Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Filamins: A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate: A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)PeptidoglycanAdherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.WingExtracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Cell Nucleus Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.PhosphoproteinsImage Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA: A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Acanthocytes: Erythrocytes with protoplasmic projections giving the cell a thorny appearance.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesErythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Nerve Tissue ProteinsBacterial Processes: The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Amdinocillin: An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Armadillo Domain Proteins: A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
van den Ent F, Johnson CM, Persons L, de Boer P, Löwe J (2010). "Bacterial actin MreB assembles in complex with cell shape ... A common misconception is that peptidoglycan gives the cell its shape; however, whereas peptidoglycan helps maintain the ... Gram-positive cell wall Penicillin binding protein forming cross-links in newly formed bacterial cell wall. The peptidoglycan ... structural strength of the cell, it is actually the MreB protein that facilitates cell shape. Peptidoglycan is also involved in ...
This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly ... and the morphology and function of cortical actin filaments in human melanoma cells". J. Cell Biol. 155 (4): 511-7. doi:10.1083 ... Li Z, Kim ES, Bearer EL (2002). "Arp2/3 complex is required for actin polymerization during platelet shape change". Blood. 99 ( ... "Entrez Gene: ACTR2 ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast)". Bearer EL, Prakash JM, Li Z (2002). "Actin dynamics in ...
The shape of the cell is supported by proteins. Proteins such as actin, microtubules and intermediate filaments provide ... These proteins allow the cell to import or export cell products, nutrients or signals to and from the extracellular space. ... This product may be transcribed and be functional as RNA or is translated from mRNA to a protein to be functional in the cell. ... RNA molecules that do not code for any proteins still maintain a function in the cell. The function of the RNA depends on its ...
"Flexural rigidity of microtubules and actin filaments measured from thermal fluctuations in shape". The Journal of Cell Biology ... However, the HYDRO program has no limitation regarding to the shape of molecule. For estimation of single stranded DNA ...
... regulate the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and are involved in various cellular functions such as cell polarity, ... Faix J, Grosse R (June 2006). "Staying in shape with formins". Developmental Cell. 10 (6): 693-706. doi:10.1016/j.devcel. ... The addition of the DAD to mammalian cells induces actin filament formation, stabilises microtubules, and activates serum- ... Baarlink C, Brandt D, Grosse R (July 2010). "SnapShot: Formins". Cell. 142 (1): 172, 172.e1. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.06.030. ...
The nucleation of actin fibers occurs as a response to external stimuli, allowing a cell to alter its shape to suit a ... Microvilli are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells. ... Actin filaments, present in the cytosol, are most abundant near the cell surface. These filaments are thought to determine the ... Microvilli should not be confused with intestinal villi, which are made of many cells. Each of these cells has many microvilli ...
Rho proteins promote reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulate cell shape and motility. RhoC can activate formins ... Wheeler AP, Ridley AJ (2004). "Why three Rho proteins? RhoA, RhoB, RhoC, and cell motility". Exp. Cell Res. 301 (1): 43-9. doi: ... It also reduced the cell's speed of movement, because it was difficult, and sometimes impossible, to polarize the cell. RhoC ... "RhoC Is Essential for Angiogenesis Induced by Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Regulation of Endothelial Cell Organization." ...
It is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, nonspore-forming bacterium. This species polymerizes host cell actin. This ... is a complication that occurs when bacteria enter the digestive system and produce toxins to destroy red blood cells that may ...
Clarke M, Spudich JA (1977). "Nonmuscle contractile proteins: the role of actin and myosin in cell motility and shape ... With Huxley, he started working on an actin/myosin/ATP model for molecular motors, proposing that myosin would ratchet actin ... Spudich first attempted to create an in vitro setup with actin and myosin. However, he faced great difficulty aligning actin ... Warrick HM, Spudich JA (1987). "Myosin structure and function in cell motility". Annual Review of Cell Biology. 3: 379-421. doi ...
... is a component of actin-containing microfilaments that control cell shape, adhesion, and contraction. Palladin was ... cell motility, scar formation in the skin, and nerve cell development. Recently, it has been demonstrated that palladin RNA is ... Cell. 12 (10): 3060-73. doi:10.1091/mbc.12.10.3060. PMC 60155 . PMID 11598191. Otey CA, Rachlin A, Moza M, Arneman D, Carpen O ... Cell. 12 (10): 3060-73. doi:10.1091/mbc.12.10.3060. PMC 60155 . PMID 11598191. Eberle MA, Pfützer R, Pogue-Geile KL, et al. ( ...
