Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

Structural features of LIM kinase that control effects on the actin cytoskeleton. (1/626)

LIM kinase phosphorylates and inactivates the actin binding/depolymerizing factor cofilin and induces actin cytoskeletal changes. Several unique structural features within LIM kinase were investigated for their roles in regulation of LIM kinase activity. Disruption of the second LIM domain or the PDZ domain or deletion of the entire amino terminus increased activity in vivo measured as increasing aggregation of the actin cytoskeleton. A kinase-deleted alternate splice product was identified and characterized. This alternate splice product and a kinase inactive mutant inhibited LIM kinase in vivo, indicating that the amino terminus suppresses activity of the kinase domain. Mutation of threonine 508 in the activation loop to valine abolished activity whereas replacement with 2 glutamic acid residues resulted in a fully active enzyme. Dephosphorylation of LIM kinase inhibited cofilin phosphorylation. Mutation of the basic insert in the activation loop inhibited activity in vivo, but not in vitro. These results indicate phosphorylation is an essential regulatory feature of LIM kinase and indicate that threonine 508 and the adjacent basic insert sequences of the activation loop are required for this process. A combination of structural features are thus involved in receiving upstream signals that regulate LIM kinase-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization.  (+info)

Ischemia activates actin depolymerizing factor: role in proximal tubule microvillar actin alterations. (2/626)

Apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells is extremely sensitive to ischemia, with structural alterations occurring within 5 min. These changes are felt secondary to actin cytoskeletal disruption, yet the mechanism responsible is unknown. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), a 19-kDa actin-binding protein, has recently been shown to play an important role in regulation of actin filament dynamics. Because ADF is known to mediate pH-dependent F-actin binding, depolymerization, and severing, and because ADF activation occurs by dephosphorylation, we questioned whether ADF played a role in microvilli microfilament disruption during ischemia. To test our hypothesis, we induced renal ischemia in the rat with the clamp model. Initial immunofluorescence and Western blot studies on cortical tissue documented the presence of ADF in proximal tubule cells. Under physiological conditions, ADF was distributed homogeneously throughout the cytoplasm, primarily in the Triton X-100-soluble fraction, and both phosphorylated (pADF) and nonphosphorylated forms were identified. During ischemia, marked alterations occurred. Intraluminal vesicle/bleb structures contained extremely high concentrations of ADF along with G-actin, but not F-actin. Western blot showed a rapidly occurring duration-dependent dephosphorylation of ADF. At 0-30 min of ischemia, total ADF levels were unchanged, whereas pADF decreased significantly to 72% and 19% of control levels, at 5 and 15 min, respectively. Urine collected under physiological conditions did not contain ADF or actin, whereas urine collected after 30 min of ischemia contained both ADF and actin. Reperfusion was associated with normalization of cellular pADF levels, pADF intracellular distribution, and repair of apical microvilli. These data suggest that activation of ADF during ischemia via dephosphorylation is, in part, responsible for apical actin disruption resulting in microvillar destruction and formation of intraluminal vesicles.  (+info)

XAIP1: a Xenopus homologue of yeast actin interacting protein 1 (AIP1), which induces disassembly of actin filaments cooperatively with ADF/cofilin family proteins. (3/626)

We carried out affinity column chromatography using Xenopus ADF/cofilin (XAC), identified several polypeptides in oocytes specifically bound to this column with actin, and isolated a full-length cDNA clone for a 65 kDa protein in this fraction. The predicted amino acid sequence revealed that the 65 kDa protein has seven obvious WD repeats and exhibits striking homology with yeast actin interacting protein 1 (AIP1). Thus, we designated this protein Xenopus AIP1 (XAIP1). We purified XAIP1 from Xenopus oocytes, and its interaction with actin was characterized by a pelleting assay, photometrical analysis and electron microscopy. Although XAIP1 itself cosedimented with F-actin and increased unsedimented actin to some extent, it induced a rapid, drastic disassembly of actin filaments associated with XAC. Electron microscopic observation revealed that XAIP1 severs actin filaments in the presence of XAC. To elucidate the in vivo effects of XAIP1, the purified protein was injected into blastomeres at the two-cell stage. Although the localization of XAIP1 was similar to that of XAC, at the cortical cytoskeleton and diffusely in the cytoplasm, injection of a large amount of XAIP1 arrested development and abolished the strong cortical staining of both actin and XAC. From these results, we concluded that XAIP1 regulates the dynamics of the cortical actin cytoskeleton cooperatively with XAC in eggs.  (+info)

Participation of cofilin in opsonized zymosan-triggered activation of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells through rapid dephosphorylation and translocation to plasma membranes. (4/626)

We studied the roles of cofilin, an actin-binding phosphoprotein, in superoxide production of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ). OZ caused dephosphorylation of cofilin as well as a transient increase of F-actin. Both reactions were complete within 30 s. Okadaic acid (OA) magnified the OZ-triggered O2--production 3.3-fold at 1 microM, but inhibited it completely at 5 microM. We used these critical concentrations to study the effects of OA on changes in phosphorylation and intracellular localization of cofilin. The OZ-induced dephosphorylation of cofilin was inhibited by 5 microM OA but not by 1 microM OA. Subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting revealed that 1 microM OA increased cofilin on the phagosomal membranous fraction but 5 microM OA decreased it. At 1 microM, OA increased translocation of p47phox to membranes, which may explain in part the enhancing effect of 1 microM OA. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that: (i) Cofilin diffused throughout the cytosol of resting cells, but accumulated at the plasma membranes forming phagocytic vesicles in activated cells. (ii) At 1 microM, OA had little effect on the OZ-evoked translocation of cofilin, whereas 5 microM OA suppressed it completely. (iii) OA alone, which could not trigger the phagocytic respiratory burst, did not cause any change in the distribution of cofilin at such concentrations. Furthermore, in a superoxide-producing cell-free system employing membranous and cytosolic fractions, affinity-purified anti-cofilin antibody showed an enhancing effect. These results suggest that cofilin participates in the superoxide production of the OZ-activated phagocytes through dephosphorylation and translocation. The roles of cofilin in the activated leukocytes will be discussed.  (+info)

UNC-60B, an ADF/cofilin family protein, is required for proper assembly of actin into myofibrils in Caenorhabditis elegans body wall muscle. (5/626)

The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-60 gene encodes two functionally distinct isoforms of ADF/cofilin that are implicated in myofibril assembly. Here, we show that one of the gene products, UNC-60B, is specifically required for proper assembly of actin into myofibrils. We found that all homozygous viable unc-60 mutations resided in the unc-60B coding region, indicating that UNC-60B is responsible for the Unc-60 phenotype. Wild-type UNC-60B had F-actin binding, partial actin depolymerizing, and weak F-actin severing activities in vitro. However, mutations in UNC-60B caused various alterations in these activities. Three missense mutations resulted in weaker F-actin binding and actin depolymerizing activities and complete loss of severing activity. The r398 mutation truncated three residues from the COOH terminus and resulted in the loss of severing activity and greater actin depolymerizing activity. The s1307 mutation in a putative actin-binding helix caused greater activity in actin-depolymerizing and severing. Using a specific antibody for UNC-60B, we found varying protein levels of UNC-60B in mutant animals, and that UNC-60B was expressed in embryonic muscles. Regardless of these various molecular phenotypes, actin was not properly assembled into embryonic myofibrils in all unc-60 mutants to similar extents. We conclude that precise control of actin filament dynamics by UNC-60B is required for proper integration of actin into myofibrils.  (+info)

Mechanism of interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/Cofilin) with actin filaments. (6/626)

We characterized the interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin, a member of ADF/cofilin family, with filaments of amoeba and rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The affinity is about 10 times higher for muscle actin filaments (Kd = 0.5 microM) than amoeba actin filaments (Kd = 5 microM) even though the affinity for muscle and amoeba Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) is the same (Blanchoin, L., and Pollard, T. D. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 25106-25111). Actophorin binds slowly (k+ = 0.03 microM-1 s-1) to and dissociates from amoeba actin filaments in a simple bimolecular reaction, but binding to muscle actin filaments is cooperative. Actophorin severs filaments in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phosphate or BeF3 bound to ADP-actin filaments inhibit actophorin binding. Actophorin increases the rate of phosphate release from actin filaments more than 10-fold. The time course of the interaction of actophorin with filaments measured by quenching of the fluorescence of pyrenyl-actin or fluorescence anisotropy of rhodamine-actophorin is complicated, because severing, depolymerization, and repolymerization follows binding. The 50-fold higher affinity of actophorin for Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) than ADP-actin filaments provides the thermodynamic basis for driving disassembly of filaments that have hydrolyzed ATP and dissociated gamma-phosphate.  (+info)

Arp2/3 complex and actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin in dendritic organization and treadmilling of actin filament array in lamellipodia. (7/626)

The leading edge (approximately 1 microgram) of lamellipodia in Xenopus laevis keratocytes and fibroblasts was shown to have an extensively branched organization of actin filaments, which we term the dendritic brush. Pointed ends of individual filaments were located at Y-junctions, where the Arp2/3 complex was also localized, suggesting a role of the Arp2/3 complex in branch formation. Differential depolymerization experiments suggested that the Arp2/3 complex also provided protection of pointed ends from depolymerization. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin was excluded from the distal 0.4 micrometer++ of the lamellipodial network of keratocytes and in fibroblasts it was located within the depolymerization-resistant zone. These results suggest that ADF/cofilin, per se, is not sufficient for actin brush depolymerization and a regulatory step is required. Our evidence supports a dendritic nucleation model (Mullins, R.D., J.A. Heuser, and T.D. Pollard. 1998. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95:6181-6186) for lamellipodial protrusion, which involves treadmilling of a branched actin array instead of treadmilling of individual filaments. In this model, Arp2/3 complex and ADF/cofilin have antagonistic activities. Arp2/3 complex is responsible for integration of nascent actin filaments into the actin network at the cell front and stabilizing pointed ends from depolymerization, while ADF/cofilin promotes filament disassembly at the rear of the brush, presumably by pointed end depolymerization after dissociation of the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Aip1p interacts with cofilin to disassemble actin filaments. (8/626)

Actin interacting protein 1 (Aip1) is a conserved component of the actin cytoskeleton first identified in a two-hybrid screen against yeast actin. Here, we report that Aip1p also interacts with the ubiquitous actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. A two-hybrid-based approach using cofilin and actin mutants identified residues necessary for the interaction of actin, cofilin, and Aip1p in an apparent ternary complex. Deletion of the AIP1 gene is lethal in combination with cofilin mutants or act1-159, an actin mutation that slows the rate of actin filament disassembly in vivo. Aip1p localizes to cortical actin patches in yeast cells, and this localization is disrupted by specific actin and cofilin mutations. Further, Aip1p is required to restrict cofilin localization to cortical patches. Finally, biochemical analyses show that Aip1p causes net depolymerization of actin filaments only in the presence of cofilin and that cofilin enhances binding of Aip1p to actin filaments. We conclude that Aip1p is a cofilin-associated protein that enhances the filament disassembly activity of cofilin and restricts cofilin localization to cortical actin patches.  (+info)

