Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

Vertebrate isoforms of actin capping protein beta have distinct functions In vivo. (1/91)

Actin capping protein (CP) binds barbed ends of actin filaments to regulate actin assembly. CP is an alpha/beta heterodimer. Vertebrates have conserved isoforms of each subunit. Muscle cells contain two beta isoforms. beta1 is at the Z-line; beta2 is at the intercalated disc and cell periphery in general. To investigate the functions of the isoforms, we replaced one isoform with another using expression in hearts of transgenic mice. Mice expressing beta2 had a severe phenotype with juvenile lethality. Myofibril architecture was severely disrupted. The beta2 did not localize to the Z-line. Therefore, beta1 has a distinct function that includes interactions at the Z-line. Mice expressing beta1 showed altered morphology of the intercalated disc, without the lethality or myofibril disruption of the beta2-expressing mice. The in vivo function of CP is presumed to involve binding barbed ends of actin filaments. To test this hypothesis, we expressed a beta1 mutant that poorly binds actin. These mice showed both myofibril disruption and intercalated disc remodeling, as predicted. Therefore, CPbeta1 and CPbeta2 each have a distinct function that cannot be provided by the other isoform. CPbeta1 attaches actin filaments to the Z-line, and CPbeta2 organizes the actin at the intercalated discs.  (+info)

Toxofilin, a novel actin-binding protein from Toxoplasma gondii, sequesters actin monomers and caps actin filaments. (2/91)

Toxoplasma gondii relies on its actin cytoskeleton to glide and enter its host cell. However, T. gondii tachyzoites are known to display a strikingly low amount of actin filaments, which suggests that sequestration of actin monomers could play a key role in parasite actin dynamics. We isolated a 27-kDa tachyzoite protein on the basis of its ability to bind muscle G-actin and demonstrated that it interacts with parasite G-actin. Cloning and sequence analysis of the gene coding for this protein, which we named Toxofilin, showed that it is a novel actin-binding protein. In in vitro assays, Toxofilin not only bound to G-actin and inhibited actin polymerization as an actin-sequestering protein but also slowed down F-actin disassembly through a filament end capping activity. In addition, when green fluorescent protein-tagged Toxofilin was overexpressed in mammalian nonmuscle cells, the dynamics of actin stress fibers was drastically impaired, whereas green fluorescent protein-Toxofilin copurified with G-actin. Finally, in motile parasites, during gliding or host cell entry, Toxofilin was localized in the entire cytoplasm, including the rear end of the parasite, whereas in intracellular tachyzoites, especially before they exit from the parasitophorous vacuole of their host cell, Toxofilin was found to be restricted to the apical end.  (+info)

Actin dynamics is controlled by a casein kinase II and phosphatase 2C interplay on Toxoplasma gondii Toxofilin. (3/91)

Actin polymerization in Apicomplexa protozoa is central to parasite motility and host cell invasion. Toxofilin has been characterized as a protein that sequesters actin monomers and caps actin filaments in Toxoplasma gondii. Herein, we show that Toxofilin properties in vivo as in vitro depend on its phosphorylation. We identify a novel parasitic type 2C phosphatase that binds the Toxofilin/G-actin complex and a casein kinase II-like activity in the cytosol, both of which modulate the phosphorylation status of Toxofilin serine53. The interplay of these two molecules controls Toxofilin binding of G-actin as well as actin dynamics in vivo. Such functional interactions should play a major role in actin sequestration, a central feature of actin dynamics in Apicomplexa that underlies the spectacular speed and nature of parasite gliding motility.  (+info)

Capping protein binding to actin in yeast: biochemical mechanism and physiological relevance. (4/91)

The mechanism by which capping protein (CP) binds barbed ends of actin filaments is not understood, and the physiological significance of CP binding to actin is not defined. The CP crystal structure suggests that the COOH-terminal regions of the CP alpha and beta subunits bind to the barbed end. Using purified recombinant mutant yeast CP, we tested this model. CP lacking both COOH-terminal regions did not bind actin. The alpha COOH-terminal region was more important than that of beta. The significance of CP's actin-binding activity in vivo was tested by determining how well CP actin-binding mutants rescued null mutant phenotypes. Rescue correlated well with capping activity, as did localization of CP to actin patches, indicating that capping is a physiological function for CP. Actin filaments of patches appear to be nucleated first, then capped with CP. The binding constants of yeast CP for actin suggest that actin capping in yeast is more dynamic than in vertebrates.  (+info)

ASP-56, a new actin sequestering protein from pig platelets with homology to CAP, an adenylate cyclase-associated protein from yeast. (5/91)

A new 56 kDa actin-binding protein (ASP-56) was isolated from pig platelet lysate. In falling ball viscosimetry it caused a reduction in viscosity that could be attributed to a decrease in the concentration of polymeric actin. Fluorescence measurements with NBD-labelled actin showed reduction of polymeric actin, too. These results could be explained by sequestering of actin in a non-polymerizable 1:1 ASP-56/actin complex. Sequencing of about 20 tryptic peptides of ASP-56 and comparison with known sequences revealed about 60% homology to the adenylate cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from yeast.  (+info)

The pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein CKIP-1 is involved in regulation of cell morphology and the actin cytoskeleton and interaction with actin capping protein. (6/91)

CKIP-1 is a pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein that interacts with protein kinase CK2. To elucidate the functions of CKIP-1, we generated human osteosarcoma cell lines with tetracycline-regulated expression of Flag-CKIP-1. Flag-CKIP-1 expression resulted in distinct changes in cellular morphology. Therefore, we examined the actin profile by immunofluorescence, quantitative measurement of phalloidin binding, and immunoblot analysis. These studies demonstrate that Flag-CKIP-1 expression resulted in increases in F-actin staining and protein levels of beta-actin. To elucidate the mechanisms behind the observed phenotype, we utilized tandem affinity purification to isolate CKIP-1 interacting proteins. Mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of the actin capping protein subunits, CPalpha and CPbeta, as novel CKIP-1 interaction partners. Interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and by colocalization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ser9 of CPalpha is phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 in vitro, that CPalpha is phosphorylated in vivo, and that treatment with a CK2-specific inhibitor results in a decrease in CPalpha phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate that CKIP-1 and CK2 inhibit the activity of actin capping protein at the barbed ends of actin filaments. Overall, our results are consistent with CKIP-1 playing a role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton through its interactions with actin capping protein.  (+info)

Mutations in the Drosophila orthologs of the F-actin capping protein alpha- and beta-subunits cause actin accumulation and subsequent retinal degeneration. (7/91)

The progression of several human neurodegenerative diseases is characterized by the appearance of intracellular inclusions or cytoskeletal abnormalities. An important question is whether these abnormalities actually contribute to the degenerative process or whether they are merely manifestations of cells that are already destined for degeneration. We have conducted a large screen in Drosophila for mutations that alter the growth or differentiation of cells during eye development. We have used mitotic recombination to generate patches of homozygous mutant cells. In our entire screen, mutations in only two different loci, burned (bnd) and scorched (scrd), resulted in eyes in which the mutant patches appeared black and the mutant tissue appeared to have undergone degeneration. In larval imaginal discs, growth and cell fate specification occur normally in mutant cells, but there is an accumulation of F-actin. Mutant cells degenerate much later during the pupal phase of development. burned mutations are allelic to mutations in the previously described cpb locus that encodes the beta-subunit of the F-actin capping protein, while scorched mutations disrupt the gene encoding its alpha-subunit (cpa). The alpha/beta-heterodimer caps the barbed ends of an actin filament and restricts its growth. In its absence, cells progressively accumulate actin filaments and eventually die. A possible role for their human orthologs in neurodegenerative disease merits further investigation.  (+info)

A modular design for the clathrin- and actin-mediated endocytosis machinery. (8/91)

Endocytosis depends on an extensive network of interacting proteins that execute a series of distinct subprocesses. Previously, we used live-cell imaging of six budding-yeast proteins to define a pathway for association of receptors, adaptors, and actin during endocytic internalization. Here, we analyzed the effects of 61 deletion mutants on the dynamics of this pathway, revealing functions for 15 proteins, and we analyzed the dynamics of 8 of these proteins. Our studies provide evidence for four protein modules that cooperate to drive coat formation, membrane invagination, actin-meshwork assembly, and vesicle scission during clathrin/actin-mediated endocytosis. We found that clathrin facilitates the initiation of endocytic-site assembly but is not needed for membrane invagination or vesicle formation. Finally, we present evidence that the actin-meshwork assembly that drives membrane invagination is nucleated proximally to the plasma membrane, opposite to the orientation observed for previously studied actin-assembly-driven motility processes.  (+info)