The multiprotein complex serves to tranduce signals that involve changes in cell shape, motility or function. GRCh38: Ensembl ... The gene product is a protein that forms a multiprotein complex that links receptor kinases and actin. Binding to actin occurs ... 2005). "WAVE3 promotes cell motility and invasion through the regulation of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 expression". Exp. Cell Res ... 2002). "WAVE3, an actin-polymerization gene, is truncated and inactivated as a result of a constitutional t(1;13)(q21;q12) ...
The multiprotein complex serves to tranduce signals that involve changes in cell shape, motility or function. The published map ... The gene product is a protein that forms a multiprotein complex that links receptor kinases and actin. Binding to actin occurs ... Cell. 8 (9): 1709-21. doi:10.1091/mbc.8.9.1709. PMC 305731 . PMID 9307968. Bear JE, Rawls JF, Saxe CL (1998). "SCAR, a WASP- ... Cell Biol. 6 (4): 319-27. doi:10.1038/ncb1105. PMID 15048123. WASF2 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. WASF2 human ...
Synaptopodin is an actin-associated protein that may play a role in actin-based cell shape and motility. The name synaptopodin ... "Synaptopodin orchestrates actin organization and cell motility via regulation of RhoA signalling". Nature Cell Biology. 8 (5): ... an actin-associated protein in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes". The Journal of Cell Biology. 139 (1): 193-204. doi ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Garovic VD, Wagner SJ, Petrovic LM, Gray CE, Hall P, ...
While p130 controls cell shape by interaction with actin, and is expressed during the period of blood vessel stabilization and ... Transfection of p130 angiomotin into MAE cells results in change in cell shape, increased average cell size and stress fiber ... which mediates the binding of p130 to F-actin and tight cell-cell junctions. This binding remains after destabilizing actin ... It localizes to cell-cell junction like p80 and regulates paracellular permeability. Its N-terminal domain localizes to actin ...
Animal cells form many different shapes based on their function and location in the body. Rho proteins help cells regulate ... Cofilin's function is to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton of a cell; namely, it depolymerizes actin segments and thus inhibits ... Before the cell can bud, Cdc42 is used to locate the region of the cell's membrane that will begin to bulge into the new cell. ... G-actin) or filamentous (F-actin) forms. The role of Rho family of GTPases and its effects in the stability of actin and spine ...
"Migfilin and Mig-2 link focal adhesions to filamin and the actin cytoskeleton and function in cell shape modulation". Cell. 113 ... Remodeling of the cytoskeleton is central to the modulation of cell shape and migration. Filamin A, encoded by the FLNA gene, ... Actin-binding protein, or filamin, is a 280-kD protein that crosslinks actin filaments into orthogonal networks in cortical ... and RhoG-specific GEF domain of Trio targets filamin to remodel cytoskeletal actin". Nat. Cell Biol. 2 (12): 888-92. doi: ...
"Migfilin and Mig-2 link focal adhesions to filamin and the actin cytoskeleton and function in cell shape modulation". Cell. 113 ... "Migfilin and Mig-2 link focal adhesions to filamin and the actin cytoskeleton and function in cell shape modulation". Cell. 113 ... FERMT2 is a component of extracellular matrix structures in mammalian cells and is required for proper control of cell shape ... FERMT2 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Tu Y, Wu S, Shi X, Chen K, Wu C (2003). " ...
The Histamine H4 receptor has been shown to be involved in mediating eosinophil shape change and mast cell chemotaxis. This ... occurs via the βγ subunit acting at phospholipase C to cause actin polymerisation and eventually chemotaxis. The 3D structure ... H4 is highly expressed in bone marrow and white blood cells and regulates neutrophil release from bone marrow and subsequent ... The highly selective histamine H4 antagonist VUF-6002 is orally active and inhibits the activity of both mast cells and ...
... microtubules and actin microfilaments regulates cell shape in normal and cancer cells". Carcinogenesis. 30 (4): 555-65. doi: ... TCTP interacts with F-actin and mitotic spindle and regulates cell shape by interacting with the cytoskeleton. Since most ... It prevents cell death by binding to calcium, an ion that causes cell death. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of TCTP ... cell cycle, apoptosis, Cell proliferation, growth, tumor reversion, stress response, gene regulation, heat shock In essence, ...
