Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

Vertebrate isoforms of actin capping protein beta have distinct functions In vivo. (1/91)

Actin capping protein (CP) binds barbed ends of actin filaments to regulate actin assembly. CP is an alpha/beta heterodimer. Vertebrates have conserved isoforms of each subunit. Muscle cells contain two beta isoforms. beta1 is at the Z-line; beta2 is at the intercalated disc and cell periphery in general. To investigate the functions of the isoforms, we replaced one isoform with another using expression in hearts of transgenic mice. Mice expressing beta2 had a severe phenotype with juvenile lethality. Myofibril architecture was severely disrupted. The beta2 did not localize to the Z-line. Therefore, beta1 has a distinct function that includes interactions at the Z-line. Mice expressing beta1 showed altered morphology of the intercalated disc, without the lethality or myofibril disruption of the beta2-expressing mice. The in vivo function of CP is presumed to involve binding barbed ends of actin filaments. To test this hypothesis, we expressed a beta1 mutant that poorly binds actin. These mice showed both myofibril disruption and intercalated disc remodeling, as predicted. Therefore, CPbeta1 and CPbeta2 each have a distinct function that cannot be provided by the other isoform. CPbeta1 attaches actin filaments to the Z-line, and CPbeta2 organizes the actin at the intercalated discs.  (+info)

Toxofilin, a novel actin-binding protein from Toxoplasma gondii, sequesters actin monomers and caps actin filaments. (2/91)

Toxoplasma gondii relies on its actin cytoskeleton to glide and enter its host cell. However, T. gondii tachyzoites are known to display a strikingly low amount of actin filaments, which suggests that sequestration of actin monomers could play a key role in parasite actin dynamics. We isolated a 27-kDa tachyzoite protein on the basis of its ability to bind muscle G-actin and demonstrated that it interacts with parasite G-actin. Cloning and sequence analysis of the gene coding for this protein, which we named Toxofilin, showed that it is a novel actin-binding protein. In in vitro assays, Toxofilin not only bound to G-actin and inhibited actin polymerization as an actin-sequestering protein but also slowed down F-actin disassembly through a filament end capping activity. In addition, when green fluorescent protein-tagged Toxofilin was overexpressed in mammalian nonmuscle cells, the dynamics of actin stress fibers was drastically impaired, whereas green fluorescent protein-Toxofilin copurified with G-actin. Finally, in motile parasites, during gliding or host cell entry, Toxofilin was localized in the entire cytoplasm, including the rear end of the parasite, whereas in intracellular tachyzoites, especially before they exit from the parasitophorous vacuole of their host cell, Toxofilin was found to be restricted to the apical end.  (+info)

Actin dynamics is controlled by a casein kinase II and phosphatase 2C interplay on Toxoplasma gondii Toxofilin. (3/91)

Actin polymerization in Apicomplexa protozoa is central to parasite motility and host cell invasion. Toxofilin has been characterized as a protein that sequesters actin monomers and caps actin filaments in Toxoplasma gondii. Herein, we show that Toxofilin properties in vivo as in vitro depend on its phosphorylation. We identify a novel parasitic type 2C phosphatase that binds the Toxofilin/G-actin complex and a casein kinase II-like activity in the cytosol, both of which modulate the phosphorylation status of Toxofilin serine53. The interplay of these two molecules controls Toxofilin binding of G-actin as well as actin dynamics in vivo. Such functional interactions should play a major role in actin sequestration, a central feature of actin dynamics in Apicomplexa that underlies the spectacular speed and nature of parasite gliding motility.  (+info)

Capping protein binding to actin in yeast: biochemical mechanism and physiological relevance. (4/91)

The mechanism by which capping protein (CP) binds barbed ends of actin filaments is not understood, and the physiological significance of CP binding to actin is not defined. The CP crystal structure suggests that the COOH-terminal regions of the CP alpha and beta subunits bind to the barbed end. Using purified recombinant mutant yeast CP, we tested this model. CP lacking both COOH-terminal regions did not bind actin. The alpha COOH-terminal region was more important than that of beta. The significance of CP's actin-binding activity in vivo was tested by determining how well CP actin-binding mutants rescued null mutant phenotypes. Rescue correlated well with capping activity, as did localization of CP to actin patches, indicating that capping is a physiological function for CP. Actin filaments of patches appear to be nucleated first, then capped with CP. The binding constants of yeast CP for actin suggest that actin capping in yeast is more dynamic than in vertebrates.  (+info)

ASP-56, a new actin sequestering protein from pig platelets with homology to CAP, an adenylate cyclase-associated protein from yeast. (5/91)

A new 56 kDa actin-binding protein (ASP-56) was isolated from pig platelet lysate. In falling ball viscosimetry it caused a reduction in viscosity that could be attributed to a decrease in the concentration of polymeric actin. Fluorescence measurements with NBD-labelled actin showed reduction of polymeric actin, too. These results could be explained by sequestering of actin in a non-polymerizable 1:1 ASP-56/actin complex. Sequencing of about 20 tryptic peptides of ASP-56 and comparison with known sequences revealed about 60% homology to the adenylate cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from yeast.  (+info)

The pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein CKIP-1 is involved in regulation of cell morphology and the actin cytoskeleton and interaction with actin capping protein. (6/91)

CKIP-1 is a pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein that interacts with protein kinase CK2. To elucidate the functions of CKIP-1, we generated human osteosarcoma cell lines with tetracycline-regulated expression of Flag-CKIP-1. Flag-CKIP-1 expression resulted in distinct changes in cellular morphology. Therefore, we examined the actin profile by immunofluorescence, quantitative measurement of phalloidin binding, and immunoblot analysis. These studies demonstrate that Flag-CKIP-1 expression resulted in increases in F-actin staining and protein levels of beta-actin. To elucidate the mechanisms behind the observed phenotype, we utilized tandem affinity purification to isolate CKIP-1 interacting proteins. Mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of the actin capping protein subunits, CPalpha and CPbeta, as novel CKIP-1 interaction partners. Interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and by colocalization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ser9 of CPalpha is phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 in vitro, that CPalpha is phosphorylated in vivo, and that treatment with a CK2-specific inhibitor results in a decrease in CPalpha phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate that CKIP-1 and CK2 inhibit the activity of actin capping protein at the barbed ends of actin filaments. Overall, our results are consistent with CKIP-1 playing a role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton through its interactions with actin capping protein.  (+info)

Mutations in the Drosophila orthologs of the F-actin capping protein alpha- and beta-subunits cause actin accumulation and subsequent retinal degeneration. (7/91)

The progression of several human neurodegenerative diseases is characterized by the appearance of intracellular inclusions or cytoskeletal abnormalities. An important question is whether these abnormalities actually contribute to the degenerative process or whether they are merely manifestations of cells that are already destined for degeneration. We have conducted a large screen in Drosophila for mutations that alter the growth or differentiation of cells during eye development. We have used mitotic recombination to generate patches of homozygous mutant cells. In our entire screen, mutations in only two different loci, burned (bnd) and scorched (scrd), resulted in eyes in which the mutant patches appeared black and the mutant tissue appeared to have undergone degeneration. In larval imaginal discs, growth and cell fate specification occur normally in mutant cells, but there is an accumulation of F-actin. Mutant cells degenerate much later during the pupal phase of development. burned mutations are allelic to mutations in the previously described cpb locus that encodes the beta-subunit of the F-actin capping protein, while scorched mutations disrupt the gene encoding its alpha-subunit (cpa). The alpha/beta-heterodimer caps the barbed ends of an actin filament and restricts its growth. In its absence, cells progressively accumulate actin filaments and eventually die. A possible role for their human orthologs in neurodegenerative disease merits further investigation.  (+info)

A modular design for the clathrin- and actin-mediated endocytosis machinery. (8/91)

Endocytosis depends on an extensive network of interacting proteins that execute a series of distinct subprocesses. Previously, we used live-cell imaging of six budding-yeast proteins to define a pathway for association of receptors, adaptors, and actin during endocytic internalization. Here, we analyzed the effects of 61 deletion mutants on the dynamics of this pathway, revealing functions for 15 proteins, and we analyzed the dynamics of 8 of these proteins. Our studies provide evidence for four protein modules that cooperate to drive coat formation, membrane invagination, actin-meshwork assembly, and vesicle scission during clathrin/actin-mediated endocytosis. We found that clathrin facilitates the initiation of endocytic-site assembly but is not needed for membrane invagination or vesicle formation. Finally, we present evidence that the actin-meshwork assembly that drives membrane invagination is nucleated proximally to the plasma membrane, opposite to the orientation observed for previously studied actin-assembly-driven motility processes.  (+info)