Toxoplasma, a human pathogen and a model apicomplexan parasite, actively and rapidly invades host cells. To initiate invasion, the parasite induces the formation of a parasite-cell junction, progressively propels itself through the junction inside a newly formed vacuole that encloses the entering parasite. Litle is known how a few micron-large diameter parasite overcome the host cell cortical actin barrier to support these remarkably rapid process of internalization (, few seconds). Correlative light and electron microscopy in conjunction with electron tomography and three-dimensional image analysis indicate that toxofilin an actin-binding protein, secreted by invading parasites correlates with localized sites of disassembly of the host cell actin meshwork. Moreover, quantitative fluorescence speckle microscopy in cells expressing toxofilin indicates that toxofilin regulates actin filament disassembly and turnover. Furthermore, Toxoplasma tachyzoites lacking toxofilin, are impaired in cortical ...
Toxoplasma gondii, the protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, initiates invasion of its host cells by inducing the assembly of a parasite-cell junction. Concomitantly, the plasma membrane of the host cell invaginates around the parasite to form a parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The parasite then propels itself through the junction and multiplies in its host cell within the PV. Given the size of the parasite, PV formation and parasite internalization are likely to require local loosening of the host cell cortical actin barrier, but how is this achieved? On page 4333, Isabelle Tardieux, colleagues and collaborators propose that toxofilin, an actin binding protein secreted by T. gondii, facilitates parasite invasion by regulating host cortical actin filament turnover. They show that parasites lacking toxofilin are impaired in cell invasion, although they eventually enter host cells, and that toxofilin secreted by invading parasites specifically associates with areas of host cell actin meshwork ...
In the present study, we demonstrated the prognostic value of CapG as well as its important role in proliferation and metastasis of glioma. In the TCGA data analysis, we attempted to explore the correlation of CapG with common genetic alterations of GBM. Notably, we noted that CapG expression was correlated to several of them (amplifications of CDK6, EGFR, MET and SYK, mutations of PTEN and RB1), and the correlation was only observed in non-proneural or proneural subtype. These data provide a clue for further study of the regulation of CapG expression in GBM patients. Moreover, we investigated the influence of differential CapG expression on GBM patient prognosis stratified by these molecular alterations. Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested that the prognostic significance of CapG was dependent on the status of EGFR or CDK6 alteration.. EGFR is a vital oncogene found in many malignancies, and the majority of GBM show activated EGFR signaling through its amplification or genetic alteration, which ...
F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)-independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ends. Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. The isoform beta-3 may play a role in spermatogenesis. Alternatively, may play a role in later maturation steps such as capacitation and fertilization which involve changes of membrane domains. May play a role in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization.
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Looking for info on why my daughter who has CP has suddenly developed a twitching of her arm. It is pretty severe. The arm constantly moves back and f
Expression of CARMIL1 (CARMIL, dJ501N12.1, FLJ20048, LRRC16, LRRC16A) in cervix, uterine tissue. Antibody staining with HPA029038 and HPA029039 in immunohistochemistry.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Listerias right-handed helical rocket-tail trajectories. T2 - Mechanistic implications for force generation in actin-based motility. AU - Zeile, William L.. AU - Zhang, Fangliang. AU - Dickinson, Richard B.. AU - Purich, Daniel L.. PY - 2005/2/1. Y1 - 2005/2/1. N2 - Listeria monocytogenes forms right-handed helical rocket tail trajectories during actin-based motility in cell-free extracts, and this stereochemical feature is consistent with actoclampins affinity-modulated, clamped-filament elongation model [Dickinson and Purich, 2002: Biophys J 82:605-617]. In that mechanism, right-handed torque is generated by an end-tracking molecular motor, each comprised of a filament barbed end and clamping protein that processively traces the right-handed helix of its filament partner. By contrast, torque is not a predicted property of those models (e.g., elastic propulsion, elastic Brownian ratchet, tethered ratchet, and insertional polymerization models) requiring filament barbed ends to ...
Looking for online definition of barbed end in the Medical Dictionary? barbed end explanation free. What is barbed end? Meaning of barbed end medical term. What does barbed end mean?
When the heavier homologues KSCN and KSeCN are employed, the Fe(III) compounds 3 and 4 are isolated in low yield (Scheme 1). The formation of these compounds is unexpected, since generally no redox processes are encountered when pseudohalides coordinate to transition metals,15 which implies that the Cp′Fe-fragment is susceptible to redox chemistry. Furthermore, this redox behavior is apparently facilitated by the synergy between two or more Fe atoms, an effect that also accounts for the facile N2 release from [Bu4N]N3 in the presence of [(tbsL)Fe3(thf)].4 Furthermore, S-C bond cleavage of a SCN− ligand is a rare event, but has previously been observed in [Pd3(SCN)(μ3-CO)(μ-dppm)3]+ to form [Pd3(μ3-S)(CN)(μ-dppm)3]+.16 The FeMoco nitrogenase enzyme also transiently binds SCN− before reduction to HCN and H2S occurs; but the mechanism of this biological SCN− reduction remains unknown.17 Cleavage of the S-C and Se-C bond to form 3 and 4 requires that the Fe(II) atoms are oxidized to ...
Expression of CARMIL1 (CARMIL, dJ501N12.1, FLJ20048, LRRC16, LRRC16A) in endometrium 2 tissue. Antibody staining with HPA029038 and HPA029039 in immunohistochemistry.
Compare phosphatase and actin regulator 1 S homeolog ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by whic …
On Fri, Feb 21, 2003 at 01:11:58PM +0100, Maciej W. Rozycki wrote: , , , Does Cobalt have a processor that implements its pipeline differently or , , , interlocks on CP0 loads? If not, Ill apply the following fix. , , , , Mfc0 doesnt need a nops on any R4000 class CPU I know of. , , Well, my MIPS R4k manual is vague on this matter and my IDT software , manual for R3k, R4k, R5k is even explicit on the load delay slot of mfc0. , But a run-time test proves otherwise. , , I stand corrected then unless someone finds a counter-example. All I can say its working fine like this since 1984 for R4000 class CPUs. Ralf ...
Learn about pediatric cerebral palsy symptoms, diagnostic tests & treatment from the experts, including information on CP in babies, kids, & teens.
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What is Actin ransomware? And how does it execute its attack? Actin ransomware is a dangerous threat and is a new variant of Phobos ransomware. This crypto-virus was discovered at the end of May 2019. It appends the ...Actin extension to its targeted files. The moment it enters a system, this crypto-malware performs
Inspite of the fact that many cant get over the Ghostface Killah influence in Action Bransons flow, he remains to … More. ...
ஆக்டின் என்பது தசை செல்களில் உள்ள நாராலான ஒரு புரத வகையாகும்.. ...
TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski ...
Actin filament elongation as a function of the surface density of side-binding proteins.(A-B) The change in length, ΔL, as a function of time for a filament
The effect of applying an external load to actin filaments moving in the in vitro motility assay is studied. Bead-tailed actin filaments were made by polym
This study addresses three coach behaviours effects (warmness behaviour (WB); stimulating action (SA) and planning and structuring activities (PSA)) in two dimensions of coaching outcomes (coachees performance (CP) and the quality of the coach-coachee relationship (QCCR)). The paper argues that coaching is a helpful tool to achieve greater performances in the long run when considering coaches who present higher levels of maturity. Results reveal the positive impact of SA and PSA over CP and QCCR. The adoption of WB has a negative impact on CP and a positive impact on the QCCR. Evidence also supports the relevancy of coaching experience over coaching training. Such results pose a paradox worth exploring in subsequent studies, for it challenges the usefulness of coaches training. Contributions are related to introducing the concept of WB within the organisational context and addressing two different time horizons regarding the coach behaviour. ...
Positronium is the lightest purely leptonic object decaying into photons. As an atom bound by a central potential, it is a parity eigenstate, and as an atom built out of an electron and an anti-electron, it is an eigenstate of the charge conjugation operator. Therefore, the positronium is a unique laboratory to study discrete symmetries whose precision is limited, in principle, only by the effects due to the weak interactions expected at the level of $10^{-14}$ and photon- photon interactions expected at the level of $10^{-9}$. Violation of T or CP invariance in purely leptonic systems has never been seen thus far. The experimental limits on CP and CPT symmetry violation in the decays of positronium are set at the level of $10^{-3}$ and litmits on charge conjugation violation are set at the level of $10^{-7}$. Thus, there is still a range of six orders of magnitude as regards T and CP, and two order of magnitude as regards the C symmetry, where the phenomena beyond the Standard Model can be ...
Please register to see prices including your discount. Registration may take up to 24h. For guest orders the standard discount of your institution will apply and discounts are visible on the order confirmation.. ...
Intentionally slow lifting is believed by some to be the best way to develop strength. Learn the truth behind the myth about the force-velocity relationship.
Prost Actin BREAKING NEWS: Click Here To Read This Exclusive Prost Actin Review! Does Prost Actin Work? Get The Facts. Learn More About This Product Today!
Cytoskeleton, Inc provides fluorescent Spirochrome SPY555-actin live cell imaging probe to label actin for single or dual fluorescent color imaging and is an improvement over Syto61, DRAQ5, or Vybrant DyeCycle Ruby dyes.
Cytoskeleton, Inc provides fluorescent Spirochrome SPY555-actin live cell imaging probe to label actin for single or dual fluorescent color imaging and is an improvement over Syto61, DRAQ5, or Vybrant DyeCycle Ruby dyes.
Actin (pan alpha), 0.1 mg. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Figure 1 Tying a knot in an actin filament. Explanatory drawings are added in images 3 7. In images 3 and 7, the microscope focus was moved to below the filament to bring down the end beads which were trapped at the focus level; the focus was above the filament in image 5. Scale bar, 10 µm. ...