In eukaryotes, the function of these shared proteins include cell membrane deformation, cell shape formation, and a dynamic ... Another shared protein, actin, is essential for phagocytosis in eukaryotes. Phagocytosis is the ability to engulf and consume ... Due to the low density of cells in the sediment, the resulting genetic sequence does not come from an isolated cell, as would ... which help the cells produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell), and a membrane-bound nucleus ...
This pyramid shape is achieved through tubulin and actin in the apical portion of the cell which constricts as they move. The ... causing bulging in areas of the cells forcing the height and shape of the cell to change. This process is known as apical ... Neural crest cells will migrate through the embryo and will give rise to several cell populations, including pigment cells and ... variation in cell shapes is partially determined by the location of the nucleus within the cell, ...
... small spindle-shaped cells and cuboidal epithelioid cells. LAM cells stain positively for smooth muscle actin, vimentin, desmin ... Compared with cigar-shaped normal smooth muscle cells, spindle-shaped LAM cells contain less abundant cytoplasm and are less ... The spindle-shaped cells of the LAM lesion are more frequently proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive than the cuboidal ... LAM cells behave, in many ways, like metastatic tumor cells. LAM cells appear to arise from an extrapulmonary source and ...
Actin is a component of the cytoskeleton and it also participates in motility and in changes in cell shape. Through its T3SS ... In order for this to happen the bacterial effectors manipulate the actin polymerization machinery of the host cell. ... The secreted effector proteins are secreted directly from the bacterial cell into the eukaryotic (host) cell, where they exert ... Effector proteins: get secreted into the host cell and promote infection / suppress host cell defences. Chaperones: bind ...
1998). "Frabin, a novel FGD1-related actin filament-binding protein capable of changing cell shape and activating c-Jun N- ... 2001). "Cooperation of Cdc42 small G protein-activating and actin filament-binding activities of frabin in microspike formation ...
The protein encoded by this gene may have a regulatory role in the actin cytoskeleton and induce cell-shape change and motility ... Machesky LM, Gould KL (Feb 1999). "The Arp2/3 complex: a multifunctional actin organizer". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 11 ... Actin-related protein 3B also known as ARP3-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTR3B gene. Pseudogenes of this ... Shindo-Okada N, Shimizu K (Jan 2001). "Isolation of a novel actin-related gene expressed in low-metastatic PC-14 human lung ...
... this is due to a change of shape of existing cells rather than their replication. The elongation progresses at 1.5 inches per ... nucleus and two sperm cells into the tube. The tube extends itself at the apex only, in an actin polymerization dependent ... The pollen tube is produced by the single vegetative cell in the pollen grain, which passes its cytoplasm, ... through which the sperm cells (the gametes) pass to join the female gametophyte within the ovule. ...
involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Eur J Cell. Biol 2006;85(3-4):295-304.. 17. Lum LG, Tubergen DG, Corash L, Blease. ... The rapid destruction of abnormally shaped platelets is the primary cause for severe thrombocytopenia in WAS patients3. The ... key regulator of actin polymerization in hematopoietic cells. As a cytoskeletal regulator, it is necessary for induction of ... CDC42Hs, is implicated in actin polymerization.. Cell 1996;84:723-34.. 5. Villa A, Notarangelo L, Macchi P, et al. X-linked. ...
... implicating F-actin density as a likely determinant of cell shape. Importantly, the rescue of CROOKED cells with human ARPC5 ... Specific cell types are generated partly by differential growth (when certain cell regions rapidly expand). In animal cells, ... with their discovery that a mutation in the plant orthologue of ARPC5 causes random cell expansion and aberrant cell shape in ... an actin polymerization modulator in many organisms that generates fine F-actin arrays. By studying polarized cells in mutant ...
... actin tyrosine phosphorylation and exhibited diminished cell-shape change and an accelerated return to the extended cell-shape ... Tyrosine phosphorylation of actin in Dictyostelium associated with cell-shape changes Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... These cells responded with proportionally accelerated kinetics of cell rounding. Cell lines overexpressing PTP1 had diminished ... Most of the phosphorylation occurred in a single, minor acidic isoform of actin. Developing cells that had been returned to ...
Actin filaments are essential for cell locomotion, a defining feature of animal cells (30). For example, cells of the immune ... Assembly of actin filaments from their monomeric subunits can suffice to change the shape of the cell and produce a protrusion ... Even the cells of plants and fungi, despite being encased in a cell wall, use cytoskeletal polymers to direct the shape of ... Micrographs of actin filament structures in cells. (A) Fluorescence light micrograph of an animal epithelial cell grown in ...
