The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cofilin 1 is a member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in non-muscle CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.

Properties of filament-bound myosin light chain kinase. (1/3815)

Myosin light chain kinase binds to actin-containing filaments from cells with a greater affinity than to F-actin. However, it is not known if this binding in cells is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin as it is with F-actin. Therefore, the binding properties of the kinase to stress fibers were examined in smooth muscle-derived A7r5 cells. Full-length myosin light chain kinase or a truncation mutant lacking residues 2-142 was expressed as chimeras containing green fluorescent protein at the C terminus. In intact cells, the full-length kinase bound to stress fibers, whereas the truncated kinase showed diffuse fluorescence in the cytoplasm. After permeabilization with saponin, the fluorescence from the truncated kinase disappeared, whereas the fluorescence of the full-length kinase was retained on stress fibers. Measurements of fluorescence intensities and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of the full-length myosin light chain kinase in saponin-permeable cells showed that Ca2+/calmodulin did not dissociate the kinase from these filaments. However, the filament-bound kinase was sufficient for Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain and contraction of stress fibers. Thus, dissociation of myosin light chain kinase from actin-containing thin filaments is not necessary for phosphorylation of myosin light chain in thick filaments. We note that the distance between the N terminus and the catalytic core of the kinase is sufficient to span the distance between thin and thick filaments.  (+info)

RhoA activity is required for fibronectin assembly and counteracts beta1B integrin inhibitory effect in FRT epithelial cells. (2/3815)

FRT thyroid epithelial cells synthesize fibronectin and organize a network of fibronectin fibrils at the basal surface of the cells. Fibronectin fibril formation is enhanced by the overexpression of the ubiquitous beta1A integrin and is inhibited by the expression of the dominant-negative beta1B subunit. We tested the hypotheses that RhoA activity might mediate the integrin-dependent fibronectin fibrillogenesis and might counteract beta1B integrin inhibitory effect. FRT-beta1A cells were transfected with a vector carrying a dominant negative form of RhoA (RhoAN19) or treated with the C3 transferase exoenzyme. Both treatments inhibited fibronectin assembly and caused loss of actin microfilaments and adhesion plaques. On the other hand, FRT-beta1B cells were transfected with the constitutively activated form of RhoA (RhoAV14) or treated with the E. coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, which directly activates RhoA. Either treatment restored microfilament and adhesion plaque assembly and promoted fibronectin fibril organization. A great increase in fibronectin fibril assembly was also obtained by treatment of FRT-beta1B cells with TGF-beta. Our data indicate that RhoA is required to promote fibronectin matrix assembly in FRT cells and that the activation of the signal transduction pathway downstream of RhoA can overcome the inhibitory effect of beta1B integrin.  (+info)

Filament assembly from profilin-actin. (3/3815)

Profilin plays a major role in the assembly of actin filament at the barbed ends. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for barbed end assembly from profilin-actin have been measured turbidimetrically. Filament growth from profilin-actin requires MgATP to be bound to actin. No assembly is observed from profilin-CaATP-actin. The rate constant for association of profilin-actin to barbed ends is 30% lower than that of actin, and the critical concentration for F-actin assembly from profilin-actin units is 0.3 microM under physiological ionic conditions. Barbed ends grow from profilin-actin with an ADP-Pi cap. Profilin does not cap the barbed ends and is not detectably incorporated into filaments. The EDC-cross-linked profilin-actin complex (PAcov) both copolymerizes with F-actin and undergoes spontaneous self-assembly, following a nucleation-growth process characterized by a critical concentration of 0.2 microM under physiological conditions. The PAcov polymer is a helical filament that displays the same diffraction pattern as F-actin, with layer lines at 6 and 36 nm. The PAcov filaments bound phalloidin with the same kinetics as F-actin, bound myosin subfragment-1, and supported actin-activated ATPase of myosin subfragment-1, but they did not translocate in vitro along myosin-coated glass surfaces. These results are discussed in light of the current models of actin structure.  (+info)

Origin of contractile dysfunction in heart failure: calcium cycling versus myofilaments. (4/3815)

BACKGROUND: Chronic congestive heart failure is a common, often lethal disorder of cardiac contractility. The fundamental pathophysiology of the contractile failure remains unclear, the focus being on abnormal Ca2+ cycling despite emerging evidence for depressed myofilament function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and contractile force in intact ventricular muscle from SHHF rats with spontaneous heart failure and from age-matched controls. At physiological concentrations of extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o), [Ca2+]i transients were equal in amplitude in the 2 groups, but [Ca2+]i peaked later in SHHF muscles. Twitch force peaked slowly and was equivalent or modestly decreased in amplitude relative to controls. Steady-state analysis revealed a much greater (53%) depression of maximal Ca2+-activated force in SHHF muscles, which, had other factors been equal, would have produced an equivalent suppression of twitch force. Phase-plane analysis reveals that the slowing of Ca2+ cycling prolongs the time available for Ca2+ to activate the myofilaments in failing muscle, partially compensating for the marked dysfunction of the contractile machinery. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that myofilament activation is severely blunted in heart failure, but concomitant changes in [Ca2+]i kinetics minimize the contractile depression. These results challenge prevailing concepts regarding the pathophysiology of heart failure: the myofilaments emerge as central players, whereas changes in Ca2+ cycling are reinterpreted as compensatory rather than causative.  (+info)

Fast inactivation of a brain K+ channel composed of Kv1.1 and Kvbeta1.1 subunits modulated by G protein beta gamma subunits. (5/3815)

Modulation of A-type voltage-gated K+ channels can produce plastic changes in neuronal signaling. It was shown that the delayed-rectifier Kv1.1 channel can be converted to A-type upon association with Kvbeta1.1 subunits; the conversion is only partial and is modulated by phosphorylation and microfilaments. Here we show that, in Xenopus oocytes, expression of Gbeta1gamma2 subunits concomitantly with the channel (composed of Kv1.1 and Kvbeta1.1 subunits), but not after the channel's expression in the plasma membrane, increases the extent of conversion to A-type. Conversely, scavenging endogenous Gbetagamma by co-expression of the C-terminal fragment of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase reduces the extent of conversion to A-type. The effect of Gbetagamma co-expression is occluded by treatment with dihydrocytochalasin B, a microfilament-disrupting agent shown previously by us to enhance the extent of conversion to A-type, and by overexpression of Kvbeta1.1. Gbeta1gamma2 subunits interact directly with GST fusion fragments of Kv1.1 and Kvbeta1.1. Co-expression of Gbeta1gamma2 causes co-immunoprecipitation with Kv1.1 of more Kvbeta1.1 subunits. Thus, we suggest that Gbeta1gamma2 directly affects the interaction between Kv1.1 and Kvbeta1.1 during channel assembly which, in turn, disrupts the ability of the channel to interact with microfilaments, resulting in an increased extent of A-type conversion.  (+info)

Syndecan-4 signals cooperatively with integrins in a Rho-dependent manner in the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. (6/3815)

The assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers by cells plated on fibronectin depends on adhesion-mediated signals involving both integrins and cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. These two cell-surface receptors interact with different domains of fibronectin. To attempt to identify the heparan sulfate proteoglycans involved, we used fibronectin-null (FN-/-) mouse fibroblasts to eliminate the contribution of endogenous fibronectin during the analysis. FN-/- fibroblasts plated on the cell-binding domain of fibronectin or on antibodies directed against mouse beta1 integrin chains attach but fail to spread and do not form focal adhesions or actin stress fibers. When such cells are treated with antibodies directed against the ectodomain of mouse syndecan-4, they spread fully and assemble focal adhesions and actin stress fibers indistinguishable from those seen in cells plated on intact fibronectin. These results identify syndecan-4 as a heparan sulfate proteoglycan involved in the assembly process. The antibody-stimulated assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in cells plated on the cell-binding domain of fibronectin can be blocked with C3 exotransferase, an inhibitor of the small GTP-binding protein Rho. Treatment of cells with lysophosphatidic acid, which activates Rho, results in full spreading and assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in fibroblasts plated on the cell-binding domain of fibronectin. We conclude that syndecan-4 and integrins can act cooperatively in generating signals for cell spreading and for the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. We conclude further that these joint signals are regulated in a Rho-dependent manner.  (+info)

Radiation induced endothelial cell retraction in vitro: correlation with acute pulmonary edema. (7/3815)

We determined the effects of low dose radiation (<200 cGy) on the cell-cell integrity of confluent monolayers of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMEC). We observed dose- and time-dependent reversible radiation induced injuries to PMEC monolayers characterized by retraction (loss of cell-cell contact) mediated by cytoskeletal F-actin reorganization. Radiation induced reorganization of F-actin microfilament stress fibers was observed > or =30 minutes post irradiation and correlated positively with loss of cell-cell integrity. Cells of irradiated monolayers recovered to form contact inhibited monolayers > or =24 hours post irradiation; concomitantly, the depolymerized microfilaments organized to their pre-irradiated state as microfilament stress fibers arrayed parallel to the boundaries of adjacent contact-inhibited cells. Previous studies by other investigators have measured slight but significant increases in mouse lung wet weight >1 day post thoracic or whole body radiation (> or =500 cGy). Little or no data is available concerning time intervals <1 day post irradiation, possibly because of the presumption that edema is mediated, at least in part, by endothelial cell death or irreversible loss of barrier permeability functions which may only arise 1 day post irradiation. However, our in vitro data suggest that loss of endothelial barrier function may occur rapidly and at low dose levels (< or =200 cGy). Therefore, we determined radiation effects on lung wet weight and observed significant increases in wet weight (standardized per dry weight or per mouse weight) in < or =5 hours post thoracic exposure to 50 200 cGy x-radiation. We suggest that a single fraction of radiation even at low dose levels used in radiotherapy, may induce pulmonary edema by a reversible loss of endothelial cell-cell integrity and permeability barrier function.  (+info)

Locomotory behaviour of epitheliocytes and fibroblasts on metallic grids. (8/3815)

