike ADF, does not bind to G-actin, or affect the rate or extent of actin assembly. (
  • Each single ABD, comprising two CH domains, is able to bind one actin monomer in the filament. (
  • The N-terminal CH domain has the intrinsic ability to bind actin, albeit with lower affinity than the complete ABD, whereas the C-terminal CH bind actin extremely weakly or not at all. (
  • The hydrolysis of ATP that occurs during this process is accompanied by a major change in the conformation of the actin subunits, and thus of the filament itself. (
  • Effects of calcium on actin nucleation, filament severing, and end blocking. (
  • Mechanism of actin filament nucleation. (
  • The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. (
  • Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of neurites. (
  • The LaminAC antibody specifically labels the nuclear lamina, while the actin antibody stains the submembranous actin-rich cytoskeleton, stress fibers and bundles of actin associated with cell adhesion sites. (
  • Upon treatment of MDCK or B16-F1 cells with cucurbitacin I, there is a very rapid cessation of motility and gradual accumulation of filamentous actin aggregates. (
  • Indeed, in response to oxidative stress due to its conformation changes, PARK7 releases these transcription factors, allowing them to translocate into the nucleus and to induce the expression of stress-response elements [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • Human gamma-actin is 41.8 kDa in molecular weight and 375 amino acids in length. (
  • Kovar DR. Molecular details of formin-mediated actin assembly. (
  • Actin, gamma 1, encoded by this gene, is found in non-muscle cells in the cytoplasm, and in muscle cells at costamere structures, or transverse points of cell-cell adhesion that run perpendicular to the long axis of myocytes. (
  • Control of the assembly of ATP- and ADP-actin by formins and profilin. (
  • nuclear factor I C [Source:HGNC Sy. (
  • Nuclear actin and its functional implication for general transcriptional activity will not be discussed here in detail. (
  • Among others, these include the actinomyosin cytoskeletal system, extracellular matrix, intracellular signaling responses mediated by protein kinase C, Rho/Rho kinase, and other biologic factors. (
  • We report that transient de novo F-actin assembly on the mitochondria occurs upon induction of mitochondrial fission and F-actin accumulates on the mitochondria without forming detectable submitochondrial foci. (
  • Li Y, Christensen JR, Homa KE, Hocky GM, Fok A, Sees JA, Voth GA, Kovar DR. The F-actin bundler a-actinin Ain1 is tailored for ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis in fission yeast. (
  • Scott BJ, Neidt EM, Kovar DR. The functionally distinct fission yeast formins have specific actin-assembly properties. (
  • Kovar DR, Sirotkin V, Lord M. Three's company: the fission yeast actin cytoskeleton. (
  • PARK7 as an oxidative sensor stabilizes transcription factors, including NRF2 and P53 in an oxidation-dependent manner. (
  • Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. (
  • 2008). These genes frequently encode developmentally important transcription factors and are designated with a bivalent chromatin signature defined by the simultaneous presence of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 (Azuara et al. (
  • Signaling pathways involving the Rho family of small GTPases mediate distinct actin cytoskeleton reorganization events in different cell types and have been proposed to be key mediators of dendritic development. (