Cell. 1996 Aug 23;86(4):631-42. Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Cell. 1996 Aug 23;86(4):631-42.. Cortexillins, major determinants of cell shape and size, are actin-bundling proteins with a ... Cortexillins I and II of D. discoideum constitute a novel subfamily of proteins with actin-binding sites of the alpha-actinin/ ... Cortexillin-linked actin filaments form preferentially anti-parallel bundles that associate into meshworks. Both cortexillins ...
Actin Plays a Role in Both Changes in Cell Shape and Gene- Expression Associated with Schwann Cell Myelination. Cristina ... Actin Plays a Role in Both Changes in Cell Shape and Gene- Expression Associated with Schwann Cell Myelination ... Actin Plays a Role in Both Changes in Cell Shape and Gene- Expression Associated with Schwann Cell Myelination ... Actin Plays a Role in Both Changes in Cell Shape and Gene- Expression Associated with Schwann Cell Myelination ...
We treated CHO-K1 cells with different concentr ... The actin filaments of the cytoskeleton form a highly dynamic ... polymer scaffold which is actively involved in many essential mechanisms such as cell migration, transport, mitosis, and ... Actins / metabolism*. Animals. CHO Cells. Cell Line. Cell Shape / drug effects*, physiology. Cells, Cultured. Cricetinae. ... Compaction of cell shape occurs before decrease of elasticity in CHO-K1 cells treated with actin cytoskeleton disrupting drug ...
Identification of new actin-associated polypeptides that are modified by viral transformation and changes in cell shape.. C ... Identification of new actin-associated polypeptides that are modified by viral transformation and changes in cell shape. ... C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles ... The Journal of Cell Biology Jul 1988, 107 (1) 153-161; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.107.1.153 ...
In these cells, changes in actin organization were invariably linked to and preceded cell shape alterations. As cell expansion ... Cell Shape Determination Involves the Actin Cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in cell shape determination ... Proper Actin Organization Is Essential for Cell-to-Cell Contact and Coordinated Targeting of Cell-Building Components. In ... actin bundling extended to underlying cells as well. In all cell types examined, regions free from localized actin accumulation ...
Orchestration of microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton in trichome cell shape determination by a plant-unique kinesin. ... Microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (F-actin) function cooperatively to regulate plant cell morphogenesis. However, the ... Further live-cell imaging and genetic analyses revealed that KCBP acts as a hub integrating MTs and actin filaments to assemble ... Our findings provide significant insights into the mechanisms underlying cytoskeletal regulation of cell shape determination. ...
Kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein integrates microtubules and F-actin to assemble the cytoskeletal configuration needed ... Orchestration of microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton in trichome cell shape determination by a plant-unique kinesin. ... C) A working model for KCBP during trichome cell shaping (right panel). The three spheres on the left panel show the 3-D ... Aberrant organization of F-actin in kcbp-1 trichomes.. (A-D) Spatio-temporal organization of F-actin in wild-type trichomes ...
... proteins are thought to constitute a bridge between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane (PM). Here we report a ... Dmoesin Controls Actin-Based Cell Shape and Polarity During Drosophila Melanogaster Oogenesis Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Oct;4(10):782 ... mutations in Dmoesin produce severe defects in cell shape. ... Alteration of the actin cytoskeleton resulting from Dmoesin ... Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin (ERM) proteins are thought to constitute a bridge between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma ...
... movement of F-actin away from the center of the cell, asymmetry of F-actin distribution, and change from round to polar shape. ... The actin released from profilin--actin complexes is insufficient to account for the increase in F-actin in chemoattractant- ... Relationship of F-actin distribution to development of polar shape in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. J Cell Biol 15 May ... Relationship of F-actin distribution to development of polar shape in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils TD Coates, TD Coates ...
... we here show evidence of such self-organization of the actin cortex in living HeLa cells. During cell adhesion, an active ... Consequently, tuning the activity of the Arp2/3 complex to alter filament assembly may thus be a mechanism allowing cells to ... Concomitant measurements of mechanics and plasma membrane fluidity demonstrate that changes in actin patterning alter membrane ... Cell-free studies have demonstrated how collective action of actin-associated proteins can organize actin filaments into ...