Behaviour of epitheliocytes and fibroblasts on special discontinuous substrata (metallic grids with square openings of 45x45 microm2) was examined in order to compare the ability of these cells to spread in two mutually perpendicular directions and to stretch over the void spaces. Two cell types with typical fibroblastic morphology, the AGO 1523 line of human foreskin fibroblasts and secondary cultures of mouse embryo fibroblasts, and three cell types with typical epithelial morphology, primary mouse hepatocytes, the IAR-2 line of rat liver cells and the MDCK line of canine kidney epithelial cells (clone 20) were used. We also examined the epitheliocytes (MDCK cells, clone 20) transformed to fibroblast-like morphology by treatment with hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). Time-lapse video microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to examine cell reorganizations at various stages of spreading. It was found that early stages of spreading of fibroblasts and epitheliocytes were similar: the cell spread along two bars, perpendicular to each other (bar and crossbar), with the formation of a small triangular lamellar cytoplasm stretched over the opening. Later central parts of the bodies of the fibroblasts retracted from the bars so that the cells remained attached only by their polar lamellae. Successive expansions and partial retractions of these lamellae led to elongation of the cell body crossing several openings of the grid. Epitheliocytes, in contrast to fibroblasts, at the late stages of spreading did not retract their bodies and did not contract polar lamellae. As a result, their central lamellae stretched progressively over the openings. As a result of the treatment of MDCK epitheliocytes with HGF/SF the behaviour of the cells on the grids became similar to that of fibroblasts. It is suggested that these distinct spreading patterns of epitheliocytes and fibroblasts are due to the type-specific differences in the actin-myosin cortex. Experiments with microtubule-specific drugs, colcemid and taxol, indicate that the organization of this cortex is under microtubular control.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Bio-nanomuscle project. T2 - Contractile properties of single actin filaments in an a-band motility assay system. AU - Suzuki, Madoka. AU - Fujita, Hideaki. AU - Ishiwata, Shinichi. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - We have developed a new microscopic technique to measure the force generated on a single actin filament (FA) in the A-band in which the intact lattice structure composed of myosin thick filaments is maintained; we call this newly developed system Bionanomuscle (or an A-band motility assay system). The A-bands were prepared by selective removal of thin filaments from rabbit skeletal glycerinated myofibrils under optical microscope with the use of gelsolin (a severing and barbed (B)-end capping protein of FA) that was prepared from bovine serum. A polystyrene bead of 1 μm in diameter attached to the B-end of FA (through a gelsolin molecule attached to the surface of the bead) was trapped and manipulated with optical tweezers. The displacement of the bead up to 200 nm ...
Troponin I (TnI) is a major regulator of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. During physiological and pathological stress, TnI is differentially phosphorylated at multiple residues through different signaling pathways to match cardiac function to demand. The combination of these TnI phosphorylations can exhibit an expected or unexpected functional integration, whereby the function of two phosphorylations are different than that predicted from the combined function of each individual phosphorylation alone. We have shown that TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation exhibit functional integration and are simultaneously increased in response to cardiac stress. In the current study, we investigated the functional integration of TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 to alter cardiac contraction. We hypothesized that Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation each utilize distinct molecular mechanisms to alter the TnI binding affinity within the thin filament. Mathematical modeling predicts that Ser-23/24 and Ser-150
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From the above, it is clear that filament architectures and mechanisms of assembly range from the simple isodesmic to extremely complex two‐protein matrix‐associated collaborative filament systems, and examples of such complex collaborative assemblies are probably fairly common as they are important components of large, self‐assembling systems. The addition of a lateral binding partner to all, or a subset of subunits along the filament, either through a neighbouring matrix or indeed another filament creates opportunities for complex and emerging properties of the resulting systems.. The most obvious, but by no means only consequence is that collaborative filaments may be restricted in occurrence to the site of the matrix or scaffold they bind to.. The large number of additional, lateral binding sites sometimes creates large cooperativity effects that enable filaments to bind with extreme affinity to their partner, even if the individual binding energies, per subunit, are rather small. The ...
b. Microfilaments/ Actin filaments: Microfilaments as the name suggests are thread like filaments or fibers of around 3-6nm in diameter. They are composed of subunits of protein called actin. Do you know that actin is the most abundant protein present in the cell? Microfilaments are also known to associate with another protein called myosin and this is responsible for muscle contractions ...
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Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-11; Anal soft rays: 12 - 13. Diagnosis: body rather elongate, 6 times longer than deep; occipital process 3-5 times longer than broad (Ref. 57125). 10-11 branched dorsal-fin rays (Ref. 57125), 1st extended into long filament, following into shorter ones (Ref. 7324, 31256, 57125). Longest filament comprised 2 to 3 times in standard length (Ref. 3036, 57125). Predorsal length comprised 2.6 to 2.9 times in standard length; head width 1.6-1.9 times in head length; width of premaxillary tooth plate 2.4-2.8 times in head length; upper caudal-fin lobe often prolonged into a short filament (Ref. 7324, 57125). Upper caudal-fin lobe comprised 2.5 to 3.5 times in standard length (Ref. 57125). ...
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Provided is a method for attaching tissue to a bone, which includes the use of a filament member and a head member which engages the filament member and holds a tissue in place. Also provided is a device and method for repairing a break in tissue, which indicates the use of a filament member and at least one member which engages the filament member.
Thanks for the link! The bottom series: Yes, a specialist can draw out sebaceous filaments theoretically, but this wont solve the problem. To decrease the
Actin filament dynamics govern many key physiological processes from cell motility to tissue morphogenesis. A central feature of actin dynamics is the capacity of the filament to polymerize and depolymerize at its ends in response to cellular conditions. It is currently thought that filament kinetics can be described by a single rate constant for each end. Here, using direct visualization of single actin filament elongation, we show that actin polymerization kinetics at both filament ends are strongly influenced by proteins that bind to the lateral filament surface. We also show that the less dynamic end, called the pointed-end, has a non-elongating state that dominates the observed filament kinetic asymmetry. Estimates of filament flexibility and Brownian dynamics simulations suggest that the observed kinetic diversity arises from structural alteration. Tuning filament kinetics by exploiting the natural malleability of the actin filament structure may be a ubiquitous mechanism to generate the ...
Branched actin networks harness the free energy of actin filament assembly to generate forces required for many important cellular processes (Pollard & Cooper, 2009; Blanchoin et al, 2014). These self‐assembling, cytoskeletal structures push against loads (generally cellular membranes) by promoting nucleation and elongation of actin filaments near the load surface (Pollard et al, 2000). Filament nucleation in branched networks is controlled by membrane‐associated signaling molecules, which recruit nucleation‐promoting factors (NPFs) that, in turn, localize the Arp2/3 complex and stimulate its actin nucleation activity (Pollard et al, 2000; Rotty et al, 2013). Filament elongation near the membrane surface is generally assumed to occur via diffusion‐limited incorporation of actin monomers directly from solution (Pollard et al, 2000), with possible assistance from membrane‐associated actin polymerases, such as formins and Ena/VASP proteins (Dominguez, 2009). The fact that neither formins ...
Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this master regulator role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs ...
Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this master regulator role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs ...
The connection between T cell activation, plasma membrane order and actin filament dynamics was the main focus of this study. Laurdan and di-4-ANEPPDHQ, membrane order sensing probes, were shown to report only on lipid packing rather than being influenced by the presence of membrane-inserted peptides justifying their use in membrane order studies. These dyes were used to follow plasma membrane order in live cells at 37°C. Disrupting actin filaments had a disordering effect while stabilizing actin filaments had an ordering effect on the plasma membrane, indicating there is a basal level of ordered domains in resting cells. Lowering PI(4,5)P2 levels decreased the proportion of ordered domains strongly suggesting that the connection of actin filaments to the plasma membrane is responsible for the maintaining the level of ordered membrane domains. Membrane blebs, which are detached from the underlying actin filaments, contained a low fraction of ordered domains. Aggregation of membrane components ...
Pure actin used in research and drug discovery, active actin, actin assay, pyrene actin, fluorescent actin, rhodamine actin, hilyte actin, alexa fluor actin, biotin actin, actin, Actin Protein, Arp2/3 protein, Arp2, Arp3, arp2/3 complex, arp2/3 assay, cofilin, profilin, fodrin, spectrin, tropomyosin, tropomodulin, myosin, actin buffer, actin polymerization buffer, actin cytoskeleton, actin binding proteins, filamin, alpha-actinin, gelsolin.
Covalent modification of cTnI by kinase-mediated phosphorylation is an important mechanism in the regulation of thin filament function and thereby the cardiac contractile phenotype.26 Furthermore, altered phosphorylation of cTnI and other myofilament proteins may contribute causally to cardiac dysfunction in the transition from compensated hypertrophy to heart failure.30 In this context, the present work shows, for the first time to our knowledge, that PKD interacts with and directly phosphorylates a number of myofilament proteins, including cTnI at Ser22 and Ser23, and that PKD-mediated phosphorylation of cardiac myofilaments has a functional impact on both the Ca2+ sensitivity of tension development and the crossbridge cycling kinetics.. To date, most investigative effort in phosphorylation-mediated regulation of cTnI function has focused on the actions of PKA and PKC. Evidence from studies in a variety of systems, ranging from reconstituted myofilament proteins to cultured myocytes or ...
Actin filament elongation as a function of the surface density of side-binding proteins.(A-B) The change in length, ΔL, as a function of time for a filament
TY - JOUR. T1 - Formins. T2 - Processive cappers of growing actin filaments. AU - Watanabe, Naoki. AU - Higashida, Chiharu. PY - 2004/11/15. Y1 - 2004/11/15. N2 - Taking the advantage of single-molecule imaging, our recent study has revealed surprisingly long processive movement of a Formin protein, mDia1, surfing along with the growing end of actin filaments in living cells. This finding provides direct evidence for the ability of Formins to function as processive cappers that has been postulated from several lines of evidence in biochemical studies. With nucleating filaments from the profilin-actin pool, Formins may effectively generate long actin filaments, and contribute to the generation of the specific actin-based structures, that is, the contractile ring in cytokinesis, actin stress fibers in animal cells, and yeast actin cables. Furthermore, Formins have the potential to function as actin polymerization-driven molecular motors. Although much remains to be tested about the role of this ...
Drosophila S2 cells offer a powerful tool to study in vivo dynamics and organization of the actin cytoskeleton. When plated on the lectin, concanavalin A, S2 cells attach and spread on the substrate to form a circumferential actin-based lamellae. The susceptibility of these cells to gene inhibition using RNAi makes them a very tractable system to dissect the molecular machinery involved in lamellipod formation. The figure shows a control S2 (upper left) in comparison with cells depleted of capping protein beta (upper right), cofilin (lower left), and Rho1 (lower right). The hyper-ruffled morphology produced by capping protein RNAi is consistent with its role in terminating actin filament elongation - in the absence of the protein, actin filaments polymerization pushes on the membrane in an unregulated manner. Depletion of cofilin, a factor required for actin filament turnover, produces cells that are unable to spread due to abnormal accumulations of f-actin at their cortex. RNAi-inhibition of ...
Formation of new actin filaments is essential for cell movement, growth and division. The Arp2/3 complex is a well-established nucleator of actin filaments, but recent work has revealed that there are other players in this game: the formins. In a Commentary on p. 2603, Charles Boone and co-workers discuss work illuminating the roles of these proteins, which can nucleate actin filaments in vitro and are implicated in numerous actin-dependent processes. Formins contain two conserved domains: FH2, which probably mediates filament nucleation; and FH1, which might facilitate delivery of actin monomers to growing filaments by interacting with the G-actin-binding protein profilin. Recent work indicates that regulation of formin activity, in at least some cases, depends on additional, N-terminal sequences; in the case of formins related to the protein Diaphanous, for example, these interact with the small GTPase Rho, allowing the molecules to function as effectors in Rho signalling. Other studies ...
The effect of applying an external load to actin filaments moving in the in vitro motility assay is studied. Bead-tailed actin filaments were made by polym
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of actin filament bundle assembly pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
INVOLVED IN actin filament organization (inferred); cardiac myofibril assembly (inferred); negative regulation of actin filament polymerization (inferred); ASSOCIATED WITH hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 7 (ortholog); substance-related disorder (ortholog); FOUND IN sarcomere (ortholog)