Recently, actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1) has been characterized as a factor that rapidly disassembles ADF/cofilin-bound actin filaments. AIP1 is a conserved WD repeat protein, and was originally identified in yeast as one of several actin-interacting proteins from a two-hybrid screen (Amberg et al. 1995). AIP1 itself is a weak F-actin binding protein, whereas, in the presence of ADF/cofilin, binding of AIP1 to F-actin is enhanced and rapid disassembly of the filaments is induced (Aizawa et al. 1999; Okada et al. 1999; Rodal et al. 1999). The filament disassembly is based on severing rather than depolymerization from the ends (Aizawa et al. 1999; Okada et al. 1999). Genetic studies in yeast agree with the biochemical data. The temperature-sensitive lethality of a COF1 (the yeast cofilin gene) allele is suppressed by a multicopy plasmid containing AIP1 (Iida and Yahara 1999). AIP1 is not essential for viability, but a deletion of AIP1 is synthetic lethal in combination with mutant COF1 alleles ...
Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins contribute to cytoskeletal dynamics by promoting rapid actin filament disassembly. In the classical view, ADF/cofilin sever filaments, and capping proteins block filament barbed ends whereas pointed ends depolymerize, at a rate that is still debated. Here, by monitoring the activity of the three mammalian ADF/cofilin isoforms on individual skeletal muscle and cytoplasmic actin filaments, we directly quantify the reactions underpinning filament severing and depolymerization from both ends. We find that, in the absence of monomeric actin, soluble ADF/cofilin can associate with bare filament barbed ends to accelerate their depolymerization. Compared to bare filaments, ADF/cofilin-saturated filaments depolymerize faster from their pointed ends and slower from their barbed ends, resulting in similar depolymerization rates at both ends. This effect is isoform specific because depolymerization is faster for ADF- than for cofilin-saturated filaments. We also ...
Beads, bacteria and actin. Cofilin promotes rapid actin filament turnover in vivo. Reconstitution of actin-based motility of Listeria and Shigella using pure proteins
We have examined the interaction of recombinant lily pollen ADF, LlADF1, with actin and found that whilst it bound both G- and F-actin, it had a much smaller effect on the polymerization and depolymerization rate constants than the maize vegetative ADF, ZmADF3. An antiserum specific to pollen ADF, a …
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
To make Angry Birds a real sport, Mbed made a USB slingshot to play Angry Birds. The slingshot emulates a USB mouse, so it really is a plug n play. It translates the physical use of the slingshot in to appropriate mouse controls. The way the controller works is reasonably simple: a stretch sensor translates the drawing of the slingshot to a mouse movement and an accelerometer determines the angle. Check out the video of it in action. ...
One candidate early on was a protein called slingshot, which seemed to have the correct phosphatase activity. However, slingshot turned out not to be found in all organisms, nor ubiquitously distributed throughout the body, a requirement for the mystery phosphatase, as it would be needed wherever actin dynamics is taking place. Additionally, slingshot did not appear to be capable of regulating all cofilin-dependent cell processes, so clearly a third man still existed.. Now in an article recently published in Nature Cell Biology, Bokoch and his colleagues Antje Gohla and Jörg Birkenfeld argue that the third man phosphatase is actually chronophin. Taking the increasingly overlooked approach of function-based biochemical isolation, which required Gohla to spend significant time in the cold room, the scientists purified a phosphatase activity which dephosphorylated cofilin. This activity was then identified by mass spectrometry as chronophin, a member of a unique superfamily of proteins called ...
SLINGSHOT™: Athletic Performance and Endurance Maximizer SLINGSHOT™ YOUR PERFORMANCE TO THE NEXT LEVEL! SLINGSHOT™ athletic
Cofilin belongs to the actin-binding ADF protein family. It contains one ADF-H domain. Cofilin controls reversible actin polymerization and depolymerization in a pH-sensitive manner. It has the ability to bind G- and F-actin at a 1:1 ratio. It is the major component of both intranuclear and cytop...
PAK4_HUMAN] Serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in a variety of different signaling pathways including cytoskeleton regulation, cell migration, growth, proliferation or cell survival. Activation by various effectors including growth factor receptors or active CDC42 and RAC1 results in a conformational change and a subsequent autophosphorylation on several serine and/or threonine residues. Phosphorylates and inactivates the protein phosphatase SSH1, leading to increased inhibitory phosphorylation of the actin binding/depolymerizing factor cofilin. Decreased cofilin activity may lead to stabilization of actin filaments. Phosphorylates LIMK1, a kinase that also inhibits the activity of cofilin. Phosphorylates integrin beta5/ITGB5 and thus regulates cell motility. Phosphorylates ARHGEF2 and activates the downstream target RHOA that plays a role in the regulation of assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Stimulates cell survival by phosphorylating the BCL2 antagonist of ...
If the day ever comes when you need to find your own food, like really find your own food, a slingshot might come in handy. Think about it: If things are that bad that you need to hunt your own game, theres also a pretty good chance you wont have unlimited rifle ammo. This Survival Slingshot is configured for archery, with 25 pounds of pull sending arrows hurtling through the air at your meal-to-be. And with a mounted tactical light, even owls better watch their backs and fronts.. ...
We work hard to bring the best slingshot forum to you! Unlock additional features, and fewer ads while browsing. Consider investing in your membership for less than a box of bullets!. Become a Supporter Now! ...
Actin-severing proteins ADF/cofilin are required for the sorting of secretory cargo at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in mammalian cells. How do these cytoplasmic proteins interact with the cargoes in the lumen of the TGN ...
Garcia B, Stollar EJ, Davidson AR. Genetics. 2012 Aug;191(4):1199-211. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actin-Binding Protein 1 (Abp1p) is a member of the Abp1 family of proteins, which are in diverse organisms including fungi, nematodes, flies, and mammals. All proteins in this family possess an N-terminal Actin Depolymerizing Factor Homology (ADF-H) domain, a central Proline-Rich Region (PRR), and a C-terminal SH3 domain. In this study, we employed sequence analysis to identify additional conservedfeatures of the family, including sequences rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine amino acids (PEST), which are found in all family members examined, and two motifs, Conserved Fungal Motifs 1 and 2 (CFM1 and CFM2), that are conserved in fungi. We also discovered that, similar to its mammalian homologs, Abp1p is phosphorylated in its PRR. This phosphorylation is mediated by the Cdc28p and Pho85p kinases, and it protects Abp1p from proteolysis mediated by the conserved PEST sequences. We ...
The SR-7 Wrist-Rocket® is a durable entry level slingshot. Molded handle Self centering pouch Tubular bands with protective prong caps to extend band life Made …
Best day pack ever. Buy it today. I bought my TNF Slingshot in 2007 and it is still in near perfect condition. I drive a Jeep Wrangler with no top, doors or windows so a bag is necessary to carry everything I have at any given...
Beautiful and functional, the DDMWorks aluminum shift knob offers extremely smooth and clean styling when installed. The knob is designed with a 2 round top that feels natural in your hand. The knob is CNC machined from a solid piece of billet aluminum. This single piece design is specifically made for the Polaris Slingshot and installs in just minutes. ...
These two friends thought taking a ride on the Slingshot at the 2020 Houston Rodeo would be fun, too bad they probably dont remember much of it as it puts them both to sleep.
We were very curious about what this dealer project would cost to the driver, as they estimated the modifications on the car would add up to around $30,000 (well let that sink it for a moment). This would put the Slingshot Trans Am at $65,000 brand new. Someone thought it was well worth it; this Slingshot Trans Am has been collector owned since it was new, and only has 1,544 miles on it - its still in showroom condition.. The original owner had chosen to never really open this car up, but hey, its their car to do as they like. Its never actually seen a track, its spent most of its time in a climate-controlled collectors garage for the past 14-years. Some might consider it a waste since its likely one of the best-optioned 4th-gens to leave a dealership, but collectors are all about preservation and keeping the vehicles safe from the dangers of the roads and tracks.. We do, however, suspect that this car may has since been sold to a second owner, and possible subsequent owners. Weve seen ...
SciSeek finds the most relevant and important science content and provides a mandatory daily dose of news and facts for the intellectually curious ...
All about kiteboarding. Worlds largest kite forum for every level. Search all info and get help from thousands of users worldwide. Every questions gets answered. Several different forums for different styles, sports etc
I would have gone, but I couldnt find a slingshot big enough. Oh, and I didnt realize there was a Cow Con III. But if it wasnt for those two things, I might have gone ...
SSH2兔多克隆抗体(ab118079)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB, IP实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
SSH3BP1小鼠单克隆抗体[4E2](ab11222)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被9篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
2019- 2020學年(上學期)????? (2019.10.14-2019.10.18)課題組名稱(聯系人)時? 間地? 點主講人題?? 目理論物理研究所 (李世淵)星期三15:30知新樓C913??交叉科學研究所 (劉向東)星期二下午離子束報告廳????????原子分子物理 (許國富)星期三下午知新樓C1011??????????凝聚態理論研究室 (崔彬)星期四14:30知新樓C1113季藝聞基于SSH模型對A-D-A類分子建模????電介質物理研究室 (趙明磊)星期五14:30知新樓C1113??...
For the SSH-1 protocol, see Secure Shell#Version 1.x Protein phosphatase Slingshot homolog 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SSH1 gene. The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin dynamics. ADF/cofilin proteins are inactivated by kinases such as LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1; MIM 601329). The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al., 2002).[supplied by OMIM] GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000084112 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000042121 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, Hirosawa M, Ohara O (Apr 2000). Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVI. The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. DNA Res. 7 (1): 65-73. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.1.65. PMID 10718198. Niwa ...
Having identified changes in the extent of cofilin phosphorylation in cells at steady state, we next examined the dynamics of cofilin phosphorylation in cells undergoing acute changes in actin cytoskeletal organisation. This required the identification of a stimulus able to induce dynamic actin remodelling. In testing a number of growth factors in S2R+ cells [10% foetal calf serum (FCS), 2-day-old conditioned medium, bovine insulin, human EGF, murine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)], only insulin was found to activate signalling, as monitored by immunoblotting with specific antibodies against P-Akt, S6K phosphorylated at Thr398 (P-S6K) and ERK phosphorylated at Thr198 and Tyr200 (PP-ERK) (supplementary material Fig. S3A) and Lizcano et al. (Lizcano et al., 2003). Insulin also induced an increase in the level of lamellipodial F-actin in these cells within 5 minutes of treatment (Fig. 2A). Elevated levels of filamentous actin remained at ...
During early metastatic events in cancer, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton must occur to allow for cell invasion and migration. A key enzyme initiating actin remodeling at the leading edge is Cofilin, a small actin binding protein of the ADF/cofilin family with actin severing activities. Cofilin activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events that are mediated by LIM Kinase (LIMK) and the phosphatase Slingshot (SSH), respectively. Protein kinase D (PKD) is a serine/threonine kinase that has previously been shown to regulate actin driven directed cell migration through phosphorylation and thus inactivation of Slingshot. Here we show that PKD can also regulate cofilin activity via activation of LIMK. We further show that PKD-induced regulation of LIMK and the resulting diminished cofilin activity translates to altered cell motility. Our data suggest that PKD inactivates Cofilin through modulation of both of its regulatory pathways. Further elucidation of the ...
Cofilin 1 (non-muscle; n-cofilin), also known as CFL1, is a human gene, part of the ADF/cofilin family. Cofilin is a widely distributed intracellular actin-modulating protein that binds and depolymerizes filamentous F-actin and inhibits the polymerization of monomeric G-actin in a pH-dependent manner. It is involved in the translocation of actin-cofilin complex from cytoplasm to nucleus. One group reports that reelin signaling leads to serine3-phosphorylation of cofilin-1, and this interaction may play a role in the reelin-related regulation of neuronal migration. Cofilin 1 has been shown to interact with HSPH1 and LIMK1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172757 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000056201 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: CFL1 cofilin 1 (non-muscle). Chai X, Förster E, Zhao S, Bock HH, Frotscher M (January 2009). Reelin stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton of neuronal processes by inducing n-cofilin ...
Disassembly of the epithelial apical junctional complex (AJC), composed of the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ), is important for normal tissue remodeling and pathogen-induced disruption of epithelial barriers. Using a calcium depletion model in T84 epithelial cells, we previously found that disassembly of the AJC results in endocytosis of AJ/TJ proteins. In the present study, we investigated the role of the actin cytoskeleton in disassembly and internalization of the AJC. Calcium depletion induced reorganization of apical F-actin into contractile rings. Internalized AJ/TJ proteins colocalized with these rings. Both depolymerization and stabilization of F-actin inhibited ring formation and disassembly of the AJC, suggesting a role for actin filament turnover. Actin reorganization was accompanied by activation (dephosphorylation) of cofilin-1 and its translocation to the F-actin rings. In addition, Arp3 and cortactin colocalized with these rings. F-actin reorganization and disassembly of
The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family is essential for actin dynamics, cell division, chemotaxis and tumor metastasis. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is a primary non-muscle isoform of the ADF/cofilin protein family accelerating the actin filamental turnover in vitro and in vivo. In response to environmental stimulation, CFL-1 enters the nucleus to regulate the actin dynamics. Although the purpose of this cytoplasm-nucleus transition remains unclear, it is speculated that the interaction between CFL-1 and DNA may influence various biological responses, including DNA damage repair. In this review, we will discuss the possible involvement of CFL-1 in DNA damage responses (DDR) induced by ionizing radiation (IR), and the implications for cancer radiotherapy.
Cofilin phospho-regulation is important for actin filament turnover and is implicated in cancer. Phosphorylation of cofilin is mediated by LIM kinases (LIMKs) and dephosphorylation by Slingshot phosphatases (SSH). LIMKs and SSH promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis and represent novel anti-cancer targets. However, little is known regarding LIMK/cofilin and SSH in human colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to address their expression and significance in human CRC. We evaluated expression of non-phosphorylated (active) and phosphorylated cofilin, LIMK1, LIMK2, and SSH1 by immunohistochemistry in 143 human CRC samples in relation to clinicopathologic parameters, response of metastatic disease to chemotherapy, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers β-catenin, E-cadherin, and ZEB ...
The severing of filaments by ADF/cofilins was originally proposed for the following reasons: It was first noticed that ADF accelerated actin polymerization and promoted a rapid drop in fluorescence of NBD- or pyrenyl-labeled F-actin (Cooper et al., 1986; Maciver et al., 1991; Moon et al., 1993; Quirk et al., 1993; Maciver and Weeds, 1994), but both properties were interpreted in terms of an increase in filament number due to fragmentation. The fragmentation hypothesis was enticing because it also provided a satisfactory explanation for the rapid drop in viscosity of F-actin solutions after addition of substoichiometric amounts of ADF, similar to the effect of the severing protein gelsolin. Further effort was made to visualize the fragmentation in electron or optical microscopy. In some instances, filaments were observed to be shorter, which was thought to be because of depolymerization (Abe and Obinata, 1989) or severing (Cooper et al., 1986). In other instances, filaments did not appear shorter ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/cofilin) blocks interaction with actin without a change in atomic structure. AU - Blanchoin, Laurent. AU - Robinson, Robert C.. AU - Choe, Senyon. AU - Pollard, Thomas D.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank members of the Pollard laboratory for technical assistance, advice and helpful discussion. L.B. is extremely grateful to D. Kaiser for his help with isoelectric focusing. We thank David C. Edwards and Gordon N. Gill for the phosphorylation of actophorin by LIM-kinase, Gary M. Bokoch for GST-Pak 1, Wolfgang H. Fischer and Chris Park for protein sequencing and James Bamburg for his advice in the dephosphorylation experiment. This work was supported by NIH grant GM 26338 to T.D.P.. PY - 2000/1/14. Y1 - 2000/1/14. N2 - LIM-kinase activated by GST-Pak1 phosphorylates Acanthamoeba actophorin stoichiometrically and specifically on serine 1. The atomic structure of phosphorylated actophorin determined by X-ray crystallography is ...
The presence of LIMK activity in retina was demonstrated with Western blot and immunocytochemistry. With confocal microscopy we observed the localization of p-LIMK in rod axon terminals, precisely the area that undergoes dramatic morphologic change after retinal dissociation. Measuring the reduction in axon length allowed us to demonstrate the prevention of axonal retraction by inhibiting LIMK. Furthermore, inhibiting LIMK upstream regulators, ROCK and Pak, increased inhibition of axonal retraction, and the two pathways demonstrated an additive effect. The involvement of ROCK is not surprising, as we have previously demonstrated that inhibiting the RhoA-ROCK pathway can block axonal retraction.15,16 ROCK has been reported to be responsible for actomyosin contractility as well as actin filament turnover (Fig. 1).19,20,35-37 Blocking its activity therefore presumably reduces both contraction and actin filament turnover. Pak has been reported to regulate formation of filopodia and lamellipodia via ...