Both fh1 and arpc5 mutations increased actin network density and increased cell shape complexity in pavement cells and ... Both fh1 and arpc5 mutations increased actin network density and increased cell shape complexity in pavement cells and ... While cotyledon pavement cell shape in double mutants mostly resembled single arpc5 mutants, analysis of true leaf epidermal ... While cotyledon pavement cell shape in double mutants mostly resembled single arpc5 mutants, analysis of true leaf epidermal ...
In an elegant coupled PDE model, they show that right and left growing actin filaments, competing for the actin branching ... The authors ask what processes might account for a parabolic density profile of actin seen across the front edge of a ...
Dev Cell. 2020 Jan 27;52(2):210-222.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.12.011. Epub 2020 Jan 9. ... CDK1; actin organization; cell shape; cortex; mitosis; mitotic rounding; phosphorylation; plectin; proteomics; vimentin ... actin-actin; B). Graph: mean ± standard deviation (actin-actin, n = 10 and actin-VIM, n = 14; at least 3 independent ... N = 4 independent experiments for VIM-WT (n = 52 cells) and N = 3 for VIM-56E (n = 57 cells). In some cells (15 cells out of 52 ...
1989) Red cell shape. Cell Shape: Determinants, Regulation, and Regulatory Role (Academic, San Diego), pp 205-246. ... 2015) Dynamic actin filaments control the mechanical behavior of the human red blood cell membrane. Mol Biol Cell 26:1699-1710. ... Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) motors exert force on diverse F-actin networks to control cell shapes, but a function for NMII ... 1978) The red cell shape as an indicator of membrane structure: Ponders rule reexamined. Red Cell Rheology, eds Bessis M, ...
... or shape) and functions of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, it is unclear whether and how cell shape can ... or shape) and functions of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, it is unclear whether and how cell shape can ... or shape) and functions of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, it is unclear whether and how cell shape can ... or shape) and functions of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, it is unclear whether and how cell shape can ...
2000b. Regulation of actin filament cross-linking and bundle shape in Drosophila bristles. J. Cell Biol. 148:87-100. ... Actin dynamics in lamellipodia of migrating border cells in the Drosophila ovary revealed by a GFP-actin fusion protein. FEBS ... The actin bundles in Drosophila bristle cells represent one of the best places to study this process. Bristle cells represent ... Continuous actin bundles are assembled from and broken down into modules. If the actin bundles in bristle cells are examined ...
Interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix are at the core of tissue engineering and biology. However, most ... Although the shapes of these cell adhesions differed, the total area per cell occupied by cell-matrix adhesions in 2D and 3D ... Direct comparisons of the morphology, migration, cell adhesions, and actin cytoskeleton of fibroblasts in four different three- ... Specifically, we quantified parameters of cell adhesion and migration by human foreskin fibroblasts in cell-derived matrix or ...
Learn about labeled phalloidin and its utility in cellular imaging studies to provide F-actin staining and context for other ... Actin staining shows you the shape and structure of the cell. Actin is one of the most abundant proteins found in cells, and ... Actin microfilament labeling in fixed and permeabilized cells. Actin, a protein found in every eukaryotic cell, exists as both ... Labeling F-actin can help show the overall shape and structure of the cell and provide context for other fluorescent labels. ...
2009) Actin, a central player in cell shape and movement. Science 326(5957):1208-1212. ... The actin cytoskeleton provides the basis for shape dynamics and motility of eukaryotic cells. Essential biological processes ... 2004) Mobile actin clusters and traveling waves in cells recovering from actin depolymerization. Biophys J 87(5):3493-3503. ... We performed live-cell recordings of the actin dynamics in chemotactic Dictyostelium cells with laser scanning confocal ...
The cell polarity proteins Boi1 and Boi2 direct an actin nucleation complex to sites of exocytosis ... 8f, right). Note the shape changes of wild type vacuoles in comparison to the round shaped wal1 vacuoles. (Time=minutes:seconds ... Seven things that shaped preLights in 2019. As 2020 gets well and truly underway, join us as we look back at seven things that ... Most read of 2019 - Transporting cells over several days without dry-ice. Congratulations to Sally Wheatley and Denys Wheatley ...
1993). Principles of locomotion for simple-shaped cells. Nature 362, 167-171. ... 1996). Actin-based cell motility and cell locomotion. Cell 84, 371-379. ... In stationary cells, actin rich, ring-like structured actin clouds were observed in addition to stress fibers. These ruffle- ... This functional EGFP-actin construct enabled observation of the actin cytoskeleton in living cells by time lapse fluorescence ...