The thinnest fibers of the cytoskeleton (measuring approximately 6 nm in diameter),[2] microfilaments are formed by the head-to-tail polymerization of actin monomers (also known as globular or G-actin). Actin subunits as part of a fiber are referred to as filamentous actin (or F-actin). Each microfilament is made up of two helical interlaced strands of subunits. Much like microtubules, actin filaments are polarized, with their fast-growing barbed-ends (because of their appearance in electron micrographs after binding of myosin S1 sub-fragments) and a slow-growing pointed-end (again based on the pattern created by S1 binding). The pointed end is sometimes referred to as the minus (-) end and the barbed end is sometimes referred to as the plus (+) end because of the growth rates, but this is nomenclature adapted from the microtubule field, and is not generally accepted in the actin field.. In vitro actin polymerization, nucleation, starts with the self-association of three G-actin monomers to form ...
Heavy meromyosin (HMM) decoration of actin filaments was used to detect the polarity of microfilaments in interphase and cleaving rat kangaroo (PtK2) cells. Ethanol at -20 degrees C was used to make the cells permeable to HMM followed by tannic acid-glutaraldehyde fixation for electron microscopy. Uniform polarity of actin filaments was observed at cell junctions and central attachment plaques with the HMM arrowheads always pointing away from the junction or plaque. Stress fibers were banded in appearance with their component microfilaments exhibiting both parallel and antiparallel orientation with respect to one another. Identical banding of microfilament bundles was also seen in cleavage furrows with the same variation in filament polarity as found in stress fibers. Similarly banded fibers were not seen outside the cleavage furrow in mitotic cells. By the time that a mid-body was present, the actin filaments in the cleavage furrow were no longer in banded fibers. The alternating dark and light ...
A steady pool of actin monomers must be maintained to enable a polymerization to continue beyond the rapid elongation phase. This is, in part, aided by the actin binding protein profilin, which promotes ADP to ATP nucleotide exchange on G-actin. However, the rate of monomer dissociation from the (-) end of the filament is also important. Dissociation of the subunits ultimately results from ATP hydrolysis, which induces a conformational change in the actin subunit that weakens its association with neighboring subunits (as reviewed in [1]). The concentration of actin monomers in the cytosol will either favor disassembly, or assembly of the actin filament, and these values are known as the critical concentration (Cc). When the concentration of free subunits exceeds the Cc, filament elongation occurs spontaneously [2]. Importantly, the Cc usually varies between the filament (+) end and the (-) end. At the steady state, which is achieved when the rate of filament polymerization is equally balanced by ...
Cell behavior is controlled by extracellular signals that work through signal transduction pathways to regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Some of these extrinsic signals positively affect the cytoskeleton and induce actin polymerization, but extrinsic signals that negatively regulate and disassemble actin filaments also exist. A family of multidomain proteins, the MICALs, directly associates with Semaphorins, cell surface receptors involved in negative or repulsive cues. Working with purified proteins and in vivo, Hung et al. now find that actin filaments serve as a direct substrate for Micals enzymatic activity. Mical posttranslationally alters actin at its methionine 44 residue, which disrupts the association between actin monomers and cutting actin filaments. Altering the methionine 44 residue makes actin resistant to Mical-mediated disassembly in vitro and in vivo in Drosophila.. R.-J. Hung, C. W. Pak, J. R. Terman, Direct redox regulation of F-actin assembly and ...
To understand the cytoskeleton, it helps to also gain some background in simple polymer assembly, and the mathematics used to describe it. Here I review a succession of elementary models for polymers of various types starting from a mixture consisting only of subunits, called monomers. I point out that the accumulated polymer mass over time depends on the type of underlying assembly reaction. The idea of critical monomer concentration is introduced, and shown to arise as a consequence of scaling the models. We then consider the specific case of actin polymers and show that treadmilling (growth of one end and shrinkage of the other) can occur at a particular concentration. Growth of actin filaments at their tips in discussed in the context of a transcritical bifurcation. I introduce the Mogilner-Oster thermal ratchet and its relation to cell protrusion caused by actin filament polymerization against a load force. ...
In growing flower cells the combined activities of the cytoskeleton endomembrane and cell SSR240612 wall biosynthetic systems organize the cytoplasm and define the architecture and growth properties of the cell. development in numerous cell types in the root and take (Kandasamy et al. 2009 The actin network is definitely dynamic. The array reorganizes during cell morphogenesis (Braun et al. 1999 Szymanski et al. 1999 and in response to endogenous (Lemichez et al. 2001 and external (Hardham et al. 2007 cues. A major research goal is definitely to better understand not only how flower cells convert G-actin subunits to particular actin filament arrays but also how the actin network interacts with the cellular growth machinery during cell development. This is a difficult problem to solve because in expanding vacuolated SSR240612 cells the actin array adopts several configurations and consists of dense meshworks of cortical actin filaments and bundles (Baluska et al. 2000 solid actin bundles that ...
Fission yeast cells use Arp2/3 complex and formin to assemble diverse filamentous actin (F-actin) networks within a common cytoplasm for endocytosis, division, and polarization. Although these homeostatic F-actin networks are usually investigated separately, competition for a limited pool of actin m …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lowpass Filtering Capabilities of Heavily Doped Actin Filaments. AU - Sadhu, Tapatosh. AU - De, Debashis. PY - 2017/4. Y1 - 2017/4. N2 - Actin is a globular protein abundantly found in Eukaryotic cytoskeleton. It forms double helix polymeric filamentous structure called F-actin by means of self-assembly through ATP hydrolysis. F-actin, is a highly charged polyelectrolyte, it creates an electrical shield around its surface by helping accumulate counterions. These phenomena results in differential concentration distribution of the counterions and co-ions between F-Actin and the bulk of the solution. Under controlled environment these properties can help actin filaments act as electrical conduction lines and it shows fundamental electrical properties like resistance, inductance and capacitance. Resistivity of actin can be decreased by doping the filaments with cationic components like Sodium and Potassium. On the other hand, temperature dependent movements of ions also affect these ...
Recruitment of EPLIN, which is not expressed in all cell types but is found exclusively in AJ, has also been shown to be tension dependent [14][15][16]. In this case EPLIN binds to the sides of F-actin where it stabilizes and/or crosslinks bundles of actin filaments to prevent Arp2/3 binding and subsequently, filament branching [14]. Whilst serving this role, EPLIN may also interact with α-catenin in complex with cadherin and stabilize actin filament bundles that span from one AJ to the next (i.e. the adhesion belt) [15]. In vitro experiments have shown that whilst monomers of α-catenin could not bind actin filaments, EPLIN could. Moreover, depletion of EPLIN from epithelial cells resulted in disruption of the adhesion belt, with the cell-cell contacts taking on a more immature appearance i.e. radial actin filaments terminating at puncta of E-cadherin present at contact sites [15]. Collectively these studies [14][15] suggest EPLIN may promote AJ maturation by linking the catenin-cadherin ...
Constitutive centripetal transport of the actin-based cytoskeleton has been detected in cells spreading on a substrate, locomoting fibroblasts and keratocytes, and non-locomoting serum-deprived fibroblasts. These results suggest a gradient of actin assembly, highest in the cortex at the cytoplasm-membrane interface and lowest in the non-cortical perinuclear cytoplasm. We predicted that such a gradient would be maintained in part by phosphoinositide-regulated actin binding proteins because the intracellular free Ca2+ and pH are low and spatially constant in serum-deprived cells. The cytoplasm-membrane interface presents one surface where the assembly of actin is differentially regulated relative to the non-cortical cytoplasm. Several models, based on in vitro biochemistry, propose that phosphoinositide-regulated actin binding proteins are involved in local actin assembly. To test these models in living cells using imaging techniques, we prepared a new fluorescent analog of actin that bound ...
The formin homology domain-containing protein1 (FHOD1) suppresses actin polymerization by inhibiting nucleation, but bundles actin filaments and caps filament barbed ends. Two polyclonal antibodies against FHOD1 were generated against (i) its N-terminal sequence (residues 1-339) and (ii) a peptide corresponding the sequence from position 358-371, which is unique for FHOD1 and does not occur in its close relative FHOD3. After affinity purification both antibodies specifically stain purified full length FHOD1 and a band of similar molecular mass in homogenates of cardiac muscle. The antibody against the N-terminus of FHOD1 was used for immunostaining cells of established lines, primary neonatal (NRC) and adult (ARC) rat cardiomyocytes and demonstrated the presence of FHOD1 in HeLa and fibroblastic cells along stress fibers and within presumed lamellipodia and actin arcs. In NRCs and ARCs we observed a prominent staining of presumed intercalated discs (ICD). Immunostaining of sections of hearts ...
Actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton and is present as two isoforms in non-muscle cells: β- and γ-cytoplasmic actin. These isoforms are strikingly conserved, differing by only four N-terminal amino acids. During spread from infected cells, vaccinia virus (VACV) particles induce localized actin nucleation that propel virus to surrounding cells and facilitate cell-to-cell spread of infection. Here we show that virus-tipped actin comets are composed of β- and γ-actin. We employed isoform-specific siRNA knockdown to examine the role of the two isoforms in VACV-induced actin comets. Despite the high level of similarity between the actin isoforms, and their colocalization, VACV-induced actin nucleation was dependent exclusively on β-actin. Knockdown of β-actin led to a reduction in the release of virus from infected cells, a phenotype dependent on virus-induced Arp2/3 complex activity. We suggest that local concentrations of actin isoforms may regulate the activity of cellular actin ...
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Here we report a novel role for cardiac MCs in the regulation of the myofilament force-Ca2+ relationship. Mature cardiac MCs respond functionally to MI and regulate myofilament cTnI and MyBPC phosphorylation. This integral MC-dependent effect preserves the contractile reserve in concert with Ca2+ flux to the sarcomeres (Arteaga et al., 2005; Solaro and Arteaga, 2007).. Mutations in c-Kit, as well as MC stabilization, have served as standard models to decipher MC functions. However, studies using c-kit mutations do not provide an exclusive functional role of MCs. As a prototypic example, kit mutant animals are protective against antibody-induced arthritis in contrast to Cpa3cre/+ mice that are susceptible, proving that c-kit effects are not MC exclusive. Similarly, MC deficiency, in the absence of c-kit mutations, plays neither a role in the regulation of weight gain or insulin resistance (Gutierrez et al., 2015) nor in wound healing and skin carcinogenesis (Antsiferova et al., 2013). Similarly, ...
By using a monoclonal antibody we have identified a new polypeptide doublet (C4h and C4l) of Mr approximately 21 kD and pI 8 and 7, respectively, that is associated with and (at the immunofluorescence level) uniformly distributed on actin filament bundles in rat, mouse, and other vertebrate species. C4 is absent in neurones, erythrocytes, and skeletal muscle but the epitope is evolutionarily conserved as it is present in invertebrates such as molluscs and crustaceans. C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles are reduced in number or absent. C4l, on the other hand, is always present. C4h expression can also be blocked by switching normal nontransformed mesenchymal cells from adherent to suspension culture. Reexpression of C4h occurs 24 h after these cells are returned to normal adherent culture conditions, but can be blocked by either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, suggesting that the expression of this epitope ...
The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells pervades the cytoplasm. It comprises three broad classes of proteins: actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments. In addition to establishing cell and tissue shape, the cytoskeleton along with associated motor proteins influences a wide range of fundamental cellular functions, including cell migration, movement of organelles and cell division.. We are witnessing a rapid advance in our understanding of the cytoskeleton, driven in particular by determination of the structures of key molecules and acquisition of proteomics inventories of cytoskeletal proteins and their binding partners. The cytoskeleton is now no longer considered to be a rigid scaffold, but instead is viewed as a complex and dynamic network of protein filaments that can be modulated by internal and external cues.. This Insight examines many different facets of the cytoskeleton, reviewing the basic principles of filament organization, the operation of motor proteins and the role of ...
The actin microfilaments are composed of a two stranded polymer of actin and most filaments also contain polymers of the rod shaped tropomyosin running along the major groove in the filament. As you heard in the lecture on Microfilaments, the different tropomyosin isoforms have the ability to direct the assembly of specific cellular structures. Previous experiments have been performed in which the neuroblastoma derived cell line, B35 (Schubert D, etal., 1974) is given a gene construct driving the expression of a specific tropomyosin. Cells are then isolated which express the introduced tropomyosin and analysed for changes in phenotype. ...
The actin microfilaments are composed of a two stranded polymer of actin and most filaments also contain polymers of the rod shaped tropomyosin running along the major groove in the filament. As you heard in the lecture on Microfilaments, the different tropomyosin isoforms have the ability to direct the assembly of specific cellular structures. Previous experiments have been performed in which the neuroblastoma derived cell line, B35 (Schubert D, etal., 1974) is given a gene construct driving the expression of a specific tropomyosin. Cells are then isolated which express the introduced tropomyosin and analysed for changes in phenotype. ...
Ation, properties . Upon cytosolic entry, A-components mono-ADP-ribosylate globular (G)-actin at arginine-177 that then inhibits actin filament formation and
