Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Adenoma, Acidophil: A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic: Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Craniopharyngioma: A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Adenoma, Basophil: A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)Nelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Somatotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE.Empty Sella Syndrome: A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.Pituitary Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Corticotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.HMGA2 Protein: An AT-hook-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) nuclear protein that is expressed predominantly in proliferating and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Thyrotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Gigantism: The condition of accelerated and excessive GROWTH in children or adolescents who are exposed to excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE before the closure of EPIPHYSES. It is usually caused by somatotroph hyperplasia or a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. These patients are of abnormally tall stature, more than 3 standard deviations above normal mean height for age.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Central Nervous System Cysts: Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Pneumoencephalography: Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Neuroendoscopy: PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Endocrine Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on any endocrine gland.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias: Primary headache disorders that show symptoms caused by the activation of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. These autonomic features include redness and tearing of the EYE, nasal congestion or discharge, facial SWEATING and other symptoms. Most subgroups show unilateral cranial PAIN.Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Dwarfism, Pituitary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Galactorrhea: Excessive or inappropriate LACTATION in females or males, and not necessarily related to PREGNANCY. Galactorrhea can occur either unilaterally or bilaterally, and be profuse or sparse. Its most common cause is HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.beta-Lipotropin: A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.Pituitary Irradiation: Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.HMGA Proteins: Proteins containing AT-HOOK MOTIFS that are rich in arginine and glycine residues. They bind to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Inappropriate ADH Syndrome: A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Cranial Fossa, Middle: The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Maxillofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the maxilla and face or facial bones.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type IAdrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Pituitary Gland, Intermediate: The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Petrosal Sinus Sampling: Sampling of blood levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by withdrawal of blood from the inferior petrosal sinus. The inferior petrosal sinus arises from the cavernous sinus and runs to the internal jugular vein. Sampling of blood at this level is a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis of Cushing disease, Cushing syndrome, and other adrenocortical diseases.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests: Tests that evaluate the adrenal glands controlled by pituitary hormones.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18: An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.Hemianopsia: Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Hemangiopericytoma: A tumor composed of spindle cells with a rich vascular network, which apparently arises from pericytes, cells of smooth muscle origin that lie around small vessels. Benign and malignant hemangiopericytomas exist, and the rarity of these lesions has led to considerable confusion in distinguishing between benign and malignant variants. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1364)Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculoma, Intracranial: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes: Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lactotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Genes, Retinoblastoma: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic: FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE affecting several bones. When melanotic pigmentation (CAFE-AU-LAIT SPOTS) and multiple endocrine hyperfunction are additionally associated it is referred to as Albright syndrome.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.

Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery via the endoscopic technique: results in 35 consecutive patients with Cushing's disease. (1/55)

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The endoscopic technique has been recently introduced in the field of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. This technique allows inspection of sellar, supra- and parasellar structures and removal of the tumor under direct visualization, is minimally traumatic and permits easier reoperations. This is the first report on the results of endoscopic surgery for patients with Cushing's disease. Our aim was to retrospectively analyze the results of pituitary surgery in 35 consecutive patients with Cushing's disease operated in our hospital after the introduction of the endoscopic technique (1998-2004). METHODS: Remission was defined as suppression of plasma cortisol (< or =50 nmol/L) after 1 mg dexamethasone overnight determined in the first 3 months after surgery and disappearance of clinical signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism. The patients were followed for an average of 27 months (range 4 to 81 months, median 20 months). RESULTS: Pituitary MRI showed a macroadenoma in 6 patients, a microadenoma in 17 patients and no adenoma in 12 patients. After the initial surgery 27 patients (77%) were in remission. None of the patients had a relapse during follow-up. In the remaining 8 patients hypercortisolemia persisted after surgery. Three of them had a second endoscopic pituitary surgery resulting in remission in two patients. In one patient a second endoscopic pituitary surgery will soon follow. The remaining four patients were treated with radiotherapy postoperatively. Two of them were at the time of data collection in remission. One patient from the remission group had a serious epistaxis and three patients had cerebrospinal fluid leakage, one requiring an external lumbar drain, shortly after surgery. No complications were recorded in the failure group. Postoperatively 34% of all patients required substitution with levothyroxine, 40% required substitution with glucocorticoids, 17% received estrogens or testosterone and 6% still required desmopressin. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery resulted in our series of patients with Cushings disease in an excellent postoperative remission rate. A randomized clinical trial, comparing endoscopic and conventional pituitary surgery in patients with Cushings disease, is needed to determine the pros and cons of both techniques.  (+info)