Cell motility plays an important role in many basic biological processes, including embryogenesis, neurite growth, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. Motility of crawling cells is dependent on the ability to extend F-actin-rich protrusions, usually in the form of lamellipods (Abercrombie et al. 1970; Chen et al. 1994; Verschueren et al. 1994; Xie et al. 1995). Protrusion of such actin-rich lamellipods in moving cells requires cycles of actin polymerization and depolymerization (actin polymerization transients) (Lauffenburger and Horwitz 1996; Mitchison and Cramer 1996; Bailly et al. 1998a; Condeelis 1998).. Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for free barbed ends in the control of this cycle (Handel et al. 1990; Symons and Mitchison 1991; Chan et al. 1998). We have shown previously that stimulation of metastatic MTLn3 cells with EGF causes a transient increase in actin nucleation activity resulting from the appearance of free barbed ends at the extreme leading ...
DNA constructs, reagents, and antibodies. Full-length human SSH1L cDNA was amplified by PCR using the RZPD clone IRAUp969F0865D6 as a template and cloned into pCR3.V62-Met-Flag and pEGFP-N3 vectors. The SSH1L point mutant was generated by site-directed PCR mutagenesis. Integrity of all constructs was verified by sequencing. Antibodies used were as follows: anti-PKD2 rabbit polyclonal antibody (Calbiochem), anti-PKD C-20 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-phospho-cofilin (Ser3) and anti-cofilin rabbit polyclonal antibodies (Cell Signaling), anti-Flag M2 mouse monoclonal antibody (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany), anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibody (Neomarkers), anti-SSH1L rabbit polyconal antibody (Abcam), and anti-glutathione S-transferase (GST) goat polyclonal antibody (GE Healthcare). Secondary antibodies used were horseradish peroxidase-coupled donkey anti-goat, goat anti-mouse, and anti-rabbit IgGs (Dianova). Alexa546- and Alexa633-coupled phalloidin were from Invitrogen.. Cell culture. Cells were ...
Supplementary Materialsoncotarget-06-1834-s001. cofilin (Ser 3) and Drp1 (Ser 637) are translocated to the mitochondria. Cofilin S3E and Drp1 S637D mutants, which mimick the phosphorylated forms, suppressed mitochondrial translocation, fission, and apoptosis. Moreover, both dephosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of cofilin and Drp1 are dependent on ROCK1 activation. findings confirmed that erucin-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in a breast malignancy cell xenograft mouse model is usually associated with the mitochondrial translocation of cofilin and Drp1, fission and apoptosis. Our study reveals a novel role of cofilin in regulation of mitochondrial fission and suggests erucin as a potential drug for treatment of breast malignancy. [21, 22] and in tumor xenograft models [23]. The results of recent studies suggest that a mitochondrion-dependent pathway may play an important part in erucin-mediated apoptosis [24]. However, the molecular mechanisms by which erucin regulates the ...
A model from Chile, Maura Bellagamba, released a video on Instagram of herself being released in a giant slingshot, which she says caused her neck injuries while filming a Nissan car commercial.. Bellagamba wrote on Instagram that she was fired out of the slingshot without her permission, causing her whiplash ...
Serotonin (5-HT) is known to increase the rate of growth cone advance via cofilin-dependent increases in retrograde actin network flow and nonmuscle myosin II activity ...
FtsZ filament dynamics at steady state: subunit exchange with and without nucleotide hydrolysis.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
To confirm the morphological effects of 5-HT6Rs transfected in neuronal cells, we finally examined whether the activation of neuronal 5-HT6Rs produces effects on RhoA activities. To perform RhoA activity assay as shown in Fig. 2, we carried immunoblot analysis using cultured cortical neurons for sufficient amount of sample proteins. Here, we showed that 5-HT6R activation by ST1936 significantly increased RhoA-GTP level, which was significantly blocked by the pretreatment with SB258585 in cultured neurons (Figs. 4A and 4B). As downstream targets of Rho proteins, RhoA proteins can also affect actin polymerization by regulating cofilin via Rho-ROCK-LIMK-cofilin pathway (Lin et al., 2003). Therefore, we further executed whether the activation of 5-HT6Rs modulates cofilin activities as a downstream target of RhoA. As shown in Figs. 4C and 4D, we observed that treatment with ST1936 significantly increased phosphorylation of cofilin, which was also significantly blocked by SB258585 in cultured neurons. ...
To confirm the morphological effects of 5-HT6Rs transfected in neuronal cells, we finally examined whether the activation of neuronal 5-HT6Rs produces effects on RhoA activities. To perform RhoA activity assay as shown in Fig. 2, we carried immunoblot analysis using cultured cortical neurons for sufficient amount of sample proteins. Here, we showed that 5-HT6R activation by ST1936 significantly increased RhoA-GTP level, which was significantly blocked by the pretreatment with SB258585 in cultured neurons (Figs. 4A and 4B). As downstream targets of Rho proteins, RhoA proteins can also affect actin polymerization by regulating cofilin via Rho-ROCK-LIMK-cofilin pathway (Lin et al., 2003). Therefore, we further executed whether the activation of 5-HT6Rs modulates cofilin activities as a downstream target of RhoA. As shown in Figs. 4C and 4D, we observed that treatment with ST1936 significantly increased phosphorylation of cofilin, which was also significantly blocked by SB258585 in cultured neurons. ...
EVO is designed and built to make your production life easier, which means you get purpose built features like Slingshot and ShareBrowser. With Slingshot, an Automations GUI and API, you can create and run automated file workflows that span EVO, other storage systems, and Amazon S3/Glacier cloud services. Slingshot helps boost productivity by enabling you to automate repetitive file management tasks, leaving you and your team with more valuable time in post. ShareBrowser is an Easy-to-Use, unified file/project/asset management interface for macOS and Windows. It is similar to Finder/Explorer, but designed by SNS specifically to help media teams work and collaborate more efficiently. The ShareBrowser Desktop Client not only improves visibility and access to your teams storage systems, it conveniently enables automatic project locking for FCP, Premiere Pro, and Pro Tools - as well as Avid project and bin sharing. enables your team to search across all EVO storage as well as local, offline, and ...
Fads remind me of an iPad game called Slingshot Racing. What you do is, there are these tiny cars that run around a tiny oval racetrack, and you have to click on the screen (tech faux pas! tap on the screen) to tether the cars to tiny towers that slingshot them around the corners (ends? short sides?) of the oval. It sounds easy but in fact its devastatingly hard to tap and release at exactly the right times to start the tether and stop it without smashing your tiny car into a tiny wall. Thats kind of like catching and riding a fad. You have to discover that the potential for a fad exists, and not just any fad; one you can make money on, say by selling rocks or playing the saxophone in a particular way. You have to tether the fad to you at just the right moment, then hold onto it just up until the moment when its about to fade, at which point you release it before you start looking stupid. Few succeed at this game. Some tap too early and suffer ridicule, that is, until after theyre dead and ...
This big-daddy, deluxe kite pump makes inflating even your 17m kite a breeze. Its larger, taller, sturdier and has more volume than the traditional kite pump. Newly engineered seals and pistons combined with newly molded handle and feet offer improved ergonomics and inflation speed. Single- to double-stroke inflation switch allows for instant change from high-volume / low-pressure inflation to low-volume / high-pressure.. ...
Actin; Nucleus; Neuron; SRF; Cofilin; Virus infection; F-ACTIN; BINDING PROTEINS; XENOPUS-OOCYTES; MECHANISMS; DYNAMICS; CELL; INITIATION; FILAMENTS; ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Bock, nigerian forex - nigerian forex, forex slingshot trading, forex php, gcm forex demo hesab, best free forex robot 2012, infosys forex losses
Actin filament dynamics govern many key physiological processes from cell motility to tissue morphogenesis. A central feature of actin dynamics is the capacity of the filament to polymerize and depolymerize at its ends in response to cellular conditions. It is currently thought that filament kinetics can be described by a single rate constant for each end. Here, using direct visualization of single actin filament elongation, we show that actin polymerization kinetics at both filament ends are strongly influenced by proteins that bind to the lateral filament surface. We also show that the less dynamic end, called the pointed-end, has a non-elongating state that dominates the observed filament kinetic asymmetry. Estimates of filament flexibility and Brownian dynamics simulations suggest that the observed kinetic diversity arises from structural alteration. Tuning filament kinetics by exploiting the natural malleability of the actin filament structure may be a ubiquitous mechanism to generate the ...
The connection between T cell activation, plasma membrane order and actin filament dynamics was the main focus of this study. Laurdan and di-4-ANEPPDHQ, membrane order sensing probes, were shown to report only on lipid packing rather than being influenced by the presence of membrane-inserted peptides justifying their use in membrane order studies. These dyes were used to follow plasma membrane order in live cells at 37°C. Disrupting actin filaments had a disordering effect while stabilizing actin filaments had an ordering effect on the plasma membrane, indicating there is a basal level of ordered domains in resting cells. Lowering PI(4,5)P2 levels decreased the proportion of ordered domains strongly suggesting that the connection of actin filaments to the plasma membrane is responsible for the maintaining the level of ordered membrane domains. Membrane blebs, which are detached from the underlying actin filaments, contained a low fraction of ordered domains. Aggregation of membrane components ...
The characterization of novel therapeutic antibodies with multivalent or multispecific binding sites requires new measurement modalities for biosensors, to discriminate the engagement of antigens via one, two, or even more binding moieties. The presentation of antigens on a sensor surface in a well-controlled spatial arrangement is a prerequisite for the successful interpretation of binding kinetics measurements of multivalent analytes, but the adjustment of defined distances between immobilized ligands is difficult to achieve in state-of-the-art biosensor systems. Here, we introduce a simple DNA nanostructure resembling a slingshot, which can be configured with two identical or two different antigens (bivalent or bispecific), which are spaced at a defined distance. We characterize the slingshot structure with a chip-based biosensor using electrically switchable DNA nanolevers and demonstrate that bivalent and monovalent antibodies selectively interact with slingshots that have been ...
Drosophila S2 cells offer a powerful tool to study in vivo dynamics and organization of the actin cytoskeleton. When plated on the lectin, concanavalin A, S2 cells attach and spread on the substrate to form a circumferential actin-based lamellae. The susceptibility of these cells to gene inhibition using RNAi makes them a very tractable system to dissect the molecular machinery involved in lamellipod formation. The figure shows a control S2 (upper left) in comparison with cells depleted of capping protein beta (upper right), cofilin (lower left), and Rho1 (lower right). The hyper-ruffled morphology produced by capping protein RNAi is consistent with its role in terminating actin filament elongation - in the absence of the protein, actin filaments polymerization pushes on the membrane in an unregulated manner. Depletion of cofilin, a factor required for actin filament turnover, produces cells that are unable to spread due to abnormal accumulations of f-actin at their cortex. RNAi-inhibition of ...
3) If the item is defective or not as described, we will take the responsibility,(Used for Slingshot Catapult, Material: Carbon Steel, Explosion style low price free delivery worldwide Free shipping on all orders on all orders free shipping excellent customer service and fast shipping.
1PEV: Identification of functional residues on Caenorhabditis elegans actin-interacting protein 1 (UNC-78) for disassembly of actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin-bound actin filaments.
The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) is crucial for the development of diverse multicellular organisms. Small Rac/Rho-family GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton contribute to planar polarity formation at sites of polarity establishment in animals and plants. Yet, upstream pathways coordinating planar polarity differ strikingly between kingdoms. In the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, a concentration gradient of the phytohormone auxin coordinates polar recruitment of Rho-of-plant (ROP) to sites of polar epidermal hair initiation. However, little is known about cytoskeletal components and interactions that contribute to this planar polarity or about their relation to the patterning machinery. Here, we show that ACTIN7 (ACT7) represents a main actin isoform required for planar polarity of root hair positioning, interacting with the negative modulator ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2 (AIP1-2). ACT7, AIP1-2 and their genetic interaction are required for ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. twinfilin actin binding protein 1 - Twinfilin subfamily. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
In the fall of 2017, NPR Music and VuHaus' public radio network kicked off Slingshot, a collaboration among taste-making music radio stations to
100% Pass Quiz CompTIA - CAS-003 - Newest CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner (CASP+) Exam Exam Dumps Pdf, CompTIA CAS-003 Exam Dumps Pdf You must pay more attention to the study materials, We have strong confidence in offering the first-class CAS-003 study prep to our customers, CAS-003 exam practice questions will provide you the easiest and quickest way to get the certification without headache, In addition, CAS-003 learning materials have both quality and the quantity, and they will be enough for you to pass the exam.
Cell division, cell motility and the formation and maintenance of specialized structures in differentiated cells depend directly on the regulated dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. To understand the mechanisms of these basic cellular processes, the signalling pathways that link external signals to …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lowpass Filtering Capabilities of Heavily Doped Actin Filaments. AU - Sadhu, Tapatosh. AU - De, Debashis. PY - 2017/4. Y1 - 2017/4. N2 - Actin is a globular protein abundantly found in Eukaryotic cytoskeleton. It forms double helix polymeric filamentous structure called F-actin by means of self-assembly through ATP hydrolysis. F-actin, is a highly charged polyelectrolyte, it creates an electrical shield around its surface by helping accumulate counterions. These phenomena results in differential concentration distribution of the counterions and co-ions between F-Actin and the bulk of the solution. Under controlled environment these properties can help actin filaments act as electrical conduction lines and it shows fundamental electrical properties like resistance, inductance and capacitance. Resistivity of actin can be decreased by doping the filaments with cationic components like Sodium and Potassium. On the other hand, temperature dependent movements of ions also affect these ...
The discussion focuses specifically on imaging cytoskeletal molecules- actin and microtubulues, filmanets that can polymerize on one end and depolymerize on the other. Spindles were imaged by first labeling them with a fluorescent dye that attached to the individual tubulin molecules and then imaging using spinning-disk confocal microscopy. Taking movies of the system reveals that the tubulin molecules are in constant movement. To perform data analysis one needs to carry out particle tracking. To do this, particles must first be identified in each time frame, and then must be linked from frame to frame in order to create a trajectory for each particle. ...
Genes encoding the various isoforms of actin. In Drosophila, for example, actin genes have been localized at six different chromosomal sites. Two genes encode cytoplasmic actins, while the other four encode muscle actins. The amino acid- encoding segments of the different actin genes have very similar compositions, but the segments specifying the trailers (q.v.) differ considerably in nucleotide sequences. ...
We sell ELISA, IFA, RIA kits, antibody/antibodies for many antigens and hosts, IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM. Antibody application for WB, ELISA, IHC-P, IF, FCM.
Figure 1: Ultra-Pure Actin is ,90% polymerization-competent. Ultra-Pure Actin was polymerized in the absence (-PB) or presence (+PB) of Actin Polymer Buffer (10X, Cat. No. 000103; 50 mM KCl and 2 mM MgCl2) followed by centrifugation at 48k rpm for 1 hour. Pellet (P) and supernatant (S) fractions were collected and subjected to SDS-PAGE and Coomassie G250-staining. >90% of Ultra-Pure Actin was incorporated into filaments as determined by measuring the residual protein concentration in the supernatant fraction.. ...
Figure 1. Model for the regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics by mTORC2. Activation of PKC by mTORC2 results in a phosphorylation of GAP-43-like proteins,
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版actin是什么意思,actin的用法,actin翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
A) PirB interacts with cofilin in vivo in PirB+/− Tg mice (P30, forebrain), assessed by immunoprecipitation for PirB. Other known PirB-proximal signaling and interactions such as tyrosine phosphorylation of PirB and SHP-2 recruitment to PirB are not altered in PirB+/− relative to PirB+/− Tg mice. Representative data are shown (n , 2 ...
Image: Screenshot from video). Here while back - yikes, its been more than five years ago now - I shared a video here about a DIY slingshot bow made of PVC pipe. Basically an arrow-shooting slingshot, it looked really cool. And today Im sharing another DIY PVC archery video, but this time we are making a sure-nuff bow with a 50-pound draw weight using a simple length of 1″ schedule 40 PVC pipe.. The pipe the Backyard Bowyer starts with is 56 inches long, and he doesnt waste any time describing how to determine draw weight and length, and he does a good job telling viewers about the flattening jig for forming the limbs of the bow.. For heat, he just uses a campfire.. Theres not a lot of editing so you may want to skip ahead during the long sequences when he heats the pipe… but he does talk during a lot of it, so make sure you dont miss some important advice.. After heating each end of the pipe until it gets all flop-doodly (technical term), he uses his flattening jig to smoosh it into a ...