misc{2054071, author = {Tondeleir, Davina and Ampe, Christophe and Vandekerckhove, Jo{\e}l}, language = {eng}, publisher = {Wiley}, series = {Encyclopedia of life sciences}, title = {Actin and actin filaments}, url = {}, year = {2011 ...
cell cortex, cell projection, cytoplasmic vesicle, cytoskeleton, intracellular membrane-bounded organelle, plasma membrane, GTP binding, GTPase activity, protein kinase binding, actin filament organization
The formation of cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions is accompanied by a profound remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The Arp2/3 complex and its activator cortactin drive the assembly of branching actin-filament arrays, and formin-1 promotes the nucleation of non-branching actin filaments. Recru …
A detailed mechanistic study of malaria parasite actins reveals at the atomic level how they polymerize, hydrolyze ATP, and are fragmented to keep actin filament lengths short enough for parasite survival.
Figure 1: Ultra-Pure Actin is ,90% polymerization-competent. Ultra-Pure Actin was polymerized in the absence (-PB) or presence (+PB) of Actin Polymer Buffer (10X, Cat. No. 000103; 50 mM KCl and 2 mM MgCl2) followed by centrifugation at 48k rpm for 1 hour. Pellet (P) and supernatant (S) fractions were collected and subjected to SDS-PAGE and Coomassie G250-staining. >90% of Ultra-Pure Actin was incorporated into filaments as determined by measuring the residual protein concentration in the supernatant fraction.. ...
Clone REA___ recognizes the human, mouse and rat β-Actin, which belongs to the actin family of highly conserved globular multi-functional proteins that play a role in various types of cell motility. They are able to form microfilaments and are found in all eukaryotic cells. β-Actin is a nonmuscle cytoskeletal actin and exists in most cell types as a component of the cytoskeleton and as a mediator of internal cell motility.Additional information: Clone REA___ displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Ireland
Genes encoding the various isoforms of actin. In Drosophila, for example, actin genes have been localized at six different chromosomal sites. Two genes encode cytoplasmic actins, while the other four encode muscle actins. The amino acid- encoding segments of the different actin genes have very similar compositions, but the segments specifying the trailers (q.v.) differ considerably in nucleotide sequences. ...
Microfilaments are solid rods made of globular proteins called actin. These filaments are primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton.
In a dialysing device for liquids, wherein a hollow filament bundle is laid spirally around a central moulding, the wall of the hollow filaments increases along their periphery at least once continuously up to a maximum thickness, and decreases down to a minimum thickness. A helical guide body which consists wholly or partially of adsorbents and in the helical threads of which the hollow filament bundle is located, can be arranged on the moulding. The central moulding and the hollow filament bundle can be formed as an insertion module and, with appropriate design, can also be inserted into coil type dialysing devices. The hollow filaments consist of cellulose which has been regenerated from a Cuoxam solution. The special cross-sectional shape of the hollow filaments leads to a loose hollow filament bundle, which allows good and uniform flow, and effects a particularly high dialysis performance.
Eukaryotic cells constantly integrate external biochemical and mechanical signals to timely accomplish key cellular functions. To perform its numerous tasks, the actin cytoskeleton is organized in modules where filaments assemble following specific architectures. One of these key elementary modules is the filament bundle : unbranched parallel filaments crosslinked together by bundling proteins, that can sense and generate forces. ...
Jockusch, Brigitte M. (2017-01-03). The Actin Cytoskeleton. Springer. ISBN 9783319463711. Hall, Alan; Nobes, Catherine D. (1999 ... She investigated the regulation of actin polymerisation and how cell movement determines polarity and adhesion. She was awarded ... where she identified the role of the GTPase CDC42 and effectors in forming actin-rich filopodial extensions. ...
Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky L, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell J (1999). "Section 18.1: The Actin Cytoskeleton". Molecular ... Structural comparison of actin filaments and fimbrin CH domain-decorated actin filaments has revealed changes in the actin ... Owing to the close proximity of its tandem actin-binding domains, fimbrin directs the formation of tightly bundled actin ... affinity for other actin-binding proteins and may be part of the regulation of the cytoskeleton itself. In humans, three highly ...
"The bacterial cytoskeleton: in vivo dynamics of the actin-like protein Mbl of Bacillus subtilis." Developmental cell 4, no. 1 ( ... "The bacterial actin-like cytoskeleton." Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 70, no. 4 (2006): 888-909. Carballido-López ... "A dynamic bacterial cytoskeleton." Trends in cell biology 13, no. 11 (2003): 577-583. Carballido-López, Rut. " ... Carballido Lopez has worked on the roles of bacterial actins in different cellular processes, particularly in morphogenesis, to ...
May RC, Machesky LM (March 2001). "Phagocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton". Journal of Cell Science. 114 (Pt 6): 1061-77. doi: ...
Hall, Alan (1998). "Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton". Science. 279 (5350): 509-514. Bibcode:1998Sci...279..509H. doi: ... The lamellipodium is born of actin nucleation in the plasma membrane of the cell and is the primary area of actin incorporation ... is a cytoskeletal protein actin projection on the leading edge of the cell. It contains a quasi-two-dimensional actin mesh; the ... "Cortactin localization to sites of actin assembly in lamellipodia requires interactions with F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex". ...
... phagocytosis requires the actin cytoskeleton in order to engulf other items. The actin filaments control the formation of the ... One method of maintaining the spatial zones of activation is through anchoring to the actin cytoskeleton, keeping the membrane- ... Hall A. (1998). "Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton". Science. 279 (5350): 509-14. doi:10.1126/science.279.5350.509. PMID ... Cdc42 was assumed to encourage filopodia elongation and block actin depolymerization. RhoA was considered to encourage actin ...
The latter involves the actin cytoskeleton. In research, 1-N-Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA ...
Many microbes modify and influence the synthesis or degradation of the host-cell cytoskeleton, in particular the actin network ... Dramsi S, Cossart P (1998). "Intracellular pathogens and the actin cytoskeleton". Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 14 (1): 137-166. doi: ... Intracellular microbes, such as the bacteria Salmonella and Shigella, elicit actin polymerization in host cells that otherwise ... Bacteria such as Yersinia inhibit actin polymerization in phagocytes, thereby preventing their uptake. Cellular microbiology ...
This is accomplished through the use of an actin and myosin complex. The complexes require an actin cytoskeleton to perform ... Cytoskeleton. 58 (2): 83-95. doi:10.1002/cm.10178. PMID 15083530. Mitchison TJ, Cramer LP (February 1996). "Actin-based cell ... doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1979.tb04197.x. Heintzelman MB (June 2004). "Actin and myosin in Gregarina polymorpha". Cell Motil. ...
Smith MA, Hoffman LM, Beckerle MC (October 2014). "LIM proteins in actin cytoskeleton mechanoresponse". Trends in Cell Biology ... The purpose of these proteins is the establishment and regulation of the cytoskeleton. The regulation of the cytoskeleton by ... The Ena/VASP will bind profilin that is known to act as a actin-polymerizing protein. The zyxin-VASP complex will initiate ... CRP 1 has more roles involved with actin filaments and z lines of myofibers. This group contains only class D, which are ...
... links cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton. Plakoglobin binds to conserved regions of desmoglein and desmocollin at ... "The epidermal growth factor receptor modulates the interaction of E-cadherin with the actin cytoskeleton". The Journal of ... "A mutation in alpha-catenin disrupts adhesion in clone A cells without perturbing its actin and beta-catenin binding activity ...
Ankycorbin has been associated with the cortical actin cytoskeleton structures in terminal web, cell-cell adhesion sites as ... a novel actin cytoskeleton-associated protein". Genes Cells. 5 (12): 1001-8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2000.00381.x. PMID ...
Edwards RA, Bryan J (1995). "Fascins, a family of actin bundling proteins". Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. John Wiley & ... Fascin is an actin bundling protein. It is a 54-58 kilodalton monomeric actin filament bundling protein originally isolated ... "The actin-bundling protein fascin stabilizes actin in invadopodia and potentiates protrusive invasion". Curr. Biol. 20 (4): 339 ... Fascin localizes to actin-rich protrusions at the cell surface called filopodia. Recent study shows that fascin also localizes ...
For example, the cadherin-α-catenin complex binds the actin cytoskeleton, though whether it binds via binding proteins or ... Taylor, Matthew P.; Koyuncu, Orkide O.; Enquist, Lynn W. (27 April 2011). "Subversion of the actin cytoskeleton during viral ... In homodimeric form, α-catenins do not bind β- catenins, but preferentially bind F-actin and other proteins promoting F-actin ... Using an in vivo dentate gyrus LTP model, it was shown that LTP induction is associated with an increase in F-actin in the ...
Catenins, in turn, bind to the actin cytoskeleton. Binding of these proteins to the actin cytoskeleton prevents actin from ...
Gunning PW, Schevzov G, Kee AJ, Hardeman EC (2006). "Tropomyosin isoforms: divining rods for actin cytoskeleton function". ... family of actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles and the cytoskeleton of non- ... Tropomyosins are dimers of coiled-coil proteins that polymerize end-to-end along the major groove in most actin filaments. They ... In muscle cells, they regulate muscle contraction by controlling the binding of myosin heads to the actin filament. Mutations ...
These adhesion complexes attach to the actin cytoskeleton. The integrins thus serve to link two networks across the plasma ... Integrins couple the cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) outside a cell to the cytoskeleton (in particular, the microfilaments) ... As previously stated, these complexes connect the extracellular matrix to actin bundles. Cryo-electron tomography reveals that ... Clustering and activation of the integrins/actin complexes strengthen the focal adhesion interaction and initiate the framework ...
L-Afadin is an actin binding protein that binds to the F-actin of the actin cytoskeleton. In this way, nectins form ridged ... This mechanism also results in the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. As a result of this stabilization, both EphB2 forward ... Bamji SX (July 2005). "Cadherins: actin with the cytoskeleton to form synapses". Neuron. 47 (2): 175-8. doi:10.1016/j.neuron. ... As in the EphA4/ephrinA3-mediated neuron-glia interaction, this process regulates dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton by ...
An analogous example was found in the actin cytoskeleton. Here, the actin-bundling protein anillin drives actin contractility ... Contractile forces in biological cells are typically driven by molecular motors associated with the cytoskeleton. However, a ... "Anillin propels myosin-independent constriction of actin rings". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 4595. Bibcode:2021NatCo.. ...
Stairs, Courtney W.; Ettema, Thijs J.G. (2020). "The Archaeal Roots of the Eukaryotic Dynamic Actin Cytoskeleton". Current ... The first eukaryotic protein identified was actin and actin-related proteins (Arp) 2 and 3 in Crenarchaeota. The implication is ... In addition to actin, tubulin, ubiquitin and ESCRT proteins found in TACK archaea, Asgards contain functional genes for several ... One of the distinctions of the domain Eukarya in the three-domain system is that eukaryotes have unique proteins such as actin ...
It is capable of linking integrins to the actin cytoskeleton either directly or indirectly by interacting with vinculin and α- ... Talin, in turn, links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. The consensus sequence for vinculin binding sites is ... Its mechanical vulnerability and cellular position bridging integrin receptors and the actin cytoskeleton make it a fundamental ... The actin binding site2 is shown to be the major site for sensing the extracellular matrix rigidity. Recently Kumar et al ...
Talin, in turn, links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. The consensus sequence for Vinculin binding sites is ... and actin cytoskeleton. The complex at the focal adhesions consists of several proteins such as vinculin, α-actinin, paxillin, ... "The epidermal growth factor receptor modulates the interaction of E-cadherin with the actin cytoskeleton". The Journal of ... "Leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium induces E-selectin linkage to the actin cytoskeleton". The Journal of Cell Biology. ...
"Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by PIP2 in cytokinesis". Biology of the Cell. 98 (6): 377-388. doi:10.1042/BC20050081. ...
F-actin is found within pinopodes. The cytoskeleton is mainly made up of actin microfilaments. The structure varies between ...
By capping the barbed ends of actin filaments, the encoded protein contributes to the control of actin-based motility in non- ... Cytoskeleton. 70 (11): 775-95. doi:10.1002/cm.21149. PMID 24155256. S2CID 205643538. Southwick FS (1995). "Gain-of-function ... Macrophage-capping protein (CAPG) also known as actin regulatory protein CAP-G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The encoded protein reversibly blocks the barbed ends of F-actin filaments in a Ca2+ and phosphoinositide-regulated manner, but ...
This gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 3 (3p14).[citation needed] Filamin B forms part of the actin cytoskeleton. ...
... regulates actin cytoskeleton organization". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (46): 43924-32. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203569200. PMID 12221077. " ...
Liu R, Jin JP (2016). "Calponin Isoforms CNN1, CNN2 and CNN3: Regulators for Actin Cytoskeleton Functions in Smooth Muscle and ... Calponin 3 has been shown to participate in actin cytoskeleton-based activities such as that in embryonic development and ... where it may function in regulating the actin cytoskeleton with a proposed role in the plasticity of neural tissues. Calponin 3 ... "Calponin 3 regulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in trophoblastic cell fusion". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 21 (22): ...
The actin cytoskeleton is an important factor in pollen tube growth, because there are different patterns of actin cytoskeleton ... The actin cytoskeleton has proven to be critical in assisting pollen tube growth. In terms of spatial distribution, actin ... Both the spatial distribution and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are regulated by actin-binding proteins (ABPs). In order ... ABPs regulate the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. As stated previously, actin filaments are continuously ...