A fundamental question regarding autophagosome formation is how the shape of the double-membrane autophagosomal vesicle is generated. Here we show that in mammalian cells assembly of an actin scaffold inside the isolation membrane (the autophagosomal precursor) is essential for autophagosomal membrane shaping. Actin filaments are depolymerized shortly after starvation and actin is assembled into a network within the isolation membrane. When formation of actin puncta is disrupted by an actin polymerization inhibitor or by knocking down the actin-capping protein CapZβ, isolation membranes and omegasomes collapse into mixed-membrane bundles. Formation of actin puncta is PtdIns(3)P dependent, and inhibition of PtdIns(3)P formation by treating cells with the PI(3)K inhibitor 3-MA, or by knocking down Beclin-1, abolishes the formation of actin puncta. Binding of CapZ to PtdIns(3)P, which is enriched in omegasomes, stimulates actin polymerization. Our findings illuminate the mechanism underlying
Maréchal, Georges ; Beckersbleukx, G.. [Effects of nitric oxide on force-velocity relationship of striated skeletal musculature of the mouse].64th Conference of the Societe-de-Physiologie (LILLE(France), Sep 18-20, 1996). In: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry : the journal of metabolic diseases, Vol. 104, no. 4, p. D72 (1996 ...
A steady pool of actin monomers must be maintained to enable a polymerization to continue beyond the rapid elongation phase. This is, in part, aided by the actin binding protein profilin, which promotes ADP to ATP nucleotide exchange on G-actin. However, the rate of monomer dissociation from the (-) end of the filament is also important. Dissociation of the subunits ultimately results from ATP hydrolysis, which induces a conformational change in the actin subunit that weakens its association with neighboring subunits (as reviewed in [1]). The concentration of actin monomers in the cytosol will either favor disassembly, or assembly of the actin filament, and these values are known as the critical concentration (Cc). When the concentration of free subunits exceeds the Cc, filament elongation occurs spontaneously [2]. Importantly, the Cc usually varies between the filament (+) end and the (-) end. At the steady state, which is achieved when the rate of filament polymerization is equally balanced by ...
THE actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in a diverse set of cellular processes, including cell polarization, cytokinesis, cell adhesions, and endocytosis. The dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton is spatially and temporally regulated. How the actin cytoskeleton assembles and functions, including how its assembly relates to its function, are fundamental questions in cell biology.. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model system for studies of the actin cytoskeleton dynamics because yeast cells have a relatively simple actin cytoskeleton and offer powerful experimental tools. Throughout the yeast cell cycle, precisely choreographed changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton underlie spatial control of cell-surface growth and thereby determine cell morphology. Extension of the cell surface is preceded by the polarized organization of two actin-filament-containing structures: actin cables and cortical actin patches.. Actin cables, long bundles of ...
End capping of cytoskeletal filaments is a key mechanism for regulating filaments elongation and disassembly, as well as the organization of the cytoskeletal architecture. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments to inhibit further elongation and is involved in the formation of branched actin networks in concert with Arp2/3 (Akin and Mullins, 2008). Here, we show that CP plays an essential role in the formation of dendritic spines. In particular, CP knockdown promoted the formation of thin filopodia-like protrusions and inhibited proper spine development. Dendritic spines initiate as filopodia-like protrusions from dendritic shafts, and then convert to mature spine structure with an expanded head (Ziv and Smith, 1996; Yoshihara et al., 2009; Hotulainen and Hoogenraad, 2010). Our data thus suggest that CP may function in the transition of filopodia to spines. CP is known to function in the formation of branched actin networks in lamellipodia in non-neuronal cells, and CP knockdown promotes ...
Zhu J, Bailly A, Zwiewka M, Sovero V, Di Donato M, Ge P, Oehri J, Aryal B, Hao P, Linnert M, Burgardt N, Lücke C, Weiwad M, Michel M, Weiergräber O, Pollmann S, Azzarello E, Mancuso S, Ferro N, Fukao Y, Hoffmann C, Wedlich Söldner R, Friml J, Thomas C, Geisler M. 2016. TWISTED DWARF1 mediates the action of auxin transport inhibitors on actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Plant Cell. 28(4), 930-948 ...
Figure 1: Ultra-Pure Actin is ,90% polymerization-competent. Ultra-Pure Actin was polymerized in the absence (-PB) or presence (+PB) of Actin Polymer Buffer (10X, Cat. No. 000103; 50 mM KCl and 2 mM MgCl2) followed by centrifugation at 48k rpm for 1 hour. Pellet (P) and supernatant (S) fractions were collected and subjected to SDS-PAGE and Coomassie G250-staining. >90% of Ultra-Pure Actin was incorporated into filaments as determined by measuring the residual protein concentration in the supernatant fraction.. ...
Actin is the essential force-generating component of the microfilament system, which powers numerous motile processes in eukaryotic cells and undergoes dynamic remodeling in response to different internal and external signaling. The ability of actin to polymerize into asymmetric filaments is the inh …
Treatment with SMIFH2 decreases the actin level in oocytes and impairs spindle formation.A. Treatment with SMIFH2 decreases the cortical actin level in maturing
Dynamic behavior of actin filaments in cells is the basis of many different cellular activities. Remodeling of the actin filament network involves polymerization and depolymerization of the filaments. Proteins that regulate these behaviors include proteins that sever and/or cap actin filaments. This report presents direct observation of severing of fluorescently-labeled actin filaments. Coverslips coated with gelsolin, a multi-domain, calcium-dependent capping and severing protein, bound rhodamine-phalloidin-saturated filaments along their length in the presence of EGTA. Upon addition of calcium, attached filaments bent as they broke. Actophorin, a low molecular weight, monomer sequestering, calcium-independent severing protein did not sever phalloidin-saturated filaments. Both gCap 39, a gelsolin-like, calcium-dependent capping protein that does not sever filaments, and CapZ, a heterodimeric, non-calcium-dependent capping protein, bound the filaments by one end to the coverslip. Visualization ...
Cell behavior is controlled by extracellular signals that work through signal transduction pathways to regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Some of these extrinsic signals positively affect the cytoskeleton and induce actin polymerization, but extrinsic signals that negatively regulate and disassemble actin filaments also exist. A family of multidomain proteins, the MICALs, directly associates with Semaphorins, cell surface receptors involved in negative or repulsive cues. Working with purified proteins and in vivo, Hung et al. now find that actin filaments serve as a direct substrate for Micals enzymatic activity. Mical posttranslationally alters actin at its methionine 44 residue, which disrupts the association between actin monomers and cutting actin filaments. Altering the methionine 44 residue makes actin resistant to Mical-mediated disassembly in vitro and in vivo in Drosophila.. R.-J. Hung, C. W. Pak, J. R. Terman, Direct redox regulation of F-actin assembly and ...
Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: Internalization assay. endosomes associated with dynamic actin assemblies. 3T6 cells stably expressing EGFP-fused -actin (green) were infected with Alexa Fluor 546-labeled MPyV (reddish) (MOI of 102 to 103 computer virus particles per cell) at 37C and scanned with T?=?4 s. Selected frames of cell at 45 min p.i. with corresponding transmission light images illustrate short-distance movement of virus-carrying endosomes associated with dynamic assemblies of EGFP-actin (observe Movie S3). White colored arrowheads point to MPyV virions. Arrows point to endosome-associated actin assemblies. Black arrowheads show MPyV-containing endosomes. Bars, 5 m. Cells were examined using a Leica TCS SP2 AOBS confocal microscope.(TIF) pone.0096922.s002.tif (4.6M) GUID:?75128633-6C0E-4733-829A-F64BA5BC7B02 Number S3: Intracellular distribution of fluorescently tagged transferrin during expression of Rab11 GTPase mutants. 3T6 cells expressing EGFP-fused wt, DN or CA version of Rab11 ...
0062] In some implementations, as illustrated by FIG. 4, a needle 122a can include a barbed end 146 defining a recessed engagement surface 148. The needle capture device can comprise a needle attachment fitting or cuff 136. Specifically, the needle attachment cuff 136 can have a roughly cylindrical shape and include an axial channel 150 configured to receive the barbed end 146 of needle 122a therein. In additional implementations, the needle attachment cuff 136 can include shapes other than cylindrical ones, such as, for example, conical. The needle attachment cuff 136 can include one or more features configured to lock the barbed end 146 of the needle 122a therein. For instance, as shown in FIG. 4, the needle attachment cuff 136 can include at least one tab 152. The tab 152 may be mechanically formed to be smaller than the diameter of surface 148. The tab 152 can be resiliently biased into channel 150. As the needle 122a advances into the needle attachment cuff 136, the barbed end 146 can ...
misc{2054071, author = {Tondeleir, Davina and Ampe, Christophe and Vandekerckhove, Jo{\e}l}, language = {eng}, publisher = {Wiley}, series = {Encyclopedia of life sciences}, title = {Actin and actin filaments}, url = {}, year = {2011 ...
GO:0030833. Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the assembly of actin filaments by the addition of actin monomers to a filament. ...
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As of March 2017, during the lab retreat, the group is composed of Guillaume, Sandy, Yan, Emiko, Héliciane, Bérengère, Hugo, Antoine and Mikaël. ...
Unlike gelsolin and severin this protein does not sever actin filaments. The F-actin capping protein is a heterodimer composed ... the F-actin capping protein is a protein complex which binds in a calcium-independent manner to the fast-growing ends of actin ... Neither of the subunits shows sequence similarity to other filament-capping proteins. The alpha subunit is a protein of about ... "Beta-actinin is equivalent to Cap Z protein". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (15): 8712-5. PMID 2341404. Cooper JA, Caldwell JE, Gattermeir ...
F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA1 gene. CAPZA1 is a member of the F- ... actin capping protein alpha subunit family. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein. The ... 2003). "Linking the T cell surface protein CD2 to the actin-capping protein CAPZ via CMS and CIN85". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (25): ... "Entrez Gene: CAPZA1 capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1". Dawson SJ, White LA (1992). "Treatment of ...
F-actin capping protein. FNDC38 - Represses transcription. Tumour metastasis. HK2 - Represses transcription. Glucose-6- ...
"Mammalian CARMIL Inhibits Actin Filament Capping by Capping Protein". Developmental Cell. 9 (2): 209-221. doi:10.1016/j.devcel. ... "capping protein regulator and myosin 1 linker 1". Retrieved 2020-11-09. "Salmonella infection data for Lrrc16a". Wellcome Trust ... CARMIL1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CARMIL1 gene. The gene is also known as LRRC16, LRRC16A, CARMIL, or ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 6, Human proteins, Genes mutated in mice, All stub articles, Human chromosome 6 gene stubs). ...