Toxoplasma, a human pathogen and a model apicomplexan parasite, actively and rapidly invades host cells. To initiate invasion, the parasite induces the formation of a parasite-cell junction, progressively propels itself through the junction inside a newly formed vacuole that encloses the entering parasite. Litle is known how a few micron-large diameter parasite overcome the host cell cortical actin barrier to support these remarkably rapid process of internalization (, few seconds). Correlative light and electron microscopy in conjunction with electron tomography and three-dimensional image analysis indicate that toxofilin an actin-binding protein, secreted by invading parasites correlates with localized sites of disassembly of the host cell actin meshwork. Moreover, quantitative fluorescence speckle microscopy in cells expressing toxofilin indicates that toxofilin regulates actin filament disassembly and turnover. Furthermore, Toxoplasma tachyzoites lacking toxofilin, are impaired in cortical ...
Toxoplasma gondii, the protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, initiates invasion of its host cells by inducing the assembly of a parasite-cell junction. Concomitantly, the plasma membrane of the host cell invaginates around the parasite to form a parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The parasite then propels itself through the junction and multiplies in its host cell within the PV. Given the size of the parasite, PV formation and parasite internalization are likely to require local loosening of the host cell cortical actin barrier, but how is this achieved? On page 4333, Isabelle Tardieux, colleagues and collaborators propose that toxofilin, an actin binding protein secreted by T. gondii, facilitates parasite invasion by regulating host cortical actin filament turnover. They show that parasites lacking toxofilin are impaired in cell invasion, although they eventually enter host cells, and that toxofilin secreted by invading parasites specifically associates with areas of host cell actin meshwork ...
In the present study, we demonstrated the prognostic value of CapG as well as its important role in proliferation and metastasis of glioma. In the TCGA data analysis, we attempted to explore the correlation of CapG with common genetic alterations of GBM. Notably, we noted that CapG expression was correlated to several of them (amplifications of CDK6, EGFR, MET and SYK, mutations of PTEN and RB1), and the correlation was only observed in non-proneural or proneural subtype. These data provide a clue for further study of the regulation of CapG expression in GBM patients. Moreover, we investigated the influence of differential CapG expression on GBM patient prognosis stratified by these molecular alterations. Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested that the prognostic significance of CapG was dependent on the status of EGFR or CDK6 alteration.. EGFR is a vital oncogene found in many malignancies, and the majority of GBM show activated EGFR signaling through its amplification or genetic alteration, which ...
F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)-independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ends. Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. The isoform beta-3 may play a role in spermatogenesis. Alternatively, may play a role in later maturation steps such as capacitation and fertilization which involve changes of membrane domains. May play a role in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization.
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Looking for info on why my daughter who has CP has suddenly developed a twitching of her arm. It is pretty severe. The arm constantly moves back and f
Expression of CARMIL1 (CARMIL, dJ501N12.1, FLJ20048, LRRC16, LRRC16A) in cervix, uterine tissue. Antibody staining with HPA029038 and HPA029039 in immunohistochemistry.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Listerias right-handed helical rocket-tail trajectories. T2 - Mechanistic implications for force generation in actin-based motility. AU - Zeile, William L.. AU - Zhang, Fangliang. AU - Dickinson, Richard B.. AU - Purich, Daniel L.. PY - 2005/2/1. Y1 - 2005/2/1. N2 - Listeria monocytogenes forms right-handed helical rocket tail trajectories during actin-based motility in cell-free extracts, and this stereochemical feature is consistent with actoclampins affinity-modulated, clamped-filament elongation model [Dickinson and Purich, 2002: Biophys J 82:605-617]. In that mechanism, right-handed torque is generated by an end-tracking molecular motor, each comprised of a filament barbed end and clamping protein that processively traces the right-handed helix of its filament partner. By contrast, torque is not a predicted property of those models (e.g., elastic propulsion, elastic Brownian ratchet, tethered ratchet, and insertional polymerization models) requiring filament barbed ends to ...
Looking for online definition of barbed end in the Medical Dictionary? barbed end explanation free. What is barbed end? Meaning of barbed end medical term. What does barbed end mean?
When the heavier homologues KSCN and KSeCN are employed, the Fe(III) compounds 3 and 4 are isolated in low yield (Scheme 1). The formation of these compounds is unexpected, since generally no redox processes are encountered when pseudohalides coordinate to transition metals,15 which implies that the Cp′Fe-fragment is susceptible to redox chemistry. Furthermore, this redox behavior is apparently facilitated by the synergy between two or more Fe atoms, an effect that also accounts for the facile N2 release from [Bu4N]N3 in the presence of [(tbsL)Fe3(thf)].4 Furthermore, S-C bond cleavage of a SCN− ligand is a rare event, but has previously been observed in [Pd3(SCN)(μ3-CO)(μ-dppm)3]+ to form [Pd3(μ3-S)(CN)(μ-dppm)3]+.16 The FeMoco nitrogenase enzyme also transiently binds SCN− before reduction to HCN and H2S occurs; but the mechanism of this biological SCN− reduction remains unknown.17 Cleavage of the S-C and Se-C bond to form 3 and 4 requires that the Fe(II) atoms are oxidized to ...
Expression of CARMIL1 (CARMIL, dJ501N12.1, FLJ20048, LRRC16, LRRC16A) in endometrium 2 tissue. Antibody staining with HPA029038 and HPA029039 in immunohistochemistry.
Compare phosphatase and actin regulator 1 S homeolog ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by whic …
On Fri, Feb 21, 2003 at 01:11:58PM +0100, Maciej W. Rozycki wrote: , , , Does Cobalt have a processor that implements its pipeline differently or , , , interlocks on CP0 loads? If not, Ill apply the following fix. , , , , Mfc0 doesnt need a nops on any R4000 class CPU I know of. , , Well, my MIPS R4k manual is vague on this matter and my IDT software , manual for R3k, R4k, R5k is even explicit on the load delay slot of mfc0. , But a run-time test proves otherwise. , , I stand corrected then unless someone finds a counter-example. All I can say its working fine like this since 1984 for R4000 class CPUs. Ralf ...
Learn about pediatric cerebral palsy symptoms, diagnostic tests & treatment from the experts, including information on CP in babies, kids, & teens.
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海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版actin是什么意思,actin的用法,actin翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
What is Actin ransomware? And how does it execute its attack? Actin ransomware is a dangerous threat and is a new variant of Phobos ransomware. This crypto-virus was discovered at the end of May 2019. It appends the ...Actin extension to its targeted files. The moment it enters a system, this crypto-malware performs
Inspite of the fact that many cant get over the Ghostface Killah influence in Action Bransons flow, he remains to … More. ...
ஆக்டின் என்பது தசை செல்களில் உள்ள நாராலான ஒரு புரத வகையாகும்.. ...
TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski ...
Actin filament elongation as a function of the surface density of side-binding proteins.(A-B) The change in length, ΔL, as a function of time for a filament
The effect of applying an external load to actin filaments moving in the in vitro motility assay is studied. Bead-tailed actin filaments were made by polym
This study addresses three coach behaviours effects (warmness behaviour (WB); stimulating action (SA) and planning and structuring activities (PSA)) in two dimensions of coaching outcomes (coachees performance (CP) and the quality of the coach-coachee relationship (QCCR)). The paper argues that coaching is a helpful tool to achieve greater performances in the long run when considering coaches who present higher levels of maturity. Results reveal the positive impact of SA and PSA over CP and QCCR. The adoption of WB has a negative impact on CP and a positive impact on the QCCR. Evidence also supports the relevancy of coaching experience over coaching training. Such results pose a paradox worth exploring in subsequent studies, for it challenges the usefulness of coaches training. Contributions are related to introducing the concept of WB within the organisational context and addressing two different time horizons regarding the coach behaviour. ...
Positronium is the lightest purely leptonic object decaying into photons. As an atom bound by a central potential, it is a parity eigenstate, and as an atom built out of an electron and an anti-electron, it is an eigenstate of the charge conjugation operator. Therefore, the positronium is a unique laboratory to study discrete symmetries whose precision is limited, in principle, only by the effects due to the weak interactions expected at the level of $10^{-14}$ and photon- photon interactions expected at the level of $10^{-9}$. Violation of T or CP invariance in purely leptonic systems has never been seen thus far. The experimental limits on CP and CPT symmetry violation in the decays of positronium are set at the level of $10^{-3}$ and litmits on charge conjugation violation are set at the level of $10^{-7}$. Thus, there is still a range of six orders of magnitude as regards T and CP, and two order of magnitude as regards the C symmetry, where the phenomena beyond the Standard Model can be ...
Please register to see prices including your discount. Registration may take up to 24h. For guest orders the standard discount of your institution will apply and discounts are visible on the order confirmation.. ...
Intentionally slow lifting is believed by some to be the best way to develop strength. Learn the truth behind the myth about the force-velocity relationship.
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Cytoskeleton, Inc provides fluorescent Spirochrome SPY555-actin live cell imaging probe to label actin for single or dual fluorescent color imaging and is an improvement over Syto61, DRAQ5, or Vybrant DyeCycle Ruby dyes.
Cytoskeleton, Inc provides fluorescent Spirochrome SPY555-actin live cell imaging probe to label actin for single or dual fluorescent color imaging and is an improvement over Syto61, DRAQ5, or Vybrant DyeCycle Ruby dyes.
Actin (pan alpha), 0.1 mg. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Figure 1 Tying a knot in an actin filament. Explanatory drawings are added in images 3 7. In images 3 and 7, the microscope focus was moved to below the filament to bring down the end beads which were trapped at the focus level; the focus was above the filament in image 5. Scale bar, 10 µm. ...
A fundamental question regarding autophagosome formation is how the shape of the double-membrane autophagosomal vesicle is generated. Here we show that in mammalian cells assembly of an actin scaffold inside the isolation membrane (the autophagosomal precursor) is essential for autophagosomal membrane shaping. Actin filaments are depolymerized shortly after starvation and actin is assembled into a network within the isolation membrane. When formation of actin puncta is disrupted by an actin polymerization inhibitor or by knocking down the actin-capping protein CapZβ, isolation membranes and omegasomes collapse into mixed-membrane bundles. Formation of actin puncta is PtdIns(3)P dependent, and inhibition of PtdIns(3)P formation by treating cells with the PI(3)K inhibitor 3-MA, or by knocking down Beclin-1, abolishes the formation of actin puncta. Binding of CapZ to PtdIns(3)P, which is enriched in omegasomes, stimulates actin polymerization. Our findings illuminate the mechanism underlying
Maréchal, Georges ; Beckersbleukx, G.. [Effects of nitric oxide on force-velocity relationship of striated skeletal musculature of the mouse].64th Conference of the Societe-de-Physiologie (LILLE(France), Sep 18-20, 1996). In: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry : the journal of metabolic diseases, Vol. 104, no. 4, p. D72 (1996 ...
A steady pool of actin monomers must be maintained to enable a polymerization to continue beyond the rapid elongation phase. This is, in part, aided by the actin binding protein profilin, which promotes ADP to ATP nucleotide exchange on G-actin. However, the rate of monomer dissociation from the (-) end of the filament is also important. Dissociation of the subunits ultimately results from ATP hydrolysis, which induces a conformational change in the actin subunit that weakens its association with neighboring subunits (as reviewed in [1]). The concentration of actin monomers in the cytosol will either favor disassembly, or assembly of the actin filament, and these values are known as the critical concentration (Cc). When the concentration of free subunits exceeds the Cc, filament elongation occurs spontaneously [2]. Importantly, the Cc usually varies between the filament (+) end and the (-) end. At the steady state, which is achieved when the rate of filament polymerization is equally balanced by ...
THE actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in a diverse set of cellular processes, including cell polarization, cytokinesis, cell adhesions, and endocytosis. The dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton is spatially and temporally regulated. How the actin cytoskeleton assembles and functions, including how its assembly relates to its function, are fundamental questions in cell biology.. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model system for studies of the actin cytoskeleton dynamics because yeast cells have a relatively simple actin cytoskeleton and offer powerful experimental tools. Throughout the yeast cell cycle, precisely choreographed changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton underlie spatial control of cell-surface growth and thereby determine cell morphology. Extension of the cell surface is preceded by the polarized organization of two actin-filament-containing structures: actin cables and cortical actin patches.. Actin cables, long bundles of ...
End capping of cytoskeletal filaments is a key mechanism for regulating filaments elongation and disassembly, as well as the organization of the cytoskeletal architecture. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments to inhibit further elongation and is involved in the formation of branched actin networks in concert with Arp2/3 (Akin and Mullins, 2008). Here, we show that CP plays an essential role in the formation of dendritic spines. In particular, CP knockdown promoted the formation of thin filopodia-like protrusions and inhibited proper spine development. Dendritic spines initiate as filopodia-like protrusions from dendritic shafts, and then convert to mature spine structure with an expanded head (Ziv and Smith, 1996; Yoshihara et al., 2009; Hotulainen and Hoogenraad, 2010). Our data thus suggest that CP may function in the transition of filopodia to spines. CP is known to function in the formation of branched actin networks in lamellipodia in non-neuronal cells, and CP knockdown promotes ...
Zhu J, Bailly A, Zwiewka M, Sovero V, Di Donato M, Ge P, Oehri J, Aryal B, Hao P, Linnert M, Burgardt N, Lücke C, Weiwad M, Michel M, Weiergräber O, Pollmann S, Azzarello E, Mancuso S, Ferro N, Fukao Y, Hoffmann C, Wedlich Söldner R, Friml J, Thomas C, Geisler M. 2016. TWISTED DWARF1 mediates the action of auxin transport inhibitors on actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Plant Cell. 28(4), 930-948 ...
Figure 1: Ultra-Pure Actin is ,90% polymerization-competent. Ultra-Pure Actin was polymerized in the absence (-PB) or presence (+PB) of Actin Polymer Buffer (10X, Cat. No. 000103; 50 mM KCl and 2 mM MgCl2) followed by centrifugation at 48k rpm for 1 hour. Pellet (P) and supernatant (S) fractions were collected and subjected to SDS-PAGE and Coomassie G250-staining. >90% of Ultra-Pure Actin was incorporated into filaments as determined by measuring the residual protein concentration in the supernatant fraction.. ...
Actin is the essential force-generating component of the microfilament system, which powers numerous motile processes in eukaryotic cells and undergoes dynamic remodeling in response to different internal and external signaling. The ability of actin to polymerize into asymmetric filaments is the inh …
Treatment with SMIFH2 decreases the actin level in oocytes and impairs spindle formation.A. Treatment with SMIFH2 decreases the cortical actin level in maturing
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Dynamic behavior of actin filaments in cells is the basis of many different cellular activities. Remodeling of the actin filament network involves polymerization and depolymerization of the filaments. Proteins that regulate these behaviors include proteins that sever and/or cap actin filaments. This report presents direct observation of severing of fluorescently-labeled actin filaments. Coverslips coated with gelsolin, a multi-domain, calcium-dependent capping and severing protein, bound rhodamine-phalloidin-saturated filaments along their length in the presence of EGTA. Upon addition of calcium, attached filaments bent as they broke. Actophorin, a low molecular weight, monomer sequestering, calcium-independent severing protein did not sever phalloidin-saturated filaments. Both gCap 39, a gelsolin-like, calcium-dependent capping protein that does not sever filaments, and CapZ, a heterodimeric, non-calcium-dependent capping protein, bound the filaments by one end to the coverslip. Visualization ...
Cell behavior is controlled by extracellular signals that work through signal transduction pathways to regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Some of these extrinsic signals positively affect the cytoskeleton and induce actin polymerization, but extrinsic signals that negatively regulate and disassemble actin filaments also exist. A family of multidomain proteins, the MICALs, directly associates with Semaphorins, cell surface receptors involved in negative or repulsive cues. Working with purified proteins and in vivo, Hung et al. now find that actin filaments serve as a direct substrate for Micals enzymatic activity. Mical posttranslationally alters actin at its methionine 44 residue, which disrupts the association between actin monomers and cutting actin filaments. Altering the methionine 44 residue makes actin resistant to Mical-mediated disassembly in vitro and in vivo in Drosophila.. R.-J. Hung, C. W. Pak, J. R. Terman, Direct redox regulation of F-actin assembly and ...
Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: Internalization assay. endosomes associated with dynamic actin assemblies. 3T6 cells stably expressing EGFP-fused -actin (green) were infected with Alexa Fluor 546-labeled MPyV (reddish) (MOI of 102 to 103 computer virus particles per cell) at 37C and scanned with T?=?4 s. Selected frames of cell at 45 min p.i. with corresponding transmission light images illustrate short-distance movement of virus-carrying endosomes associated with dynamic assemblies of EGFP-actin (observe Movie S3). White colored arrowheads point to MPyV virions. Arrows point to endosome-associated actin assemblies. Black arrowheads show MPyV-containing endosomes. Bars, 5 m. Cells were examined using a Leica TCS SP2 AOBS confocal microscope.(TIF) pone.0096922.s002.tif (4.6M) GUID:?75128633-6C0E-4733-829A-F64BA5BC7B02 Number S3: Intracellular distribution of fluorescently tagged transferrin during expression of Rab11 GTPase mutants. 3T6 cells expressing EGFP-fused wt, DN or CA version of Rab11 ...
0062] In some implementations, as illustrated by FIG. 4, a needle 122a can include a barbed end 146 defining a recessed engagement surface 148. The needle capture device can comprise a needle attachment fitting or cuff 136. Specifically, the needle attachment cuff 136 can have a roughly cylindrical shape and include an axial channel 150 configured to receive the barbed end 146 of needle 122a therein. In additional implementations, the needle attachment cuff 136 can include shapes other than cylindrical ones, such as, for example, conical. The needle attachment cuff 136 can include one or more features configured to lock the barbed end 146 of the needle 122a therein. For instance, as shown in FIG. 4, the needle attachment cuff 136 can include at least one tab 152. The tab 152 may be mechanically formed to be smaller than the diameter of surface 148. The tab 152 can be resiliently biased into channel 150. As the needle 122a advances into the needle attachment cuff 136, the barbed end 146 can ...
misc{2054071, author = {Tondeleir, Davina and Ampe, Christophe and Vandekerckhove, Jo{\e}l}, language = {eng}, publisher = {Wiley}, series = {Encyclopedia of life sciences}, title = {Actin and actin filaments}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470015902.a0001255.pub3}, year = {2011 ...
GO:0030833. Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the assembly of actin filaments by the addition of actin monomers to a filament. ...
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As of March 2017, during the lab retreat, the group is composed of Guillaume, Sandy, Yan, Emiko, Héliciane, Bérengère, Hugo, Antoine and Mikaël. ...
F-actin capping protein. FNDC38 - Represses transcription. Tumour metastasis. HK2 - Represses transcription. Glucose-6- ...
"Mammalian CARMIL Inhibits Actin Filament Capping by Capping Protein". Developmental Cell. 9 (2): 209-221. doi:10.1016/j.devcel. ... "capping protein regulator and myosin 1 linker 1". Retrieved 2020-11-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Salmonella ... CARMIL1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CARMIL1 gene. The gene is also known as LRRC16, LRRC16A, CARMIL, or ...
In the proposed 'capping' model, an uncharacterized protein complex moves rearward, moving the parasites forward. The ... This is accomplished through the use of an actin and myosin complex. The complexes require an actin cytoskeleton to perform ... Both protists use protein complexes similar to those that are formed by the gregarines for gliding motility and invading target ... doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1979.tb04197.x. Heintzelman MB (June 2004). "Actin and myosin in Gregarina polymorpha". Cell Motil. ...
The encoded protein caps the pointed end of actin filaments preventing both elongation and depolymerization. The capping ... This gene encodes a muscle-specific member of the tropomodulin family of actin-regulatory proteins. ... that caps actin filament pointed ends in fast skeletal muscle". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (40): 28466-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.40.28466 ... Tropomodulin 4 (muscle) also known as TMOD4 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TMOD4 gene. ...
The encoded protein caps the pointed end of actin filaments preventing both elongation and depolymerization. The capping ... This gene encodes a neuronal-specific member of the tropomodulin family of actin-regulatory proteins. ... Tropomodulin 2 (neuronal) also known as TMOD2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TMOD2 gene. ... a novel isoform of tropomodulin identified as the major binding protein to brain tropomyosin". J. Cell Sci. 109 (9): 2299-310. ...
... , also known as CAPZ, CAZ1 and CAPPA1, is a capping protein that caps the barbed end of actin filaments in muscle cells. ... CapZ+Actin+Capping+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CyMoBase - Database of ... Heiss, Steven; Cooper, John (June 24, 1991). "Regulation of CapZ, an actin capping protein of chicken muscle, by anionic ... Gremm, D.; Wegner, A. (2000-07-01). "Gelsolin as a calcium-regulated actin filament-capping protein". European Journal of ...
This, along with plus end capping proteins, such as capZ stabilise the structure of the actin filament. End capping is ... is a protein which binds and caps the minus end of actin (the "pointed" end), regulating the length of actin filaments in ... The protein functions by physically blocking the spontaneous dissociation of ADP-bound actin monomers from the minus end of the ... TMOD1 TMOD2 TMOD3 TMOD4 Rao, J. N.; Madasu, Y.; Dominguez, R. (24 July 2014). "Mechanism of actin filament pointed-end capping ...
"Actin-Capping Protein and the Hippo pathway regulate F-actin and tissue growth in Drosophila". Development. 138 (11): 2337-2346 ... A team led by Jose Feijó discovered a new function of these proteins, showing that moss sperm uses them to navigate towards the ... It was shown in a study published in Development, in April 2011, that one of the proteins that regulates the skeleton of the ... For many years biologists have wondered why plants have so many genes coding for proteins that are known to be essential for ...
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARPC1A gene. This gene encodes one ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... "Entrez Gene: ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human ARPC1A ... 1998). "Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of ...
... protein CKIP-1 is involved in regulation of cell morphology and the actin cytoskeleton and interaction with actin capping ... "The role of CKIP-1 in cell morphology depends on its interaction with actin-capping protein". The Journal of Biological ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ...
However, the protein appears to be able to interact with adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and actin. CAP2 has been shown to ... Hubberstey A, Yu G, Loewith R, Lakusta C, Young D (Jun 1996). "Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin". Journal of ... "Entrez Gene: CAP2 CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein, 2 (yeast)". Human CAP2 genome location and CAP2 gene details page ... Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAP2 gene. This gene was identified by its ...
Abl is also thought to promote repulsive signaling by binding to adenylyl cyclase associated proteins (CAP), which regulate ... a Rho GTPase which mediates actin depolymerization. In Drosophila, the SH3-SH2 adaptor protein Dock binds directly to the CC2 ... Another protein Commissureless (Comm) was found to be an essential regulator of Robo: in comm mutants, Robo activity is too ... Brose K, Bland KS, Wang KH, Arnott D, Henzel W, Goodman CS, Tessier-Lavigne M, Kidd T (March 1999). "Slit proteins bind Robo ...
The protein regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end of growing actin filaments. CapZβ functions to cap ... F-actin-capping protein subunit beta, also known as CapZβ is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZB gene. CapZβ ... Casella JF, Craig SW, Maack DJ, Brown AE (July 1987). "Cap Z(36/32), a barbed end actin-capping protein, is a component of the ... CAPZB is a member of the F-actin capping protein family. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the barbed-end actin binding ...
The human protein is able to interact with other molecules of the same protein, as well as with CAP2 and actin. CAP1 has been ... The protein encoded by this gene is related to the S. cerevisiae CAP protein, which is involved in the cyclic AMP pathway. ... Hubberstey A, Yu G, Loewith R, Lakusta C, Young D (Apr 1997). "Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin". J Cell ... "Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin". J. Cell. Biochem. UNITED STATES. 61 (3): 459-66. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097- ...
Further, Ena/VASP prevents the action of capping protein, which halts actin polymerization. Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander ... is a cytoskeletal protein actin projection on the leading edge of the cell. It contains a quasi-two-dimensional actin mesh; the ... Ena/VASP proteins are found at the leading edge of lamellipodia, where they promote actin polymerization necessary for ... The lamellipodium is born of actin nucleation in the plasma membrane of the cell and is the primary area of actin incorporation ...
This gene encodes a member of a family of calcium-regulated actin-binding proteins. This protein represents a dominant part of ... "Functional dissection and molecular characterization of calcium-sensitive actin-capping and actin-depolymerizing sites in ... Khurana S, George SP (June 2008). "Regulation of cell structure and function by actin-binding proteins: villin's perspective". ... "Autotaxin and lysophosphatidic acid stimulate intestinal cell motility by redistribution of the actin modifying protein villin ...
"Genomic organization of mouse and human erythrocyte tropomodulin genes encoding the pointed end capping protein for the actin ... A tropomyosin-binding protein". J Biol Chem. 267 (4): 2616-21. PMID 1370827. Sung LA, Fan Y, Lin CC (Dec 1996). "Gene ... Tropomodulin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMOD1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136842 - Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: TMOD1 tropomodulin 1". Ursitti JA, Fowler VM (1994). "Immunolocalization of tropomodulin, tropomyosin and actin in ...
Unphosphorylated Hsp27 has been shown to act as an actin capping protein, preventing actin reorganization and, consequently, ... Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) also known as heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Probably it functions as a mediator of solubility for hydrophobic sHsps and it stabilizes the protein and protein/substrate ... Webster JM, Darling AL, Uversky VN, Blair LJ (September 2019). "Small Heat Shock Proteins, Big Impact on Protein Aggregation in ...
Additionally, they have been known to interact with the cytoskeleton adaptor protein, CAP/ponsin, suggesting cell signalling ... roles and regulation of actin organisation. Teneurin-3 regulates the structural and functional wiring of retinal ganglion cells ... Human genes encoded teneurin domain proteins (TENM1-4) are list in the infoboxes. Tucker RP, Chiquet-Ehrismann R, Chevron MP, ... The name refers to "ten-a" (from "tenascin-like protein, accessory") and "neurons", the primary site of teneurin expression. ...
"Actin capping protein: an essential element in protein kinase signaling to the myofilaments". Circulation Research. 90 (12): ... Actin-capping protein, CapZ appears to affect the localization of PKCε to Z-lines and modulates the cardiomyocyte response to ... Sarcomeric proteins have been identified in PKCε signaling complexes, including actin, cTnT, tropomyosin, desmin, and myosin ... Zeidman R, Trollér U, Raghunath A, Påhlman S, Larsson C (Jan 2002). "Protein kinase Cepsilon actin-binding site is important ...
... a protein that caps the barbed ends and severs actin filaments, enhances the actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes in ... Gelsolin, an actin filament severing protein, localizes at the tail of Listeria and accelerates the bacterium's motility. Once ... Smith, G. A.; Portnoy D. A. (July 1997). "Trends in Microbiology". How the Listeria Monocytogenes ActA Protein Converts Actin ... It induces directed polymerization of actin by the ActA transmembrane protein, thus pushing the bacterial cell around. L. ...
Actin polymerization together with capping proteins were recently used to control the 3-dimensional growth of protein filament ... including motor proteins, branching proteins, severing proteins, polymerization promoters, and capping proteins. Measuring ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... Actin monomer-binding proteins profilin and thymosin β4 Filament barbed-end cappers such as Capping Protein and CapG, etc. ...
F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2 also known as CapZ-alpha2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA2 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: CAPZA2 capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Protein ... Ivanenkov VV, Dimlich RV, Jamieson GA (Apr 1996). "Interaction of S100a0 protein with the actin capping protein, CapZ: ... Conserved residues within the actin-binding domain may link Cap Z to gelsolin/severin and profilin protein families". The ...
Actin polymerization together with capping proteins were recently used to control the 3-dimensional growth of protein filament ... including motor proteins, branching proteins, severing proteins, polymerization promoters, and capping proteins. ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin.. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ... End-capping proteins such as CapZ prevent the addition or loss of monomers at the filament end where actin turnover is ...
They concluded that the lamellipodial network incorporates the Arp 2/3 complex and capping proteins during initial assembly, ... Spatial and temporal relationships between actin-filament nucleation, capping, and disassembly. Curr Biol. 2007 Mar 6; 17(5): ... "Spatial and temporal relationships between actin-filament nucleation, capping, and disassembly." Her study with Mullins focused ... "The Leech Hunchback Protein Is Expressed in the Epithelium and CNS but Not in the Segmental Precursor Lineages." Development ...
... capping and severing of actin filaments. In vertebrates, the villin proteins help to support the microfilaments of the ... Villin is a 92.5 kDa tissue-specific actin-binding protein associated with the actin core bundle of the brush border. Villin ... The association of PIP2 with villin inhibits the actin capping and severing action and increases actin binding at the headpiece ... releasing actin monomers from sequestering proteins and stimulating actin nucleation and cross linking. The C-terminal ...
... end of F-actin filaments. An alternative could involve capping proteins. By doing so, CB not only inhibits actin polymerization ... An analogue principle is used by the well-studied capping proteins which are responsible for a natural limiting factor of actin ... Panayotis (1994). "Cytochalasin B May Shorten Actin Filaments by Mechanisms Independent of Barbed End Capping". Biochemical ... The first step in actin polymerization, after polymerization is initiated, is the deprotonation of the thiol group of G-actin. ...
Actin-binding LIM protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABLIM3 gene. The LIM domain is a double zinc finger ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... "Entrez Gene: ABLIM3 actin binding LIM protein family, member 3". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Krupp M, Weinmann A, ... Krupp M, Weinmann A, Galle PR, Teufel A (Jan 2006). "Actin binding LIM protein 3 (abLIM3)". International Journal of Molecular ...
... such as the actin network, microdomains, chemotaxis, adhesion, and retrograde flow. Biology portal Cap formation Chemotaxis ... For a cell to move, it is necessary to bring a fresh supply of "feet" (proteins called integrins, which attach a cell to the ... If so, the actin filaments that form at the front might stabilize the added membrane so that a structured extension, or lamella ... This observation has led to the hypothesis that formation of actin filaments "push" the leading edge forward and is the main ...
... which cap, nucleate, and/or sever actin filaments. The gene product is tightly associated with both actin filaments and plasma ... Supervillin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SVIL gene. This gene encodes a bipartite protein with distinct amino ... Its function may include recruitment of actin and other cytoskeletal proteins into specialized structures at the plasma ... contains numerous consecutive sequences with extensive similarity to proteins in the gelsolin family of actin-binding proteins ...
Calcium/calmodulin-regulated capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (14): 7986-91. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ... Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V (1998). "Adducin is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C: phosphorylation in the MARCKS- ...
In APS there are also antibodies binding to Protein S, which is a co-factor of protein C. Thus, anti-protein S antibodies ... CAPS or Asherson syndrome) and is associated with a high risk of death. ... Protein C deficiency/Activated protein C resistance/Protein S deficiency/Factor V Leiden ... Levels of protein C, free and total protein S, factor VIII, antithrombin, plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and ...
Adducins are membrane-skeletal proteins that cap the growing ends of actin filaments and promote their association with ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
López-Lastra M, Rivas A, Barría MI (2005), "Protein synthesis in eukaryotes: The growing biological relevance of cap- ... actin mRNA associates with ZBP1 and the 40S subunit. The complex is bound by a motor protein and is transported to the target ... 5' cap additionEdit. Main article: 5' cap. A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) ... binding protein. eIF-4E and eIF-4G block the decapping enzyme (DCP2), and poly(A)-binding protein blocks the exosome complex, ...
ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind with ... and Dicer protein. *A PLAT domain within its C2-like domain; this domain, by analogy to other PLAT domain-bearing proteins, may ...
... /æməˈnaɪtə fəˈlɔɪdiːz/, commonly known as the death cap or the death cap amanita,[1] is a deadly poisonous ... essential protein synthesis and hence cell metabolism grind to a halt and the cell dies.[64] The liver is the principal organ ... "Phallotoxins bind to actins". FEBS Lett. 46 (1): 351-3. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(74)80404-7. PMID 4429639. S2CID 39255487 ... "Death cap" redirects here. For the cap formerly worn by British judges during death sentencing, see black cap. ...
Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ... actin cytoskeleton. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • cellular glucose homeostasis. • regulation of transcription from RNA ... protein domain specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. ...
protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • Ras guanyl ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Neurofilament light polypeptide (NFL), also known as neurofilament light chain, is a neurofilament protein that in humans is ... protein polymerization. • intermediate filament bundle assembly. • neuromuscular process controlling balance. • neurofilament ...
The S RNA encodes GP and NP (viral nucleocapsid protein) proteins, while L RNA encodes Z and L proteins. The L protein most ... Arenaviruses use a cap snatching strategy to gain the cap structures from the cellular mRNAs, and it is mediated by the ... dynamin and actin. Once within the cell the viruses are rapidly delivered to endosomes via vesicular trafficking albeit one ... This ensures an adequate supply of viral proteins for subsequent steps of replication, as the NP and L proteins are translated ...
Specific proteins called FER protein kinases present in the ovule control the production of highly reactive derivatives of ... In addition to the release of acrosomal vesicles, there is explosive polymerisation of actin to form a thin spike at the head ... Two additional sperm receptors exist: a 250kD protein that binds to an oviduct secreted protein, and SED1, which independently ... However, in the TTS medium, the tubes grew at a rate 3x that of the sugar-free medium.[9] TTS proteins were also placed on ...
Rotavirus spike protein VP4 binds to and remodels actin bundles of the epithelial brush border into actin bodies». J. Virol. 80 ... Cowling VH (2010). «Regulation of mRNA cap methylation». Biochem. J. 425 (2): 295-302. PMC 2825737. . PMID 20025612. doi: ... Patton JT (1995). «Structure and function of the rotavirus RNA-binding proteins». J. Gen. Virol. (PDF),. ,formato=. requer ,url ... Enzima guanilil-transferase que coloca a cap 5' no RNAm 4 2362. VP4. 87. Espícula de superficie. 120. Ligação à célula, ...
Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ... Christensen RN, Tassava RA (February 2000). "Apical epithelial cap morphology and fibronectin gene expression in regenerating ... specialized signaling center called the apical epithelial cap (AEC).[48] Over the next several days there are changes in the ... as the venom volume is replaced before the active proteins are all replenished.[27] ...
Actin filaments and pseudopodia form.[35] During migration, integrins on the pseudopod attach to the ECM, and the actin ... doi:10.1016/j.cap.2005.01.011.. *^ van der Pol E, Mudde YD, Coumans FA, van Leeuwen TG, Sturk A, Nieuwland R (November 2016). " ... Fibrin and fibronectin cross-link together and form a plug that traps proteins and particles and prevents further blood loss.[ ... As the actin in myofibroblasts contracts, the wound edges are pulled together. Fibroblasts lay down collagen to reinforce the ...
... there is no RNA Pol II transcription so the protein components instead form a perinucleolar cap.[50] ... This condition typically results from mutations in actin, and the rods themselves consist of mutant actin as well as other ... Both structures serve to mediate binding to nuclear transport proteins.[5]. Most proteins, ribosomal subunits, and some DNAs ... The nuclear lamina is composed mostly of lamin proteins. Like all proteins, lamins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and later ...
EPB49‏ (Dematin actin binding protein) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين EPB49 في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... actin filament capping. • نقل عبر الغشاء. • negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation. • positive regulation of ... DMTN, DMT, EPB49, dematin actin binding protein. معرفات خارجية. الوراثة المندلية البشرية عبر الإنترنت 125305 MGI: MGI:99670 ... actin filament reorganization. • regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization. • negative regulation of peptidyl-threonine ...
... comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression profiling". BMC Genomics 9: 220. PMC 2391170. PMID ... A PARN desadenila menos se o ARN se uniu aos factores de iniciación 4E (no 5' cap) e 4G (na cola poli(A)), o cal explica por ... "MicroRNA-mediated up-regulation of an alternatively polyadenylated variant of the mouse cytoplasmic -actin gene". Nucleic ... Nuclease Interacts with the C-terminal Domain of Polyadenylate-binding Protein Domain from Poly(A)-binding Protein". Journal of ...
Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton ... Main article: Protein domain. Many proteins are composed of several protein domains, i.e. segments of a protein that fold into ... globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and membrane proteins. Almost all globular proteins are soluble and many are enzymes. ... Protein purification. Main article: Protein purification. To perform in vitro analysis, a protein must be purified away from ...
Two additional sperm receptors exist: a 250kD protein that binds to an oviduct secreted protein, and SED1, which independently ... In addition to the release of acrosomal vesicles, there is explosive polymerisation of actin to form a thin spike at the head ... The protein CD9 likely mediates this fusion in mice (the binding homolog). The egg "activates" itself upon fusing with a single ... The sperm surface protein bindin, binds to a receptor on the vitelline membrane identified as EBR1. ...
Titin capping protein or Telethonin is encoded by the gene TCAP and helps with T-tubule development and is potentially ... T-tubules are between 20 and 450 nanometers in diameter and are usually located in regions called Z-discs where the actin ... The shape of the T-tubule system is produced and maintained by a variety of proteins. The protein amphiphysin-2 is encoded by ... As the T-tubules are the primary location for excitation-contraction coupling, the ion channels and proteins involved in this ...
FliF transmembrane coupling protein in yellow, L and P ring proteins in light blue, and (at top), the cap, hook-filament ... as in actin filaments and the flagellar motor, image). The process by which MAs are formed has been termed molecular self- ... From bottom to top, repeating FliM and FliN, motor/switch proteins in darker blue, FliG motor/switch proteins in red, ... Structure of a viral MA, cowpea mosaic virus, with 30 copies of each of its coat proteins, the Small (S, yellow) and the Large ...
protein binding. • actin binding. • receptor binding. • protein self-association. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • ... actin filament capping. • transmembrane transport. • negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation. • positive ... actin filament. • actin cytoskeleton. • spectrin-associated cytoskeleton. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • endomembrane ... actin filament reorganization. • regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization. • negative regulation of peptidyl-threonine ...
Left: An octopus opening a container with a screw cap. Right: Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, burying itself in the ... Like most molluscs, cephalopods use hemocyanin, a copper-containing protein, rather than hemoglobin, to transport oxygen. As a ... Carlini, D. B.; Reece, K. S.; Graves, J. E. (2000). "Actin gene family evolution and the phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods ( ... Aggressive sex is an activity that most cephalopods engage in; a protein in the male capsule sheath stimulates this behavior. ...
Maruyama K، Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... YKT6‏ (SNARE protein Ykt6) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين YKT6 في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... protein-cysteine S-palmitoyltransferase activity. • نشاط انتقالي. • SNAP receptor activity. • SNARE binding. • cadherin binding ... Tochio H، Tsui MM، Banfield DK، Zhang M (Jul 2001). "An autoinhibitory mechanism for nonsyntaxin SNARE proteins revealed by the ...
"Cap-independent translation ensures mTOR expression and function upon protein synthesis inhibition. ". RNA. 2017. PMID 28821580 ... positive regulation of actin filament polymerization. • positive regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. • positive ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • transferase activity. • ribosome binding. • protein binding. • protein kinase ... protein kinase activity. • macromolecular complex binding. • identical protein binding. • translation regulator activity. ...
The vif protein (p23) prevents the action of APOBEC3G (a cellular protein that deaminates cytidine to uridine in the single- ... which consists of a cap made of three molecules known as glycoprotein (gp) 120, and a stem consisting of three gp41 molecules ... "HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 199 (2): 283- ... As the sole viral protein on the surface of the virus, the Envelope protein is a major target for HIV vaccine efforts.[26] Over ...
It also seems that in the case of actin, the CAP protein is required as a possible cofactor in actin's final folding states.[42 ... These proteins are called actin-binding proteins (ABP) and they are involved in actin's polymerization, depolymerization, ... In this way there are three species of actin in a filament: ATP-Actin, ADP+Pi-Actin and ADP-Actin.[47][60] The amount of each ... of these proteins is such that actin is thought to be the protein that takes part in the greatest number of protein-protein ...
Rotavirus spike protein VP4 binds to and remodels actin bundles of the epithelial brush border into actin bodies. J. Virol. ... VP3蛋白質是病毒體內核的一部分,而且是一種稱為鳥苷酸轉移酶(guanylyl transferase)的酶。這種酶是一種加帽酶(Capping enzyme),也就是製作信使核糖核酸轉錄後修飾時候所用的5'端帽的酶[103]。這個5'端帽保護病毒的信使 ... 有六個病毒蛋白質(viral protein,VP)架構了
The lower volume of plasma also reduces the chances of an adverse transfusion reaction to plasma proteins.[62] Volume reduced ... The platelets congregate around the wound in order to create a cap to stop blood flow out of the tissue. ... These changes are all brought about by the interaction of the microtubule/actin complex with the platelet cell membrane and ... These are G protein coupled receptors and they turn on calcium mediated signaling pathways within the platelet, overcoming the ...
protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... actin cytoskeleton. Biological process. • collagen-activated tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathway. • ossification. • ... protein tyrosine kinase collagen receptor activity. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • collagen binding. ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha (IPR002189). Short name: CapZ_alpha Overlapping homologous superfamilies *F-actin-capping ... Unlike gelsolin and severin this protein does not sever actin filaments. The F-actin capping protein is a heterodimer composed ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Proteins matched: F_ACTIN_CAPPING_A_2 (PS00749) This signature appears in the following proteins: Showing 1 to 20 of 1153 ... Protein name. Species. Domain architecture. A0M8R8 F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2. Papio anubis (Olive baboon). ...
Unlike gelsolin and severin this protein does not sever actin filaments. The F-actin capping protein is a heterodimer composed ... the F-actin capping protein is a protein complex which binds in a calcium-independent manner to the fast-growing ends of actin ... Neither of the subunits shows sequence similarity to other filament-capping proteins. The alpha subunit is a protein of about ... "Beta-actinin is equivalent to Cap Z protein". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (15): 8712-5. PMID 2341404. Cooper JA, Caldwell JE, Gattermeir ...
Capping protein controls the addition of actin subunits to the barbed end of actin filaments and nucleates actin polymerization ... capping protein (CapZ) probably binds the barbed ends of actin filaments at the Z line. The in vivo role of this protein in non ... Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in yeast capping protein mutants.. Amatruda JF1, Cannon JF, Tatchell K, Hug C, Cooper JA. ... indicating that capping protein regulates actin-filament distribution in vivo. ...
Actin Capping Protein. Some articles on actin, actin capping protein, protein:. Capping Protein (actin Filament) Muscle Z-line ... actin capping protein complex ... CAPZB is a member of the F-actin capping protein family ... This gene encodes the beta ... actin capping protein alpha subunit family ... This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein ... ... Famous quotes containing the word protein:. "Firm-style bean curd insoles cushion feet, absorb perspiration and provide more ...
Overexpressing capping protein α and β decreases both F-actin levels and tissue growth, while expressing forms of Capping ... is a master F-actin regulator. In addition to its role in many cellular processes, Capping Protein acts as a main tumor ... We show that the levels and capping activities of both subunits must be tightly regulated to control F-actin levels and ... Protein that have dominant negative effects on F-actin promote tissue growth. Both subunits regulate each others protein ...
... actin filament), gelsolin-like ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... capping protein (actin filament), gelsolin-like ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Your search returned 5 capping protein (actin filament), gelsolin-like ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ...
F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA1 gene. CAPZA1 is a member of the F- ... actin capping protein alpha subunit family. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein. The ... 2003). "Linking the T cell surface protein CD2 to the actin-capping protein CAPZ via CMS and CIN85". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (25): ... "Entrez Gene: CAPZA1 capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1". Dawson SJ, White LA (1992). "Treatment of ...
The 100 kDa actin-binding protein from Dictyostelium amoebae is an F-actin capping protein that displays neither severing nor ... This renders capping of actin filaments as the evolutionarily oldest function of an F-actin binding protein. ... The 100 kDa F-actin capping protein of Dictyostelium amoebae is a villin prototype (protovillin).. Hofmann A1, Noegel AA, ... which is able to cap actin filaments but still lacks the other villin-type actin-binding activities. ...
Here, we report that actin capping protein (CP), a regulator of actin filament growth, plays an essential role for spine ... Actin Capping Protein Is Required for Dendritic Spine Development and Synapse Formation. Yanjie Fan, Xin Tang, Eric Vitriol, ... 2008) Capping protein increases the rate of actin-based motility by promoting filament nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. Cell ... 2008) New insights into mechanism and regulation of actin capping protein. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 267:183-206. ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. The isoform beta-3 ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... View protein in Pfam. PF01115. F_actin_cap_B. 1 hit. Protein ... composed of F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha (CAPZA1, CAPZA2 or CAPZA3), F-actin-capping protein subunit beta (CAPZB), ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... View protein in Pfam. PF01115 F_actin_cap_B, 1 hit. Protein ... Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments.UniRule annotation. , ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... Capping actin protein of muscle Z-l.... Capping actin protein ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q6NWK1. Capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit alpha 1a ( ...
... actin filament), gelsolin-like), Authors: Peeyush Kumar Singh, Ranjan Tamuli. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... protein binding nucleus nucleoplasm nucleolus cytoplasm centriole F-actin capping protein complex protein domain specific ... protein binding nucleus nucleoplasm nucleolus cytoplasm centriole F-actin capping protein complex protein domain specific ... melanosome protein-containing complex binding cadherin binding actin filament binding barbed-end actin filament capping protein ...
Compare capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit alpha 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit alpha 2 ELISA Kits. Clear ... Your search returned 16 capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit alpha 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ... capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit alpha 2 ELISA Kits. ...
The actin capping protein (CP) tightly binds to the barbed end of actin filaments, thus playing a key role in actin-based ... The actin capping protein (CP) tightly binds to the barbed end of actin filaments, thus playing a key role in actin-based ... F-actin-capping protein subunit beta isoforms 1 and 2. B. 244. Gallus gallus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CAPZB. ... F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1. A. 286. Gallus gallus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CAPZA1. ...
... capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit beta), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... cytoskeleton organization blood coagulation F-actin capping protein complex regulation of lamellipodium assembly actin ... cytoskeleton organization blood coagulation F-actin capping protein complex regulation of lamellipodium assembly actin ... sarcomere actin cytoskeleton organization cadherin binding actin filament binding barbed-end actin filament capping negative ...
Capping actin protein, gelsolin-like (CapG) was first identified as an actin binding protein of the gelsolin superfamily, which ... CapG, an actin binding protein, modulates the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and aberrant turnover of the actin ... The F-actin filament capping protein CapG is a bona fide nucleolar protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 377:699-704. 2008. View ... Actin-capping protein CapG is associated with prognosis, proliferation and metastasis in human glioma. *Authors: *Da-Peng Yun ...
In this study, we investigated the structural aspects of inhibition of actin-capping protein (CP) by phosphatidic acid (PA) and ... These responses are thought to be mediated by dozens of actin-binding proteins, the biochemical activities of which have been ... Our new data shed light on the nature of interactions between peripheral membrane proteins and PA-containing lipid bilayers. In ... our work also significantly contributes to the ongoing debate on structural details of protein interactions with phospholipids. ...