Brawley CM, Rock RS (June 2009). "Unconventional myosin traffic in cells reveals a selective actin cytoskeleton". Proceedings ... along filopodial actin filaments and can bind to filopodial actin filaments to be carried slowly rearward by retrograde actin ... Myo10 is an actin-based motor protein that can localize to the tips of the finger-like cellular protrusions known as filopodia ... The N-terminal head or myosin motor domain can bind to an actin filament, hydrolyze ATP, and produce force. The neck or light ...
Myosin filaments act as molecular motors and by binding to actin enables filament sliding.[8] Furthermore, members of the ... association with cytoskeleton and senescence. These domains contain a tandem cysteine-rich Zn2+-finger motif and embrace the ...
Regulation of actin cytoskeleton (KEGG) ...
"NAADP activates a Ca2+ current that is dependent on F-actin cytoskeleton". FASEB Journal. 17 (13): 1907-9. doi:10.1096/fj.03- ... When a Ca2+ influx occurs, cross bridges form between myosin and actin leading to the contraction of the muscle fibers. ...
... a group of proteins that are critical to the stability of muscle fiber membranes and to the linking of the actin cytoskeleton ...
β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling ... α-Catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind filamentous actin (F-actin). β-Catenin binds directly to the cytoplasmic tail ... Through the interaction of β-catenin and α-catenin, actin and E-cadherin are linked, providing the cell with a means of stable ... The primary mechanical role of catenins is to connect cadherins to actin filaments, such as the adhesion junctions of ...
An accepted mechanism for this process is that ADP-bound myosin attaches to actin while thrusting tropomyosin inwards, then the ... Tyska MJ, Warshaw DM (January 2002). "The myosin power stroke". Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 51 (1): 1-15. doi:10.1002/ ... McKillop DF, Geeves MA (August 1993). "Regulation of the interaction between actin and myosin subfragment 1: evidence for three ... actin attachment time as that of β. MHC-β is predominately expressed in the human ventricle, while MHC-α is predominantly ...
Brown MJ, Hallam JA, Liu Y, Yamada KM, Shaw S (July 2001). "Cutting edge: integration of human T lymphocyte cytoskeleton by the ... Li X, Bennett V (1996). "Identification of the spectrin subunit and domains required for formation of spectrin/adducin/actin ... Hughes CA, Bennett V (1995). "Adducin: a physical model with implications for function in assembly of spectrin-actin complexes ... The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion ...
... protein family involved in membrane traffic and actin cytoskeleton dynamics (Nie et al., 2002).[supplied by OMIM] HACNS1 is ... phosphoinositide-dependent ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein that affects actin cytoskeleton". The Journal of ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a ubiquitous actin monomer-binding protein belonging to the profilin family. It is thought ... Qualmann B, Kessels MM (2003). "Endocytosis and the cytoskeleton". Int. Rev. Cytol. International Review of Cytology. 220: 93- ... Nunoi H, Yamazaki T, Tsuchiya H, Kato S, Malech HL, Matsuda I, Kanegasaki S (1999). "A heterozygous mutation of β-actin ... Suetsugu S, Miki H, Takenawa T (1999). "The essential role of profilin in the assembly of actin for microspike formation". EMBO ...
The cellular cytoskeleton is a dynamic system that functions on many different levels: In addition to giving the cell a ... Recently an actin-like protein has been found in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms a microtubule- ... The cytoskeleton formed by microtubules is essential to the morphogenetic process of an organism's development. For example, a ... This communication between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the cellular response is also related to the action of growth ...
With Laura Machesky, he identified an important signaling pathway that controls the behavior of the actin cytoskeleton. Insall ... regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex". Current Biology. 8 (25): 1347-1356. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822(98) ...
... signaling to the actin cytoskeleton". The Journal of Cell Biology. 149 (1): 181-194. doi:10.1083/jcb.149.1.181. PMC 2175102. ... links dynamin to regulation of the actin cytoskeleton". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (49): 49031-49043. doi:10.1074 ... Tanoue T, Takeichi M (May 2004). "Mammalian Fat1 cadherin regulates actin dynamics and cell-cell contact". The Journal of Cell ... a novel nuclear export receptor that is specific for profilin.actin complexes". The EMBO Journal. 22 (21): 5928-5940. doi: ...
... actin - action potential - activation energy - active site - active transport - adenosine - adenosine diphosphate (ADP) - ... cytoskeleton - cytosol - cytotoxic T cell dactinomycin - decarboxylation reaction - delta opioid receptor - denaturation ( ...
Rho kinase inhibitors, such as ripasudil, work by inhibition of the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in the morphological changes ...
Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded by three genes (alpha, beta, gamma). Adducin is a heterodimeric protein ... Calcium/calmodulin-regulated capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (14): 7986-91. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Li X, Bennett V (1996). "Identification of the spectrin subunit and domains required for formation of spectrin/adducin/actin ... Gardner K, Bennett V (1987). "Modulation of spectrin-actin assembly by erythrocyte adducin". Nature. 328 (6128): 359-62. ...
More specifically the actin and actin binding proteins seen in Hirano bodies are a significant feature of an Alzheimer's ... Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 66 (8): 635-649. doi:10.1002/cm.20388. ISSN 1097-0169. PMC 2754410. PMID 19479823. Yu, W. ... Hirano bodies are intracellular aggregates of actin and actin-associated proteins first observed in neurons (nerve cells) by ... There is an upregulation of a macroautophagic pathway related to AD that can be related to an actin aggregate thought to be an ...
They are formed by interactions between intracellular adapter proteins, transmembrane proteins and the actin cytoskeletons of ... link adjacent cells together through their cytoskeletons. Desmosomes leave a gap of 30 nanometers between cells. Adherens ...
So far, these imaging tools revealed the dynamic behavior and organization of the actin cytoskeleton inside the cells, which ...
Additionally, they have been known to interact with the cytoskeleton adaptor protein, CAP/ponsin, suggesting cell signalling ... roles and regulation of actin organisation. Teneurin-3 regulates the structural and functional wiring of retinal ganglion cells ...
Yeast coronin Crn1 and Drosophila Dpod1 were found to crosslink the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Caenorhabditis elegans ... This actin binding protein was named coronin after its strong immunolocalisation in the actin rich crown like extension of the ... Recent study shows that coronin prefers ATP/ADP-Pi containing F-actin over ADP containing F-actin, which might explain their ... Mammalian Coronin-7 does not interact with actin nor does it execute any actin mediated processes, but rather participates in ...
... actin cytoskeleton organization, and regulation of cell proliferation. ALDOA likely regulates actin cytoskeleton remodeling ... actin, GLUT4, phospholipase D2, light chain 8 of dynein, erythrocyte anion exchanger Band 3 protein, ryanodine receptor, ...
"The WAVE regulatory complex links diverse receptors to the actin cytoskeleton". Cell. 156 (1-2): 195-207. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... family involved in the formation of the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with the Arp2/3 complex. The holocomplex ... WRC recruitment to the sites of actin nucleation events at the cell periphery is mediated by the binding of a number of ligands ... This allows the V domain of the WAVE1 component to interact with the actin monomers while its CA domain interacts with the Arp2 ...
... binding protein that binds actin and regulates the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. This protein has been associated ... Phosphatase and actin regulator 1 (PHACTR1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHACTR1 gene on chromosome 6. It is ... PHACTR1 is a member of the phosphatase and actin regulator family and contains 4 RPEL repeats, three of which reside at the C- ... "PHACTR1 - Phosphatase and actin regulator 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - PHACTR1 gene & protein". Retrieved 2016- ...
... the actin cytoskeleton forms a double-helix that follows the mitochondrial sheath, a type of filamentous actin structure that ... Gervasi MG, Xu X, Carbajal-Gonzalez B, Buffone MG, Visconti PE, Krapf D (June 2018). "The actin cytoskeleton of the mouse sperm ... In 2017, the Krapf lab discovered that due to complex branching processes the actin cytoskeleton adjacent to the plasma ... revealed the organization of the actin-based cytoskeleton in the sperm flagellum using three-dimensional super-resolution ...
The TATA box is also found in 40% of the core promoters of genes that code for the actin cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus ...
LIM domain and actin-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LIMA1 gene. EPLIN is a cytoskeleton- ... Maul RS, Song Y, Amann KJ, Gerbin SC, Pollard TD, Chang DD (Feb 2003). "EPLIN regulates actin dynamics by cross-linking and ... "Entrez Gene: LIMA1 LIM domain and actin binding 1". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the ... associated protein that inhibits actin filament depolymerization and cross-links filaments in bundles (Maul et al., 2003).[ ...
He first realised that the addition of bovine fetal calf serum (FCS) to Swiss 3T3 cells increased the polymerisation of actin ... His work in 2005 on the regulation of adhesion, migration and polarity of the cell cytoskeleton was awarded the Louis-Jeantet ... In addition, the inactivation of Rho protein by ADP-ribosylation in Rac1 microinjection reduced the formation of actin stress ... The comparison with the normal cells showed that Rac1 stimulates actin filament production at the membrane, pinocytosis, and ...
Samaj J, Baluska F, Voigt B, Schlicht M, Volkmann D, Menzel D (July 2004). "Endocytosis, actin cytoskeleton, and signaling". ... Once activated in this way, it can bind to filamentous actin (F-actin) with the fourth of its cortactin repeats. As the ... Activated like this, it still associates with Arp2/3 and F-actin, but will also allow other actin NPFs, most importantly N-WASp ... Cortactin-assisted Arp2/3-nucleated actin branches are most prominent in the actin cortex, around the periphery of the cell. A ...
2014-05-26). "Effects of Estetrol on Migration and Invasion in T47-D Breast Cancer Cells through the Actin Cytoskeleton". ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganization pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
... with both signaling cascades relying on the dynamic nature of the microtubule and F-actin cytoskeleton which is essential for ... actin and actin binding proteins (ABPs). ABPs dynamically organize F-actin into many different structural forms such as ... 1). Understanding the actin cytoskeletons role in mechanotransduction goes beyond the basic biology underlying force-induced ... In this newsletter, the role of the actin cytoskeleton in mechanotransduction is discussed. ...
The EU Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) is the largest global research initiative aimed at tackling the challenge of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular, Alzheimers.. Join Us ...
F-actin structures podosome, invadosome, lamellapodia, leading edge all can be vizualized with the actin antibody. Detects all ... Actin antibody used to visualize the actin cytoskeleton. ... Anti-pan actin: rabbit polyclonal sku :. AAN01 Anti-pan actin: ... Cytoskeleton Inc is dedicated to providing high quality antibodies to actin and actin binding proteins. All our antibodies in ... Answer 2: Cytoskeleton offers our Acti-stain line of fluorescently-labeled phalloidins that specifically stain F-actin in fixed ...
The distribution and length of actin microfilaments (MF) was determined in axoplasm extruded from the giant axons of the squid ... Two classes of actin microfilaments are associated with the inner cytoskeleton of axons. K R Fath, K R Fath ... K R Fath, R J Lasek; Two classes of actin microfilaments are associated with the inner cytoskeleton of axons.. J Cell Biol 1 ... of the total axonal actin, and 60% of this actin is polymerized (Morris, J., and R. Lasek. 1984. J. Cell Biol. 98:2064-2076). ...
Here, we use a dual-probe cytoskeleton labeling strategy to distinguish between stable and polymerizing pools of actin. Our ... The coordinated nature of the actin density fluctuations suggests that they are composed of filamentous actin, but it has not ... The T-cell actin cytoskeleton mediates adaptive immune system responses to peptide antigens by physically directing the motion ... This implies that actin enrichment at mechanically trapped TCRs results from three-dimensional bunching of the existing ...
WASP is involved in relaying signals from the surface of blood cells to the actin cytoskeleton. , which is a network of fibers ... to the actin cytoskeleton. In people with X-linked thrombocytopenia, these signaling problems primarily affect platelets, ... which protect the body from infection, this signaling allows the actin cytoskeleton to establish the interaction between cells ...
Cytoskeleton Inc Laboratories manufactures the actin filament of the cytoskeleton reagents distributed by Genprice. The Actin ... please contact Cytoskeleton Inc. Other Actin products are available in stock. Specificity: Actin Category: Filament Group: Of ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Actin Filament Associated Protein 1 in samples from blood ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Actin Filament Associated Protein 1 in samples from blood ...
GTPase important for vesicle movement along actin cytoskeleton. XIAP Inflammasome related. HLH, hemophagocytic ...
In this chapter we discuss how the actin cytoskeleton mediates this coordination by serving as a crucial platform for ... We also highlight key experimental approaches that have shaped our current understanding on the role of the actin cytoskeleton ... In this chapter we discuss how the actin cytoskeleton mediates this coordination by serving as a crucial platform for ... We also highlight key experimental approaches that have shaped our current understanding on the role of the actin cytoskeleton ...
Rac2, involved in regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Polymorphonuclear cell, decreased TRECs. Chemotaxis, O2- production ...
... actin cytoskeleton ... role in regulating barrier function by altering cortical actin ... report that increased membrane septin-2 localization mediates decreases in paracellular permeability by altering cortical actin ...
Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, ... Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes. Proceedings of the ... Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes ... Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport ...