... (CAPG) also known as actin regulatory protein CAP-G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... By capping the barbed ends of actin filaments, the encoded protein contributes to the control of actin-based motility in non- ... "Entrez Gene: CAPG capping protein (actin filament), gelsolin-like". Ghoshdastider, U; Popp, D; Burtnick, L. D.; Robinson, R. C ... Mishra VS, Henske EP, Kwiatkowski DJ, Southwick FS (1995). "The human actin-regulatory protein cap G: gene structure and ...
May 2002). "Antagonism between Ena/VASP proteins and actin filament capping regulates fibroblast motility". Cell. 109 (4): 509- ... The Actin assembly-inducing protein (ActA) is a protein encoded and used by Listeria monocytogenes to propel itself through a ... an actin monomer binding protein, which itself promotes polymerization at barbed ends of actin filaments. Furthermore, VASP ... In the cytosol they start to polymerize actin on their surface by the help of the ActA protein. It has been shown that ActA is ...
Other proteins bind to the ends of actin filaments, stabilizing them. These are called "capping proteins" and include CapZ and ... It also seems that in the case of actin, the CAP protein is required as a possible cofactor in actin's final folding states. ... Actin is one of the most conserved proteins throughout the evolution of eukaryotes. The sequences of actin proteins from ... These proteins are called actin-binding proteins and they are involved in actin's polymerization, depolymerization, stability, ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1A gene. This gene encodes one ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa". Human ARPC1A genome location and ARPC1A gene details ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ...
In the proposed 'capping' model, an uncharacterized protein complex moves rearward, moving the parasites forward. The ... This is accomplished through the use of an actin and myosin complex. The complexes require an actin cytoskeleton to perform ... Both protists use protein complexes similar to those that are formed by the gregarines for gliding motility and invading target ... doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1979.tb04197.x. Heintzelman MB (June 2004). "Actin and myosin in Gregarina polymorpha". Cell Motil. ...
Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Bearer EL (March 1992). "An actin-associated protein present in the microtubule organizing center and the growth cones of PC-12 ... Bearer EL, Abraham MT (February 1999). "2E4 (kaptin): a novel actin-associated protein from human blood platelets found in ... "Entrez Gene: KPTN kaptin (actin binding protein)". "Body weight data for Kptn". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose ...
The encoded protein caps the pointed end of actin filaments preventing both elongation and depolymerization. The capping ... This gene encodes a muscle-specific member of the tropomodulin family of actin-regulatory proteins. ... that caps actin filament pointed ends in fast skeletal muscle". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (40): 28466-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.40.28466 ... Tropomodulin 4 (muscle) also known as TMOD4 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TMOD4 gene. ...
"Actin-Capping Protein and the Hippo pathway regulate F-actin and tissue growth in Drosophila". Development. 138 (11): 2337-2346 ... A team led by Jose Feijó discovered a new function of these proteins, showing that moss sperm uses them to navigate towards the ... It was shown in a study published in Development, in April 2011, that one of the proteins that regulates the skeleton of the ... For many years biologists have wondered why plants have so many genes coding for proteins that are known to be essential for ...
The encoded protein caps the pointed end of actin filaments preventing both elongation and depolymerization. The capping ... This gene encodes a neuronal-specific member of the tropomodulin family of actin-regulatory proteins. ... Tropomodulin 2 (neuronal) also known as TMOD2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TMOD2 gene. ... a novel isoform of tropomodulin identified as the major binding protein to brain tropomyosin". J. Cell Sci. 109 (9): 2299-310. ...
... , also known as CAPZ, CAZ1 and CAPPA1, is a capping protein that caps the barbed end of actin filaments in muscle cells. ... CapZ+Actin+Capping+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CyMoBase - Database of ... Heiss, Steven; Cooper, John (June 24, 1991). "Regulation of CapZ, an actin capping protein of chicken muscle, by anionic ... Gremm, D.; Wegner, A. (2000-07-01). "Gelsolin as a calcium-regulated actin filament-capping protein". European Journal of ...
... protein CKIP-1 is involved in regulation of cell morphology and the actin cytoskeleton and interaction with actin capping ... "The role of CKIP-1 in cell morphology depends on its interaction with actin-capping protein". The Journal of Biological ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ...
The protein regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end of growing actin filaments. CapZβ functions to cap ... F-actin-capping protein subunit beta, also known as CapZβ is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZB gene. CapZβ ... Casella JF, Craig SW, Maack DJ, Brown AE (July 1987). "Cap Z(36/32), a barbed end actin-capping protein, is a component of the ... CAPZB is a member of the F-actin capping protein family. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the barbed-end actin binding ...
These proteins respond to an increase in Ca2+ and cap the "barbed end" of the recently severed F-actin. The increased level of ... Actin-binding proteins (ABPs) aid in the transformation of actin filaments throughout the actin remodeling process. These ... globular or G-actin and filament/filamentous or F-actin. Globular actin is the monomeric form of the protein while the ... The ADF/Cofilin protein family also serves to severe actin-filament networks through the weak severing of actin networks. This ...
This, along with plus end capping proteins, such as capZ stabilise the structure of the actin filament. End capping is ... is a protein which binds and caps the minus end of actin (the "pointed" end), regulating the length of actin filaments in ... The protein functions by physically blocking the spontaneous dissociation of ADP-bound actin monomers from the minus end of the ... TMOD1 TMOD2 TMOD3 TMOD4 Rao, J. N.; Madasu, Y.; Dominguez, R. (24 July 2014). "Mechanism of actin filament pointed-end capping ...
The human protein is able to interact with other molecules of the same protein, as well as with CAP2 and actin. CAP1 has been ... The protein encoded by this gene is related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAP protein, which is involved in the cyclic AMP ... Hubberstey A, Yu G, Loewith R, Lakusta C, Young D (Apr 1997). "Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin". J Cell ... "Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin". J. Cell. Biochem. UNITED STATES. 61 (3): 459-66. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097- ...
"Genomic organization of mouse and human erythrocyte tropomodulin genes encoding the pointed end capping protein for the actin ... A tropomyosin-binding protein". J Biol Chem. 267 (4): 2616-21. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)45926-1. PMID 1370827. Sung LA, Fan Y ... Tropomodulin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMOD1 gene. GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028328 - ... "Entrez Gene: TMOD1 tropomodulin 1". Ursitti JA, Fowler VM (1994). "Immunolocalization of tropomodulin, tropomyosin and actin in ...
Abl is also thought to promote repulsive signaling by binding to adenylyl cyclase associated proteins (CAP), which regulate ... a Rho GTPase which mediates actin depolymerization. In Drosophila, the SH3-SH2 adaptor protein Dock binds directly to the CC2 ... Another protein Commissureless (Comm) was found to be an essential regulator of Robo: in comm mutants, Robo activity is too ... Brose K, Bland KS, Wang KH, Arnott D, Henzel W, Goodman CS, Tessier-Lavigne M, Kidd T (March 1999). "Slit proteins bind Robo ...
Further, Ena/VASP prevents the action of capping protein, which halts actin polymerization. Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander ... is a cytoskeletal protein actin projection on the leading edge of the cell. It contains a quasi-two-dimensional actin mesh; the ... Ena/VASP proteins are found at the leading edge of lamellipodia, where they promote actin polymerization necessary for ... The lamellipodium is born of actin nucleation in the plasma membrane of the cell and is the primary area of actin incorporation ...
However, the protein appears to be able to interact with adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and actin. CAP2 has been shown to ... Hubberstey A, Yu G, Loewith R, Lakusta C, Young D (Jun 1996). "Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin". Journal of ... "Entrez Gene: CAP2 CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein, 2 (yeast)". Human CAP2 genome location and CAP2 gene details page ... Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAP2 gene. This gene was identified by its ...
This gene encodes a member of a family of calcium-regulated actin-binding proteins. This protein represents a dominant part of ... "Functional dissection and molecular characterization of calcium-sensitive actin-capping and actin-depolymerizing sites in ... Khurana S, George SP (June 2008). "Regulation of cell structure and function by actin-binding proteins: villin's perspective". ... "Autotaxin and lysophosphatidic acid stimulate intestinal cell motility by redistribution of the actin modifying protein villin ...
CAP/Ponsin protein, also known as Sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... multifunctional Src homology 3 domain-containing protein in formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions". The Journal ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (Nov 2002). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... "The adapter protein c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP) protects from acute CVB3-mediated myocarditis through stabilization of type ...
Additionally, they have been known to interact with the cytoskeleton adaptor protein, CAP/ponsin, suggesting cell signalling ... roles and regulation of actin organisation. Teneurin-3 regulates the structural and functional wiring of retinal ganglion cells ... Human genes encoded teneurin domain proteins (TENM1-4) are list in the infoboxes. Tucker RP, Chiquet-Ehrismann R, Chevron MP, ... The name refers to "ten-a" (from "tenascin-like protein, accessory") and "neurons", the primary site of teneurin expression. ...
"Actin capping protein: an essential element in protein kinase signaling to the myofilaments". Circulation Research. 90 (12): ... Actin-capping protein, CapZ appears to affect the localization of PKCε to Z-lines and modulates the cardiomyocyte response to ... Sarcomeric proteins have been identified in PKCε signaling complexes, including actin, cTnT, tropomyosin, desmin, and myosin ... Zeidman R, Trollér U, Raghunath A, Påhlman S, Larsson C (Jan 2002). "Protein kinase Cepsilon actin-binding site is important ...