2004) Capping protein binding to actin in yeast: biochemical mechanism and physiological relevance. J Cell Biol 164: 567-580. ... 2012) Capping protein modulates the dynamic behavior of actin filaments in response to phosphatidic acid in Arabidopsis. Plant ... Capping Protein Modulates Actin Remodeling in Response to Reactive Oxygen Species during Plant Innate Immunity. Jiejie Li, ... 2008) New insights into mechanism and regulation of actin capping protein. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 267: 183-206. ...
... family proteins promote actin polymerization, while Cofilin, Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) and capping proteins (CPs) ... We have found that Capping protein α (Cpa) and Capping protein β (Cpb), which prevent extension of the barbed ends of actin ... Capping protein, Cofilin and CAP all restrict actin filament polymerization (Bamburg, 1999; Gottwald et al., 1996; Schafer et ... Linking the T cell surface protein CD2 to the actin-capping protein CAPZ via CMS and CIN85. J. Biol. Chem. 278,22396 -22403. ...
Capping Protein and Hippo signaling activities inhibit F-actin. ERM proteins can form a structural linkage between ... Actin-Capping Protein and the Hippo pathway regulate F-actin and tissue growth in Drosophila ... Actin-Capping Protein and the Hippo pathway regulate F-actin and tissue growth in Drosophila ... Actin-Capping Protein and the Hippo pathway regulate F-actin and tissue growth in Drosophila ...
Among these molecules, Eps8 is a unique actin binding and signaling protein that possesses actin filament bundling and capping ... regulators of actin dynamics, including actin bundlers and capping proteins, are expected to play a critical role by ... Capping protein increases the rate of actin-based motility by promoting filament nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. Cell. 2008; ... Capping protein terminates but does not initiate chemoattractant-induced actin assembly in Dictyostelium. J. Cell Biol. 1997; ...
... "capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2")*CCDS: 19926, 19926.1*OMIM: CAPPING PROTEIN, ALPHA-2; CAPZA2*Gene ... capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2. Synonyms: 1110053K06Rik, Cappa2. Gene nomenclature, locus information ...
... growth during cardiac hypertrophy is regulated through dual phosphorylation and acetylation of the actin capping protein CapZ. ... growth during cardiac hypertrophy is regulated through dual phosphorylation and acetylation of the actin capping protein CapZ ... The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that actin filament assembly during cardiomyocyte growth is regulated by post ... two residues which are near the actin binding surface of CapZβ1. Ectopic expression of dominant negative PKCɛ (dnPKCɛ) in NRVMs ...
... actin filament capping mediated by capping protein through the direct interaction between capping protein and the capping- ... Capping protein is an actin-binding protein that binds to the fast-growing (barbed) ends of actin filaments with very high ... In addition to actin nucleators, other actin-binding proteins cap, depolymerize, elongate and bundle actin filaments, and are ... Hypothetical model for the roles of actin-capping protein in the cytoplasmic actin mesh. The formation of the cytoplasmic actin ...
CAPZA1; capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1; CAPZ; CAZ1; CAPPA1; F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1; ... The protein regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end of growing actin filaments. ... CAPZA1 is a member of the F-actin capping protein alpha subunit family. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end ... capZ 36/32; beta-actinin subunit I; actin-capping protein (CapZ 36/32) alpha subunit ...
... with actin. CapZ blocks actin polymerization and depolymerization (i.e., it caps) at the barbed end with a Kd of ... CapZ has no measureable ability to sever actin filaments in a filament dilution assay. CapZ nucleates actin polymerization at a ... CapZ inhibits the polymerization of ATP-actin onto filament ends with ATP subunits slightly less than onto ends with ADP ... No significant binding is observed between CapZ and rhodamine-labeled actin monomers by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. ...
The TRTK-12 fragment of F-actin capping protein alpha binds the AGER ligand S100B (Danio rerio) * F-actin capping protein ... F-actin capping protein fragment TRTK12:S100B homodimer [extracellular region] Stable Identifier ... F-actin capping protein fragment TRTK12:S100B homodimer [extracellular region] (Homo sapiens) ... The TRTK-12 fragment of F-actin capping protein alpha binds the AGER ligand S100B ...
... is a ubiquitous gelsolin-family actin-modulating protein involved in cell signalling, receptor-mediated membrane ruffling, ... In the current study, to further determine the potential involvement of CapG in OSCC, we evaluated the status of CapG protein ... qRT-PCR data were consistent with the protein expression status. Moreover, CapG expression was correlated with the TNM stage ... In IHC, substantial up-regulation of CapG protein was observed in primary OSCCs (52%) and OPLs (64%), whereas corresponding ...
  • The F-actin capping protein binds in a calcium-independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ends. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Unlike gelsolin and severin this protein does not sever actin filaments. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Capping protein controls the addition of actin subunits to the barbed end of actin filaments and nucleates actin polymerization in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • In skeletal muscle, capping protein (CapZ) probably binds the barbed ends of actin filaments at the Z line. (nih.gov)
  • ii) The villin-like molecule in Dictyostelium appears to be a premature villin ('protovillin') which is able to cap actin filaments but still lacks the other villin-type actin-binding activities. (nih.gov)
  • This renders capping of actin filaments as the evolutionarily oldest function of an F-actin binding protein. (nih.gov)
  • These findings indicate that capping of actin filaments by CP represents an essential step for the remodeling of the actin architecture underlying spine morphogenesis and synaptic formation during development. (jneurosci.org)
  • Capping protein (CP) binds the barbed ends of actin filaments to prevent their elongation and facilitate Arp2/3-mediated nucleation ( Akin and Mullins, 2008 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. (uniprot.org)
  • The protein regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end (plus-end) of growing actin filaments, preventing any further assembly from occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein can be bound to the lipid PIP2 preventing it from binding to actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAPG encodes a member of the gelsolin/villin family of actin-regulatory proteins that reversibly blocks (capping) the barbed ends of F-actin filaments in a Ca 2+ and phosphoinositide-regulated manner, but does not sever preformed actin filaments. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The actin capping protein (CP) tightly binds to the barbed end of actin filaments, thus playing a key role in actin-based lamellipodial dynamics. (rcsb.org)
  • CP is a ubiquitous regulator of actin filaments ( Cooper and Sept, 2008 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • We have found that Capping protein α (Cpa) and Capping protein β (Cpb), which prevent extension of the barbed ends of actin filaments, are specifically required in the wing blade primordium of the Drosophila wing disc. (biologists.org)
  • CPs and the Arp2/3 complex, which promotes filament branching, favor formation of the short highly branched actin filaments required to generate protrusive force at the leading edge of migrating cells. (biologists.org)
  • ERM proteins form a structural linkage between transmembrane components and actin filaments (F-actin) ( McClatchey and Giovannini, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • It binds to the fast-growing (barbed) ends of actin filaments and plays essential roles in various actin-mediated cellular processes. (biologists.org)
  • activate the Arp2/3 complex and help to form new branched actin filaments. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to actin nucleators, other actin-binding proteins cap, depolymerize, elongate and bundle actin filaments, and are therefore crucial for actin dynamics in various cell types ( Pollard and Cooper, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • Effect of capping protein, CapZ, on the length of actin filaments and mechanical properties of actin filament networks. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The encoded protein reversibly blocks the barbed ends of F-actin filaments in a Ca2+ and phosphoinositide-regulated manner, but does not sever preformed actin filaments. (genecards.org)
  • By capping the barbed ends of actin filaments, the encoded protein contributes to the control of actin-based motility in non-muscle cells. (genecards.org)
  • Calcium-sensitive protein which reversibly blocks the barbed ends of actin filaments but does not sever preformed actin filaments. (genecards.org)
  • The mechanism by which capping protein (CP) binds barbed ends of actin filaments is not understood, and the physiological significance of CP binding to actin is not defined. (elsevier.com)
  • Actin filaments of patches appear to be nucleated first, then capped with CP. (elsevier.com)
  • Tropomodulins are a family of four proteins (Tmods 1-4) that cap the pointed ends of actin filaments in actin cytoskeletal structures in a developmentally regulated and tissue-specific manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Actin dynamics and rearrangements of actin filaments are crucial during structural and functional alterations of neurons in response to stress shaping synaptic plasticity and behavior [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • TNKS1BP1 colocalized with actin filaments and negatively regulated cell invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The adaptor complexes capture the retrograde flow of actin filaments (F-actin), and this interaction array of ECM, integrin, adaptors, and F-actin generates tractive force for cell motility ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The heterodimeric actin capping protein, referred to here as "CP," is an essential element of the actin cytoskeleton, binding to the barbed ends of actin filaments and regulating their polymerization. (wustl.edu)
  • It is the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein Cap Z. By capping the barbed end of actin filaments, Cap Z regulates the growth of the actin filaments at the barbed end. (genecards.org)
  • Assembly of actin filaments near the plasma membrane drives extension of the cell edge as it migrates. (pnas.org)
  • INF2 is a unique formin that can both polymerize and depolymerize actin filaments. (bris.ac.uk)
  • It tightly binds to the fast growing end of actin filaments, thereby functioning as a " cap " by blocking the addition and loss of actin subunits. (mpg.de)
  • Hence, the crystal structure of Cap32/34 raises the possibility of different binding behaviours of the CP variants toward the barbed end of actin filaments, a feature, which might have arisen from adaptation to different environments. (mpg.de)
  • Assembly and turnover of short actin filaments by the formin INF2 and profilin. (qxmd.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments together with their organization in higher magnitude actin-based superstructures and their complex dynamic properties are regulated by Actin-Binding Proteins (ABPs). (tebu-bio.com)
  • ABPs are variety of active proteins that control G-actin polymerization but which also drive actin filaments severing and cross-linking to form complex cytoskeleton networks. (tebu-bio.com)
  • CapZ - this ABP caps the barbed end of actin filaments in muscle cells. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Fascin - A monomeric ABP, bundling actin filaments with its two actin-binding sites. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Filamin - A crosslinker of actin filaments to form orthogonal and flexible actin networks. (tebu-bio.com)
  • In vitro biochemical analysis showed that AtFH2 fails to nucleate actin assembly but caps and stabilizes actin filaments. (elifesciences.org)
  • We also demonstrate that the interaction between AtFH2 and actin filaments is crucial for its function in vivo. (elifesciences.org)
  • These data allow us to propose that AtFH2 regulates PD's permeability by anchoring actin filaments to PD. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mutation in the ACTA1 gene that causes cap myopathy results in an abnormal protein that may interfere with the proper assembly of thin filaments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cap structures in muscle cells characteristic of this disorder are composed of disorganized thin filaments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The specific effects of TPM2 and TPM3 gene mutations are unclear, but researchers suggest they may interfere with normal actin-myosin binding between the thin and thick filaments, impairing muscle contraction and resulting in the muscle weakness that occurs in cap myopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Formins share the conserved FH2 domain whose dimer can nucleate and cap actin filaments, usually accompanied by a profilin-G-actin-binding FH1 domain and by additional domains mediating regulatory or structural interactions that vary both within and between lineages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Actin filaments are part of the cytoskeleton and their dynamic structure is involved in the motility and shape change of the cell [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Actin filaments are depolymerized shortly after starvation and actin is assembled into a network within the isolation membrane. (nature.com)
  • Behaviour of microtubules and actin filaments in living Drosophila embryos. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We describe the preparation of novel fluorescent derivatives of rabbit muscle actin and bovine tubulin, and the use of these derivatives to study the behaviour of actin filaments and microtubules in living Drosophila embryos, in which the nuclei divide at intervals of 8 to 21 min. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phostensin, a protein phosphatase 1 F-actin cytoskeleton-targeting subunit encoded by KIAA1949 , consists of 165 amino acids and caps the pointed ends of actin filaments. (mdpi.com)
  • Our data indicate that the N -terminal region of phostensin (1-129) cannot bind to actin filaments and cannot retard the pointed end elongation of gelsolin-actin seeds. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, the C -terminal region of phostensin (125-165) multiply bind to the sides of actin filaments and lacks the ability to block the pointed end elongation, suggesting that the actin-binding motif is located in the C -terminal region of the phostensin. (mdpi.com)
  • These results suggest that phostensin might fold into a rigid structure, allowing the N -terminus to sterically hinder the binding of C -terminus to the sides of actin filament, thus rendering phostensin binding to the pointed ends of actin filaments. (mdpi.com)
  • It is mainly concentrated at the cell periphery and colocalizes with actin filaments and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). (mdpi.com)
  • Phostensin binds to the pointed ends of actin filaments, but not to actin monomers, the sides of filaments or the barbed ends of filaments [ 1 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The protein actin forms filaments that provide cells with mechanical support and driving forces for movement. (sciencemag.org)
  • they depend on interactions of actin monomers and filaments with numerous other proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin and its bacterial counterparts polymerize into filaments ( Fig. 1 ) that offer myriad advantages to cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin is essential for the survival of most cells: Filaments provide internal mechanical support, tracks for movements of intracellular materials, and force to drive cell movements. (sciencemag.org)
  • Essentially all eukaryotes have genes for actin, and most have genes for myosin motor proteins that generate forces on actin filaments ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In animals, actin filaments complement two other cytoskeletal polymers, microtubules and intermediate filaments ( Fig. 1B ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin filaments are red and bacteria are green. (sciencemag.org)
  • A bundle of actin filaments and a network of intermediate filaments are labeled. (sciencemag.org)
  • C ) Electron micrograph of the network of branched actin filaments at the leading edge (top) of a motile keratocyte. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin and myosin were discovered during the 1940s in muscle, where the two proteins comprise highly regular arrays of filaments that make up more than half of the total protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • Two decades later, actin and myosin were discovered in other cells ( 4 , 5 ), revealing that muscle filaments are a specialized example of a common cellular system. (sciencemag.org)
  • 12. What are the monomers of actin filaments? (brainscape.com)
  • We propose that invadopodia form by assembly of dendritic/diagonal and bundled actin networks and then mature by elongation of actin bundles, followed by the entry of microtubules and vimentin filaments. (rupress.org)
  • actin filaments continue to elongate persistently and gradually converge to form filopodia. (rupress.org)
  • Adding to the growing fundamental understanding of the machinery of muscle cells, a group of biophysicists from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania describe in the journal Science this week - in minute detail -- how actin filaments are stabilized at one of their ends to form a basic muscle structure called the sarcomere. (eurekalert.org)
  • With the help of many other proteins, actin molecules polymerize to form filaments that give rise to structures of many different shapes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The actin filaments have a polarity, with a plus and minus end, reflecting their natural tendency to gain or lose subunits when not stabilized. (eurekalert.org)
  • In sarcomeres, actin filaments are stabilized at both ends by capping proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • We describe how tropomodulin interacts with the slow-growing end of actin filaments," says coauthor Yadaiah Madasu, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the Dominquez lab. (eurekalert.org)
  • Actin filament barbed-end capping proteins are essential for cell motility, as they regulate the growth of actin filaments to generate propulsive force. (nih.gov)
  • Depolymerization of actin filaments by profilin. (sdbonline.org)