  • These results suggest that the characteristic functions defining a cell's mechanical stability such as mechanosensitivity can be maintained via small changes in cell volume in order to counter fluctuations in cytoskeletal composition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cell's actin plays a role in health problems such as drug-resistant bacterial infections, metastatic cancers, and developmental defects, Mullins said. (ucsf.edu)
  • Nervous system function requires morphological and functional plasticity of neurons and glial cells, which is largely determined by the dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to intrinsic and extracellular signals. (springer.com)
  • Here we examine the role of FH1 and the ARP2/3 complex subunit ARPC5 (At4g01710) in epidermal cell morphogenesis with focus on pavement cells and trichomes using a model system of single fh1 and arpc5 , as well as double fh1 arpc5 mutants. (frontiersin.org)
  • The protein actin is one of the most highly conserved throughout evolution because it interacts with a large number of other proteins, with 80.2% sequence conservation at the gene level between Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a species of yeast), and 95% conservation of the primary structure of the protein product. (wikidoc.org)
  • Understanding actin-based biological phenomena will depend on identifying the participating molecules and defining their molecular mechanisms. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1996 ). Cell migration: a physically integrated molecular process. (biologists.org)
  • Spectral characteristics of Molecular Probes actin-selective probes-Table 11.2 lists the available phallotoxin derivatives, along with their spectral properties. (thermofisher.com)
  • Figure 2: Characterization of the molecular interaction between SLP-76 and WASp in fixed and live cells. (nature.com)
  • The immunological synapse: a molecular machine controlling T cell activation. (nature.com)
  • Dustin, M.L. & Cooper, J.A. The immunological synapse and the actin cytoskeleton: molecular hardware for T cell signaling. (nature.com)
  • Monomeric actin has a molecular mass of about 43 kDa and can polymerize to form F-actin, which comprises two protofilaments that form a right-handed double helix ( 6 , 13 , 23 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • To elucidate the molecular interaction network of endogenous Lrrk2 under stoichiometric constraints, we applied QUICK (quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown) in NIH3T3 cells. (mcponline.org)
  • Hence, our results demonstrate that molecular interactions as well as the physiological function of Lrrk2 are closely related to the organization of the actin-based cytoskeleton, a crucial feature of neuronal development and neuron function. (mcponline.org)
  • Understanding the shaping aspects of plant cells requires knowledge of the molecular players and the biophysical conditions under which they operate. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The graduate program in molecular and cell biology, leading to the degree of doctor of philosophy, is designed to provide each student with the theoretical foundations and research experience needed to become an independent and original investigator of basic biological phenomena. (brandeis.edu)
  • Edward Egelman, professor of biochemistry and molecular genetics at U.Va., said the significance of this research is that it could be possible to design molecules to prevent SipA from binding to a protein called actin, preventing the severe infection associated with Salmonella. (eurekalert.org)
  • Egelman and his colleagues found that SipA works as a molecular "staple" and tethers itself to actin, a protein found in all human cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hsp27 is involved in a variety of cellular functions including molecular chaperone activity, control of apoptosis, and regulation of the actin filament cytoskeleton [ 1 - 3 , 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Undergraduate and graduate students in Bezanilla's plant biology classes at UMass Amherst, including the many underrepresented minority students who attend summer institutes, will benefit from taking part in these studies because they will learn about gene transcription and translation among other topics, and receive training in RNA-induced gene silencing, fluorescent protein labeling, using DNA to transform cells, molecular cloning, microscopy and other laboratory techniques. (umass.edu)
  • Human development would not get very far if none of our living cells could move, and how these legless wonders do manage to move is the research focus of newly named HHMI investigator Dyche Mullins, PhD, a professor in the Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at UCSF. (ucsf.edu)
  • Work in my lab is aimed at understanding signaling and behavior at the molecular level in living cells. (upstate.edu)
  • Most significantly, the screen identified a role for minibrain ( mnb/ DYRK1A), a kinase associated with Down's syndrome, in the regulation of actin-based protrusions in CNS-derived cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For applications such as high-content screening (HCS) assays requiring larger sample sizes, GFP-actin fusions are well-established probes for imaging cytoskeletal structure and dynamics. (thermofisher.com)
  • Nawaz S et al (2015) Actin filament turnover drives leading edge growth during myelin sheath formation in the central nervous system. (springer.com)