F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2 also known as CapZ-alpha2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA2 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: CAPZA2 capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2". "Protein sequence of human CAPZA2 (Uniprot ID: ... Ivanenkov VV, Dimlich RV, Jamieson GA (Apr 1996). "Interaction of S100a0 protein with the actin capping protein, CapZ: ... Conserved residues within the actin-binding domain may link Cap Z to gelsolin/severin and profilin protein families". The ...
Actin polymerization together with capping proteins were recently used to control the 3-dimensional growth of protein filament ... including motor proteins, branching proteins, severing proteins, polymerization promoters, and capping proteins. Measuring ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... Actin monomer-binding proteins profilin and thymosin β4 Filament barbed-end cappers such as Capping Protein and CapG, etc. ...
They concluded that the lamellipodial network incorporates the Arp 2/3 complex and capping proteins during initial assembly, ... Spatial and temporal relationships between actin-filament nucleation, capping, and disassembly. Curr Biol. 2007 Mar 6; 17(5): ... Iwasa, Janet (June 21, 2006). "Spatial and Temporal Relationships between Actin-Filament Nucleation, Capping, and Disassembly ... "Spatial and temporal relationships between actin-filament nucleation, capping, and disassembly." Her study with Mullins focused ...
The enzyme belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Schell MJ, Erneux C, Irvine RF (2001). "Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A associates with F-actin and dendritic spines ... "KN-93 inhibition of G protein signaling is independent of the ability of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II to ...
... and other proteins important for regulating microtubule dynamics. Recently an actin-like protein has been found in the gram- ... Since tubulin adds onto the end of the microtubule in the GTP-bound state, a cap of GTP-bound tubulin is proposed to exist at ... MAP-1 proteins consists of a set of three different proteins: A, B and C. The C protein plays an important role in the ... Plus end tracking proteins are MAP proteins which bind to the tips of growing microtubules and play an important role in ...
Calcium/calmodulin-regulated capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (14): 7986-91. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ... Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V (1998). "Adducin is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C: phosphorylation in the MARCKS- ...
... are encoded by distinct genes and belong to a family of membrane skeletal proteins involved in the assembly of spectrin-actin ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Gamma-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD3 gene. Adducins are heteromeric proteins composed of different ... The latter contains multiple phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, the binding site for calmodulin, and is required for ...
Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness ... Coronin-6 belongs to the coronin family which is an actin binding protein. Human CORO6 gene is located on chromosome 17 on the ... de Hostos EL, Eugenio L (September 1999). "The coronin family of actin-associated proteins". Trends Cell Biol. 9 (9): 345-50. ... Coronin-6 also known as coronin-like protein E (Clipin-E) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CORO6 gene. ...
This actin binding protein was named coronin after its strong immunolocalisation in the actin rich crown like extension of the ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Initially this protein was admitted into club of actin binding proteins with least enthusiasm, as the primary structure did not ... these proteins have all been shown to bind F-actin and localize in the dynamic F-actin rich area of cells. Recent study shows ...
LIM domain and actin-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LIMA1 gene. EPLIN is a cytoskeleton- ... "Entrez Gene: LIMA1 LIM domain and actin binding 1". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... associated protein that inhibits actin filament depolymerization and cross-links filaments in bundles (Maul et al., 2003).[ ...
... (from "cortical actin binding protein") is a monomeric protein located in the cytoplasm of cells that can be ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Wu H, Parsons JT (1993). "Cortactin, an 80/85-kilodalton pp60src substrate, is a filamentous actin-binding protein enriched in ... Kim L, Wong TW (1998). "Growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of the actin-binding protein cortactin is mediated by the ...
Li Y, Guerrero A, Howard TH (1995). "The actin-binding protein, lymphocyte-specific protein 1, is expressed in human leukocytes ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... This gene encodes an intracellular F-actin binding protein. The protein is expressed in lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, ... 1994). "The 47-kD protein increased in neutrophil actin dysfunction with 47- and 89-kD protein abnormalities is lymphocyte- ...
"Abnormal actin binding of aberrant β-tropomyosins is a molecular cause of muscle weakness in TPM2-related nemaline and cap ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 July ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951-2)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951-3)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 ...
... derin is an actin severing protein belonging to the gelsolin superfamily. It was discovered in Dr. Trifaro's laboratory at ... and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped ... Lueck A; Brown D; Kwiatkowski DJ (1999). "The actin-binding proteins adseverin and gelsolin are both highly expressed but ... In these tissues scinderin, a calcium dependent protein, regulates cortical actin networks. Normally secretory vesicles are ...
The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the GAS2 family, is similar in sequence to the mouse protein Gas2, an actin- ... "Entrez Gene: GAS2L1 growth arrest-specific 2 like 1". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace ... GAS2-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GAS2L1 gene. ... Goriounov D, Leung CL, Liem RK (Feb 2003). "Protein products of human Gas2-related genes on chromosomes 17 and 22 (hGAR17 and ...
Further observation of the myofibrils, and the crude preparations of the extracted contractile protein actins and myosins taken ... He was first capped for his country for the 1947 Five Nations Championship, in a match against Wales, the first match for ... and from that he was able to characterize their protein components. ...
Podocalyxin-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PODXL gene. This gene encodes a member of the CD34 ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ... "Loss of glomerular foot processes is associated with uncoupling of podocalyxin from the actin cytoskeleton". The Journal of ... Other biological activities of the encoded protein include: binding in a membrane protein complex with Na+/H+ exchanger ...
The sporophyte body comprises a long stalk, called a seta, and a capsule capped by a cap called the operculum. The capsule and ... For example, a study of P. patens mutants defective in RpRAD51, a gene that encodes a protein at the core of the ... Orr et al., 2020 find that the microtubules of growing tip cells are structurally similar to F-actin and serve a similar ... 2019). "Nuclear protein phylogenies support the monophyly of the three bryophyte groups (Bryophyta Schimp.)". New Phytologist. ...
CAP-GLY domain containing linker protein 1, also known as CLIP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLIP1 gene. ... and actin filaments during cell polarization and migration". Developmental Cell. 7 (6): 871-83. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2004.10. ... "Entrez Gene: CLIP1 CAP-GLY domain containing linker protein 1". Fukata M, Watanabe T, Noritake J, Nakagawa M, Yamaga M, Kuroda ... Choi JH, Bertram PG, Drenan R, Carvalho J, Zhou HH, Zheng XF (Oct 2002). "The FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP) is a ...
... is the third most abundant protein in muscle (after myosin and actin), and an adult human contains approximately 0.5 kg ... November 1998). "The NH2 terminus of titin spans the Z-disc: its interaction with a novel 19-kD ligand (T-cap) is required for ... The protein's in vivo half-life, the time it takes for half of the amount of protein in a cell to break down after its ... Titin /ˈtaɪtɪn/ (contraction for Titan protein) (also called connectin) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTN gene ...
Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Flotillin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLOT1 gene. Caveolae are small domains on the inner cell membrane ... 2004). "Recruitment of Pyk2 and Cbl to lipid rafts mediates signals important for actin reorganization in growing neurites". J ... Kimura A, Baumann CA, Chiang SH, Saltiel AR (July 2001). "The sorbin homology domain: a motif for the targeting of proteins to ...
F-actin) via direct binding to F-actin regulatory proteins. The first evidence that indicated phosphoinositides(PIs) ( ... 2004). "CAPS acts at a prefusion step in dense-core vesicle exocytosis as a PIP 2 binding protein". Neuron. 43 (4): 551-562. ... Later studies identified associated proteins necessary during this stage, such as phosphatidylinositol transfer protein , and ... a Multifunctional Actin Regulatory Protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (47): 33179-82. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.47. ...
... , or gamma-actin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTG1 gene. Gamma-actin is widely expressed ... Hubberstey A, Yu G, Loewith R, Lakusta C, Young D (Jun 1996). "Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin". Journal of ... Human gamma-actin is 41.8 kDa in molecular weight and 375 amino acids in length. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are ... "Entrez Gene: ACTG1 actin, gamma 1". "Protein sequence for human ACTG1 (Uniprot ID: P63261)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas ...
CAP thus is a specialised protein in recycling of actin monomers, by first rapidly dissociating ADP-actin monomers from the ... Proteins that bind F-actin often regulate F-actin assembly and its interaction with other proteins, while proteins that ... In molecular biology, the cyclase-associated protein family (CAP) is a family of highly conserved actin-binding proteins ... Actin exists both as globular (G) (monomeric) actin subunits and assembled into filamentous (F) actin. In cells, actin cycles ...
In some orchids ombrophily occurs, and rain water splashes cause the anther cap to be removed, allowing for the pollen to be ... Flowers provide bees with nectar (an energy source) and pollen (a source of protein). When bees go from flower to flower ... Activation involves the development of actin filaments throughout the cytoplasm of the cell, which eventually become ...
"Linking the T cell surface protein CD2 to the actin-capping protein CAPZ via CMS and CIN85". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (25): 22396-403 ... The protein directly interacts with filamentous actin and a variety of cell membrane proteins through multiple actin binding ... "In vivo interaction of the adapter protein CD2-associated protein with the type 2 polycystic kidney disease protein, polycystin ... CD2-associated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD2AP gene. This gene encodes a scaffolding molecule that ...