  • Most nucleated cells crawl about by extending a pseudopod that is driven by the polymerization of actin filaments in the cytoplasm behind the leading edge of the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • These actin filaments are linked into a network by Y-branches, with the pointed end of each filament attached to the side of another filament and the rapidly growing barbed end facing forward. (nih.gov)
  • Because Arp2/3 complex nucleates actin polymerization and links the pointed end to the side of another filament in vitro, a dendritic nucleation model has been proposed in which Arp2/3 complex initiates filaments from the sides of older filaments. (nih.gov)
  • Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in yeast capping protein mutants. (nih.gov)
  • The actin filament system, a prominent part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells, is both a static structure and a dynamic network that can undergo rearrangements: it is thought to be involved in processes such as cell movement and phagocytosis, as well as muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The actin cytoskeleton controls numerous processes, including cell shape, mobility, division and intracellular transport. (plos.org)
  • The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in the spine structure and its modifications during synapse development and plasticity, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. (jneurosci.org)
  • Importantly, the actin cytoskeleton, in conjunction with other scaffolding molecules, establishes the cytoarchitecture for subcellular organization of postsynaptic components that ensures effective postsynaptic signaling ( Carlisle and Kennedy, 2005 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The actin cytoskeleton and its dynamics are regulated by a broad array of binding proteins, but whether and how they function together in dendritic spines remain to be elucidated ( Hotulainen and Hoogenraad, 2010 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • CapG, which is a unique regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, is expressed in malignant melanomas of the uvea but not to a significant extent in normal uveal melanocytes. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • however, the immune signals that impinge on actin cytoskeleton and its response regulators remain largely unknown. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Our genetic studies reveal that the ubiquitous heterodimeric capping protein transduces ROS signaling to the actin cytoskeleton during innate immunity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Tissue patterning must be translated into morphogenesis through cell shape changes mediated by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • The actin cytoskeleton controls cell morphology and polarity, endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, contractility and cell division. (biologists.org)
  • Adherens junctions (AJ) composed of E-cadherin and α- andβ -catenin link the actin cytoskeleton of neighboring cells, forming an adhesive belt. (biologists.org)
  • Interestingly, the Merlin-actin cytoskeleton association is required for growth suppression and inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) signaling ( Curto and McClatchey, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) flexibly adapt to different microenvironments by using diverse migration strategies that are ultimately dependent on the dynamics and structural organization of the actin cytoskeleton. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The heterodimeric actin-capping protein is an essential element of the actin cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • Taken together, these findings show that capping protein is an essential component of the actin cytoskeleton machinery that plays crucial roles in oocyte maturation, presumably by controlling the cytoplasmic actin mesh density. (biologists.org)
  • Tmod-based stabilization and organization of intracellular actin filament networks provide key insights into how the emergent properties of the actin cytoskeleton drive tissue morphogenesis and physiology. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we report that the tankyrase-binding protein TNKS1BP1 regulates actin cytoskeleton and cancer cell invasion, which is closely associated with cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Rho-associated protein kinases/LIM kinases/cofilin pathway (ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathway) and CapZ-mediated regulation of actin filament dynamics play key roles in the actin/cytoskeleton network rearrangement ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many proteins involved in energy metabolism were more abundant, whereas some proteins participating in cytoskeleton organization were reduced in abundance on d 110 compared with d 90. (springer.com)
  • Since both these proteins are involved in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton these changes strengthen the evidence that aberrant regulation of actin dynamics underlies the pathogenesis of disease. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Access to sources of qualified ABPs guaranteed for cytoskeleton molecular modeling and actin dynamics research is rapidly evolving. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Looking for Actin-Binding Proteins and cytoskeleton interaction? (tebu-bio.com)
  • However, the world of Actin-Binding Proteins and cytoskeleton interactions for research applications is evolving. (tebu-bio.com)
  • This has been a barrier to our understanding of the function of the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of cell-to-cell trafficking via PD. (elifesciences.org)
  • Hsp27 is involved in a variety of cellular functions including molecular chaperone activity, control of apoptosis, and regulation of the actin filament cytoskeleton [ 1 - 3 , 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Aguilera, M. O., Beron, W. & Colombo, M. I. The actin cytoskeleton participates in the early events of autophagosome formation upon starvation induced autophagy. (nature.com)
  • Proteins from adhesion structures connect the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton, allowing the growing actin network to push the plasma membrane and the contractile cables (stress fibers) to pull the cell body. (hindawi.com)
  • In this cycle, proteins from adhesion structures connect the ECM to the actin cytoskeleton (Figure 1 ), allowing the growing actin network to push the plasma membrane forward and the contractile stress fibers to pull the cell body and retract the tail. (hindawi.com)
  • At the molecular level, talin is one of the first proteins involved in the connection between the ECM and the actin cytoskeleton. (hindawi.com)
  • The fluorescently labelled proteins appear to function normally in vitro and in vivo, and they allow continuous observation of the cytoskeleton in living embryos without perturbing development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phostensin, a protein phosphatase 1 F-actin cytoskeleton targeting subunit, encoded by KIAA1949 , consists of 165 amino acids with a consensus protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-binding motif located at residues 91-94 (K 91 ISF 94 ) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • CAP homologs are multifunctional proteins: they are involved in signal dependent changes in the actin cytoskeleton, in vesicle transport and cell development. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Our research is focused in two different areas of study: 1) the function of the molecular machines essential to gene expression and its regulation, in particular those that control the synthesis and processing of messenger RNAs, and 2) the function of molecular machines essential to the organization and utilization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. (brandeis.edu)
  • We studied the remodeling of cytoskeleton networks during invadopodia formation and elongation using ultrastructural analysis, spatial distribution of molecular markers, and RNA interference silencing of protein expression. (rupress.org)
  • We show that formation of invadopodia requires only the actin cytoskeleton and filopodia- and lamellipodia-associated proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Using a combination of cell biology and genetics, we are investigating how the actin cytoskeleton impacts defense signaling in the model system Arabidopsis thaliana . (msu.edu)
  • We are also using genetics and biochemistry to ask how resistance signaling is initiated during the early stages of the host-pathogen association through the function of the host actin cytoskeleton. (msu.edu)
  • For example, our recent work has identified a suite of Pseudomonas syringae type III effector (T3E) proteins that specifically target the Arabidopsis actin cytoskeleton. (msu.edu)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Cdc13 binds telomeric DNA to recruit telomerase and to "cap" chromosome ends. (genetics.org)
  • Equally important, capping protein (CP) binds to and terminates polymerization of the fast-growing end of the filament. (pnas.org)
  • Tropomyosin - In skeletal muscle, the Tropomyosin dimer form binds laterally to the actin filament, strengthening actin networks. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Cofilin - An ABP that binds and depolymerizes filamentous F-actin while inhibiting the polymerization of G-actin. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Instead, we propose that Hsp27 binds along the side of the F-actin filament. (hindawi.com)
  • PA reportedly binds to a number of proteins that play a role during water limiting conditions, such as drought and salinity and has been shown to play an important role in maintaining root system architecture. (frontiersin.org)
  • A recent study showed that CP is present in dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons and the branched actin filament network containing CP appears to be a prominent feature of the spine head ( Korobova and Svitkina, 2010 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Our data suggest that CARMIL proteins down-regulate CP by affecting its conformational dynamics. (rcsb.org)
  • Quantitative analyses of actin dynamics in live cells have uncovered the potential molecular mechanisms that contribute to increased filament abundance. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Taken together, these findings indicate a novel interplay between Hippo pathway activity and actin filament dynamics that is essential for normal growth control. (biologists.org)
  • These observations suggest a role for F-actin dynamics in modulating Hpo pathway activity. (biologists.org)
  • We have also shown that the DC migratory defect is cell autonomous and that Eps8 is required for the proper architectural organization of the actin meshwork and dynamics of cell protrusions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Within this context, regulators of actin dynamics, including actin bundlers and capping proteins, are expected to play a critical role by controlling the architecture and dynamics of the actin meshwork that propels nonadhesive DC migration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increased lysine-199 acetylation on CapZβ1, which increased Kfrap of CapZ and stimulated actin dynamics. (selleckchem.com)
  • These results highlight the importance and varied functions of this protein in the formation of actin-based structures and in actin filament dynamics. (biologists.org)
  • Although recombinant WASH is constitutively active toward the Arp2/3 complex, the reconstituted core assembly is inhibited, suggesting that it functions in cells to regulate actin dynamics through WASH. FAM21 interacts directly with CAPZ and inhibits its actin-capping activity. (pnas.org)
  • Strumpellin is mutated in the human disease hereditary spastic paraplegia, and its link to WASH suggests that misregulation of actin dynamics on endosomes may play a role in this disorder. (pnas.org)
  • By inhibiting actin monomer association and dissociation from pointed ends, Tmods regulate actin dynamics and turnover, stabilizing actin filament lengths and cytoskeletal architecture. (elsevier.com)
  • Downregulated in renal cell carcinoma 1 (DRR1) protein was characterized as the link between stress, actin dynamics, neuronal function, and cognition. (mdpi.com)
  • Methods: DRR1 domains were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins to perform in vitro analysis of actin dynamics (binding, bundling, polymerization, and nucleation). (mdpi.com)
  • Conclusions: DRR1 impacts actin dynamics in several ways with implications for cytoskeletal dynamics in stress physiology and pathophysiology. (mdpi.com)
  • In TNKS1BP1-depleted cells, actin filament dynamics, focal adhesion, and lamellipodia ruffling were increased with activation of the ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent studies have provided new insight into the mechanism of CP binding the barbed end, which raises new possibilities for the dynamics of CP and actin in cells. (wustl.edu)
  • Background: Capping protein (CP), also known as CapZ in muscle cells and Cap32/34 in Dictyostelium discoideum , plays a major role in regulating actin filament dynamics. (mpg.de)
  • Inverted formin 2 regulates actin dynamics by antagonizing Rho/diaphanous-related formin signaling. (qxmd.com)
  • Capping proteins regulate actin filament dynamics by blocking addition and loss of G-actin monomers to the actin filament. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Strikingly, targeting of Class I formins to PD was also confirmed in rice, suggesting that the involvement of Class I formins in regulating actin dynamics at PD may be evolutionarily conserved in plants. (elifesciences.org)
  • Besides their actin-related functions, both systems also modulate microtubule organization and dynamics. (frontiersin.org)
  • While cotyledon pavement cell shape in double mutants mostly resembled single arpc5 mutants, analysis of true leaf epidermal morphology, as well as actin and microtubule organization and dynamics, revealed a more complex relationship between the two systems and similar, rather than antagonistic, effects on some parameters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Microfilament organization and dynamics are regulated by numerous proteins, including de novo actin nucleators. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hsp27 has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological processes that involve its interaction with actin and its control of actin dynamics [ 11 - 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Force transmission to the extracellular matrix depends on several parameters including the regulation of actin dynamics in adhesion structures, the contractility of stress fibers, and the mechanosensitive response of adhesion structures. (hindawi.com)
  • The migratory cycle is a complex process in which actin dynamics play a central role at every step. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, invasive cancer cells could exploit actin dynamics by using actin bundles to form invadopodia that penetrate the BM and invade the stroma ( Vignjevic and Montagnac, 2008 ). (rupress.org)
  • One established function of the Eps8-Abi1 complex is to participate in the activation of the small GTPase Rac, suggesting a multifaceted role for this complex in actin dynamics, possibly through the participation in alternative larger complexes. (nih.gov)
  • The capping protein is a heterodimeric actin capping protein that blocks actin filament assembly and disassembly at the fast growing (barbed) filament ends and functions in regulating actin filament dynamics as well as in stabilizing actin filament lengths in muscle and nonmuscle cells. (bio-rad.com)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms describing how these proteins inhibit CP remains poorly understood. (rcsb.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that rapid actin remodeling upon elicitation with diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns represent a conserved plant immune response. (plantphysiol.org)
  • By understanding Tmods' functions in the context of their molecular structure, actin regulation, binding partners, and related variants (leiomodins 1-3), we can draw broad conclusions that can explain the diverse morphological and functional phenotypes that arise from Tmod perturbation experiments in vitro and in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we undertook a domain analysis of DRR1 and probed the effects on actin binding, polymerization, and bundling, as well as on actin-dependent cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • Formins and the ARP2/3 complex are the only two actin-nucleating systems found so far both in plants and opisthokonts, representing thus conserved molecular mechanisms inherited from the common eukaryotic ancestor (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we highlight recent findings on the molecular mechanisms by which actin assembly is regulated in adhesion structures and the molecular basis of the mechanosensitivity of focal adhesions. (hindawi.com)
  • 1) The mechanism by which actin assembly is initiated in nascent adhesions, (2) the mechanosensitive maturation of FAs, (3) the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of stress fibers, and (4) the regulation of actin assembly in focal adhesions. (hindawi.com)
  • Understanding actin-based biological phenomena will depend on identifying the participating molecules and defining their molecular mechanisms. (sciencemag.org)
  • This indicates the importance of various actin-binding proteins in Arp2/3-mediated actin reorganization. (biologists.org)
  • We recently showed that the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family member, WASH, localizes to endosomal subdomains and regulates endocytic vesicle scission in an Arp2/3-dependent manner. (pnas.org)
  • They act in large part by regulating the actin nucleating activity of the ubiquitous Arp2/3 complex. (pnas.org)
  • WASP proteins stimulate Arp2/3 complex using a conserved C-terminal VCA (Verprolin homologous, central hydrophobic, and acidic) region. (pnas.org)
  • In vitro, CP has a critical role in the dendritic nucleation process of actin assembly mediated by Arp2/3 complex, and in vivo, CP is important for actin assembly and actin-based process of morphogenesis and differentiation. (wustl.edu)
  • Cells recruit a protein machine called the Arp2/3 complex to the leading edge to initiate actin filament branches that grow and push on the membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Specifically, the protein V-1/myotrophin inactivates CP, while capping protein Arp2/3 myosin I linker (CARMIL) proteins moderately inhibit CP. (pnas.org)
  • E1970-E1979 ) how CARMIL and V-1 cooperate in a cycle of reactions to regulate CP and promote assembly of the actin network by the Arp2/3 complex. (pnas.org)
  • The ARP2/3 complex and formins are the only known plant actin nucleators. (frontiersin.org)
  • Capping protein and the Arp2/3 complex regulate nonbundle actin filament assembly to indirectly control actin bundle positioning during Drosophila melanogaster bristle development. (sdbonline.org)