Subclinical adenomas in postmortem pituitaries: classification and correlations to clinical data. (2/55)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine pituitary adenomas in a series of postmortem pituitaries by use of modern technologies of immunostaining, to classify the adenomas according to the current WHO classification and to analyse the possible associations to the available clinical data. METHODS: In this study, pituitaries of 3048 autopsy cases obtained from autopsy series of the years 1991-2004 were examined. RESULTS: A total of 334 pituitary adenomas were found in 316 pituitaries. One hundred and thirty-two sparsely granulated prolactin cell adenomas (39.5%), 75 null cell adenomas (22.5%) and 31 oncocytomas were diagnosed. Forty-six ACTH cell adenomas (13.8%, 27 densely granulated, 19 sparsely granulated) and one adenoma composed of Crooke's cells were detected. Twenty-two gonadotroph cell adenomas (6.6%), seven GH cell adenomas (four sparsely granulated, three densely granulated), one mixed GH cell-PRL cell adenoma, two TSH cell adenomas, five plurihormonal adenoma type I, four plurihormonal adenoma type II and two alpha-subunit-only adenomas were seen. Six adenomas remained unclassified because the tissue was not contained in all sections for immunohistochemistry. Seventeen pituitaries included multiple tumours. The overall tumour size ranged from 0.1 to 20 mm in diameter. Among 76 adenomas (22.7%), which had a tumour size of > or = 3 mm, only three tumours were macroadenomas corresponding to a tumour size of more than 10 mm. The evaluation of the available clinical data showed 99 cases of hypertension, 65 cases of diabetes mellitus, six patients with hyperthyroidism and four with hypothyroidism. No symptoms of adenohypophyseal hormone hypersecretion were reported. The statistical correlations to clinical data were discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Adenomas in postmortem pituitaries differ from those in surgical series in proportion of adenoma types and biological behaviour.  (+info)

Increased prevalence of high Body Mass Index in patients presenting with pituitary tumours: severe obesity in patients with macroprolactinoma. (3/55)

INTRODUCTION: Prolactinoma has been associated with obesity. As opposed to ACTH- and GH-secreting adenoma, the mechanism by which macroprolactinoma causes obesity has not been fully understood. Having seen patients with both prolactinoma and obesity and more recent literature on brain dopamine, dopamine 2 receptors and obesity, we re-evaluated the potential relationship between prolactinoma and obesity. METHODS: Data of patients with pituitary adenomas were collected retrospectively over a period of 20 years. 399 patients with well-documented pituitary adenomas and information about pre-treatment body mass index (BMI), age, sex, and tumour type were analysed. RESULTS: Elevated BMI (> or = 30 kg/m2) was observed in 8/36 patients (22.2%) with ACTH-producing tumours, in 15/70 (21.4%) with GH-producing tumours, in 25/100 (25%) with macroprolactinoma, in 8/81 (9.9%) with microprolactinoma, and in 18/105 (17.1%) with inactive macroadenomas. Macroprolactinoma patients had a mean BMI value (27.5 +/- 7.7 kg/m2) similar to that of patients with Cushing's disease (27.2 +/- 5.9 kg/m2) and acromegaly (27.4 +/- 4.4 kg/m2) and on average a significantly higher BMI value compared to that of patients with inactive macroadenomas (25.8 +/- 4.4 kg/m2) (95% CI 1.2, 4.4; p-value <0.001). Compared to the general population, the proportion of BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 in patients with macroprolactinoma was significantly higher (95% CI 0.1, 0.29; p-value <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Average BMI in macroprolactinoma patients is significantly higher than BMI in patients with inactive adenomas. Macroprolactinoma is associated with increased frequency of obesity compared to the general population. We propose that in a subgroup of individuals obesity and macroprolactinoma may share a common basis, namely decreased dopamine 2 receptor-mediated actions.  (+info)

Ectopic ACTH syndrome: our experience with 25 cases. (4/55)