... capz actin capping protein MeSH D12.776.220.525.032.750 - tropomodulin MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.500 - cofilin 1 MeSH D12.776. ... actin-related protein 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.750 - actin-related protein 3 MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.100 - myosin heavy ... groel protein MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.100 - fusion proteins, bcr-abl MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.320 - fusion proteins, gag-onc ... oncogene protein v-maf MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.875 - oncogene proteins v-abl MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.882 - oncogene proteins ...
LRET was also used to study the interaction of the proteins dystrophin and actin in muscle cells. Dystrophin is present in the ... to measure distances in DNA complexes bent by the CAP protein. Lanthanide probes have been used to detect conformational ... Lanthanides can be used because their small size (ionic radius) gives them the ability to replace metal ions inside protein ... Pulsed lasers for the 300 to 500 nm range have now replaced spark caps in fluorescence spectroscopy. There are four general ...
Actin capping, Actin-binding. Biological process (UniProt)i Keywords assigned by UniProt to proteins because they are involved ... Protein classi Assigned HPA protein class(es) for the encoded protein(s). ... This gene encodes a member of a family of molecular scaffold proteins that link the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton ... PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND LOCALIZATION. Tissue profilei A summary of the overall protein expression profile across the analyzed ...
... the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking. ... the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking. ... Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of ... Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of ...
PIM1 accelerates prostate cancer cell motility by phosphorylating actin capping proteins (2020) Cell Communication and ... Protein synthesis is suppressed in sporadic and familial Parkinsons disease by LRRK2 (2020) FASEB Journal ... Long-term osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells in simulated microgravity: novel proteins sighted (2022 ... SHANK3 conformation regulates direct actin binding and crosstalk with Rap1 signaling (2021) Current Biology ...
Analysis of protein profiles using the IPA system suggested that SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes including INI1 may ... In addition, comparative protein expression analyses using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (i-TRAQ) method ... Furthermore, silencing of CAPZB resulted in a decreased expression of INI1 proteins in the INI1-positive EpiS cells, whereas ... Additionally, we performed functional assays of the INI1 protein using INI1-overexpressing EpiS cells. All 15 EpiS cases showed ...
MIRON, T; WILCHEK, M; GEIGER, B (1988). IDENTIFICATION OF A 25 KDA ACTIN-CAPPING PROTEIN IN SMOOTH-MUSCLE TISSUES. Journal Of ... A 25 KDa inhibitor of actin polymerization is a low molecular mass heat shock proteinECULAR MASS HEAT-SHOCK PROTEIN. Journal of ... Characterization of a novel GTPase-activating protein associated with focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton. Journal of ... Identification of plant cytoskeleton-interacting proteins by screening for actin stress fiber association in mammalian ...
F-actin capping protein complex +. 9. FAL1-SGD1 complex. 0. FAR/SIN/STRIPAK complex. 4. ... A protein complex in this context is meant as a stable set of interacting proteins which can be co-purified by an acceptable ... Acceptable experimental methods include stringent protein purification followed by detection of protein interaction. The ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ...
... which is part of the tropomyosin protein family. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The TPM2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called beta (β)-tropomyosin, ... Abnormal actin binding of aberrant beta-tropomyosins is a molecular cause of muscle weakness in TPM2-related nemaline and cap ... This protein helps regulate muscle contraction by interacting with other muscle proteins, particularly myosin and actin. These ...
An RNAi Screen in a Novel Model of Oriented Divisions Identifies the Actin-Capping Protein Z β as an Essential Regulator of ... Physico-Pathologic Mechanisms Involved in Neurodegeneration : Misfolded Protein-Plasma Membrane Interactions. Amulya Nidhi ...
Protein accumulation was measured by densitometry using ImageJ software. The ratio of PHB/beta-actin accumulation was fixed as ... The protein-protein interaction network was analyzed in terms of cluster structure and node centralities with Cytoscape 2.8.3 [ ... Proteins were identified on the basis of minimum sequence coverage of more than 15%. Functional protein classification was ... STRING v9.1: protein-protein interaction networks, with increased coverage and integration. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013; 41: D808- ...
However, fast skeletal myosin light chain 2 followed by troponin T, F-actin-capping and small heat shock proteins showed the ... Noticeable and statistically significant differences in the extent of protein phosphorylation were detected between sample ... Protein phosphorylation can be a potentially significant mechanism to explain rapid and multiple physiological and biochemical ... changed phosphoproteins involved a variable number of isoforms of 13 myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic nonredundant proteins. ...
... is a highly used and extensively cited actin tool which if often used in combination with other actin protein research tools ... Emerin caps the pointed end of actin filaments: Evidence for an actin cortical network at the nuclear inner membrane. PLoS ... Studying actin polymerization in vitro.. *Studying the effects of actin binding proteins and drugs on actin polymerization in ... Figure 1. Pyrene Muscle Actin Protein Purity Determination. A 100 µg sample of pyrene muscle actin (molecular weight approx. 43 ...
Drosophila actin-capping protein limits JNK activation by the Src proto-oncogene ... Zyxin antagonizes the FERM protein expanded to couple F-actin and Yorkie-dependent organ growth ... 1A, yw hs.flp; actin.FRT.STOP.FRT.Gal4 UAS.GFP; Fig. 1B, yw cv sqhAx3; P{sqh-GFP}; Fig. 1C: exlacZ/Cyo; Fig. 2A-E, wiso; Fig. 2 ... Each of these proteins remains apically localised in the columnar follicle cells but becomes strongly diluted across the apical ...
Crystal Structure of Actin capping protein in complex with V-1. 3aji. Structure of Gankyrin-S6ATPase photo-cross-linked site- ... Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ANK domain in the selected ... Structural Determinants for Improved Thermal Stability of Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins With a Redesigned C-capping Module. ... Structural Determinants for Improved Thermal Stability of Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins With a Redesigned C-capping Module. ...
Cellular actin assembly is controlled at the barbed ends of actin filaments, where capping protein (CP) limits polymerization. ... identifying it as a novel CPI-motif protein. Twinfilin and the CPI-motif protein CARMIL have overlapping binding sites on CP. ... Together, these observations define Twinfilin as the first pro-capping ligand of CP and lead us to propose important ... Twinfilin also accelerates dissociation of the CP inhibitor V-1, restoring CP to an active capping state. Knockdowns of ...
Learn more about Actin Stress Fibers and Focal Adhesions During EMT including related products, articles and interactive ... consisting of parallel Actin fibers with periodic cross-linking proteins such as alpha-Actinin and Myosin II motor proteins. ... perinuclear Actin cap, and transverse arcs. Ventral and dorsal stress fibers are common in motile mesenchymal cells and are ... Actin stress fiber assembly is regulated by Rho family GTPases, and fiber stability is maintained by inhibition of Actin ...
Spectrin and protein 4.1 as an actin filament capping. FEBS (Fed Eur Biochem Soc) Lett ... an additional cause to the non-uniform pattern may originate from the partial capping of F-actin, where the capped actin is ... Previous studies suggest that the pointed end of F-actin in erythrocytes is capped by spectrin-4.1 complex (Pinder et al., 1984 ... Thus, the known turnover of the actins ATPases in the RBC of 0.01-0.02 mol Pi/mol F-actin × s (Morris et al., 1993) may ...
Abstract Erythrocyte tropomodulin (E-Tmod) is a tropomyosin-binding and actin capping protein at the point end of the filaments ... It is part of a molecular ruler that plays an important role in generating short actin protofilaments critical for the ...
Villin is a calcium-regulated actin-binding protein that caps, severs, and bundles actin filaments in vitro. This 92,500-D ... it is unique among actin modulating proteins so far known. It could account for its actin-binding properties (dual regulation ... Sequence of human villin: a large duplicated domain homologous with other actin-severing proteins and a unique small carboxy- ... The duplicated domain is highly homologous to three other actin-severing proteins and this basic structure represents the whole ...
... the actin filaments supporting microvilli are tightly packed together by three actin bundling proteins: villin, espin and ... Besides its structural role, villin also nucleates, caps, and severs actin filaments in a calcium dependent manner, suggesting ... microvilli are microscopic membrane protrusions structured by a network of actin filaments organized by actin binding proteins ... The objective of my thesis consists on investigating how the microvillar actin binding proteins regulate two key features of ...
Modeling capping protein FRAP and CALI experiments reveals in vivo regulation of actin dynamics. Kapustina, M., Vitriol, E., ...
Cleavage of the actin-capping protein alpha -adducin at Asp-Asp-Ser-Asp633-Ala by caspase-3 is preceded by its phosphorylation ... Focal adhesion kinase and protein kinase B cooperate to suppress doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of breast tumor cells. van ...
Protein Capture Reagents * Protein tags * Skeletal muscle * Stem cell * Transcription factors * Xenopus ...
Ganter, M.; Schüler, H.; Matuschewski, K.: Vital role for the Plasmodium actin capping protein (CP) beta-subunit in motility of ... The Ig domain protein CD9P-1 down-regulates CD81 ability to support Plasmodium yoelii infection. The Journal of Biological ...
This hybrid protein sequesters actin monomers, severs actin filaments and acts as a leaky barbed end cap. Here, we present the ... actin, ARP2/3 COMPLEX, BETA-THYMOSINS, BINDING-PROTEINS, CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE, DNASE-I, F-ACTIN, MONOMERIC, NEGATIVE COOPERATIVITY ... The structure reveals that Tbeta4 sequesters by capping both ends of the actin monomer, and that exchange of actin between Tb4 ... Structural basis of actin sequestration by thymosin-beta 4: implications for WH2 proteins. ...
Factors that control the steady state of actin assembly, such as capping proteins and actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin, ... They bind both monomeric actin (G-actin) and filamentous actin (F-actin) and, under certain conditions, F-actin binding is ... Two actin-regulatory proteins of 19 and 20 kDa are involved in the regulation of actin assembly in developing chicken skeletal ... ADF/cofilins are small actin-binding proteins composed of a single ADF-H domain. They bind both actin-monomers and filaments ...