  • The F-actin capping protein is a heterodimer composed of two unrelated subunits: alpha and beta (see IPR001698 ). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Neither of the subunits shows sequence similarity to other filament-capping proteins [ PMID: 2341404 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In Drosophila mutations in the alpha and beta subunits cause actin accumulation and subsequent retinal degeneration [ PMID: 16143599 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The F-actin capping protein is a heterodimer composed of two unrelated subunits: alpha and beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • The actin-Capping Protein heterodimer, composed of the α and β subunits, is a master F-actin regulator. (plos.org)
  • We show that the levels and capping activities of both subunits must be tightly regulated to control F-actin levels and consequently growth of the Drosophila wing. (plos.org)
  • Both subunits regulate each other's protein levels. (plos.org)
  • Amândio AR, Gaspar P, Whited JL, Janody F (2014) Subunits of the Drosophila Actin-Capping Protein Heterodimer Regulate Each Other at Multiple Levels. (plos.org)
  • Although the amino acid sequences of the α and β subunits are not more similar to each other than they are to other ABPs, nor they share common sequences with other proteins, they have extremely similar secondary and tertiary structures [18] . (plos.org)
  • Filamentous (F) actin is assembled from monomeric (G) actin subunits. (biologists.org)
  • Among these, the Capping Protein (CP) heterodimer, composed of α (Cpa) and β (Cpb) subunits, acts as a functional heterodimer to restrict the accessibility of the filament barbed end, inhibiting addition or loss of actin monomers ( Cooper and Sept, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
  • It is a highly conserved protein that is found from yeast to humans, and it is a heterodimer composed of two unrelated subunits, α and β ( Wear and Cooper, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • Tropomodulin interacts with the first three actin subunits of. (eurekalert.org)
  • The structures and biochemical analysis of engineered tropomodulin variants show how one tropomodulin molecule winds around the minus end of an actin filament, making highly specific interactions with three actin subunits and two tropomyosin molecules (another protein characteristic of muscle sarcomeres) on each end of the actin filament. (eurekalert.org)
  • Capping protein thereby blocks the addition of actin monomers to filament ends and effectively terminates filament elongation. (biologists.org)
  • Thymosin beta-4 - A sequester of actin monomers by forming complexes with G-actin. (tebu-bio.com)
  • The actin filament (F-actin) is composed of actin monomers (G-actin) polymerized head-to-tail to form two intertwining helical strands, resulting in a polar filament with a "barbed end" and a "pointed end" [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Profilin-mediated competition between capping protein and formin Cdc12p during cytokinesis in fission yeast. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Blocking of pointed end elongation by addition of profilin indicates DRR1 as a novel barbed end capping factor. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore using a combination of GFP-INF2 expression in human podocytes and GFP-Trap purification coupled with MS we demonstrate that INF2 interacts with profilin 2 and the F-actin capping protein, CapZ α-1. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Profilin - A protein with actin binding activity thus inhibiting actin polymerization. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Effects of profilin on capping protein function. (sdbonline.org)
  • A balance of capping protein and profilin functions is required to regulate actin polymerization in Drosophila bristle. (sdbonline.org)
  • The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between prohibitin ( PHB ), capping actin protein of muscle Z-line beta subunit ( CAPZB ), and tektin-2 ( TEKT2 ) and sperm motility in Murrah buffalo. (ajas.info)
  • We collected the high-motility and low-motility semen samples, testis, ovary, muscle, kidney, liver, brain and pituitary from Murrah buffalo, and analysed the expression of PHB , CAPZB , and TEKT2 in mRNA (message RNA) and protein level. (ajas.info)
  • We report here the characterization of CAP2, the single gene encoding the beta-subunit of capping protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (nih.gov)
  • Yeast cells in which the CAP2 gene was disrupted by an insertion or a deletion had an abnormal actin distribution, including the loss of actin cables. (nih.gov)
  • The phenotype of CAP2 disruption resembled that of temperature-sensitive mutations in the yeast actin gene ACT1, indicating that capping protein regulates actin-filament distribution in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning and sequencing of the gene revealed that the protein is highly homologous to vertebrate villin, a unique component of brush border microvilli and contains six domains fused to a villin-like headpiece domain via a threonine/proline rich neck region. (nih.gov)
  • i) The presence of a six domain protein in Dictyostelium suggests that in contrast to the current view gene duplications must have happened before Dictyostelium branched off during evolution. (nih.gov)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the gelsolin/villin family of actin-regulatory proteins. (genecards.org)
  • CAPG (Capping Actin Protein, Gelsolin Like) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include actin binding . (genecards.org)
  • CAPZA2 (Capping Actin Protein Of Muscle Z-Line Alpha Subunit 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • To identify novel proteins and pathways that cap telomeres, or that respond to uncapped telomeres, we combined cdc13-1 with the yeast gene deletion collection and used high-throughput spot-test assays to measure growth. (genetics.org)
  • The ACTA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called skeletal alpha (α)-actin, which is part of the actin protein family. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cap myopathy is an autosomal dominant condition, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cap disease due to mutation of the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hung RM, Yoon G, Hawkins CE, Halliday W, Biggar D, Vajsar J. Cap myopathy caused by a mutation of the skeletal alpha-actin gene ACTA1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The 3′-end of the human β-actin gene enhances activity of the β-actin expression vector system: construction of improved vectors," Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 1997, vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 63-72. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Among its ~400 genes was the ancestral gene encoding actin ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • This gene encodes the beta subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein which belongs to the F-actin capping protein family. (bio-rad.com)
  • The elicitor-responsive gene for a GRAS family protein, CIGR2, suppresses cell death in rice inoculated with rice blast fungus via activation of a heat shock transcription factor, Os Hsf23. (msu.edu)
  • Your search returned 5 capping protein (actin filament), gelsolin-like ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • In the present study, we identified a vital oncoprotein, capping actin protein, gelsolin-like (CapG), and investigated its roles in the prognosis, proliferation and metastasis in glioma. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Capping actin protein, gelsolin-like (CapG) was first identified as an actin binding protein of the gelsolin superfamily, which is able to modulate actin length by capping barbed ends in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner and generate propulsive force ( 17 , 18 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Gelsolin - an ABP controlling actin filament length. (tebu-bio.com)
  • One family of capping proteins, whose prototype is gelsolin, shares modular architecture, mechanism of action, and regulation through signalling-dependent mechanisms, such as Ca(2+) or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-phosphate binding. (nih.gov)
  • Eps8-family proteins do not show any similarity to gelsolin-like proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Capping contributes to the control of actin-based motility in non-muscle cells. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Dysregulation of actin-based motility is a prominent factor in cell transformation and is probably associated with carcinogenesis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • High level of CapG protein may possibly play an important role in pancreatic cancer cell motility and consequently dissemination. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • For example, using purified actin-binding proteins and a bacterial actin-based motility system, Loisel et al. (biologists.org)
  • Dungdung et al [ 3 ] found that sperm motility regulatory proteins can improve sperm quality [ 3 ]. (ajas.info)
  • According to our previous study regarding high and low motility of sperm in Murrah buffalo using a differential proteomics method and software analysis, partial protein spots were differentially expressed. (ajas.info)
  • While cofilin facilitates actin depolymerization, phosphorylation of cofilin on serine 3 (p-cofilin) attenuates its actin depolymerization activity and causes increased numbers of focal adhesion complexes, actin stress fiber formation, and enhanced cell motility ( 7, 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Motility determinants in WASP family proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2002). Antagonism between Ena/VASP proteins and actin filament capping regulates fibroblast motility. (sdbonline.org)
  • Excessive actin filament polymerization is not sufficient to explain this phenotype, as loss of Cofilin or Cyclase-associated protein does not cause cell extrusion or death. (biologists.org)
  • Reduction of two other actin-regulatory proteins, Cofilin and the cyclase-associated protein Capulet, cause abnormal F-actin accumulation, but only the loss of Capulet, like that of Capping Protein, induces ectopic Yorkie activity. (biologists.org)
  • Phosphorylated LIMKs then phosphorylate actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin on serine 3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cofilin--destabilizer high affinity for ADP-Actin, removes it to increase treadmiling efficiency increases Cc 3. (coursehero.com)
  • Es ist ein F-Actin-bindendes Protein, das gemeinsam mit Cofilin den Turnover von Actin reguliert. (tum.de)
  • Damit ergibt sich die Möglichkeit strukturelle Informationen sowohl über die Bindungsaffinität zu Cofilin als auch über die Interaktionen mit Actin zu gewinnen. (tum.de)
  • It is an F-actin binding protein that interacts with cofilin in the cell cortex and regulates the actin turnover. (tum.de)
  • The crystallization of DAip1 is the starting point of characterization of DAip1 using the X-ray crystallography method and should provide structural information about the binding activity of DAip1 to cofilin and actin. (tum.de)
  • Drosophila and organisms other than vertebrates have single genes encoding capping protein α (cpa) or β (cpb) . (plos.org)
  • Loss of Capping Protein activity results in abnormal accumulation of apical F-actin, reduced Hippo pathway activity and the ectopic expression of several Yorkie target genes that promote cell survival and proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • The abundance levels of proteins known to be responsive to nutrient levels such as aldolase and fatty acid binding proteins, as well as the expression levels of FASN, a key lipogenic enzyme, and MLXIPL , a pivotal transcriptional mediator of glucose-related stimulation of lipogenic genes, were elevated in the adipose tissue of pure and crossbred fetuses from Meishan sows. (springer.com)
  • Mutations in the ACTA1 , TPM2 , or TPM3 genes can cause cap myopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These genes provide instructions for producing proteins that play important roles in skeletal muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The TPM2 and TPM3 genes provide instructions for making proteins that are members of the tropomyosin protein family. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tissue-specific and constitutive alpha-tubulin genes of Drosophila melanogaster code for structurally distinct proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A subset of phagosomes in human macrophages and dendritic cells that is marked by a coat of autophagy-related proteins maintains phagocytosed antigens for prolonged presentation on MHC class II molecules. (rupress.org)
  • These two types of actin organization have distinct roles in the cell: the dendritic network in a lamellipodium produces a force that is sufficient to drive membrane protrusion and cell crawling on a planar substrate, whereas the tight actin bundle in a filopodium produces the required stiffness to form a rodlike projection that is believed to be used by the cell to explore the environment and infiltrate between small gaps. (rupress.org)
  • CapZ blocks actin polymerization and depolymerization (i.e., it 'caps') at the barbed end with a Kd of approximately 0.5-1 nM or less, measured by three different assays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Twinfilin bypasses assembly conditions and actin filament aging to drive barbed end depolymerization. (brandeis.edu)
  • Arp 2/3 complex - a protein complex at the origin of branched F-actin networks by creating nucleation cores. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Thus, while the two actin nucleation systems have complementary roles in some aspects of cell morphogenesis in cotyledon pavement cells, they may act in parallel in other cell types and developmental stages. (frontiersin.org)
  • ROCKs are serine/threonine kinases that promote actin organization through phosphorylating several downstream targets, including LIMKs ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, due to technical problems, the existence of filamentous actin in PD remains controversial, as does the nature of its organization. (elifesciences.org)
  • Actin networks in cell migration and organization of nascent adhesions and focal adhesions. (hindawi.com)
  • These two different types of organization rely on the action of specific actin-organizing proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Hopmann R. Cooper J. A., Miller K. G. (1996) Actin organization, bristle morphology, and viability are affected by actin capping protein mutations in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • Your search returned 16 capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit alpha 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • This complex (composed of tropomyosin, troponin C, I, and T) regulates Myosin II interaction with actin. (tebu-bio.com)
  • proteins regulate muscle contraction by attaching to actin and controlling its binding to myosin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Orthologous to human CARMIL1 (capping protein regulator and myosin 1 linker 1). (jax.org)
  • They also affect, at least at the highest concentration tested, the synthesis of proteins involved in normal cytogenesis (α-tropomyosin, myosin heavy chain, and α-actin). (mcponline.org)
  • Pioneering research on muscle established general principles that apply to actin assembly and function in all cells, including the mechanism used by myosin to produce force and movement from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin is one of the two major proteins (together with myosin) that form the sarcomere -- the contractile structures of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Both fh1 and arpc5 mutations increased actin network density and increased cell shape complexity in pavement cells and trichomes of first true leaves, in contrast to cotyledons. (frontiersin.org)
  • This entry represent the alpha subunit (CAPZA), which is a protein of about 268 to 286 amino acid residues whose sequence is well conserved in eukaryotic species [ PMID: 1711931 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Variant cDNAs encoding proteins similar to the alpha subunit of chicken CapZ. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The alpha subunit is a protein of about 268 to 286 amino acid residues and the beta subunit is approximately 280 amino acids, their sequences are well conserved in eukaryotic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • V-1 directly interacts with the primary actin binding surface of CP, the C-terminal region of the alpha-subunit. (rcsb.org)
  • Belongs to the F-actin-capping protein alpha subunit family. (abcam.com)
  • Here we present the crystal structures of CP complexed with V-1 and with peptides derived from the CP-binding motif of CARMIL proteins (CARMIL, CD2AP, and CKIP-1). (rcsb.org)
  • To perform these functions, DCs flexibly adapt their adhesive, actin-based structures and migratory properties. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • May play a role in regulating cytoplasmic and/or nuclear structures through potential interactions with actin. (genecards.org)
  • The name cap myopathy comes from characteristic abnormal cap-like structures that can be seen in muscle cells when muscle tissue is viewed under a microscope. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Typical plant Class I formins are transmembrane proteins that can anchor cytoskeletal structures to the plasmalemma, its distinct domains, and/or endomembranes (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • These proteins form oligomeric structures and share a conserved α -crystallin domain responsible for intersubunit β -strand- β -strand interactions in the basic dimer subunit. (hindawi.com)
  • Chhabra, E. S. & Higgs, H. N. The many faces of actin: matching assembly factors with cellular structures. (nature.com)
  • Left, scheme of a migrating cell displaying characteristic actin structures: lamellipodial and filopodial actin networks and the three classes of stress fibers (transverse arcs, dorsal stress fibers, ventral stress fibers). (hindawi.com)
  • Micrographs of actin filament structures in cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • On a two-dimensional substratum, protrusion of the cell leading edge is driven by polymerization of actin within two structures, filopodia and lamellipodia. (rupress.org)
  • The team described atomic crystal structures of tropomodulin complexes with actin. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thus, CP appears to cap F-actin barbed ends via the independent interaction of both tentacles with actin. (plos.org)