As a freelance broadcast technician, some days I have to get up at 3AM to run camera, lights, and sound for corporate news shows like Good Morning America, The Early Show, and Meet the Press. The combination of sleep deprivation and old white guys yakking routinely tests my ability to stay awake and attentive. In order to pass the time, I sometimes try to focus less on the news, and more on the construction of the news and its discourses, lending equal attention to form and content. The producers know that people will be watching through pre-coffee morning haze -these shows are called Breakfast Television, after all. So, what is being communicated underneath and between the script, so subtle it wont distract from your toast, but so prevalent it structures the very way watch you watch? (What lends the anchor their authority as a speaker? Whos wearing makeup, and how much? Whos speaking on behalf of whom? Whats being sold?) These wonderings give me something to think about as I push the ...
The La Sportiva Miura has a downturned sole which makes it suited for steep or overhanging sport climbing and bouldering. • The Slingshot Rand connected to the Powerhinge under the shoe increases edging performance • The Slingshot Rand encapsulates the shoe and prevents lateral stretching to keep the foots power drive forward • Powerhinge is a small hole cut into the sole to make sure the shoe only stretches in the back and not the front on small edges • 8-panel directional lining channels stretch for a performance fit • Speed lacing system, designed for speed Check out the Miura at the EpicTV Shop here.
Whats a white hole? Why dont we use brain scans to diagnose mental health and why was cyanide Agatha Christies poison of choice?
The Ghost Whisper is the newest edition to Slingshots rapidly expanding foil lineup. This sleek carbon foil is fine-tuned for all-conditions riding and aggressive freeride performance. As a testament to the commitment Slingshot has to developing the most comprehensive foil lineup in kiteboarding, the Ghost Whisper features a modular design and sturdy aluminum fuselage that allows riders to change wingsets to achieve dramatically different performance characteristics. Buying into the Ghost Whisper foil is an investment in an evolving program, not just a single product. The Ghost Whisper comes stock with a performance freeride setup designed for aggressive but all-around handling. A performance speedride wingset is currently available as an upgrade and is a high-aspect, high-efficiency setup tuned for more advanced riding at higher speeds. Additional wingsets are currently in development and will be released as they are completed ...
Please note: Your browser does not support the features used on Addgenes website. You may not be able to create an account or request plasmids through this website until you upgrade your browser. Learn more ...
I. Sagot, B. Pinson, B. Salin, B. Daignan-Fornier. Actin bodies in yeast quiescent cells : an immediately available actin reserve ?. Molecular Biology of the Cell, American Society for Cell Biology, 2006, 17 (11), pp.4645-4655. ⟨hal-00093132⟩ ...
Prost Actin BREAKING NEWS: Click Here To Read This Exclusive Prost Actin Review! Does Prost Actin Work? Get The Facts. Learn More About This Product Today!
Treatment with SMIFH2 decreases the actin level in oocytes and impairs spindle formation.A. Treatment with SMIFH2 decreases the cortical actin level in maturing
Actin (pan alpha), 0.1 mg. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
What is Actin ransomware? And how does it execute its attack? Actin ransomware is a dangerous threat and is a new variant of Phobos ransomware. This crypto-virus was discovered at the end of May 2019. It appends the ...Actin extension to its targeted files. The moment it enters a system, this crypto-malware performs
Figure 1 Tying a knot in an actin filament. Explanatory drawings are added in images 3 7. In images 3 and 7, the microscope focus was moved to below the filament to bring down the end beads which were trapped at the focus level; the focus was above the filament in image 5. Scale bar, 10 µm. ...
Cofilin 2 antibody (cofilin 2 (muscle)) for WB. Anti-Cofilin 2 pAb (GTX14133) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
zeropromosi 087781867176 menjual aneka model souvenir Notes Blocknote promosi, Note memo, Blocknote Spiral promosi, note seminar, agenda seminar, memo seminar, Notes Seminar Kit, memo recycle daur ulang
爱必信专业提供Beta actin antibody,爱必信还为您提供血清、激动剂抑制剂、WB/ihc常用试剂、免疫学试剂、重组蛋白、ELISA试剂盒、凋亡试剂盒等常规试剂80%现货,欢迎选购!
GO:0030833. Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the assembly of actin filaments by the addition of actin monomers to a filament. ...
As of March 2017, during the lab retreat, the group is composed of Guillaume, Sandy, Yan, Emiko, Héliciane, Bérengère, Hugo, Antoine and Mikaël. ...
A Wal-Mart vice president has suggested to the companys board of directors that it could hold down spending on health care and benefits by hiring more part-time workers and encouraging healthier, more productive employees, according to an internal memo obtained by CNN.
Esquemas de colores, pinturas, paletas de colores y combinaciones, gradientes y conversiones de espacio de color para el código de color hexadecimal #020adf.
View mouse Actg1 Chr11:120345687-120348495 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Inspite of the fact that many cant get over the Ghostface Killah influence in Action Bransons flow, he remains to … More. ...
ஆக்டின் என்பது தசை செல்களில் உள்ள நாராலான ஒரு புரத வகையாகும்.. ...
n result calls ## [1,] 1 1 1 ## [2,] 2 2 3 ## [3,] 3 3 5 ## [4,] 4 5 9 ## [5,] 5 8 15 ## [6,] 6 13 25 ## [7,] 7 21 41 ## [8,] 8 34 67 ## [9,] 9 55 109 ## [10,] 10 89 177 ## [11,] 11 144 287 ## [12,] 12 233 465 ## [13,] 13 377 753 ## [14,] 14 610 1219 ## [15,] 15 987 1973 ## [16,] 16 1597 ...
Yesterday I noted an emerging debate within the critical care community of whether at least some critical COVID-19 cases are significantly different from…
The latter is the enzyme that uses ATP to phosphorylate and inactivate the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. When cofilin is ... LIMK1 also depolymerizes microtubules. In the presence of Pyr1, LIMK1 is inhibited, which means that the phosphorylation of ... Pyr1 may be used in cancer treatment, because its main target enzyme (LIM kinase) is a regulator of microtubule and actin ... In conclusion, Pyr1 inhibits cell motility and controls actin dynamics and stabilizes microtubules. These properties can be ...
The product of this gene belongs to the actin-binding proteins ADF (Actin-Depolymerizing Factor)/cofilin family. This family of ... This gene encodes the actin depolymerizing protein that severs actin filaments (F-actin) and binds to actin monomers (G-actin ... "Human actin depolymerizing factor mediates a pH-sensitive destruction of actin filaments". Biochemistry. 32 (38): 9985-93. doi: ... Destrin or DSTN (also known as actin depolymerizing factor or ADF) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DSTN gene. ...
2003). "Structural conservation between the actin monomer-binding sites of twinfilin and actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/ ... Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this protein may be an actin monomer-binding protein, and its localization to ... Palmgren S, Vartiainen M, Lappalainen P (2002). "Twinfilin, a molecular mailman for actin monomers". J. Cell Sci. 115 (Pt 5): ... 2003). "The two ADF-H domains of twinfilin play functionally distinct roles in interactions with actin monomers". Mol. Biol. ...
"NMR assignments of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) like UNC-60A and cofilin like UNC-60B proteins of Caenorhabditis elegans ...
The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin ... Niwa R, Nagata-Ohashi K, Takeichi M, Mizuno K, Uemura T (Feb 2002). "Control of actin reorganization by Slingshot, a family of ... The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al., 2002).[ ...
While the repulsive cue, Slit, is suggested to stimulate the translation of Cofilin (an actin depolymerizing factor) in growth ... 2006). "Asymmetrical β-actin mRNA translation in growth cones mediates attractive turning to netrin-1". Nature Neuroscience. 9 ... The attractive cue Netrin-1, stimulates mRNA transport and influence synthesis of β-Actin in filopodia of growth cones, to ... and L1 Growth factors like NGF Neurotransmitters and modulators like GABA Growing axons rely on a variety of guidance cues in ...
"The three mouse actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilins evolved to fulfill cell-type-specific requirements for actin dynamics". ... Cofilin is a widely distributed intracellular actin-modulating protein that binds and depolymerizes filamentous F-actin and ... Bamburg JR, McGough A, Ono S (September 1999). "Putting a new twist on actin: ADF/cofilins modulate actin dynamics". Trends ... 2006). "Cofilin cross-bridges adjacent actin protomers and replaces part of the longitudinal F-actin interface". J. Mol. Biol. ...
Elevated expression of proteins in this pathway are causally related to reduced activity of the actin depolymerizing factor ... They investigate the role of the gene silencing transcription factor RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and REST- ... "REST-dependent epigenetic remodeling of NMDA receptors as a risk factor in schizophrenia." Frontiers in Neuroscience Genetics ... "Repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST)-dependent epigenetic remodeling is critical to ischemia-induced ...
Around the same time a similarly sized plasma protein was discovered and shown to depolymerize actin; it was named Brevin, due ... "An actin-destabilizing factor is present in human plasma". Experientia. 35 (8): 1039-1041. doi:10.1007/bf01949928. ISSN 0014- ... Furthermore, DBP is capable of removing one actin from a 2:1 actin-pGSN complex, restoring its ability to sever F-actin. F- ... "Interactions of gelsolin and gelsolin-actin complexes with actin. Effects of calcium on actin nucleation, filament severing, ...
... inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. This depolymerization results in stabilization of actin filaments and decreased ... Gilkes DM, Xiang L, Lee SJ, Chaturvedi P, Hubbi ME, Wirtz D, Semenza GL (January 2014). "Hypoxia-inducible factors mediate ... It is a key regulator of actin-myosin contraction, stability, and cell polarity. These contribute to many progresses such as ... This is consistent with its function as a key modulator of cell motility, tumor cell invasion, and actin cytoskeleton ...
Actin depolymerizing factors MeSH D05.750.078.730.212.500 - cofilin 1 MeSH D05.750.078.730.212.750 - cofilin 2 MeSH D05.750. ... actin-related protein 2 MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.750 - actin-related protein 3 MeSH D05.750.078.730.250 - actins MeSH D05.750. ... actin capping proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.500 - capz actin capping protein MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.750 - tropomodulin ... 078.730.212.875 - destrin MeSH D05.750.078.730.246 - actin-related protein 2-3 complex MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.500 - ...
"Structural conservation between the actin monomer-binding sites of twinfilin and actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin". J ... ADF/cofilins bind ADP-actin with higher affinity than ATP-actin and inhibit the spontaneous nucleotide exchange on actin ... In molecular biology, ADF-H domain (actin-depolymerising factor homology domain) is an approximately 150 amino acid motif that ... They bind both actin-monomers and filaments and promote rapid filament turnover in cells by depolymerising/fragmenting actin ...
Actin Depolymerizing Factor, or ADF, normally disassembles actin and hampers the induction of LTP. However, synaptic activity ... Actin treadmilling is the process of turnover of actin filaments where F-actin is rapidly assembled and disassembled. G-actin ... This protein caps the barbed end of F-actin, thus preventing G-actin subunits from binding to F-actin and blocking actin ... Actin is only able to cause changes that promote LTP through its formation into F-actin. When F-actin is unable to form, LTD is ...
actin cytoskeleton. • extracellular exosome. • stress fiber. • plasma membrane. • Z disc. • cytoplasm. • cell cortex. • focal ... actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • cytoskeleton. • brush ... actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ...
actin cytoskeleton. • extracellular exosome. • cytoskeleton. • cytosol. • actin filament. • phagocytic vesicle. Biological ... MBInfo - WASP and other Nucleation Promotion Factors. *GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on WAS-Related Disorders including Wiskott ... actin filament-based movement. • endosomal transport. • actin filament polymerization. • regulation of T cell antigen ... actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cell- ...
actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ... Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • protein domain specific binding. • phospholipase binding. • structural ... Pospelov VA, Pospelova TV, Julien JP (February 1994). "AP-1 and Krox-24 transcription factors activate the neurofilament light ...
... actin. Each F actin strand is composed of a string of subunits called globular (G) actin. Each G actin has an active site that ... The filaments of actin and myosin then form linkages. After binding, myosin pulls actin filaments toward each other, or inward ... actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ... Myofilaments are the filaments of myofibrils, constructed from proteins,[1] principally myosin or actin. Types of muscle are ...
actin binding. • motor activity. • ATP binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. • actin filament binding. • microtubule ... Li ZH, Bresnick AR (May 2006). "The S100A4 metastasis factor regulates cellular motility via a direct interaction with myosin- ... actin cytoskeleton reorganization. • regulation of cell shape. • actin filament-based movement. • platelet aggregation. • ... Other proteins that are known to interact with NM IIA include the actin binding protein tropomyosin 4.2 [26] and a novel actin ...
... that links the actin cytoskeleton to adhesion proteins.[8][9] In addition to F-actin,[10] the N-terminal region of talin-1 ... actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ... actin filament binding. • LIM domain binding. • integrin binding. • protein binding. • vinculin binding. • protein complex ... actin binding. • cadherin binding. • phosphatidylserine binding. • phosphatidylinositol binding. Cellular component. • ...
actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ... It also functions as a recruiting factor that localizes dynein to where it should be.[14][15] There is also some evidence ...
actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ... which is clinically important because elevated expression of the sodium calcium exchanger is a factor related to arrhythmia and ...
actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ...
actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ... F-actin, while processive runlengths are shorter on older (ADP-rich) F-actin.[24] ... The head domain binds the filamentous actin, and uses ATP hydrolysis to generate force and to "walk" along the filament towards ... It walks along actin filaments, travelling towards the pointed end (- end) of the filaments.[26] Myosin VI is thought to ...
actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ... Association with actin and desmin filaments". Circulation Research. 71 (2): 288-94. doi:10.1161/01.res.71.2.288. PMID 1628387. ...
actin depolymerizing factors *Cofilin *1. *2. *Destrin. *Gelsolin. *Profilin *1. *2. *Titin ... actin binding. • tropomyosin binding. • troponin I binding. • calcium-dependent protein binding. • troponin C binding. • ...
"Functional dissection and molecular characterization of calcium-sensitive actin-capping and actin-depolymerizing sites in ... "Helicobacter-induced intestinal metaplasia in the stomach correlates with Elk-1 and serum response factor induction of villin ... This gene encodes a member of a family of calcium-regulated actin-binding proteins. This protein represents a dominant part of ... Revenu C, Courtois M, Michelot A, Sykes C, Louvard D, Robine S (March 2007). "Villin severing activity enhances actin-based ...
... and of the actin-depolymerizing protein cofilin, mediated by EGFR/ERBB1. Furthermore, this latter event may be inhibited by the ... The HER (human epidermal growth factor receptor) protein, binds to human epidermal growth factor, and stimulates cell ... trastuzumab suppresses angiogenesis both by induction of antiangiogenic factors and repression of proangiogenic factors. It is ... CDR formation requires activation of both the protein regulator of actin polymerization N-WASP, mediated by ERK1/2, ...
... depolymerized the actin, broke the adhesions, and allowed foam cells to migrate out of the intima. One study suggests a role ... These include thrombin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNFa), lactosylceramide, interleukin-1, ... Vascular NADPH oxidases are regulated by a variety of hormones and factors known to be important players in vascular remodeling ... by polymerizing actin fibers). This process is counterbalanced by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, and by antioxidants. An imbalance ...
"Human actin depolymerizing factor mediates a pH-sensitive destruction of actin filaments". Biochemistry. 32 (38): 9985-93. doi: ... Gamma-actin is eventually replaced by sarcomeric alpha-actin isoforms, with low levels of gamma-actin persisting in adult ... Gamma-actin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTG1 gene. Gamma-actin is widely expressed in cellular cytoskeletons ... Human gamma-actin is 41.8 kDa in molecular weight and 375 amino acids in length. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are ...
Watts NR, Sackett DL, Ward RD, Miller MW, Wingfield PT, Stahl SS, Steven AC (July 2000). "HIV-1 rev depolymerizes microtubules ... Sapir T, Elbaum M, Reiner O (December 1997). "Reduction of microtubule catastrophe events by LIS1, platelet-activating factor ... interaction with actin, clathrin and tubulin". The Biochemical Journal. 363 (Pt 3): 599-608. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3630599. PMC ... Sapir T, Elbaum M, Reiner O (December 1997). "Reduction of microtubule catastrophe events by LIS1, platelet-activating factor ...
actin filament bundle assembly. • positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • vascular endothelial growth factor ... Miki H, Sasaki T, Takai Y, Takenawa T (January 1998). "Induction of filopodium formation by a WASP-related actin-depolymerizing ... "GRB2 links signaling to actin assembly by enhancing interaction of neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp) with actin- ... actin cytoskeleton organization. • regulation of filopodium assembly. • endocytosis. • ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • ...