In Cytoskeleton (pp. 3-24). Humana. Super-Resolution Imaging of the Actin Cytoskeleton in Living Cells Using TIRF-SIM Authors: ... Our research is focused on studies of the dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in living pancreatic beta cells during ... Pancreatic beta cells, Cortical actin cytoskeleton, Microvilli, Live cell imaging, Super-resolution microscopy, TIRF-SIM, CLSM ... require super-resolution light microscopic techniques that are gentle enough to record rapid changes of the actin cytoskeleton ...
... induced nephropathy through inhibiting injury-induced activation of integrin outside-in signaling to prevent actin cytoskeleton ... Hence, our work reveals a novel role of VCR in regulating actin fiber assembly and provides first evidence on the therapeutic ... In cultured podocytes, VCR prevents ADR-induced actin fiber disorganization. In both in vitro and in vivo models, VCR ... Indeed, 5 nM VCR treatment 1 h after ADR injury could stabilize actin fibers and maintain actin cytoskeleton distribution, ...
Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton during dendrogenesis by Abl family kinases. The Abl family kinases are involved in the ... Abl kinases are known to organize actin rearrangement both directly, via binding domains for G-actin and F-actin, and ... F-actin staining is weak because of competitive binding of jasplakinolide and phalloidin to F-actin. Note that F-actin staining ... Woodring PJ, Litwack ED, OLeary DD, Lucero GR, Wang JY, Hunter T (2002) Modulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton by c-Abl ...
Anti-beta Actin antibody - Cytoskeleton Marker (ab16039) Specific References (81) Description:. Rabbit polyclonal to beta Actin ... beta Actin 29 results for beta Actin Sort by. Relevance. Customer reviews. Number of references. Recently added. Alphabetical ... HRP Anti-beta Actin antibody [mAbcam 8226] - Loading Control (ab20272) Reviews (17) Specific References (235) ... HRP Anti-beta Actin antibody [mAbcam 8224] - Loading Control (ab197277) Reviews (1) Specific References (8) ...
Visualizing a role for the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of B-cell activation ... A number of these studies pointed to a role for the underlying cytoskeleton in regulating early events of B-cell activation. ... Indeed, we have demonstrated that an ezrin-defined actin network shapes BCR diffusion and signaling both in the resting state ... Importantly, alongside these in vitro imaging approaches, it has been demonstrated that mutations in cytoskeleton regulators ...
... the dynamics of actin filaments are heavily influenced by various actin-binding proteins. The actin cytoskeleton in vivo is not ... The nucleation of new actin filaments - the rate-limiting step in actin polymerization - is aided by actin-nucleating proteins ... Under various conditions, G-actin molecules polymerize into longer threads called "filamentous-" or "F-actin". These F-actin ... In F-actin threads, G-actin molecules are all oriented in the same direction. The two ends of the F-actin thread are distinct ...
Accordingly, formins, which nucleate and elongate F-actin (filamentous actin) for the cytokinetic ring, are required for ... In the present article, we discuss specific modes of formin-based actin regulation during cell division and highlight emerging ... Bohnert, K., Willet, A., Kovar, D., & Gould, K. (2013). Formin-based control of the actin cytoskeleton during cytokinesis. ... Accordingly, formins, which nucleate and elongate F-actin (filamentous actin) for the cytokinetic ring, are required for ...
LIM proteins: A novel class of actin cytoskeleton organizers in plants. Clément Thomas*, Céline Hoffmann, Sabrina Gatti, André ... Dive into the research topics of LIM proteins: A novel class of actin cytoskeleton organizers in plants. Together they form a ...
Cytoskeleton Is the Subject Area "Cytoskeleton" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
3. Actin Cytoskeleton. 4. Myosin Superfamily of Molecular Motors. 5. Myosin Function in RPE Cells ...
located_in actin cytoskeleton TAS Traceable Author Statement. more info. PubMed is_active_in cytoplasm IBA Inferred from ...
Ski protein stability is controlled differentially by actin cytoskeleton dynamics.Conclusion: TGF-β/Smads and GPCR/actin ... Novel Regulation of Ski Protein Stability and Endosomal Sorting by Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics in Hepatocytes. Journal of ... Gα proteins promote dynamic adjustments of cell shape directed by actin-cytoskeleton reorganization via their respective RhoGEF ... coupled with filopodia and lamellipodia formation and an enrichment of a pool of the G protein-coupled receptor at actin-rich ...
Actin Cytoskeleton & Cell Adhesion during Development. Maria Stager Assistant Professor. Andrew Stephens Assistant Professor ...
Coxiella burnetii induces reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in human monocytes. Infect. Immun. 66, 5527-5533 (1998). ... Activation of protein tyrosine kinases by Coxiella burnetii: role in actin cytoskeleton reorganization and bacterial ... Actin dynamics and Rho GTPases regulate the size and formation of parasitophorous vacuoles containing Coxiella burnetii. Infect ... Lipopolysaccharide from Coxiella burnetii is involved in bacterial phagocytosis, filamentous actin reorganization, and ...
... is involved in actin cytoskeleton organization and functional regulation of podocytes. (c) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights ... In cultured human podocytes, puromycin aminonudeoside-induced disruption of F-actin and disorders of migration and spreading ... It is hypothesized that IQGAP1 contributes to actin reorganization in podocytes through interaction with nephrin. IQGAP1 ... is involved in actin cytoskeleton organization and functional regulation of podocytes. (c) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights ...
  • F-) actin and actin binding proteins (ABPs). (
  • Cytoskeleton Inc is dedicated to providing high quality antibodies to actin and actin binding proteins. (
  • Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments in the cytoskeleton, and the thin filaments in muscle fibrils. (
  • The evolutionary origin of actin can be traced to prokaryotic cells, which have equivalent proteins. (
  • A large number of illnesses and diseases are caused by mutations in alleles of the genes that regulate the production of actin or of its associated proteins. (
  • Third, actin filaments can bind to many other proteins, which together help modify and organize microfilaments for their diverse functions. (
  • Gα proteins promote dynamic adjustments of cell shape directed by actin-cytoskeleton reorganization via their respective RhoGEF effectors. (
  • To understand the underlying principles, we study the cytoskeleton dynamics, mechanics and interactions using divers systems: cell lines, ditaoms and purified proteins. (
  • Actin proteins can stick together and form long strings of proteins, filaments. (
  • Our focus is on the family of actin-organizing proteins called FHOD-family formins . (
  • The FHOD proteins are across animals, and are known to promote the proper organization of the muscle cell cytoskeleton, but details of how they contribute remain unclear. (
  • Ste20-like kinases and regulator proteins in the cytoskeleton of Dictyostelium discoideum. (
  • Nevertheless the TJ complex actin linker proteins Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and ZO-2 have been found in early junctions (Ooshio et al. (
  • 2010 preceding the Meisoindigo formation of apical TJs (Fanning and Anderson 2009 For Cadherin-actin linkage α-catenin is crucial but additional proteins including EPLIN and Vinculin could be needed as well (Abe and Takeichi 2008 Watabe-Uchida et al. (
  • Two candidate proteins that play roles in actin depolymerization are the actin-severing proteins cofilin and gelsolin. (
  • This reorganization of actin filaments occurs through the interactions between actin and actin binding proteins. (
  • Actin-binding proteins regulate the polymerization and depolymerization of actin, connect actin-based structures to membranes and to other cytoskeletal elements, power the movement of actin filaments, and cross-link actin filaments into bundles. (
  • Actin related proteins (Arp) 2/3 complex is an actin polymerization inducing complex that includes Arp2, Arp3, p41-Arc, p34-Arc, p21-Arc, p20 Arc, and p16-Arc. (
  • Many soluble proteins transit through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the prevacuolar compartment (PVC) en route to the vacuole, but our mechanistic understanding of this vectorial trafficking step in plants is limited. (
  • Specifically, Actin is assembled into contractile stress fibers, which are organized structures consisting of parallel Actin fibers with periodic cross-linking proteins such as alpha-Actinin and Myosin II motor proteins. (
  • Covering the apex of intestinal cells, microvilli are microscopic membrane protrusions structured by a network of actin filaments organized by actin binding proteins. (
  • The objective of my thesis consists on investigating how the microvillar actin binding proteins regulate two key features of these organelles: their functionality and plasticity. (
  • From a structural point of view, the actin filaments supporting microvilli are tightly packed together by three actin bundling proteins: villin, espin and plastin-1. (
  • They however confer the appropriate actin organization required for the apical retention of proteins essential for normal intestinal physiology. (
  • During cell division a cell will create a cytokinetic ring, a type of machinery comprised of actin and motor proteins called myosin, along the centre of the surrounding membrane. (
  • Their previously published data show there are two proteins: actin and unconventional myosin (MyoF), required for intracellular cargo transport in T. gondii. (
  • Both proteins are part of the T. gondii's cytoskeleton, the part of the cell responsible for maintaining cell shape and locomotion. (
  • The cytoskeleton, composed of actin, microtubules, and associated motor and binding proteins, self-organizes into different structures and morphologies to drive diverse mechanical processes in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Proteins of the cofilin family and Src family kinases are key regulators of αIIbβ3 mediated actin dynamics in platelets. (
  • The new discovery outlines the intricate dance required among cytoskeleton-regulating proteins to precisely construct protrusions that promote muscle cell merging. (
  • The researchers knew that the WASP-WIP protein duo binds to the growing ends of actin filaments, protecting these ends from being capped by proteins that prevent further actin growth. (
  • Localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens protein 1 and occludin and the rearrangement of cytoskeletal actin were examined by confocal microscopy. (
  • This work investigated the role of actin associated proteins, namely tropomyosin 1 (tpm1p) and mitochondrial distribution and morphology protein 20 (mdm20p), on the mechanical and morphological properties of yeast cells. (
  • By utilizing fluorescently tagged proteins, we have visualized these proteins along with genes implicated to cause human nephrotic syndrome (CD2AP, Myo1e, Nephrin) lie at the interface of endocytosis and actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Cellular morphology, adhesion, and motility occur through the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • BRAF increases endothelial cell stiffness through reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • The morphological and functional changes of activated platelets that ultimately trigger platelet aggregation are mediated by a profound reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • The ras homolog family member A ( RHOA ) gene encodes a member of the Rho family of small GTPases and is known to function in reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, which is associated with regulation of cell shape, attachment and motility. (
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Actin Filament Associated Protein 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (
  • Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Abl is an actin-binding protein and a key regulator of neuronal axonal development. (
  • Importantly, alongside these in vitro imaging approaches, it has been demonstrated that mutations in cytoskeleton regulators such as CD19, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8), and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) are often associated with antibody deficiency syndromes in humans, establishing the importance of cytoskeleton reorganizations in conferring effective adaptive immunity. (
  • An actin protein is the monomeric subunit of two types of filaments in cells: microfilaments, one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton, and thin filaments, part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells. (
  • Actin is extremely abundant in most cells, comprising 1-5% of the total protein mass of most cells, and 10% of muscle cells. (
  • The actin protein is found in both the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. (
  • Involved in microtubule cytoskeleton organization and protein metabolic process. (
  • Actin is the most abundant protein in our cells. (
  • Researchers from Bergen now found an enzyme that carries out the tiniest - yet critical - modification of actin: It adds a small chemical group to one end of the protein. (
  • Changing the biochemical properties of the protein means also changing the function of actin, the shape of actin fibres in the cells, and their ability to move. (
  • The actin cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that populate the cell's cytoplasm. (
  • Recently we showed by magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC) that the E-cadherin complex is a mechanosensor that directly responds to forces exerted on it and that the actin-binding protein Vinculin is important in this process (le Duc et al. (
  • The Arp2 and Arp3 subunits may nucleate actin polymerization, while the p41-Arc subunit is a WD repeat-containing protein that may regulate both the activity and localization of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • University of Warwick scientists find protein that bends the cytoskeleton of cells, twisting them into different shapes. (
  • The protein, named 'curly', has been observed bending the material that makes up the cytoskeleton for the first time. (
  • An interdisciplinary collaboration between Professor Mohan Balasubramanian, Dr Saravanan Palani (now at the Indian Institute of Science) and Dr Darius Köster at the University of Warwick was astonished to find that a segment of the protein Rng2, nicknamed 'curly', can naturally curve actin, with 10 micrometres of actin forming a ring less than a micrometre in diameter. (
  • More than 20 years ago, Rng2 was discovered by one of the lead authors, Professor Mohan Balasubramanian, as an important protein in this process, but only now have researchers made the astonishing observation that it can bend actin filaments into actual rings. (
  • Lead author Dr Darius Köster of Warwick Medical School said: "What we show is if we have this protein on the membrane and we polymerise fresh actin filaments at the membrane, representing what is happening in the cytokinetic ring, the actin starts to bend. (