  • We have studied the interaction of CapZ, a barbed-end actin capping protein from the Z line of skeletal muscle, with actin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We recently showed that WASH localizes to early endosomal subdomains, where it is associated with vesicular F-actin, and regulates retromer-mediated vesicle trafficking through an interaction with the protein FAM21 ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Irrespective of age, 24 proteins differed in abundance between fetal genotypes, and an interaction effect between fetal age and genotype was observed for 13 proteins. (springer.com)
  • At the hinge of these two domains Cap32/ 34 contains an elongated and highly flexible loop, which has been reported to be important for the interaction of cytoplasmic CP with actin and might contribute to the more dynamic actin-binding of cytoplasmic compared to sarcomeric CP (CapZ). (mpg.de)
  • The fluorescence of acrylodan attached to Hsp27 increased 4-5-fold upon interaction with F-actin. (hindawi.com)
  • Upon interaction with F-actin the pyrene-Hsp27 excimer fluorescence was largely lost, suggesting that Hsp27 interacts with F-actin as a monomer, consistent with the acrylodan-Hsp27 results. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the mechanism of the interaction between Hsp27 and actin is unclear and controversial and a binding study of the interaction between the two proteins in vitro has not been reported [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • An early study of the Hsp25 (murine and avian isoform of Hsp27)-actin interaction concluded that Hsp25 was an actin filament barbed-end-capping protein based on limited evidence [ 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Since that study it has generally been assumed that Hsp25 and Hsp27 are actin barbed-end-capping proteins, although there has been little further support for this interaction model. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to address some of these issues we have investigated the interaction between Hsp27 and actin, in vitro , using fluorescence probes attached to Hsp27. (hindawi.com)
  • The clarification of the N-terminal structure of D. discoideum CAP will now simplify the research on its interaction with phospholipids and CAP binding proteins The second part of this work dealt with the characterization of filactin. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • While in resting cells the endogenous filactin shows cytoplasmic distribution and interaction with protein aggregates as well, the GFP construct of the actin-related domain displays an actin-like behavior during cell movement or phagocytosis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Proteomics has been initially used successfully in drug discovery, biomarker identification, and protein-protein interaction studies in human disease processes ( 23 , 24 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Conversely, full-length Eps8 is auto-inhibited in vitro, and interaction with the Abi1 protein relieves this inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro analyses of chicken and budding yeast CP revealed that deletions or point mutations in either the α or β tentacles do not affect protein stability but reduce the capping affinity, while a complete removal of both tentacles fully abrogates the actin-binding activity [12] , [20] . (plos.org)
  • For the first time, we report mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 3 (MKK3) to be up-regulated with glioma invasion in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using a range of complementary approaches, we show that Plin4 forms a remarkably immobile and stable protein layer at the surface of cellular or in vitro generated oil droplets, and decreases LD size. (elifesciences.org)
  • In Drosophila , mutations in either cpa or cpb , lead to accumulation of F-actin within the cell and give rise to identical developmental phenotypes that are tissue specific. (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in inverted formin 2 (INF2), a member of the formin family of actin-regulating proteins, have recently been associated with a familial cause of nephrotic syndrome characterized by FSGS. (bris.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, we show that three mutations associated with FSGS, E184K, S186P and R218Q, reduce INF2 auto-inhibition and increase association with monomeric actin. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Mutations to the formin homology 2 domain of INF2 protein have unexpected effects on actin polymerization and severing. (qxmd.com)
  • From a clinical point of view, we know that mutations in tropomodulin can trigger an accumulation of irregular actin filament bundles, which contribute to nemaline myopathy or other skeletal muscle disorders typified by delayed motor development and muscle weakness. (eurekalert.org)
  • The detailed picture emerging from this study will help shed light on how mutations in tropomodulin, actin, and tropomysin can cause heart disorders. (eurekalert.org)
  • The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that actin filament assembly during cardiomyocyte growth is regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) of CapZβ1. (selleckchem.com)
  • In contrast, WAVE proteins are intrinsically active, but are inhibited in cells by constitutive incorporation into a heteropentameric assembly called the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC, containing WAVE, SRA1, NAP1, ABI, and HSPC300). (pnas.org)
  • Like other aspects of actin assembly, CP is subject to regulation. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that in mammalian cells assembly of an actin scaffold inside the isolation membrane (the autophagosomal precursor) is essential for autophagosomal membrane shaping. (nature.com)
  • Actin assembly drives the extension of flat membrane protrusions called lamellipodia and finger-like protrusions called filopodia to push the membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • These properties result in the automatic assembly of the branched actin network after activation by proteins of the WASP/Scar family and favour the selective disassembly of proximal regions of the network. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of CapZ, an actin capping protein of muscle, on the polymerization of actin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, CapG protein is also transported more rapidly into the nucleus of the breast cancerous cells than the corresponding benign cells. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Significant overexpression of CapG protein was detected in oral squamous-cell carcinoma cells (OSCCs) and oral premalignant lesions (OPLs). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Expression of the CapG protein was lost in the tumorigenic cell line, isolated from a human diploid fibroblast lineage. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The CapG protein expression was lost also in cancer cell lines including stomach cancer , lung cancer and melanoma . (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The mRNA and protein levels of CapG were significantly increased in human glioma, and higher CapG expression was an independent prognostic factor for predicting unfavorable prognosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Voltage sensors are integral membrane protein domains that regulate ion channels and enzymes by transporting electrically charged residues across a narrow constriction that focuses the membrane electrical field. (pnas.org)
  • Vinculin - an ABP with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, where it is thought to function as one of several interacting proteins involved in anchoring F-actin to the membrane. (tebu-bio.com)
  • The cortical cytoplasm also controls localization of membrane proteins including auxin transporters, contributing thus to cell differentiation and affecting tissue- and organ-scale developmental processes (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • When formation of actin puncta is disrupted by an actin polymerization inhibitor or by knocking down the actin-capping protein CapZβ, isolation membranes and omegasomes collapse into mixed-membrane bundles. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, in the frame of this thesis the structure of the membrane-associated N-terminal domain of D. discoideum CAP was to be determined in cooperation with the group of T. Holak at the MPI f. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Actin contributes to biological processes such as sensing environmental forces, internalizing membrane vesicles, moving over surfaces, and dividing the cell in two. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Z ring is composed of polymers of FtsZ which are attached to the membrane through membrane-associated proteins FtsA and ZipA ( 55 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • Capping protein mainly localized in the cytoplasm during maturation. (biologists.org)
  • A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. (curehunter.com)
  • Many modern species of prokaryotes use actin relatives to maintain asymmetrical shapes and to move DNA through the cytoplasm. (sciencemag.org)
  • The 100 kDa actin-binding protein from Dictyostelium amoebae is an F-actin capping protein that displays neither severing nor crosslinking nor nucleating activities [Hofmann et al. (nih.gov)
  • The recently discovered WASH protein (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue) is conserved from simple eukaryotes such as Entamoeba and Dictyostelium to humans ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Conservation and divergence between cytoplasmic and muscle-specific actin capping proteins: insights from the crystal structure of cytoplasmic Cap32/34 from Dictyostelium discoideum. (mpg.de)
  • The Dictyostelium discoideum cyclase associated protein (CAP) and its homologues of the higher and lower eukaryotic organisms are G-actin sequestering proteins. (tum.de)
  • The cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum was studied in detail regarding its structure and function relationships. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In dieser Arbeit standen zwei Aufgaben im Mittelpunkt: Zum einen wurde das Cyclase-assoziierte Protein (CAP) aus Dictyostelium discoideum hinsichtlich seiner Struktur-Funktionsbeziehungen eingehend untersucht, zum zweiten erfolgte eine erste Charakterisierung des neuartigen actinähnlichen Proteins Filactin aus D. discoideum. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The in vivo role of this protein in non-muscle cells is not known. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo , a truncated form of Drosophila cpa deleted of the C-terminal 28 amino acids has no effect on F-actin when expressed alone but promotes F-actin accumulation when co-expressed with full length cpb [21] . (plos.org)
  • The significance of CP's actin-binding activity in vivo was tested by determining how well CP actin-binding mutants rescued null mutant phenotypes. (elsevier.com)
  • 9. An isolated host cell which is obtained by in vivo injection of the expression vector of claim 5 into a cell, wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell comprises the expression vector of claim 5 and transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In vivo, Eps8 is recruited to actin dynamic sites, and its removal impairs actin-based propulsion. (nih.gov)
  • These complexes stabilize WASP proteins in cells, control their subcellular localization, and regulate the biochemical activity of the VCA. (pnas.org)
  • Rescue correlated well with capping activity, as did localization of CP to actin patches, indicating that capping is a physiological function for CP. (elsevier.com)
  • E1980-E1989 ), we show that the polarity protein Crumbs promotes the apical localization and degradation of the Hpo pathway protein Expanded, by the SCF Slmb/β-TRCP ubiquitin ligase. (pnas.org)
  • Nuclear export of actin: a novel mechanism regulating the subcellular localization of a major cytoskeletal protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we report that actin capping protein (CP), a regulator of actin filament growth, plays an essential role for spine development and synapse formation. (jneurosci.org)
  • V-1 and CARMIL proteins directly bind to CP and inhibit the filament capping activity of CP. (rcsb.org)
  • CP lacking both COOH-terminal regions did not bind actin. (elsevier.com)
  • Unique among capping proteins, Tmods also bind tropomyosins (TMs), which greatly enhance the actin filament pointed-end capping activity of Tmods. (elsevier.com)
  • The cellular interface of focal adhesions consists of integrin-α/β heterodimers that bind ECM proteins (e.g., fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin) and adaptor complexes (e.g., talin, vinculin, and tensin) via the extracellular and intracellular domains, respectively ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Members of two osmotic stress-activated protein kinase families, sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 and mitogen activated protein kinases were recently shown bind PA and are also involved in the maintenance of root system architecture and salinity stress tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to its role in many cellular processes, Capping Protein acts as a main tumor suppressor module in Drosophila and in humans, in part, by restricting the activity of Yorkie/YAP/TAZ oncogenes. (plos.org)
  • Cellular actin-dependent processes were analyzed in transfected HeLa cells with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and confocal microscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • DRR1 enhances actin bundling, the cellular F-actin content, and serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, while it diminishes actin filament elongation, cell spreading, and actin treadmilling. (mdpi.com)
  • High cellular concentrations of actin make the protein one of the most abundant on earth. (sciencemag.org)
  • Subsequent research identified numerous proteins that regulate actin, analyzed their mechanisms of action, and linked the proteins to cellular processes. (sciencemag.org)
  • PA formation provides the cell with spatial and transient information about the external environment by acting as a protein-docking site in cellular membranes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We are now working to define 1) the basal function of these specific effector targets/processes, and 2) the impact of pathogen targeting on the disruption of homeostatic cellular processes requiring actin. (msu.edu)
  • Cap myopathy is a disorder that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here, we report that the actin-Capping Protein αβ heterodimer, which regulates actin polymerization, also functions to suppress inappropriate tissue growth by inhibiting Yorkie activity. (biologists.org)
  • To anchor the protrusion, the cell front interacts with the extracellular matrix (ECM) by forming nascent adhesions (or focal complexes) that are connected to the intracellular lamellipodial actin network. (hindawi.com)
  • Right, actin-binding proteins in focal complexes and focal adhesions. (hindawi.com)
  • In agreement to these data, stable complexes of the modified CAP-C with G-actin could be identified in chemical crosslinking experiments, and it could be shown that CAP-C is able to dimerize. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Living cells are chock full of dynamic complexes of protein, RNA, and DNA molecules. (brandeis.edu)
  • Ena/VASP proteins enhance actin polymerization in the presence of barbed end capping proteins. (sdbonline.org)
  • Although loss of CP110 is tolerated in Drosophila , CP110 is important for limiting centriole length, limiting centriolar microtubule length, and suppressing centriole overduplication when duplication proteins are overexpressed. (rupress.org)
  • Enabled and Capping protein play important roles in shaping cell behavior during Drosophila oogenesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • A dual function of Drosophila capping protein on DE-cadherin maintains epithelial integrity and prevents JNK-mediated apoptosis. (sdbonline.org)
  • Actin is one of the most abundant proteins, that is present in almost all eukaryotic cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, elongation of invadopodia is mostly dependent on filopodial actin machinery. (rupress.org)
  • It is also unknown if Hsp27 interacts with the actin filament as a monomer, dimer, or higher multimer. (hindawi.com)
  • I hope this review will help you gain a better view of ABPs and actin interactions. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Thus, our results identify a new family of actin cappers, and unveil novel modalities of regulation of capping through protein-protein interactions. (nih.gov)
  • By knocking down or ectopically overexpressing this protein, we revealed that it is crucial for efficient spindle migration and maintenance of the cytoplasmic actin mesh density. (biologists.org)
  • Expression of the capping-protein-binding region of CARMIL (also known as LRRC16A) impaired spindle migration and polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation and decreased the density of the cytoplasmic actin mesh. (biologists.org)
  • However, it is involved in the regulation of actin-based cell migration in non-muscle benign cells ( 19 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • indicating the importance of this protein in cell migration. (biologists.org)
  • Conversely, proteins participating in redox homeostasis and apoptotic cell clearance had a lower abundance in Meishan than in Large White fetuses. (springer.com)
  • Each cell within plants, animals, and fungi, contains a protein skeleton that helps to stabilize it. (elifesciences.org)
  • Previous research has shown that actin helps regulate cell-to-cell traffic through the plasmodesmata and that drug treatments involving actin disturb normal traffic. (elifesciences.org)
  • By stably tethering actin to the plasmodesmata, Formin 2 plays a key part in regulating the permeability of these cell-to-cell channels, with unstable actin threads resulting in more penetrable plasmodesmata. (elifesciences.org)
  • Actin proteins are important for cell movement and the tensing of muscle fibers (muscle contraction). (medlineplus.gov)
  • 8. An isolated host cell comprising the expression vector of claim 5 wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Porcine aortic endothelial cell, double-labeled for actin (green) and phospho-tyrosine (red). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Phostensin is a ubiquitous protein in mature human leukocytes and leukemia cell lines [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Considering the high conservation of cyclase-associated proteins and their importance for cell biological processes it is remarkable that no structure of this protein has been elucidated so far. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • All other cell division proteins are recruited to the division site by linkage to the Z ring and depend upon it for persistence there. (asm.org)
  • Formation of actin puncta is PtdIns(3)P dependent, and inhibition of PtdIns(3)P formation by treating cells with the PI(3)K inhibitor 3-MA, or by knocking down Beclin-1, abolishes the formation of actin puncta. (nature.com)