The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin ... Niwa R, Nagata-Ohashi K, Takeichi M, Mizuno K, Uemura T (Feb 2002). "Control of actin reorganization by Slingshot, a family of ... 2006). "Identification of multiple actin-binding sites in cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot-1L". FEBS Lett. 580 (7): 1789-94. doi: ... The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al., 2002).[ ...
Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin.. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... globular actin, or G-actin), which as part of the fiber are referred to as filamentous actin, or F-actin. Each microfilament is ... the actin-filament depolymerizing protein which binds to ADP-rich actin subunits nearest the filament's pointed-end and ... In vitro actin polymerization, or nucleation, starts with the self-association of three G-actin monomers to form a trimer. ATP- ...
Signals sent between the follicular cells and the oocyte (such as factors similar to epidermal growth factor) cause the ... Recently an actin-like protein has been found in a gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms a microtubule- ... However, once the microtubule depolymerizes, most of these modifications are rapidly reversed by soluble enzymes. Since most ... After nucleation, the minus-ends are released and then re-anchored in the periphery by factors such as ninein and PLEKHA7. In ...
If so, the actin filaments that form at the front might stabilize the added membrane so that a structured extension, or lamella ... On the other hand, high drug concentrations, or microtubule mutations that depolymerize the microtubules, can restore cell ... "2D protrusion but not motility predicts growth factor-induced cancer cell migration in 3D collagen". J. Cell Biol. 197 (6): 721 ... This observation has led to the hypothesis that formation of actin filaments "push" the leading edge forward and is the main ...
"Tropomyosin binding to F-actin protects the F-actin from disassembly by brain actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)". Cell Motil. 2 ... it was observed that the actin-binding protein actin depolymerisation factor (ADF)/cofilin, a factor that promotes actin ... The actin filament system that is involved in regulating these cellular pathways is more complex than the actin filament ... The tropomyosin dimer has very low affinity for an actin filament and forms no van der waals contacts with actin. It is only ...
ROCK indirectly strengthens actin/myosin contraction through inhibiting Cofilin, a protein which depolymerizes actin stress ... Wang F, Graham WV, Wang Y, Witkowski ED, Schwarz BT, Turner JR (February 2005). "Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor- ... On the other side of the kinase at the N-Terminus end, sits the actin-binding domain, which allows MYLK to form interactions ... However, when the inward pulling force of the actin stress fiber becomes greater than the outward pulling force of the cell ...
... with actin and found that whilst it bound both G- and F-actin, it had a much smaller effect on the polymerization and ... Interaction of pollen-specific actin-depolymerizing factor with actin Plant J. 2001 Jan;25(2):203-12. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x. ... actin array is replaced by actin : ADF rodlets and aggregates of actin, which presumably act as a storage form of actin during ... In germinated pollen ADF has no specific localization, except when an adhesion is made at the tip where actin and ADF now co- ...
Among the central cytoskeletal regulators are actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin, which depolymerizes actin filaments, ... Among the central cytoskeletal regulators are actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin, which depolymerizes actin filaments, ... Structure of the actin-depolymerizing factor homology domain in complex with actin. Paavilainen, V.O., Oksanen, E., Goldman, A. ... Structure of the actin-depolymerizing factor homology domain in complex with actin. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3DAW/pdb ...
... an important regulator of actin cytoskeleton, in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced... ... The aim of present work was to elucidate the role of actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), ... Actin-depolymerizing factor Endothelial Blood-brain barrier Reactive oxygen species Actin cytoskeleton ... The aim of present work was to elucidate the role of actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), an important regulator of actin ...
Competes with unc-87 for actin binding and inhibits the actin-bundling activity of unc-87 (PubMed:17684058). ... required for the assembly of actin filaments into the functional contractile myofilament lattice of muscle (PubMed:8107682). ... sp,Q07750,ADF1_CAEEL Actin-depolymerizing factor 1, isoforms a/b OS=Caenorhabditis elegans OX=6239 GN=unc-60 PE=1 SV=2 ... Depolymerizes growing actin filaments in muscle cells; required for the assembly of actin filaments into the functional ...
Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is a primary non-muscle isoform of the ADF/cofilin protein family accelerating the actin filamental turnover ... In response to environmental stimulation, CFL-1 enters the nucleus to regulate the actin dynamics. Although the purpose of this ... cofilin protein family is essential for actin dynamics, cell division, chemotaxis and tumor metastasis. ... The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family is essential for actin dynamics, cell division, chemotaxis and ...
The main function of ADF is the severing and depolymerizing filamentous actin (F-actin), thus regulating F-actin... ... ACTIN DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR (ADF) is a conserved protein among eukaryotes. ... Actin interacting protein1 and actin depolymerizing factor drive rapid actin dynamics in Physcomitrella patens. Plant Cell 23: ... Microscopic evidence that actin-interacting protein 1 actively disassembles actin-depolymerizing factor/Cofilin-bound actin ...
"Actin Depolymerizing Factors" by people in this website by year, and whether "Actin Depolymerizing Factors" was a major or ... "Actin Depolymerizing Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Actin Depolymerizing Factors" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Actin Depolymerizing Factors". ...
Actin depolymerizing factor stabilizes an existing state of F-actin and can change the tilt of F-actin subunits. J Cell Biol ... Hawkins M, Pope B, Maciver SK, Weeds AG (1993) Human actin depolymerizing factor mediates a pH-sensitive destruction of actin ... Mehta S, Sibley LD (2010) Toxoplasma gondii actin depolymerizing factor acts primarily to sequester G-actin. J Biol Chem 285(9 ... Funk JD, Bamburg JR (2007) Proteins of the actin depolymerizing factor/Cofilin family. In: Actin-monomer-binding proteins. ...
2002 The three mouse actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilins evolved to fulfill cell-type-specific requirements for actin dynamics ... Actin Depolymerizing Factors Cofilin1 and Destrin Are Required for Ureteric Bud Branching Morphogenesis Download PDF České info ... proLékaře.cz / Odborné časopisy / PLOS Genetics / 2010 - 10 / Actin Depolymerizing Factors Cofilin1 and Destrin Are Required ... 2005 The actin depolymerizing factor n-cofilin is essential for neural tube morphogenesis and neural crest cell migration. Dev ...
Recombinant Protein and Actin-depolymerizing factor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Actin-depolymerizing factor 1. Actin-depolymerizing factor 1 ELISA Kit. Actin-depolymerizing factor 1 Recombinant. Actin- ... Actin-depolymerizing factor 10. Actin-depolymerizing factor 10 ELISA Kit. Actin-depolymerizing factor 10 Recombinant. Actin- ... Actin-depolymerizing factor 11. Actin-depolymerizing factor 11 ELISA Kit. Actin-depolymerizing factor 11 Recombinant. Actin- ...
They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation. ... A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. ... Actin Depolymerizing Factors. Known as: ADF Proteins (Actin Depolymerizing Factors), Actin Depolymerizing Proteins, Cofilins ... The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family is a stimulus-responsive mediator of actin dynamics. In contrast to the… ...
Actin-depolymerizing factor 5 - Also known as ADF5_ORYSJ, ADF5. Actin-depolymerizing protein. Severs actin filaments (F-actin) ... Actin-depolymerizing protein. Severs actin filaments (F-actin) and binds to actin monomers (By similarity). ... Actin-depolymerizing protein. Severs actin filaments (F-actin) and binds to actin monomers (By similarity). ... and binds to actin monomers (By similarity). ... Actin-depolymerizing factor 5. MOLECULAR SYNOPSIS. STRUCTURAL ...
In higher eukaryotes the Actin Depolymerizing Factor: ADF)/Cofilin proteins are essential regulators of actin filament turnover ... This role was reflected in its molecular structure, in which conserved G-actin binding sites were maintained, while key F-actin ... Gliding and invasion are dependent on parasite actin filaments, yet parasite actin is mostly non-filamentous. Filaments have ... TgADF was found to be a potent actin monomer sequestering protein that strongly inhibited actin polymerization, suggesting that ...
Actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin-1 is necessary in maintaining mature podocyte architecture. Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin-1 is necessary in maintaining mature podocyte architecture. / Garg, Puneet; Verma, Rakesh; ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin-1 is necessary in maintaining mature podocyte ... title = "Actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin-1 is necessary in maintaining mature podocyte architecture", ...
actin-depolymerizing factor. *ADF. *AGEL. *brevin. *DKFZp313L0718. *GELS_HUMAN. *gelsolin isoform a precursor ... Interactions of gelsolin and gelsolin-actin complexes with actin. Effects of calcium on actin nucleation, filament severing, ... to another protein called actin. Actin proteins are organized into filaments, which form a network (the cytoskeleton) that ... Gelsolin helps assemble or disassemble actin filaments. It is thought that, through this function, the gelsolin protein ...
Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), a 19-kDa actin- binding protein, has recently been shown to play an important role in ... Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), a 19-kDa actin- binding protein, has recently been shown to play an important role in ... Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), a 19-kDa actin- binding protein, has recently been shown to play an important role in ... Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), a 19-kDa actin- binding protein, has recently been shown to play an important role in ...
The Actin Depolymerizing Factor (ADF)/Cofilin family of proteins are essential actin-binding proteins found in all eukaryotes. ... A functional genomic and genetic analysis of subclass III Actin Depolymerizing Factor (ADF) proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. ... Treatment with the actin filament disruptor Cytochalasin D is sufficient to increase FLC expression, suggesting that actin- ... ADF proteins modulate actin filament dynamics by severing monomers from the pointed end of the filaments. The Arabidopsis ...
1993) Isolation and characterization of a regulated form of actin depolymerizing factor. J Cell Biol 122:623-633, doi:10.1083/ ... Cofilin, the major actin depolymerizing factor, is required for Shank3 regulation of NMDAR currents.. Next, we examined the ... 1995) Reactivation of phosphorylated actin depolymerizing factor and identification of the regulatory site. J Biol Chem 270: ... Inhibiting cofilin, the primary downstream target of PAK and a major actin depolymerizing factor, prevented Shank3 siRNA from ...
Expression of actin-binding proteins and requirement for actin-depolymerizing factor in chick neural crest cells. Developmental ... Expression of actin-binding proteins and requirement for actin-depolymerizing factor in chick neural crest cells. / Vermillion ... title = "Expression of actin-binding proteins and requirement for actin-depolymerizing factor in chick neural crest cells", ... T1 - Expression of actin-binding proteins and requirement for actin-depolymerizing factor in chick neural crest cells ...
... aspb.org The interior of a plant cell is supported by the actin cytoskeleton, a complex network of yarn-like fibers… ... such as actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs). ADFs can bind to both monomeric and filamentous actin (F-actin). Across the plant ... Loose-Knit Family: Tracing the Evolution of Actin Depolymerizing Factors that Sever or Join the Actin Cytoskeleton January 31, ... depolymerizing F-actin) ADFs, which sever or depolymerize F-actin and 2) B-type (bundling F-actin) ADFs, which bind to and ...
... are small actin-binding proteins. Many higher-plant ADFs has been known to involve in plant growth, development and pathogen ... Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are small actin-binding proteins. Many higher-plant ADFs has been known to involve in plant ... Staiger CJ, Gibbon BC, Kovar DR, Zonia LE: Profilin and actin-depolymerizing factor: modulators of actin organization in plants ... Actin-depolymerizing factor 2-mediated actin dynamics are essential for root-knot nematode infection of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell ...
T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to ... T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to ... Actin depolymerizing factor controls actin turnover and gliding motility in Toxoplasma gondii. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1290-9. ... Toxoplasma gondii actin depolymerizing factor acts primarily to sequester G-actin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6835-47. ...
A Mechanism for Actin Filament Severing by Malaria Parasite Actin Depolymerizing Factor 1 via a Low Affinity Binding Interface ...
Cofilin/actin-depolymerizing factor homolog 1. Plasmodium falciparum (isolate HB3) ... Cofilin/actin-depolymerizing factor homolog 1 UniProtKBInterProInteractive Modelling. 122 aa; Sequence (Fasta) 14 identical ... Crystal Structure of an Actin Depolymerizing Factor. monomer 2×TAR; 2×BME;. 3q2b. 2-121. ... Crystal structure of Plasmodium falciparum actin depolymerization factor 1. homo-2-mer 8×SO4;. 2xf1. 1-120. ...
Actin Depolymerizing Factors * Epidermal Growth Factor Grant support * P01 CA100324/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ...
... ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). It can promote the assembly of ... actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ... Actin-depolymerizing factor. FICAL. 869. UniRef90_O93510. GELS ... actin nucleation Source: InterPro. *actin polymerization or depolymerization Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect ... Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing ...
Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin controls actin turnover to sustain axon regeneration after spinal cord injury through ... involved_in actin filament depolymerization IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... involved_in actin filament fragmentation IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... involved_in actin filament severing IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
Overexpression of actin-depolymerizing factor blocks oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced mouse brain microvascular ... to cause barrier disruption in mice which has been attributed to a decrease in the expression of actin-depolymerizing factor ( ... To determine whether the increase in cytokine secretion was due to activation of NF-KB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain- ... cardiovascular comorbidities and risk factors [19]. Three patients in the AD group were diagnosed with hypertension alone. ...
Actin depolymerizing factor. *ADF. *AGEL. *Brevin. *Gelsolin. see all. * Relevance. Gelsolin is a calcium regulated, actin ... and severs actin filaments in the presence of submicromolar calcium, thereby solating cytoplasmic actin gels. A calcium ... It plays a role in phosphoinositide mediated disassembly of actin filaments in Sertoli cell adhesion complexes; it may regulate ... modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end ...
0 (Actin Depolymerizing Factors); 0 (Microfilament Proteins); 0 (Wdr1 protein, mouse); EC 2.7.11.1 (Lim Kinases); EC 2.7.11.1 ( ... is a highly conserved actin-binding protein across all eukaryotes and is involved in numerous actin-based processes by ... The cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is essential for rendering the uterus receptive for blastocyst implantation. In ... accelerating Cofilin severing actin filament. However, the function and the mechanism of WDR1 in mammalian early development ...
  • An antiserum specific to pollen ADF, antipADF, was raised and used to localize pollen ADF in daffodil--a plant in which massive reorganizations of the actin cytoskeleton have been seen to occur as pollen enters and exits dormancy. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of present work was to elucidate the role of actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), an important regulator of actin cytoskeleton, in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. (springer.com)
  • They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation. (umassmed.edu)
  • Nakano K, Kuwayama H, Kawasaki M, Numata O, Takaine M (2010) GMF is an evolutionarily developed ADF/cofilin-super family protein involved in the Arp2/3 complex-mediated organization of the actin cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
  • Depolymerization and severing of actin filaments produces new actin monomers and new free ends that facilitate dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. (prolekare.cz)
  • Actin proteins are organized into filaments, which form a network (the cytoskeleton) that gives structure to cells and allows them to change shape and move. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is thought that, through this function, the gelsolin protein regulates the formation of the actin cytoskeleton. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The effect of Shank3 siRNA on NMDAR currents was blocked by an actin stabilizer, and was occluded by an actin destabilizer, suggesting the involvement of actin cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • The interior of a plant cell is supported by the actin cytoskeleton, a complex network of yarn-like fibers whose form changes as the cell develops, grows, and divides. (plantae.org)
  • Across the plant kingdom, ADFs play diverse, often unexplored roles in shaping the vegetative and reproductive actin cytoskeleton systems. (plantae.org)
  • The plant actin cytoskeleton is involved in a range of cellular processes, including stress response (reviewed in Hussey et al. (springeropen.com)
  • T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to invade host cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proper organization of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for pollen tube growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the precise mechanisms by which the actin cytoskeleton regulates pollen tube growth remain to be further elucidated. (frontiersin.org)
  • The functions of the actin cytoskeleton are dictated by its spatial organization and dynamics. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the current review, we summarize our understanding of the organization, dynamics, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube. (frontiersin.org)