  • Impaired interaction of naturally occurring mutant NF2 protein with actin-based cytoskeleton and membrane. (
  • Esposito A, Dohm CP, Kermer P, Bahr M, Wouters FS (2007) alpha-Synuclein and its disease-related mutants interact differentially with the microtubule protein tau and associate with the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Of the 13 known types of myosin, Levitt is focusing on myosin II or conventional myosin, which possesses an arm-like ability to reach out and pull itself forward along filaments of actin, a major protein component of the cell cytoskeleton. (
  • ALIX (ALG-2-interacting protein X), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein involved in endosomal sorting and actin cytoskeleton assembly, is required for the maintenance of fibroblast morphology. (
  • Here, we create active actin-microtubule networks by adding the motor protein myosin. (
  • Biederer T, Sudhof TC (2001) CASK and protein 4.1 support F-actin nucleation on neurexins. (
  • In a test tube, the researchers showed that the protein, Blown Fuse, disrupts the complex formed by the protein duo WASP and WIP, which are known regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • These results suggest that the growing ends of the actin cytoskeleton are occupied by the WASP-WIP protein duo and that without Blown Fuse to dissociate with the WASP-WIP complex and push WASP off the ends, new actin branches cannot be started," says Chen. (
  • The actin regulatory protein profilin is targeted to specific cellular regions through interactions with highly proline-rich motifs embedded within its binding partners. (
  • This regulation may represent a key mechanism by which eukaryotic cells regulate and coordinate the polarity of the actin cytoskeleton with the polarized delivery of protein and lipid to the cell surface. (
  • A gene on chromosome 18q11.1 that encodes a protein kinase, which is a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton and cell polarity. (
  • Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), an actin regulatory protein and functional receptor for the obesity-associated adipokine resistin, has been implicated with inferior cancer prognosis. (
  • Previous research had found that structures that are called microtubules, similar to the protein actin, become disorganized in space, so it may be that filaments of actin do the same. (
  • Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. (
  • Using this system, I aim to address whether and how cytoskeleton dynamics and their regulators contribute to PGC migration. (
  • 2005 Cadherin-induced activation of PI3-kinase and Rac1 leads to membrane and actin dynamics to further stimulate junction formation along the membrane (Noren et al. (
  • 2000 Thus much is known about the regulation of actin dynamics downstream of cell-cell junction formation. (
  • Therefore, cucurbitacin I targets some factor involved in cellular actin dynamics other than actin itself. (
  • The analysis also indicates that vesicle trafficking, membrane dynamics and cytoskeleton organization could have a role in the tolerance/sensitive mechanism. (
  • Besides its structural role, villin also nucleates, caps, and severs actin filaments in a calcium dependent manner, suggesting a central role in microvilli cytoskeleton dynamics. (
  • The aim of our study is the gain fundamental insights into the regulation of αIIbβ3 mediated actin dynamics, and to contribute to a detailed understanding of the molecular basis of platelet cell interactions and thromboembolic processes. (
  • Blown Fuse was found to play a role in muscle cell fusion 14 years ago," says Elizabeth Chen, Ph.D. assistant professor of molecular biology and genetics , "and now we know how Blown Fuse regulates the dynamics of the cytoskeleton to facilitate the invasion of one muscle cell by another. (
  • The intricate balance between actin filament growth, capping and branching, determines the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. (
  • Modulating the stability of the WASP-WIP complex may represent a general mechanism in regulating cytoskeleton dynamics and generating membrane protrusions," says Chen. (
  • A primary means by which F-actin transduces these signals is through its connections to focal adhesions and adherens junctions, which coordinate contact between the cell's actin cytoskeleton and either the extracellular matrix or another cell, respectively(Fig. 1). (
  • Focal adhesions link the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix and allow the cell to communicate with and respond to its environment. (
  • Cells have a complex actin and microtubule cytoskeleton network. (
  • Moreover, Rho family GTPases are pivotal for the control of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. (
  • Development of a novel in vitro model of capillary assembly has allowed the role of each of the GTPases in this process to be defined and has led to the identification of a novel role for the microtubule cytoskeleton in capillary morphogenesis. (
  • Two classes of actin microfilaments are associated with the inner cytoskeleton of axons. (
  • The distribution and length of actin microfilaments (MF) was determined in axoplasm extruded from the giant axons of the squid (Loligo pealeii). (
  • The multifaceted role of actin relies on a few of the microfilaments' properties: First, the formation of actin filaments is reversible, and their function often involves undergoing rapid polymerization and depolymerization. (
  • Herein, we show that sublethal concentrations of fluorescently labeled cytochalasin (Fl-Cyt) which binds to plus ends of microfilaments can image those sites, where actin polimerization occurs. (
  • With larger diameters than microfilaments, microtubules are stiff organelles that help maintain the cell 's shape as part of the cytoskeleton. (
  • Role of Actin Cytoskeleton During Primary Wall Cellulose Deposition. (
  • Utilizing this approach we addressed the role of actin polymerization in Phaseolus vulga ris living root hair cells, during normal apical growth and under NFs treatment. (
  • Collectively, these findings showed that activated IQGAP1, as an intracellular partner of nephrin, is involved in actin cytoskeleton organization and functional regulation of podocytes. (
  • Cytoskeleton, Inc. offers a wide range of kits and products for drug screening, signal transduction and cytoskeletal research. (
  • Ratiometric imaging of the T-cell actin cytoskeleton reveals the nature of receptor-induced cytoskeletal enrichment. (
  • Our results suggest that TCR-associated actin consists of a relatively high proportion of the stable cytoskeletal fraction and extends away from the cell membrane into the cell. (
  • Together, these studies support a critical role for Abl kinases in regulating dendrogenesis by inducing actin cytoskeletal rearrangements in cooperation with Rho GTPases. (
  • Actin-microtubule crosstalk' refers to the functional interactions that exist between these two cytoskeletal systems in living cells. (
  • The Rho family of small molecular weight GTPases are important regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, each influencing the formation of distinct cytoskeletal structures. (
  • Despite their importance for hemostasis and thrombosis, the molecular mechanism underlying the αIIbβ3 mediated actin cytoskeletal remodeling are still insufficiently understood. (
  • We employ biochemical and cell biological methods to analyze the functions of Chronophin and AUM for αIIbβ3 mediated actin cytoskeletal reorganization in platelets. (
  • Understanding the actin cytoskeleton's role in mechanotransduction goes beyond the basic biology underlying force-induced changes in actin-based cellular structures and functions. (
  • It is believed that the diverse range of structures formed by actin enabling it to fulfill such a large range of functions is regulated through the binding of tropomyosin along the filaments. (
  • There are a number of different types of actin with slightly different structures and functions. (
  • Especially we aimed at clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of sub-membrane actin structures in these cells by activation of actomyosin formation using calyculin A. This technique revealed that TIG-1 and Hela cells bore clearly different sub-membrane mechanical structures. (
  • Cancer and normal cells exhibit different mechanical features because of the difference of their optical-microscopy defined actin cytoskeleton structures [4,19]. (
  • Our previous study showed that the regulatory mechanisms for actin cytoskeleton structures are different in normal stromal and cancer cells [20]. (
  • To study the effect of NAA80 on the cellular actin structures, the team used gene scissors, CRISPR/Cas9, and cut NAA80 out of the genes of the cancer cell line HAP1. (
  • Filopodia are actin-based subcellular structures, important for cell movement and communication. (
  • They are very tightly coupled to the underlying actin structures. (
  • Such cellular remodeling releases a pool of actin that is remobilized to build efficient migratory structures. (
  • Filaments of actin are semi-flexible and normally straight and it has long been thought that they form structures by stacking together like matchsticks. (
  • If you look inside cells, there are definitely curved actin structures, but it was thought that they were stacks of very short straight filaments packed together. (
  • It was when 'curly' was present that they observed the actin forming highly curved structures, behaviour not normally seen in these kinds of experiments. (
  • Dr Köster adds: "We have very few tools we can use to modify the cell cortex and for the first time we have a way to engineer bent actin structures. (
  • Invasive structures involved in metastasis appear as greenish-yellow dots, while actin (green) and vinculin (red) are components of the cell's cytoskeleton. (
  • Stress fibers are specific determinants of cell mechanics [15], and cortical actin has also been reported to promote cortical rigidity [16,17]. (
  • Four stress fiber subtypes have been described based on intracellular location: ventral and dorsal stress fibers, perinuclear Actin cap, and transverse arcs. (
  • Phosphoinositide regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • This degeneracy may be a general feature of modules that bind proline-rich ligands, including WW and EVH1 domains, and has implications for the assembly and activity of macromolecular complexes involved in signaling and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • We discuss here our recent findings showing that Rab11, a key regulator of endosomal recycling, and Rac1, a central actin cytoskeleton regulator involved in lamellipodium formation and cell migration, interplay on endosomes through the Rab11 effector FIP3. (
  • Iliev AI, Djannatian JR, Nau R, Mitchell TJ, Wouters FS (2007) Cholestrol-dependent actin remodeling via RhoA and Rac1 activation by the Streptococcus pneumoniae toxin pneumolysin. (
  • When a Ca 2+ influx occurs, cross bridges form between myosin and actin leading to the contraction of the muscle fibers. (
  • VCR treatment could stabilize actin cytoskeleton structure and rescue the morphology of ADR-injured podocytes. (
  • However, we found that, unlike jasplakinolide or phallacidin, cucurbitacin I does not directly stabilize actin filaments. (
  • Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. (
  • These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. (
  • Actin participates in many important cellular processes, including muscle contraction, cell motility, cell division and cytokinesis, vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. (
  • The beta and gamma actins coexist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. (
  • This means that that the acetylation of actin acts like a break - slowing down cell motility", summarizes Aksnes. (
  • Upon treatment of MDCK or B16-F1 cells with cucurbitacin I, there is a very rapid cessation of motility and gradual accumulation of filamentous actin aggregates. (
  • To investigate the intracellular mechanism of the IOP reduction, primary trabecular meshwork cells were exposed to RKI-1447 or the vehicle control and then analyzed for changes in cytoskeleton, motility, and phagocytosis. (
  • Muscle actin cytoskeleton in old animals with destabilization of muscle cytoskeleton due to aging Right: Prevention of destabilization of muscle cytoskeleton in old animals by lowering the age-dysregulated high levels of EPS-8, a regulator of actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Formin-based control of the actin cytoskeleton during cytokinesis" by K. Adam Bohnert, Alaina H. Willet et al. (
  • Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and focal adhesion formation are associated with increased cell movement during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). (
  • Signaling pathways involving the Rho family of small GTPases mediate distinct actin cytoskeleton reorganization events in different cell types and have been proposed to be key mediators of dendritic development. (
  • Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Actin stress fiber assembly is regulated by Rho family GTPases, and fiber stability is maintained by inhibition of Actin depolymerization. (
  • Several families of small GTPases regulate a variety of fundamental cellular processes, encompassing growth factor signal transduction, vesicular trafficking and control of the cytoskeleton. (
  • Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate-dependent Rac Exchanger 2 (P-Rex2) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that specifically activates Rac GTPases, important regulators of actin cytoskeleton remodeling. (
  • The Rac-GEF function of P-Rex2 implies a specific role for P-Rex2 and Rac-GTPases in regulating the actin cytoskeleton in glutamatergic ribbon synaptic terminals of retinal photoreceptors and bipolar cells and appears to be ideally positioned to modulate the adaptive plasticity of these terminals. (
  • Therefore, the specific GEFs and GAPs expressed by a neuron and their localization within the cell determine the spatial and temporal activation of Rho-family GTPases and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Several GEFs that specifically activate Rac GTPases have been identified and are known to affect development and structure of neuronal processes, consistent with the importance of actin cytoskeleton remodeling to neuronal structure and function (e.g. (
  • IQGAP1 regulates actin cytoskeleton organization in podocytes through " by Y. P. Liu, W. Liang et al. (
  • Myosin II molecules cause the contraction of skeletal muscle by working together in chains, which simultaneously pull themselves along actin tracks from opposite ends of each muscle fiber. (
  • Our lab has demonstrated that platelet formation follows a defined set of morphogenetic shape changes driven by forces derived from both microtubules and actin filaments. (
  • which protect the body from infection, this signaling allows the actin cytoskeleton to establish the interaction between cells and the foreign invaders that they target (immune synapse). (
  • It is hypothesized that IQGAP1 contributes to actin reorganization in podocytes through interaction with nephrin. (
  • The myosin/actin interaction pulls heads inward and ATP hydrolysis drives contraction. (
  • The actin cytoskeleton is critical for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of its interaction with the endocytic process and how it may be regulated. (