F-actin capping protein:f-actin [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * F-actin capping protein [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * F-actin capping ... F-actin capping protein [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * F-actin capping protein [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * F-actin capping protein ... F-actin capping protein is a heterodimer (Homo sapiens) * F-actin capping protein [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * F-actin capping ... LRRC16A binds F-actin capping protein (Homo sapiens) * F-actin capping protein [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * F-actin capping ...
Differential requirements of cyclase associated protein (CAP) for actin turnover during 3 the lytic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii ... Makorin Ring Zinc Finger Protein 1 (MKRN1), a novel Poly(A)-binding Protein-interacting protein, Stimulates Translation in ... Identification of novel CAP superfamily protein members of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.. Journal: Acta Trop (Fev 2016 ... Interaction between tissue transglutaminase and amyloid-beta: Protein-protein binding versus enzymatic crosslinking. Journal: ...
The interaction between actin and β-1,3-glucanase out of the protein inclusions of lutoids was revealed by pull-down. This ... The formation of protein-network by interactions of the proteins with anti-pathogen activity released from lutoids and ... The protein-network at the wounded site of laticifer cells provides not only a physical barrier but also a biochemical barrier ... A protein-network appeared rapidly after tapping and accumulated gradually along with the latex loss at the severed site of ...
Actin capping protein is required for dendritic spine development and synapse formation. Fan, Y., Tang, X., Vitriol, E., Chen, ... Activated G protein Gαs samples multiple endomembrane compartments. Martin, B. R. & Lambert, N. A., Sep 23 2016, In: Journal of ... Actin filaments modulate both stomatal opening and inward K+-channel activities in guard cells of Vicia faba L.. Hwang, J. U., ... Activating transcription factor 3 activates p53 by preventing E6-associated protein from binding to E6. Wang, H., Mo, P., Ren, ...
  • With the development of super-resolution microscopy in the past few years, previously unknown structures of the actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered: a periodic lattice consisting of actin and spectrin seems to pervade not only the whole axon, but also dendrites and even the necks of dendritic spines. (
  • In light of novel discoveries related to the role and organization of neuronal F-actin, in this review we will focus on the mechanisms and molecular players that fine-tune the actin cytoskeleton, thereby controlling dendrite morphology and function. (
  • Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and focal adhesion formation are associated with increased cell movement during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). (
  • Besides its structural role, villin also nucleates, caps, and severs actin filaments in a calcium dependent manner, suggesting a central role in microvilli cytoskeleton dynamics. (
  • Actin depolymerizing factors (ADF) are stimulus responsive actin cytoskeleton modulating proteins. (
  • The formation of protein-network by interactions of the proteins with anti-pathogen activity released from lutoids and accumulation of protein-network by binding to the cytoskeleton are crucial for the rapid occlusion of laticifer cells in rubber tree. (
  • The assembly of ATP-actin monomers into filaments is the basis for the formation of the actin cytoskeleton in cells. (
  • Eukariotic cell motility is a complex phenomenon, in which the cytoskeleton and its major constituent, actin, play an essential role. (
  • Regulating the dynamics of the cytoskeleton, and playing a central role in signal transduction in the cell, are Cdc42, Rac and Rho (GTPases of the rho family, collectively known as the small G-proteins) and the actin nucleating complex, Arp2/3. (
  • They bind both actin-monomers and filaments and promote rapid filament turnover in cells by depolymerising/fragmenting actin filaments. (
  • A previous proteomics study demonstrated the overexpression of F-actin capping protein subunit beta (CAPZB) in tissue specimens of epithelioid sarcoma (EpiS). (
  • They bind both monomeric actin (G-actin) and filamentous actin (F-actin) and, under certain conditions, F-actin binding is followed by filament severing. (
  • Binding of ligands to filamentous actin is used as a functional proof to state the biological activity of a ligand and characterizes the ligand to be an actin binding protein. (
  • This hybrid protein sequesters actin monomers, severs actin filaments and acts as a leaky barbed end cap. (
  • Severs actin filaments and binds to actin monomers. (
  • Villin is a calcium-regulated actin-binding protein that caps, severs, and bundles actin filaments in vitro. (
  • Actin-depolymerizing factor increases the treadmilling of actin filaments in vitro and in vivo. (
  • CPs are important for the dynamics of actin filament assembly and regulation of the cell shape and movement in vitro [ 16 - 19 ]. (
  • Studying actin polymerization in vitro . (
  • Studying the effects of actin binding proteins and drugs on actin polymerization in vitro . (
  • Using an in vitro approach, we studied the effect of the IQGAP protein fragment Rng2(1-189) on the geometry of actin filaments when tethered to supported lipid bilayers all reconstituted from purified proteins. (
  • To this end, our team is developing experimental approaches combining microfluidics, micropatterning, and optical tweezers to conduct in vitro experiments that are essential to decipher the individual molecular reactions that regulate the emergence of actin networks. (
  • To understand how ABPs and the mechanical context generate networks of various geometries, dynamics and lifetimes, our team focuses its efforts on the observation and in vitro manipulations of single actin filaments or small reconstituted networks under well-controlled conditions. (
  • Vital role for the Plasmodium actin capping protein (CP) beta-subunit in motility of malaria sporozoites. (
  • Actin-based motility processes are tightly linked to the rapid turnover of actin filaments. (
  • Factors that control the steady state of actin assembly, such as capping proteins and actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin, directly affect motility. (
  • Motility Screen Identifies Drosophila IGF-II mRNA-Binding Protein-Zipcode-Binding Protein Acting in Oogenesis and Synaptogenesis. (
  • In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking. (
  • Microfluidics is a very powerful tool to expose filaments to different protein solutions in a sequential manner and to expose filaments to various mechanical stresses, thus opening new avenues to decipher the dynamics of actin network assembly. (
  • Actin stress fiber assembly is regulated by Rho family GTPases, and fiber stability is maintained by inhibition of Actin depolymerization. (
  • It interrupts the actin polymerization-depolymerization cycle and impairs cell membrane function. (
  • The WH2 (Wiscott - Aldridge syndrome protein homology domain 2) repeat is an actin interacting motif found in monomer sequestering and filament assembly proteins. (
  • Cofilin binds to actin monomers and filaments, and has a pH-dependent actin severing activity. (
  • A large number of proteins interact with actin to control how, where and when actin monomers assemble into filaments. (
  • The duplicated domain is highly homologous to three other actin-severing proteins and this basic structure represents the whole molecule in severin and fragmin, while two basic units compose gelsolin. (
  • We have stabilized the prototypical WH2 family member, thymosin-beta4 (Tbeta4), with respect to actin, by creating a hybrid between gelsolin domain 1 and the C-terminal half of Tbeta4 (G1-Tbeta4). (
  • capping actin protein, gelsolin lik. (
  • Cytoplasmic gelsolin is an actin severing and capping protein with a molecular mass of 80kDa. (
  • proteins regulate muscle contraction by attaching to actin and controlling its binding to myosin. (
  • The objective of my thesis consists on investigating how the microvillar actin binding proteins regulate two key features of these organelles: their functionality and plasticity. (
  • Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization. (
  • 2020). SPIN90 associates with mDia1 and the Arp2/3 complex to regulate cortical actin organization. (
  • The sections were reacted with mouse anti-actin antibody and the immunocomplex visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (
  • We suggest that the actin's ATPase, located at the pointed end of the short actin filament, is responsible for the MgATP stimulation of CMF in RBCs. (
  • It is part of a molecular ruler that plays an important role in generating short actin protofilaments critical for the integrity of the cell membrane. (
  • Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. (
  • Cofilin, a ubiquitous 15,000 M(r) protein, plays a central role in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics. (
  • XV" YOL105C 1 15 18 YOL105C "Putative integral membrane protein containing novel cysteine motif. (
  • In cells, actin assembly is regulated by hundreds of actin binding proteins (ABPs), which can act together, in synergy, or in competition. (
  • Actin is an essential component of eukaryotic cells that contributes to both the shape and movement of the cell. (
  • The ACTA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called skeletal alpha (α)-actin, which is part of the actin protein family. (
  • The mutation in the ACTA1 gene that causes cap myopathy results in an abnormal protein that may interfere with the proper assembly of thin filaments. (
  • The specific effects of TPM2 and TPM3 gene mutations are unclear, but researchers suggest they may interfere with normal actin-myosin binding between the thin and thick filaments, impairing muscle contraction and resulting in the muscle weakness that occurs in cap myopathy. (
  • Cap myopathy is an autosomal dominant condition, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. (
  • Cap disease due to mutation of the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2). (
  • Hung RM, Yoon G, Hawkins CE, Halliday W, Biggar D, Vajsar J. Cap myopathy caused by a mutation of the skeletal alpha-actin gene ACTA1. (
  • This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein. (
  • Four and a half LIM protein 1 gene mutations cause four distinct human myopathies: a comprehensive review of the clinical, histological and pathological features. (
  • Cap myopathy is a disorder that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. (
  • These genes provide instructions for producing proteins that play important roles in skeletal muscles. (
  • However, fast skeletal myosin light chain 2 followed by troponin T, F-actin-capping and small heat shock proteins showed the greatest phosphorylation change, and therefore they were the most important phosphoproteins underlying LT muscle conversion to DFD meat in the Rubia Gallega breed. (
  • They are involved in protein-protein interactions. (
  • Although these proteins are biochemically distinct and play different roles in actin dynamics, they all appear to use the ADF-H domain for their interactions with actin. (
  • Molecular sieve chromatography showed that the physical interactions among these proteins occurred under the condition of neutral pH. (
  • The Actin-Toolkit SPR provides a unique method to precisely analyze ligand-F-actin interactions by Surface Plasmon Resonance techniques on Streptavidin chips. (