  • The precise molecular mechanisms underlying the function of the actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube, however, remain poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Different models have been proposed regarding the function of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen tube growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the actin cytoskeleton in the neck of the spine compartmentalizes the LTP induced response to the innervated dendritic spine, which leads to the specificity of LTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report that the tankyrase-binding protein TNKS1BP1 regulates actin cytoskeleton and cancer cell invasion, which is closely associated with cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Rho-associated protein kinases/LIM kinases/cofilin pathway (ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathway) and CapZ-mediated regulation of actin filament dynamics play key roles in the actin/cytoskeleton network rearrangement ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite the pivotal role of the actin cytoskeleton in spine morphogenesis, little is known about the mechanisms regulating actin filament polymerization and depolymerization in dendritic spines. (rupress.org)
  • The actin cytoskeleton is central to numerous cellular processes involving membrane dynamics such as motility, morphogenesis, and endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • Tip growth of cells is dependent on a functioning actin cytoskeleton. (plantcell.org)
  • We have investigated the effect of self-incompatibility (S) proteins on the actin cytoskeleton in poppy pollen tubes. (plantcell.org)
  • Here, we report that the actin cytoskeleton of incompatible pollen tubes is rapidly and dramatically rearranged during the SI response, not only in our in vitro SI system but also in vivo. (plantcell.org)
  • Our data strongly implicate a role for the actin cytoskeleton as a target for signaling pathways involved in the SI response of P. rhoeas . (plantcell.org)
  • Aguilera, M. O., Beron, W. & Colombo, M. I. The actin cytoskeleton participates in the early events of autophagosome formation upon starvation induced autophagy. (nature.com)
  • BAR-domain-containing proteins often contain multiple other domains, including the actin-binding domain WH2, GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) domains, and Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, leading to the interplay between cellular membranes and the actin cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • In a variety of eukaryotes , destrin regulates actin in the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the immune signals that impinge on actin cytoskeleton and its response regulators remain largely unknown. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Our genetic studies reveal that the ubiquitous heterodimeric capping protein transduces ROS signaling to the actin cytoskeleton during innate immunity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Using a combination of cell biology and genetics, we are investigating how the actin cytoskeleton impacts defense signaling in the model system Arabidopsis thaliana . (msu.edu)
  • We are also using genetics and biochemistry to ask how resistance signaling is initiated during the early stages of the host-pathogen association through the function of the host actin cytoskeleton. (msu.edu)
  • For example, our recent work has identified a suite of Pseudomonas syringae type III effector (T3E) proteins that specifically target the Arabidopsis actin cytoskeleton. (msu.edu)
  • This is the first report of Nckβ's role in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. (asm.org)
  • Although actin is present biochemically in significant amounts ( 7 - 9 ), little is known about the structural organization of the actin cytoskeleton in these organisms. (pnas.org)
  • To gain a better understanding of the organizational dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in an apicomplexan parasite, we have used jasplakinolide, a membrane-permeable actin-polymerizing and filament-stabilizing drug ( 16 ), to visualize actin filaments in T. gondii tachyzoites. (pnas.org)
  • The slit diaphragm protein Nephrin, which is essential for an intact glomerular filter, signals from the podocyte slit diaphragm to the Actin cytoskeleton and induces lamellipodia formation. (asnjournals.org)
  • Nephrin signals from the podocyte slit diaphragm to the Actin cytoskeleton by recruiting proteins that can interact with C3G, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of the small GTPase Rap1. (asnjournals.org)
  • 2 Podocyte foot processes are the smallest cellular projections that are built by the Actin cytoskeleton. (asnjournals.org)
  • Positioned between adjacent projections is a unique cell junction known as the slit diaphragm, which is physically connected to the actin cytoskeleton via the transmembrane protein nephrin. (asnjournals.org)
  • Our results define an essential requirement for nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation in stabilizing podocyte morphology and suggest a model in which dynamic changes in phosphotyrosine-based signaling confer plasticity to the podocyte actin cytoskeleton. (asnjournals.org)
  • Podocyte injury has emerged as a significant contributor to many forms of renal disease and is characterized by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, loss of slit diaphragms, and foot process effacement, leading to proteinuria. (asnjournals.org)
  • The slit diaphragm is a specialized cell-cell junction that is anchored to the actin cytoskeleton via a series of transmembrane proteins, including the central scaffolding protein nephrin. (asnjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these observations define a new and crucial function of MAP1B that we show to be required for efficient cross-talk between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton during neuronal polarization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • JWA as a functional molecule to regulate cancer cells migration via MAPK cascades and F-actin cytoskeleton," Cellular Signalling , vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1315-1327, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Signaling from Rho to the actin cytoskeleton through protein kinases ROCK and LIM-kinase," Science , vol. 285, no. 5429, pp. 895-898, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • As with many other pathogens, rotavirus infection and replication leads to rearrangement of the cytoskeleton with disorganization of cytoskeletal elements such as actin and cytokeratin through a calcium-dependent process that has not been fully characterized. (asm.org)
  • This suggests a role for eNSP4 in actin cytoskeleton changes via PLC signaling. (asm.org)
  • Assembly and maintenance of myofibrils require dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • Myofibrils in striated muscles are highly organized forms of actin cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • ADF/cofilins are a family of actin regulatory proteins that promote rapid turnover of the actin cytoskeleton ( Bamburg 1999 ). (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, Aβ binding to the immune receptors aberrantly boosted signaling through the actin cytoskeleton. (alzforum.org)
  • Numerous other examples, such as SH2 domain based phosphoprotein signaling, the full complement of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene families, and the apparently complex actin cytoskeleton, served to strengthen the idea that amoeba and amoeboid animal cells are related in a more fundamental way than one might have guessed based on their gross physiological traits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Publications] T.Noguchi: 'Reorganization of actin cytoskeleton at the growing end of the cleavage furrow of Xenopusegg during cytokinesis'J. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Among the central cytoskeletal regulators are actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin, which depolymerizes actin filaments, and twinfilin, which sequesters actin monomers and caps filament barbed ends. (rcsb.org)
  • Galkin VE, Orlova A, Kudryashov DS et al (2011) Remodeling of actin filaments by ADF /cofilin proteins. (springer.com)
  • Severs actin filaments (F-actin) and binds to actin monomers (By similarity). (mybiosource.com)
  • Promotes turnover of longitudinal actin cables by severing actin filaments in pollen tubes. (mybiosource.com)
  • Exhibits a high ability to stabilize and cross-link actin filaments. (mybiosource.com)
  • Binds and suppresses the arp2/3 complex functions such as the promotion of actin polymerisation and branching filaments. (mybiosource.com)
  • Gliding and invasion are dependent on parasite actin filaments, yet parasite actin is mostly non-filamentous. (wustl.edu)
  • Filaments have been detected only transiently during gliding, suggesting that parasite actin filaments are rapidly assembled and disassembled during gliding motility. (wustl.edu)
  • Little is known about what regulates the turnover of parasite actin filaments. (wustl.edu)
  • These defects are predicted to arise from the presence of more stable actin filaments in the parasite. (wustl.edu)
  • Overall both the monomer sequestering and filament severing activities of TgADF are predicted to serve important functions in vivo for maintaining high G-actin concentrations for rapid filament assembly, and disassembling actin filaments for rapid filament turnover, respectively. (wustl.edu)
  • Gelsolin helps assemble or disassemble actin filaments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ADF proteins modulate actin filament dynamics by severing monomers from the pointed end of the filaments. (uga.edu)
  • The study began with an analysis of the effects of all 11 Arabidopsis ADFs on actin filaments in vitro based on a simple principle: Actin filaments are generally sedimented by high-speed centrifugation, whereas filaments severed by ADFs remain in the supernatant, especially at high pH. (plantae.org)
  • By contrast, low-speed co-sedimentation assays, which separated single actin filaments from actin filament bundles, revealed the F-actin bundling activity of ADF5 and ADF9. (plantae.org)
  • Plant ADFs with low molecular weight (16-20 kD) can act synergistically with profillin to increase the turnover rates and sever actin filaments (Staiger et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). (uniprot.org)
  • it may regulate sperm release and turnover of the blood testis barrier [RGD], and severs actin filaments in the presence of submicromolar calcium, thereby solating cytoplasmic actin gels. (abcam.com)
  • In Toxoplasma gondii actin, which forms short stubby filaments, the Asp-275 equivalent is replaced by Arg leading to a potential filament-destabilizing charge-charge repulsion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A167E and D275R actins polymerize normally and form relatively normal appearing filaments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene binds to the "plus" ends of actin monomers and filaments to prevent monomer exchange. (novusbio.com)
  • The encoded calcium-regulated protein functions in both assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. (novusbio.com)
  • However, early observations of the distribution of actin filaments at the pollen tube apex were quite perplexing, resulting in decades of controversial debate. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fortunately, due to improvements in fixation regimens for staining actin filaments in fixed pollen tubes, as well as the adoption of appropriate markers for visualizing actin filaments in living pollen tubes, this issue has been resolved and has given rise to the consensus view of the spatial distribution of actin filaments throughout the entire pollen tube. (frontiersin.org)
  • Importantly, recent descriptions of the dynamics of individual actin filaments in the apical region have expanded our understanding of the function of actin in regulation of pollen tube growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Xenopus actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin (XAC) is responsible for the turnover of actin filaments in Listeria monocytogenes tails. (harvard.edu)
  • Actin dynamics and rearrangements of actin filaments are crucial during structural and functional alterations of neurons in response to stress shaping synaptic plasticity and behavior [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Actin treadmilling is the process of turnover of actin filaments where F-actin is rapidly assembled and disassembled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postsynaptically, actin filaments traffic AMPA receptors to the PSDZ, while also providing scaffolding for plasticity products such as CAMKII. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNKS1BP1 colocalized with actin filaments and negatively regulated cell invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The adaptor complexes capture the retrograde flow of actin filaments (F-actin), and this interaction array of ECM, integrin, adaptors, and F-actin generates tractive force for cell motility ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To investigate the role of cofilin in EGF-stimulated actin polymerization and lamellipod extension in MTLn3 cells, we examined in detail the temporal and spatial distribution of cofilin relative to free barbed ends and characterized the actin dynamics by measuring the changes in the number of actin filaments. (rupress.org)
  • These results support a model in which EGF stimulation recruits cofilin to the leading edge where its severing activity is activated, leading to the generation of short actin filaments with free barbed ends that participate in the nucleation of actin polymerization. (rupress.org)
  • The currently popular models propose that free barbed ends arise by either (A) uncapping of barbed ends, (B) severing of noncovalent bonds in F-actin to produce short filaments with free barbed ends, or (C) de novo nucleation of filaments from a nucleation template. (rupress.org)
  • Numerous actin-binding proteins under the control of different signaling pathways strictly regulate the dynamics of actin filaments, but information about the role of these proteins in dendritic spine morphogenesis is limited. (rupress.org)
  • Formins typically promote formation of unbranched actin filaments ( Goode and Eck, 2007 ). (rupress.org)
  • Formins are thus good candidates for proteins regulating the nucleation/polymerization of actin filaments in dendritic filopodia. (rupress.org)
  • Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins, which sever and depolymerize aged actin filaments, are also central regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics in many cell types ( Bamburg, 1999 ). (rupress.org)
  • A mathematical model explained this as originating in the increased overlap of actin filaments produced by myosin II-driven contraction. (pnas.org)
  • Actin filaments are depolymerized shortly after starvation and actin is assembled into a network within the isolation membrane. (nature.com)
  • Decreased cofilin activity may lead to stabilization of actin filaments. (rcsb.org)
  • This gene encodes the actin depolymerizing protein that severs actin filaments (F-actin) and binds to actin monomers (G-actin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Destrin can also sever actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • CP is a ubiquitous regulator of actin filaments ( Cooper and Sept, 2008 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, despite containing biochemically significant amounts of actin, actin filaments have never been observed in these parasites. (pnas.org)
  • Jasplakinolide, a membrane-permeable actin-polymerizing and filament-stabilizing drug, induced the polymerization of actin filaments at the anterior end of each tachyzoite in association with the conoid, where they formed, in many cases, a prominent membrane-enclosed apical projection reminiscent of acrosomal processes of invertebrate sperm. (pnas.org)
  • These jasplakinolide-induced filaments decorated with myosin subfragment 1, demonstrating unequivocally that they were indeed actin. (pnas.org)
  • As well as providing part of the framework for the structural organization of the cell, the dynamic assembly and disassembly of actin filaments drives cell motility ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • When we treated isolated tachyzoites with jasplakinolide, actin filaments were found primarily at the anterior end of each tachyzoite in association with the conoid, where they formed, in many cases, a prominent membrane-enclosed apical projection reminiscent of acrosomal processes of invertebrate sperm ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Both proteins nucleate actin filaments. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, this work demonstrates for the first time in a multicellular organism that the ability of a formin to assemble actin filaments is required for a specific structure. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, to maintain a steady state filaments must depolymerize. (nih.gov)
  • These domains cross-link actin filaments into bundles and networks. (embl.de)
  • In unc-78 mutants, the striated organization of actin filaments is disrupted, and large actin aggregates are formed in the body wall muscle cells, resulting in defects in their motility. (rupress.org)
  • Highly invasive and metastatic cancer cells, such as adenocarcinoma of the lung cells, form irregular protrusions by assembling a branched network of actin filaments. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Arp2/3 complex is located at the forks of branches and enables actin filaments to form branches ( 5 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, WAVE2 generates membrane-protrusive structures containing actin filaments at the tips of lamellipodia in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and WAVE1 then stabilizes these structures through cell-substrate adhesion ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Has the ability to depolymerize microfilaments and bind G actin, but does not cap filaments. (academic.ru)
  • Both interact with actin through an ADF homology (ADF-H) domain, which is also found in several other actin-binding proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • However, in the absence of an atomic structure for the ADF-H domain in complex with actin, the mechanism by which these proteins interact with actin has remained unknown. (rcsb.org)
  • This domain binds between actin subdomains 1 and 3 through an interface that is conserved among ADF-H domain proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • Numerous actin-binding proteins regulate F-actin organization and dynamics, and thus various cellular and physiological functions (Henty-Ridilla et al. (springer.com)
  • 1984 ). Proteins with F-actin depolymerizing activities, including cofilin, were independently identified in several organisms. (springer.com)
  • A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Funk JD, Bamburg JR (2007) Proteins of the actin depolymerizing factor/Cofilin family. (springer.com)