  • These results identify CPG2 as an F-actin binding partner that functionally mediates interaction of the spine cytoskeleton with postsynaptic endocytosis. (
  • CPG2 labeling is confined to the base of dendritic spines, where actin accumulates, suggesting an interaction between CPG 2 and the actin cytoskeleton in spines. (
  • PB: Identification of a novel sequence in PDZ-RhoGEF that mediates interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • At this dilution, we detected actin in cell extracts of Xenopus A6 cells, mouse Swiss 3T3 cells, rat NRK cells, human HeLa cells and platelet cells. (
  • For immunofluorescence, we used the anti-actin antibody to detect actin in mouse Swiss 3T3 cells. (
  • We report that increased membrane septin-2 localization mediates decreases in paracellular permeability by altering cortical actin arrangement in human airway epithelial cells. (
  • Our research is focused on studies of the dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in living pancreatic beta cells during insulin secretion. (
  • Using this SR techniques, we have been able to show that (1) microvilli on pancreatic beta cells translocate in the plane of the plasma membrane and (2) the cortical actin network reorganizes when cells are stimulated to secrete insulin. (
  • It can be present as either a free monomer called G-actin (globular) or as part of a linear polymer microfilament called F-actin (filamentous), both of which are essential for such important cellular functions as the mobility and contraction of cells during cell division. (
  • In most cells actin filaments form larger-scale networks which are essential for many key functions: Actin networks give mechanical support to cells and provide trafficking routes through the cytoplasm to aid signal transduction. (
  • Rapid assembly and disassembly of actin network enables cells to migrate (Cell migration). (
  • This study investigated the effects of cytochalasin D (CD) on the distribution of actin filaments in mouse embryoid body (EB)-derived cells. (
  • Actin filaments in treated cells reorganized into a peripheral pattern, and type II collagen was detected by immunocytochemistry. (
  • Caco-2 cells labeled for tight junction molecule cingulin (green), actin (red), vinculin (pink) and DNA (blue). (
  • A network of mixed actin polarity in the lamellipodium of spreading cells. (
  • The actin cytoskeleton mediates a variety of essential biological functions in all eukaryotic cells. (
  • We report that exposure of C2C12 cells to BMP2 leads to an increase in cell migration and a rapid rearrangement of the actin filaments into cortical protrusions. (
  • On the other hand, the surface stiffness of Hela cells increased by actomyosin formation due to upregulation of the apical actin filaments. (
  • Thus, by analyzing the mechanical features of cells, it is possible to shed light on the characteristics of their intricate actin networks. (
  • The cortical rigidity of mitotic round cells is less than that of trypsinized round cells despite of similar cell morphology and optical-microscopy visible actin networks [18]. (
  • We demonstrated that the mechanical responsiveness to actin-modifying agents was different between these cells. (
  • For cell biologists, actin is important to study because it forms fibres that give the cells shape and the structure that allows them to move. (
  • When cells lack NAA80 then actin does not have the acetyl group at its N-terminus, corroborating that NAA80 is the single enzyme responsible for this processing. (
  • The absence of this enzyme that modifies actin caused cells to move faster than normal cells. (
  • Using again the NAA80-lacking cells, they purified actin. (
  • They then tested the biochemical properties of this special actin-form, and compared it to actin derived from normal cells. (
  • Understanding how muscle cells organize their actin cytoskeleton into efficient contractile units, using a combination of in vitro biochemistry, and analysis of cultured muscle cells and genetic models C. elegans and zebrafish. (
  • Comp23 treatment reduced the H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular accumulation of ROS, thus preserving the integrity of the cytoskeleton and also the viability of the FHs74Int cells. (
  • The cellular effect of the compound is similar to that observed when cells are treated with the actin filament-stabilizing agent jasplakinolide. (
  • Cucurbitacin I results in accumulation of actin filaments in cells by a unique indirect mechanism. (
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of COS-7 cells using β-Actin (13E5) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor ® 594 Conjugate) (red). (
  • Spatio-temporal analysis of actin polymerization sites in living root hair cells responding to specific Nod factors. (
  • Using these conditions the distribution of the actin polymerization sites was observed at the tip of growing root hair cells. (
  • The cover image, provided by the authors, shows fluorescently labelled cells: actin (magenta), Golgi (red) late endosomes/lysosomes (green) and nucleus (blue). (
  • This is supported by a cytoskeleton composed of a material called actin that give structure and stability to cells. (
  • Heaslip will work to understand how the cells regulate MyoF activity and how cargo packaged in vesicles interact with the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • The actin cytoskeleton has been reported to restrict signaling in resting immune cells. (
  • Revealing another part of the story of muscle development, Johns Hopkins researchers have shown how the cytoskeleton from one muscle cell builds finger-like projections that invade into another muscle cell's territory, eventually forcing the cells to combine. (
  • The test began with researchers putting fluorescent actin in fruit fly muscle cells that incorporated themselves into the growing actin branches in the finger-like protrusions. (
  • In muscle cells that lacked Blown Fuse, the fluorescence never fully recovered and the cytoskeleton failed to project finger-like protrusions, probably because the WASP-WIP complex does not come off the ends of the actin filaments to start new actin branches. (
  • Calcein staining showed appreciable degree of calcium mineralization in cell culture, and changes in the morphological attributes of differentiating cells were observed vis-a-vis the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • 17-19 NO donors may trigger, among other things, reduction of actomyosin contractility and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion system in the cells of the conventional outflow pathway, causing cell shape changes and overall relaxation of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal leading to decreased resistance to aqueous humour outflow. (
  • They used cells similar to neutrophils, a type of immune cell, but their research could apply to actin formation in other types of cells as well. (
  • After exposing the cells to a fluorescent marker that binds to actin, they will be able to see the actin in the cells under a fluorescence microscope. (
  • Migrating leukocytes normally have a polarized morphology with an actin-rich lamellipodium at the front and a uropod at the rear. (
  • The coordinated nature of the actin density fluctuations suggests that they are composed of filamentous actin, but it has not been possible to eliminate de novo polymerization at TCR-associated actin polymerizing factors as an alternative cause. (
  • This implies that actin enrichment at mechanically trapped TCRs results from three-dimensional bunching of the existing filamentous actin network. (
  • This is particularly the case for the filamentous networks that make up the cell skeleton (cytoskeleton), composed of actin . (
  • We report that an acidic pH shift from pH 7.8 to 6.6 improved barrier function and stimulated reorganization of filamentous actin with prominent basal stress fiber formation. (
  • In in vitro actin depolymerization experiments, cucurbitacin I had no effect on the rate of actin filament disassembly at the nanomolar concentrations that inhibit cell migration. (
  • Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex bridges the inner cytoskeleton (F-actin) and the basal lamina. (
  • abstract = "Light-induced chloroplast movement and attachment to the plasma membrane are dependent on actin filaments. (
  • Abstract Many diseases including cancer are associated with a disorganised cytoskeleton. (
  • In cultured human podocytes, puromycin aminonudeoside-induced disruption of F-actin and disorders of migration and spreading were aggravated by IQGAP1 siRNA, and these effects were partially restored by a wild-type IQGAP1 plasmid. (
  • Disruption of cytoskeleton and cell adhesion was investigated by immunofluorescence staining and by real-time RT PCR. (
  • Actin therefore contributes to processes such as the intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles as well as muscular contraction and cellular migration. (
  • The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca 2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. (
  • We conclude that E-cadherin-based FAJs connect forming cell-cell adhesions to the contractile actomyosin cytoskeleton. (
  • CBIO-30) Tumor treating fields (TTFields) inhibit cancer cell migration and invasion by inducing reorganizing of the actin cytoskeleton and formation of cell adhesions. (
  • An actin antibody can also be used but generally those also stain G-actin which creates a high background. (
  • Question 2: What dilution do you recommend for the polyclonal anti-actin antibody? (
  • This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated β-Actin (13E5) Rabbit mAb #4970. (
  • Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), Triton X-100, rapamycin and anti-β-actin antibody were purchased from Sigma Chemical (St. Louis, MO, USA). (
  • 2010 Concomitantly it was shown that in apical Adherens Junctions force-dependent stretching of the E-cadherin-actin linker α-catenin results in recruitment of Vinculin to these junctions (Yonemura et al. (
  • These molecules trigger changes in root hair morphology, plant gene expression, cortical cell dedifferentiation and mitosis, depolarization of root hair cell membrane potential, and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. (
  • Current focuses include understanding the molecular signals that trigger platelet production, using biologically inspired engineering to establish how the bone marrow microenvironment influences platelet production, understanding how the cytoskeleton powers platelet production. (
  • Their report on muscle cell cytoskeletons, published in Developmental Cell May 17, adds detail to a previous study last year showing that actin - a main building block of the cell's cytoskeleton - is required to form those finger-like projections and stimulate muscle cell merges. (
  • She will also identify if there are additional molecular plays required for cargo transport and how they work with actin and MyoF to accomplish this task. (
  • We previously synthesized steady-state actin-microtubule networks, finding that mechanical properties, such as network elasticity, depend on molecular interactions between actin and microtubules, such as the degree of crosslinking and bundling. (
  • Therefore, the structural and regulatory differences of the apical actin filaments could be demonstrated by atomic force microscopy elasticity mapping analysis. (
  • Nous avons apporté les preuves définitives montrant que la villine joue un rôle critique au cours de la réparation tissulaire en participant au processus de migration cellulaire par l'initiation du désassemblage du pôle apical. (
  • Apparently, these numerous short MF have an important structural role in the architecture of the inner axonal cytoskeleton. (
  • Actin cytoskeleton regulation in neuronal morphogenesis and structural plasticity. (
  • As such, direct or indirect insults to the plasma membrane or cytoskeleton of a cell may not only result in the temporary loss of structural integrity, but also directly impact its ability to respond to its environment. (
  • As the networks offer structural integrity to a cell, they are referred to as the cytoskeleton. (
  • The dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is critical to the establishment of neuronal architecture and formation of synaptic connections, as well as structural and functional plasticity in response to normal or pathological stimuli. (
  • With his thesis "Actin-Microtubule crosstalk studied by cryo electron microscopy" (graded 9.5), Nemo has won Delft Bioengineering Institute's BEI MSc Graduate Award 2020, comprising of a €1000 personal cash prize. (
  • Development of the dendritic tree is a series of dynamic events that result in the formation of a complex and highly ordered structure through abundant remodeling and reorganization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. (
  • 2001 Furthermore Cadherin adhesion leads to recruitment and activation of several actin regulators such as the Arp2/3 complex (Kovacs Meisoindigo et al. (
  • beta catenin is an element of the anchoring complex between cadherins+cytoskeleton. (
  • Its location is regulated by cell membrane signal transduction pathways that integrate the stimuli that a cell receives stimulating the restructuring of the actin networks in response. (
  • for instance during dorsal closure angiogenesis immune responses wound healing and tumorigenesis) is governed by the same basic principles (Cavey and Lecuit 2009 Engagement of cell-cell junction receptors activates several signaling pathways that regulate actin conformation. (
  • Further, the regulation of CPG2/F-actin association by PKA provides a gateway for cellular control of synaptic receptor internalization through second messenger signaling pathways. (
  • Mutations in the different genes that regulate actin production in humans can cause muscular diseases, variations in the size and function of the heart as well as deafness. (
  • Then, the researchers used a laser beam to bleach the fluorescent actin in the region of the finger-like protrusions and waited to see whether and how long it would take for new, unbleached actin to spread from other parts of the cell and be taken up by the growing branches in the "fingers. (
  • Together, these findings suggest that Cdc42 and PI3K signals emanating from BMP receptors are involved in specific regulation of actin assembly and cell migration. (
  • Cytoskeleton Inc Laboratories manufactures the actin filament of the cytoskeleton reagents distributed by Genprice. (
  • Cytoskeleton Inc Laboratories manufactures the cytoskeleton in a plant cell reagents distributed by Genprice. (
  • The Acti-stain fluorescent phalloidin probes are very bright and stable and provide a very easy and economical way to label F-actin. (
  • Length measurements of MF prepared either in the presence or absence of the actin-filament stabilizing drug phalloidin indicate that axoplasm contains two populations of MF: stable MF (number average length of 0.79 micron) and metastable MF (number average length of 0.41 micron). (
  • Phalloidin staining of the actin cytoskeleton was used to study cell rounding and retraction fiber formation. (
  • at adherns junctions, anchorage is to actin, at desmosome junctions, anchorage is to intermediate filaments. (
  • Adrian Drazic, the biochemist of the team, visited the lab of Professor Roberto Dominguez at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia to learn state-of-the art methods in the field of actin biology. (