  • We describe the mutual interactions of the small G-proteins, and their effects on capping and side-branching of actin filaments. (
  • We show that establishment of polarity stems from interactions of Cdc42, Rac and Rho, while maintenance and robustness of polarity is due to the rapid cytosolic diffusion of the inactive (GDI-bound) forms of the small G-proteins. (
  • Covering the apex of intestinal cells, microvilli are microscopic membrane protrusions structured by a network of actin filaments organized by actin binding proteins. (
  • En revanche, elles assurent l'agencement d'une fine architecture d'actine qui est requise pour la rétention à la membrane des microvillosités des protéines nécessaires pour la physiologie intestinale. (
  • At the leading edge of this structure, polymerization of actin filaments creates the force that pushes out the membrane and leads to translocation of a motile cell. (
  • Multiple and surprising new functions for emerin, a nuclear membrane protein. (
  • Pyrene muscle actin was polymerized in duplicate wells of a 96-well plate by the addition of Actin Polymerization Buffer (Cat. (
  • Polymerized pyrene F-actin shows a 10 fold fluorescent enhancement over non-polymerized pyrene G-actin and buffer control. (
  • Prior to addition of other proteins, the SLBs were washed 10 times by buffer exchange (always leaving 20 µl on top of the SLB to avoid damage by drying). (
  • Polymerization of actin filaments was induced by addition of an equal amount of 2x KMEH buffer supplemented with 2 mM Mg-ATP bringing the G-actin concentration to 5 µM. (
  • The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself. (
  • For dilution of G-actin or exchange of ligand buffer into actin compatible buffer, MonoMix (Cat. (
  • Specifically, Actin is assembled into contractile stress fibers, which are organized structures consisting of parallel Actin fibers with periodic cross-linking proteins such as alpha-Actinin and Myosin II motor proteins. (
  • Encodes a member of the type XI myosin protein family involved in root hair elongation. (
  • 4) partial complexes, where some subunits (e.g. transmembrane ones) cannot be expressed as recombinant proteins and are excluded from experiments (in this case, independent evidence is necessary to find out the composition of the full complex, if known). (
  • The Actin-Toolkit SPR was developed to analyze the actin-binding properties of ligands (native or recombinant proteins, recombinant fragments etc.) and to support the detection even of cryptic actin-binding sites. (
  • For convenient reference, Fluorescent Antibody Kits contain gratis a primary epitope mapped actin antibody of high performance also on western blots. (
  • PAPbeta, a protein that binds to and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2, contains several modular signaling domains including a pleckstrin homology domain, an SH3 domain, ankyrin repeats and an ARF-GAP domain. (
  • One mutant, zmadf3-1, in which Tyr-103 and Ala-104 (equivalent to destrin Tyr-117 and Ala-118) have been replaced by phenylalanine and glycine, respectively, binds more weakly to both G-actin and F-actin compared with maize ADF3. (
  • Additionally, we performed functional assays of the INI1 protein using INI1-overexpressing EpiS cells. (
  • Phosphorylation is a ubiquitous protein post-translational modification that regulates a plethora of fundamental cell processes such as signal transduction pathways, cell cycle and apoptosis [ 1 ]. (
  • The Ig domain protein CD9P-1 down-regulates CD81 ability to support Plasmodium yoelii infection. (
  • The protein regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end of growing actin filaments. (
  • Pyrene labeling stoichiometry has been determined to be 0.6 dyes per actin monomer. (
  • The fluorescent signal of monomer pyrene actin is enhanced during its polymerization into filaments, making it an ideal tool for monitoring actin filament formation. (
  • The structure reveals that Tbeta4 sequesters by capping both ends of the actin monomer, and that exchange of actin between Tb4 and profilin is mediated by a minor overlap in binding sites. (
  • This 92,500-D protein is a major constituent of the actin bundles within the microvilli of the brush border surface of intestinal and kidney proximal tubule cells. (
  • A systems approach to the proteomic data indicated the participation of specific cellular processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial organization and homeostasis, as well as the unfolded protein response (UPR) to be required for the survival of cells treated with cisplatin. (
  • They however confer the appropriate actin organization required for the apical retention of proteins essential for normal intestinal physiology. (
  • F-actin and microtubules (MTs) are the main mediators of neuronal polarity. (
  • Together, these observations define Twinfilin as the first 'pro-capping' ligand of CP and lead us to propose important revisions to our understanding of the CP regulatory cycle. (
  • Furthermore, the specific actin binding strongly indicates that the ligand is correctly folded and structurally intact. (
  • Further it is suitable to investigate effects of pharmacological compounds on ligand-actin complexes, as well as further proteins, lipids etc. to ligand-actin complexes. (
  • It could account for its actin-binding properties (dual regulation by calcium of severing and bundling activities). (
  • XIII" YMR047C 3 13 3 YMR047C "Nuclear pore complex protein that is member of GLFG repeat-containing family of nucleoporins and is,XIII" YMR049C 3 13 4 YMR049C "Ymr049cp,XIII" YMR051C 3 13 5 YMR051C "TyA Gag protein. (
  • Your competition of MTR4 using the mRNA export adaptor ALYREF for associating using the nuclear cap-binding complicated (CBC) has an 2"-O-Galloylhyperin essential system for sorting export-defective mRNAs from export-competent types (9). (
  • The nucleus can be structured possesses multiple sub-nuclear constructions extremely, which concentrate-specific protein that perform similar procedures. (
  • Pyrene labeled rabbit muscle actin has an approximate molecular weight of 43 kDa, and is supplied as a white lyophilized powder. (
  • A 100 µg sample of pyrene muscle actin (molecular weight approx. (
  • They are generally distinguished according to their main functions: nucleators, elongators, proteins that promote filament disassembly, stabilize filaments, or proteins that link filaments to each other or to other organelles. (
  • If ABPs can modify the mechanical state of actin filaments, external mechanical factors can in turn affect the activity of ABPs. (
  • Cleavage of the actin-capping protein alpha -adducin at Asp-Asp-Ser-Asp633-Ala by caspase-3 is preceded by its phosphorylation on serine 726 in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of renal epithelial cells. (
  • The hydrolysis of ATP that occurs during this process is accompanied by a major change in the conformation of the actin subunits, and thus of the filament itself. (
  • Cellular actin assembly is controlled at the barbed ends of actin filaments, where capping protein (CP) limits polymerization. (
  • Such cellular remodeling releases a pool of actin that is remobilized to build efficient migratory structures. (
  • Actin forms polymers of long, stiff filaments that are cross-linked into an anisotropic network inside a thin sheet-like cellular protrusion, the lamellipod. (
  • Actin proteins are important for cell movement and the tensing of muscle fibers (muscle contraction). (
  • Four stress fiber subtypes have been described based on intracellular location: ventral and dorsal stress fibers, perinuclear Actin cap, and transverse arcs. (
  • A stable assembly of two or more macromolecules, i.e. proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates or lipids, in which at least one component is a protein and the constituent parts function together. (
  • Caco-2 cells labeled for tight junction molecule cingulin (green), actin (red), vinculin (pink) and DNA (blue). (
  • Porcine aortic endothelial cell, double-labeled for actin (green) and phospho-tyrosine (red). (
  • F-actin and G-actin binding are uncoupled by mutation of conserved tyrosine residues in maize actin depolymerizing factor (ZmADF). (
  • In addition, comparative protein expression analyses using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (i-TRAQ) method were performed to identify the specific proteins whose expression was dysregulated by CAPZB, and analysed the data with the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) system using the obtained protein profiles to clarify the functional pathway networks associated with the oncogenic function of CAPZB in EpiS. (
  • Furthermore, silencing of CAPZB resulted in a decreased expression of INI1 proteins in the INI1-positive EpiS cells, whereas the induction of INI1 in the INI1-deficient EpiS cells resulted in an increased CAPZB mRNA expression. (
  • Their expression was validated at the protein level, suggesting their potential pathogenetic and clinical significance. (
  • The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has become a popular platform for protein expression. (
  • Analysis of protein profiles using the IPA system suggested that SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes including INI1 may function as a possible upstream regulator of CAPZB. (
  • Focal adhesions are dynamic complexes that contain proteins such as Integrins, Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), and Vinculin. (
  • For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin) that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Fluorescence enhancement during pyrene actin polymerization. (
  • A protein complex in this context is meant as a stable set of interacting proteins which can be co-purified by an acceptable method, and where the complex has been shown to exist as an isolated, functional unit in vivo. (
  • Here, we discover that the C-terminal tail of Twinfilin harbors a CP-interacting (CPI) motif, identifying it as a novel CPI-motif protein. (
  • Twinfilin and the CPI-motif protein CARMIL have overlapping binding sites on CP. (
  • The structure implies that multiple WH2 motif-containing proteins will associate longitudinally with actin filaments. (
  • Acceptable experimental methods include stringent protein purification followed by detection of protein interaction. (
  • In this paper, using mutant maize ADF3 proteins, we demonstrate that the maize ADF3 binding of F-actin can be spatially distinguished from that of G-actin. (
  • The rapid healing of wounded cell itself occurs in such case as the occlusion of severed sieve tube by callose accumulation at sieve plates and possibly, protein plugging of the sieve pores when the phloem is occasionally injuried [ 26 ]. (
  • Dynamics of the actin network account for changes in cell shape, crawling motion and turning of the cell in response to external cues. (
  • We incorporate the pushing exerted by oriented actin filament ends on the cell edge, and a Rho-dependent contraction force. (
  • An RNAi Screen in a Novel Model of Oriented Divisions Identifies the Actin-Capping Protein Z β as an Essential Regulator of Spindle Orientation. (
  • Prohibitin (PHB) was among the proteins consistently accumulated, interacting with the functional clusters associated with resistance to cisplatin. (
  • 8010-03), Ankerprotein TM , FAB-EP, GAP-EP (SPR actin buffers for F-and G-actin). (
  • Abstract Erythrocyte tropomodulin (E-Tmod) is a tropomyosin-binding and actin capping protein at the point end of the filaments. (