  • In: Actin-monomer-binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • Olshina MA, Wong W, Baum J (2012) Holding back the microfilament - structural insights into actin and the actin-monomer-binding proteins of apicomplexan parasites. (springer.com)
  • Iida K, Yahara I (1999) Cooperation of two actin-binding proteins, cofilin and Aip1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (springer.com)
  • The ADF/cofilin family: actin-remodeling proteins. (springer.com)
  • Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins are small actin-binding proteins found in all eukaryotes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • SummaryThe ADF/cofilins are a family of actin-binding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells so far examined. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Proteins of the ADF/cofilin family: essential regulators of actin dynamics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In higher eukaryotes the Actin Depolymerizing Factor: ADF)/Cofilin proteins are essential regulators of actin filament turnover. (wustl.edu)
  • ADF is one of the few actin binding proteins conserved in apicomplexan parasites. (wustl.edu)
  • In contrast to most ADF/Cofilin proteins, TgADF was found to be a potent actin monomer sequestering protein that strongly inhibited actin polymerization, suggesting that it likely functions to maintain high G-actin concentrations in the cytoplasm of non-motile parasites. (wustl.edu)
  • The Actin Depolymerizing Factor (ADF)/Cofilin family of proteins are essential actin-binding proteins found in all eukaryotes. (uga.edu)
  • Actin-binding proteins that regulate neural crest cell migration are just beginning to be defined. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: We recently identified a number of actin-associated factors through proteomic profiling of methylated proteins in migratory neural crest cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we report the previously undocumented expression pattern of three of these proteins in chick early neural crest development: doublecortin (DCX), tropomyosin-1 (TPM-1), and actin depolymerizing factor (ADF). (elsevier.com)
  • Vermillion, KL, Lidberg, KA & Gammill, LS 2014, ' Expression of actin-binding proteins and requirement for actin-depolymerizing factor in chick neural crest cells ', Developmental Dynamics , vol. 243, no. 5, pp. 730-738. (elsevier.com)
  • This process is carefully orchestrated by a myriad of proteins, such as actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs). (plantae.org)
  • The authors zeroed in on amino acid changes that led to the conversion of the original D-type function to B-type function by analyzing the F-actin severing and bundling activities of mutant, ancestral-like proteins. (plantae.org)
  • Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are small actin-binding proteins. (springeropen.com)
  • 2004 ). Intracellular actin filament activity is modulated by a number of actin binding proteins such as profillin, actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin, myosin, fibrin and villin. (springeropen.com)
  • Furthermore, careful documentation of the function and mode of action of several actin-binding proteins expressed in pollen have provided novel insights into the regulation of actin spatial distribution and dynamics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods: DRR1 domains were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins to perform in vitro analysis of actin dynamics (binding, bundling, polymerization, and nucleation). (mdpi.com)
  • Rho GTPases are then activated to polymerize G-actin to F-actin through the activity of actin binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cofilin/ADF (actin depolymerizing factor) is a family of proteins that controls F-actin remodeling and thereby the production of membrane protrusions (e.g., filopodia and lamelopodia). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to Arp2/3, the formin family actin-nucleating proteins are critical to formation of plasma membrane protrusions in other cell types. (rupress.org)
  • Over the past decade, emerging evidence suggests that in many instances F-actin dynamics is coupled to the function of membrane-deforming proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The product of this gene belongs to the actin -binding proteins ADF (Actin-Depolymerizing Factor)/ cofilin family. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of proteins is responsible for enhancing the turnover rate of actin in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylated nephrin then recruits the Src homology 2 (sh2) domain-containing proteins Nck1/Nck2, the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Crk ( 3 - 6 , 11 ) and other components of the actin polymerization complex ( 2 , 3 , 5 , 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Actin polymerization at the apical end of the parasite is consistent with the role of the apical end in host-cell invasion powered by a jackhammer-like extension and retraction of the conoid complex coupled to the secretion and rearward capping of surface proteins. (pnas.org)
  • In order to become activated, Rop proteins need to exchange GDP for GTP, an intrinsically slow process catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evidence indicates that tyrosine phosphorylation of the intracellular tail of nephrin initiates signaling events, including recruitment of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins Nck1 and Nck2 that regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics. (asnjournals.org)
  • The fact that both Spir and Capu can nucleate actin polymerization led me to question why proteins with similar biochemical activity might be required in the same biological pathway. (biologists.org)
  • This chapter describes (1) mechanism and regulation of new filament formation, (2) mechanism of enhancing elongation at barbed ends, (3) capping proteins and their regulators, and (4) recycling of actin monomers from filamentous actin (F-actin) back to globular actin (G-actin). (nih.gov)
  • In both cases, bacterium-cell interaction was followed by rearrangement of the major brush border-associated cytoskeletal proteins F-actin, villin, and fimbrin, proteins which play a pivotal role in brush border assembly. (asm.org)
  • Our findings reveal an unexpected link between Slit2 and cofilin in growth cones and suggest that local translation of actin regulatory proteins contributes to repulsion. (xenbase.org)
  • Actin binding domains present in duplicate at the N-termini of spectrin-like proteins (including dystrophin, alpha-actinin). (embl.de)
  • A number of actin-binding proteins, including spectrin, alpha-actinin and fimbrin, contain a 250 amino acid stretch called the actin binding domain (ABD). (embl.de)
  • In addition, the CH domain occurs also in a number of proteins not known to bind actin, a notable example being the vav protooncogene. (embl.de)
  • Gelation factor (ABP120) is one of the principal actin-cross-linking proteins of Dictyostelium discoideum. (embl.de)
  • Actin-related protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) and proteins of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WASP)/WASP family verproline-homologous protein (WAVE) family are involved in the process of lamellipodium formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • WASP/WAVE family proteins act as a switch to activate actin polymerization and five members of the family are known: WASP, N-WASP, WAVE1, WAVE2, and WAVE3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An actin-binding module found in an extensive family of proteins with three phylogenetically distinct classes, ADF/cofilins, twinfilins and drebin/ABP-1s. (academic.ru)
  • Lim Kinases - LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) and LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2) are actin binding kinases that phosphorylate members of the ADF/cofilin family of actin binding and filament severing proteins. (academic.ru)
  • All proteins in this family possess an N-terminal Actin Depolymerizing Factor Homology (ADF-H) domain, a central Proline-Rich Region (PRR), and a C-terminal SH3 domain. (genetics.org)
  • Two Caenorhabditis elegans actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin proteins, encoded by the unc-60 gene, differentially regulate actin filament dynamics. (wikigenes.org)
  • Actin dynamics provide the driving force for many cellular processes including motility and endocytosis. (rcsb.org)
  • The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family is essential for actin dynamics, cell division, chemotaxis and tumor metastasis. (mdpi.com)
  • In response to environmental stimulation, CFL-1 enters the nucleus to regulate the actin dynamics. (mdpi.com)
  • The main function of ADF is the severing and depolymerizing filamentous actin (F-actin), thus regulating F-actin organization and dynamics and contributing to growth and development of the organisms. (springer.com)
  • To gain insight into the role of actin cytoskeletal dynamics during renal branching morphogenesis, we studied the functional requirements for the closely related ADFs cofilin1 ( Cfl1 ) and destrin ( Dstn ) during mouse development. (prolekare.cz)
  • The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family is a stimulus-responsive mediator of actin dynamics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ADF/cofilin and actin dynamics in disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ADF/cofilins are key regulators of actin dynamics in normal cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The three mouse actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilins evolved to fulfill cell-type-specific requirements for actin dynamics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To investigate the role of ADF in regulating actin dynamics in apicomplexan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii was used as a model apicomplexan, and the activities of T. gondii ADF: TgADF) were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. (wustl.edu)
  • These studies demonstrated that ADF is essential for regulating actin dynamics in T. gondii. (wustl.edu)
  • Actin dynamics determines podocyte morphology during development and in response to podocyte injury and might be necessary for maintaining normal podocyte morphology. (elsevier.com)
  • Because podocyte intercellular junction receptor Nephrin plays a role in regulating actin dynamics, and given the described role of cofilin in actin filament polymerization and severing, we hypothesized that cofilin-1 activity is regulated by Nephrin and is necessary in normal podocyte actin dynamics. (elsevier.com)
  • Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), a 19-kDa actin- binding protein, has recently been shown to play an important role in regulation of actin filament dynamics. (elsevier.com)
  • Treatment with the actin filament disruptor Cytochalasin D is sufficient to increase FLC expression, suggesting that actin-cytoskeletal dynamics play a regulatory role in FLC expression. (uga.edu)
  • Since actin dynamics is regulated by the GTPase Rac1 and downstream effector p21-activated kinase (PAK), we further examined Shank3 regulation of NMDARs when Rac1 or PAK was manipulated. (jneurosci.org)
  • F-actin molecular dynamics modeling predicts another interaction between Arg-39 of one monomer and Asp-275 of an opposing strand monomer. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pyr1 reversibly stabilizes microtubules, blocks actin microfilament dynamics and inhibits cell motility in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cofilin is phosphorylated, it regulates actin dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of Pyr1, LIMK1 is inhibited, which means that the phosphorylation of cofilin decreases, which results in the blockage of the regulation of actin microfilaments dynamics and, therefore, the disorganization of microfilaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, Pyr1 inhibits cell motility and controls actin dynamics and stabilizes microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyr1 may be used in cancer treatment, because its main target enzyme (LIM kinase) is a regulator of microtubule and actin dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Downregulated in renal cell carcinoma 1 (DRR1) protein was characterized as the link between stress, actin dynamics, neuronal function, and cognition. (mdpi.com)
  • Conclusions: DRR1 impacts actin dynamics in several ways with implications for cytoskeletal dynamics in stress physiology and pathophysiology. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, loss of FMRP increased the abundance of eIF4G-bound eIF4E, CYFIP1-Rac1 complexes, and inactivated cofilin, thereby impairing the actin polymerization dynamics necessary for synaptic plasticity and learning. (sciencemag.org)
  • The compound 4EGI-1, which inhibits the formation of eIF4E-mediated translational machinery, reduced protein synthesis and restored a balance with actin dynamics, as well as improved hippocampal synaptic function and dendritic morphology and learning behaviors in FXS model mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • CYFIP1 shuttles between the FMRP-eIF4E complex and the Rac1-Wave regulatory complex, thereby connecting translational regulation to actin dynamics and dendritic spine morphology, which are dysregulated in FXS model mice that lack FMRP. (sciencemag.org)
  • We also found that 4EGI-1 normalized the phenotypes of enhanced metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-mediated long-term depression (LTD), enhanced Rac1-p21-activated kinase (PAK)-cofilin signaling, altered actin dynamics, and dysregulated CYFIP1/eIF4E and CYFIP1/Rac1 interactions in FXS mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In TNKS1BP1-depleted cells, actin filament dynamics, focal adhesion, and lamellipodia ruffling were increased with activation of the ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The small GTPase Rif and its effector mDia2 formin play a central role in regulating actin dynamics during filopodia elongation. (rupress.org)
  • Finally, we show that perturbation of these key steps in actin dynamics results in altered synaptic transmission. (rupress.org)
  • Quantitative analyses of actin dynamics in live cells have uncovered the potential molecular mechanisms that contribute to increased filament abundance. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Studies in cell culture suggest nephrin phosphorylation-dependent signaling events are primarily involved in regulation of actin dynamics and lamellipodium formation. (asm.org)
  • Nephrin's ability to regulate actin dynamics in a phosphorylation-dependent manner has been demonstrated by us and other investigators ( 2 - 6 ). (asm.org)
  • It is well established that reagents that interfere with actin dynamics in these parasites block motility and host-cell invasion ( 2 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Arber, Regulation of actin dynamics through phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM-kinase. (xenbase.org)
  • Gehler, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulation of retinal growth cone filopodial dynamics is mediated through actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin. (xenbase.org)
  • The three mouse actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilins evolved to fulfill cell-type-specific requirements for actin dynamics," Molecular Biology of the Cell , vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 183-194, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Cofilin is a key regulator of actin filament dynamics and reorganization by stimulating depolymerization and severance of actin filament. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Spine outgrowth and maturation are dependent on actin polymerization-depolymerization dynamics. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rac1 activated the kinases PAK and LIMK1, which inactivated cofilin, thus preventing actin depolymerization dynamics. (sciencemag.org)
  • Based on this structure, we suggest a mechanism by which ADF/cofilin and twinfilin inhibit nucleotide exchange of actin monomers and present a model for how ADF/cofilin induces filament depolymerization by weakening intrafilament interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • The concentration of free G-actin monomers decreases until it reaches a critical concentration where the rate of assembly to disassembly or the F to G-actin ratio reaches a steady state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase in polymerized F-actin is due to the recruitment of G-actin monomers and the translation of actin mRNA in the dendrite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lack of Cfl1 and Dstn in the UB causes accumulation of filamentous actin, disruption of normal epithelial organization, and defects in cell migration. (prolekare.cz)
  • ADFs can bind to both monomeric and filamentous actin (F-actin). (plantae.org)
  • Cofilin is an actin-depolymerizing protein that controls F-actin (filamentous actin) remodeling (i.e., disassembly and reassembly) by shifting between active unphosphorylated and inactive phosphorylated states. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells expressing NSP4-EGFP for 24 h were also resistant to cell rounding induced by cytochalasin D. Quantification of filamentous actin (F-actin) content by using rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin and flow cytometry showed an elevated F-actin content in NSP4-EGFP-expressing and rotavirus-infected cells in comparison with that in nonexpressing and noninfected cells. (asm.org)
  • When added to the apical media of polarized MDCK-1 cells, NSP4 causes filamentous actin (F-actin) redistribution accompanied by a reduction of transepithelial resistance ( 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we present the crystal structure of twinfilin's C-terminal ADF-H domain in complex with an actin monomer. (rcsb.org)
  • The Holmes muscle actin model suggests that an ionic interaction between Arg-39 of one monomer and Glu-167 of an adjacent monomer in the same strand contributes to this stabilization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • G-actin is the monomer form of actin, and is uniformly distributed throughout the axon and the dendrite. (wikipedia.org)
  • G-actin are the monomer building blocks that assemble via weak noncovalent interactions to form F-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each single ABD, comprising two CH domains, is able to bind one actin monomer in the filament. (embl.de)
  • Destrin or DSTN (also known as actin depolymerizing factor or ADF ) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DSTN gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The secondary and tertiary structures of destrin are similar to the gelsolin family which is another actin-regulating protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Destrin binds actin and is thought to connect it as gelsolin segment-1 does. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the binding of actin by destrin and cofilin is regulated negatively by phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism of actin filament turnover by severing and nucleation at different concentrations of ADF/cofilin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effects of calcium on actin nucleation, filament severing, and end blocking. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stimulation of metastatic MTLn3 cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a rapid and transient increase in actin nucleation activity resulting from the appearance of free barbed ends at the extreme leading edge of extending lamellipods. (rupress.org)
  • Actin filament nucleation through the Arp2/3 complex subsequently promotes spine head expansion, and ADF/cofilin-induced actin filament disassembly is required to maintain proper spine length and morphology. (rupress.org)
  • This role was reflected in its molecular structure, in which conserved G-actin binding sites were maintained, while key F-actin binding residues were absent. (wustl.edu)
  • To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we undertook a domain analysis of DRR1 and probed the effects on actin binding, polymerization, and bundling, as well as on actin-dependent cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • Cytoskeletal actin assemblies transmit mechanical stresses that molecular sensors transduce into biochemical signals to trigger cytoskeletal remodeling and other downstream events. (pnas.org)
  • We also show that the molecular dynamic properties of F-BAR(2) at the membrane are partially dependent on F-Actin. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that rapid actin remodeling upon elicitation with diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns represent a conserved plant immune response. (plantphysiol.org)
  • PRRs directly sense conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), such as bacterial flagellin and elongation factor-Tu, as well as chitin from fungal cell walls. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Specification of actin filament function and molecular composition by tropomyosin isoforms," Molecular Biology of the Cell , vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1002-1016, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • β -Actin is a downstream effector of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in myeloma cells," Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry , vol. 348, no. 1-2, pp. 129-139, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Both forms of the gelsolin protein attach (bind) to another protein called actin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interactions of gelsolin and gelsolin-actin complexes with actin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ADF, an actin depolymerizing factor which exist in two isoforms in Plasmodium , has been well-studied in the current chapter. (springer.com)
  • Also known as Actin-depolymerizing factor 1, isoforms a/b (Uncoordinated protein 60). (mybiosource.com)
  • The role of actin isoforms in somatic embryogenesis in Norway spruce," BMC Plant Biology , vol. 10, article 89, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Specific requirement for two ADF/cofilin isoforms in distinct actin-dependent processes in Caenorhabditis elegans. (wikigenes.org)
  • The invasive stages of Toxoplasma gondii , an Apicomplexan parasite, actively invade their host cells in an actin-dependent way. (pnas.org)
  • Actin and myosin have been localized by immunoelectron microscopy to the apical end of the parasite and in the space between the plasma membrane and the outer face of the inner membrane complex (IMC) in both Toxoplasma and in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites ( 10 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • In fact, recent evidence from Toxoplasma implies that most of the cellular actin is sequestered as monomeric G-actin ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our results define the conoid and apical complex as a major site of actin polymerization in Toxoplasma, consistent with the role of the apical end in host-cell invasion and polarized secretion. (pnas.org)
  • Lamellipodia are wide but thin in cross section, and this characteristic morphology is due to the construction of branched actin filament arrays within them ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Kusano K, Abe H, Obinata T (1999) Detection of a sequence involved in actin-binding and phosphoinositide-binding in the N-terminal side of cofilin. (springer.com)
  • and weakens lateral contacts in the filament ( McGough and Chiu 1999 ), which is a likely cause of the severing activity, whereas the structural basis of the depolymerizing activity is not known. (rupress.org)
  • Regulation of the stomatal opening, which is important for plants to adapt to humidity changes, is dependent on F-actin (Higaki et al. (springer.com)
  • Because ADF is known to mediate pH- dependent F-actin binding, depolymerization, and severing, and because ADF activation occurs by dephosphorylation, we questioned whether ADF played a role in microvilli microfilament disruption during ischemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Using genetic analyses focused on suppression studies, I show that the change in FLC expression is actin- dependent. (uga.edu)
  • It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION. (harvard.edu)
  • Cellular actin-dependent processes were analyzed in transfected HeLa cells with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and confocal microscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • DRR1 enhances actin bundling, the cellular F-actin content, and serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, while it diminishes actin filament elongation, cell spreading, and actin treadmilling. (mdpi.com)
  • Formation of actin puncta is PtdIns(3)P dependent, and inhibition of PtdIns(3)P formation by treating cells with the PI(3)K inhibitor 3-MA, or by knocking down Beclin-1, abolishes the formation of actin puncta. (nature.com)
  • Moreover, perception of flg22 by its cognate receptor complex triggers actin remodeling through the activation of RBOHD-dependent ROS production. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We hypothesized that abrogation of nephrin phosphorylation following injury would prevent nephrin-dependent actin remodeling and foot process morphological changes. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, in response to Slit-2 stimulation, collapse of the leading front required the activation of the F-actin severing protein cofilin in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner, whereas the subsequent reversal of the soma migration depended on the reversal of RhoA activity across the cell. (biologists.org)
  • The wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strain C1845 has been shown to induce brush border lesions by an adhesin-dependent mechanism triggering apical F-actin rearrangements. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, Slit2 - CM causes a fast PS-dependent decrease in cytoskeletal F-actin concomitant with a PS-dependent increase in the actin-depolymerizing protein cofilin. (xenbase.org)
  • These calcium-dependent actin rearrangements induced by intracellular NSP4 expression may contribute to rotavirus pathogenesis by interfering with cellular processes dependent on subcortical actin remodeling, including ion transport and viral release. (asm.org)
  • In polarized human intestinal Caco-2 cells, rotavirus infection induces calcium-dependent depolymerization of microvillar actin and interferes with protein trafficking ( 9 , 27 ) and cell monolayer integrity by disruption of tight junctions ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • We found that intracellularly expressed NSP4 causes sub-plasma membrane actin reorganization in a calcium-dependent manner through decreased phosphorylation of the actin remodeling protein cofilin. (asm.org)
  • Binds monomeric actin (G-actin) with a marked preference for the ADP-loaded form and inhibits the rate of nucleotide exchange on G-actin. (mybiosource.com)
  • Grb2 binds to two separate pY-X-N-V motifs in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via its SH2 domain and associates through its two SH3 domains to the PPPVPPRRR motifs in Sos, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras. (asm.org)
  • Binds F actin. (academic.ru)
  • Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is a primary non-muscle isoform of the ADF/cofilin protein family accelerating the actin filamental turnover in vitro and in vivo . (mdpi.com)
  • Also known as Actin-depolymerizing factor 2, isoform c (Uncoordinated protein 60). (mybiosource.com)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , UNC-60B, a muscle-specific actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin isoform, is required for proper actin filament assembly in body wall muscle (Ono, S., D.L. Baillie, and G.M. Benian. (rupress.org)
  • We have discussed the structure, the function and the stability of the protein and the way it is regulated in different actin-mediated cellular processes to control the machinery of actin polymerization. (springer.com)
  • The actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) play important roles in several cellular processes that require cytoskeletal rearrangements, such as cell migration, but little is known about the in vivo functions of ADFs in developmental events like branching morphogenesis. (prolekare.cz)
  • We are now working to define 1) the basal function of these specific effector targets/processes, and 2) the impact of pathogen targeting on the disruption of homeostatic cellular processes requiring actin. (msu.edu)
  • Controlled actin assembly is crucial to a wide variety of cellular processes, including polarity establishment during early development. (biologists.org)
  • Nemaline myopathy with minicores caused by mutation of the CFL2 gene encoding the skeletal muscle actin-binding protein, cofilin-2. (harvard.edu)
  • The elicitor-responsive gene for a GRAS family protein, CIGR2, suppresses cell death in rice inoculated with rice blast fungus via activation of a heat shock transcription factor, Os Hsf23. (msu.edu)
  • Compared with the 5 protein (fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, 14-3-3ε, profilin, actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin) and calreticulin) expression patterns, the mRNA expression exhibited similar patterns except gene of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, Slit-2 triggered the activation of the F-actin severing protein cofilin and the inhibition of RhoA, leading to the collapse of the leading front and the subsequent reversal of the polarity of OEC migration. (biologists.org)
  • Observed changes in F-actin amounts correlated with the increased activation of the actin-remodeling protein cofilin. (asm.org)
  • The Arp2/3 complex is probably the most thoroughly characterized actin regulator in spine morphogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • Here, I show that UNC-78 is a homologue of actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1) and functions as a novel regulator of actin organization in myofibrils. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, AIP1 is an important regulator of actin filament organization and localization of ADF/cofilin during development of myofibrils. (rupress.org)
  • Purification and biochemical characterization of actin from Caenorhabditis elegans: its difference from rabbit muscle actin in the interaction with nematode ADF/cofilin. (uniprot.org)
  • Despite this, TgADF demonstrated the ability to promote actin filament disassembly via a severing mechanism. (wustl.edu)
  • These changes are felt secondary to actin cytoskeletal disruption, yet the mechanism responsible is unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • One mechanism by which FMRP represses translation is through its association with cytoplasmic FMRP-interacting protein 1 (CYFIP1), which subsequently sequesters and inhibits eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). (sciencemag.org)
  • The model showed that this feedback mechanism, together with rapid stress transmission along the actin bundle, spatiotemporally synchronizes actin disassembly and fiber contraction. (pnas.org)
  • 1995 ). It was also shown that Arabidopsis thaliana ADF1 (AtADF1) increases assembly of F-actin at higher concentration (Carlier et al. (springer.com)
  • The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 induces actin filament remodeling in Arabidopsis in association with disease symptom development. (msu.edu)
  • Bassell, Sorting of beta-actin mRNA and protein to neurites and growth cones in culture. (xenbase.org)
  • Gu, A predominantly nuclear protein affecting cytoplasmic localization of beta-actin mRNA in fibroblasts and neurons. (xenbase.org)
  • Golgi impregnation was used to visualize spine shape, and then β-actin immunoreactivity was used as a semiquantitative measure of spine plasticity since actin forms the core of dendritic spines. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the actin remodeling of neurons, the protein actin is part of the process to change the shape and structure of dendritic spines. (wikipedia.org)
  • F-actin is the polymer form of actin, and its presence in dendritic spines is associated with their change in shape and structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin exists in two states in the axonal and dendritic processes: globular or G-actin and filament/filamentous or F-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that the filopodia-like precursors of dendritic spines elongate through actin polymerization at both the filopodia tip and root. (rupress.org)
  • Dendritic spines, small actin-rich protrusions from dendritic shafts, are the primary locus of excitatory synapses on neurons. (rupress.org)
  • The neuroanatomical hallmark of FXS is an overabundance of immature dendritic spines, a factor thought to underlie synaptic dysfunction and impaired cognition. (sciencemag.org)
  • We showed that aberrantly increased activity of the Rho GTPase Rac1 inhibited the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin, a major determinant of dendritic spine structure, and caused disease-associated spine abnormalities in the somatosensory cortex of FXS model mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Increased cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization coincided with abnormal dendritic spines and impaired synaptic maturation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Kardos R, Pozsonyi K, Nevalainen E, Lappalainen P, Nyitrai M, Hild G (2009) The effects of ADF/cofilin and profilin on the conformation of the ATP-binding cleft of monomeric actin. (springer.com)
  • We have examined the interaction of recombinant lily pollen ADF, LlADF1, with actin and found that whilst it bound both G- and F-actin, it had a much smaller effect on the polymerization and depolymerization rate constants than the maize vegetative ADF, ZmADF3. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorylates and inactivates the protein phosphatase SSH1 , leading to increased inhibitory phosphorylation of the actin binding/depolymerizing factor cofilin. (rcsb.org)
  • While cofilin facilitates actin depolymerization, phosphorylation of cofilin on serine 3 (p-cofilin) attenuates its actin depolymerization activity and causes increased numbers of focal adhesion complexes, actin stress fiber formation, and enhanced cell motility ( 7, 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • ACTIN DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR (ADF) is a conserved protein among eukaryotes. (springer.com)
  • Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) is a relatively small (13-19 kDa) actin-binding protein that is conserved among eukaryotes. (springer.com)
  • regulates actin polymerization in developing chick skeletal muscle. (academic.ru)
  • Actin fibers readily come apart (sever) and join back together, depending on the needs of the cell. (plantae.org)
  • The ADFs were divided into two categories based on activity: 1) D-type ( d epolymerizing F-actin) ADFs, which sever or depolymerize F-actin and 2) B-type ( b undling F-actin) ADFs, which bind to and bundle F-actin. (plantae.org)
  • However, it remains unclear if cofilin actively sets the direction of cell motility, alters cell polarity, or serves a more indirect role, such as actin filament turnover. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, cofilin, by defining the site of actin polymerization to form a protrusion, acts as a component of the "steering wheel" of the cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cell migration requires polarized, organized actin networks that provide the driving force for motility. (elsevier.com)
  • T. gondii depends on gliding motility to invade host cells, and it needs power obtained from actin filament polymerization and turn-over [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examined the effects of both global and local release of cofilin activity on actin polymerization, depolymerization, protrusion, and motility. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1993 ). Biochemical characterization of plant ADF was first performed with Zea mays ADF3 (ZmABP3 then renamed as ZmADF3), confirming its conserved activity to bind both F- and G-actin (Rozycka et al. (springer.com)
  • Plant actin-depolymerizing factors possess opposing biochemical properties arising from key amino acid changes throughout evolution. (plantae.org)
  • Actin remodeling is a biochemical process in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mathematical model accurately describes our measurements and shows that this mechanical-biochemical feedback loop synchronizes actin remodeling with fiber length changes. (pnas.org)
  • This biochemical response lowers the actin density, overlap, and stresses. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, the Slit-2-induced repulsion of cell migration was fully mimicked by co-application of inhibitors of F-actin polymerization and RhoA kinase. (biologists.org)
  • Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins are essential regulators of actin filament turnover. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that Shank3 deficiency induces NMDAR hypofunction by interfering with the Rac1/PAK/cofilin/actin signaling, leading to the loss of NMDAR membrane delivery or stability. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although these studies suggest that Arp2/3 complex induces formation of the branched actin network in the bulbous spine head, experimental evidence is still lacking. (rupress.org)
  • These data suggest that activation of ADF during ischemia via dephosphorylation is, in part, responsible for apical actin disruption resulting in microvillar destruction and formation of intraluminal vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • Although our results suggest that disruption of an interaction between Arg-39 and Asp-275 is not sufficient to cause fragmentation, it suggests that it changes filament stability thereby disposing it for enhanced cofilin depolymerizing effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Normal myofibrillar development followed by progressive sarcomeric disruption with actin accumulations in a mouse Cfl2 knockout demonstrates requirement of cofilin-2 for muscle maintenance. (harvard.edu)
  • ROCKs are serine/threonine kinases that promote actin organization through phosphorylating several downstream targets, including LIMKs ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fan, The organization of F-actin and microtubules in growth cones exposed to a brain-derived collapsing factor. (xenbase.org)
  • Publications] K.Nakano: 'Interactions among a fimbrin, a capping protein, and an actin-depolymerizing factor in organization of the fission yeast actin cytoskeleton'Molecular Biology of the Cell. (nii.ac.jp)