OBJECTIVE: Ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) occurs in about 5-10% of all patients with ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism with most of them caused by intrathoracic neoplasms. It may be associated with overt malignancies or with occult and indolent tumors. We assessed the accuracy of dynamic tests, inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) using desmopressin, and imaging in the work-up diagnosis of EAS. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Tumor markers, imaging, and outcome data from 25 patients (13F/12M) aged 18-72 years. High dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST), desmopressin test, GHRP-6 test, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test, IPSS, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (111)In-pentetreotide scintigraphy were revised. RESULTS: In 5 out of 20 patients HDDST was positive. In 13 patients who underwent desmopressin test, ACTH- and cortisol-positive responses were seen in six and five patients respectively. GHRP-6 test was positive in two out of three cases. Two patients underwent CRH test with negative response. In the seven patients submitted to IPSS using desmopressin in six of them, none had ACTH gradients. CT was positive in 15 out of 21 patients and MRI in 8 out of 17 cases. (111)In-pentetreotide scintigraphy was positive in three out of five patients. Fourteen patients had intrathoracic tumors, five had pheochromocytomas, three had pancreatic tumors, one had a glomic tumor, and had three occult tumors. Six out of 11 patients with metastasis died and 3 others without metastasis died. CONCLUSIONS: IPSS with desmopressin was helpful for differential diagnosis. Patients initially harboring occult carcinoids may also exhibit severe hypercortisolism and those harboring tymic carcinoids had poor prognoses when compared with bronchial carcinoids and pheocromocytomas.  (+info)

Significant GH deficiency after long-term cure by surgery in adult patients with Cushing's disease. (5/55)

OBJECTIVE: Impaired GH secretion usually accompanies Cushing's syndrome and a variable proportion of patients reportedly fail to recover normal GH secretion after successful treatment. This wide variability is most probably due to differences in the treatment (i.e. surgery and/or radiotherapy), timing of patient re-evaluation after surgery and dynamic tests employed to challenge GH secretion, and hinders a precise assessment of risk of GH deficiency after cure. The aim of the present study is to evaluate GH secretory status after long-term cure of Cushing's disease achieved by surgery alone. DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 34 patients (27 females and 7 males, age range 21-68 years) formerly affected by Cushing's disease. Patients were studied 2-20 years (median 3.3 years) following remission of hypercortisolism; all patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery with the removal of an ACTH-secreting adenoma; repeat pituitary surgery for relapse was performed in two patients while bilateral adrenalectomy was necessary in two patients. In all subjects, the GH response to GHRH+arginine stimulation was evaluated. At the time of testing, 13 patients were still on steroid replacement therapy. RESULTS: In long-term surgical remission, 22 patients (65.0%) presented subnormal GH secretion; partial GH deficiency (GH peak <16.5 microg/l) was found in 11 patients and severe GH deficiency (GH peak <9 microg/l) in another 11. Male gender and length of hypercortisolism were risk factors for postsurgical GH deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the presence of GH deficiency in a high percentage of patients with Cushing's disease after long-term remission of hypercortisolism obtained by surgery alone. Male gender and length of hypercortisolism are the most significant predictors of postsurgical GH deficiency. This finding is significant as it highlights that even the most favourable therapeutical course, i.e. remission achieved by surgery alone, is accompanied by impaired GH secretion. Assessment of GH secretion is therefore recommended for all patients cured from Cushing's disease, even if not submitted to radiotherapy. Studies on the clinical impact of GH deficiency and the use of GH replacement therapy seem warranted in patients cured from Cushing's disease.  (+info)

Long-term remission of cyclic Cushing's disease that was diagnosed and treated surgically in non-active phase. (6/55)

Cyclic Cushing's disease is a rare clinical entity that is defined as a periodic excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol. Only 42 cases with cyclic Cushing's disease have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis is very difficult because of the fluctuating secretion of ACTH and cortisol. We report a 78-year-old woman with a pituitary adenoma presenting with cyclic Cushing's disease. In the present case, several interesting issues are pointed out: 1) MRI study detected the presence of an adenoma and selective venous sampling in the cavernous sinus disclosed the hypersecretion of ACTH from a pituitary adenoma. These neuroimaging and endocrinological studies were helpful for the diagnosis, even in the remission phase. 2) The disease was in the long-term remission phase after transsphenoidal surgery despite the high recurrence rate in this clinical entity, although it recurred four years later. Even in the remission phase of cyclic Cushing's disease, meticulous endocrinological and neuroimaging examinations can reveal the presence of a pituitary adenoma, which should be treated surgically.  (+info)

Preclinical Cushing's disease characterized by massive adrenal hyperplasia and hormonal changes after three years of metyrapone therapy. (7/55)

A 66-year-old woman had massive bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia, found incidentally on an abdominal ultrasonogram. Her plasma ACTH and serum cortisol levels were normal, but they were not suppressed by low-dose dexamethasone. The patient did not exhibit any typical signs or symptoms of Cushing's disease. MRI showed no evidence of a tumor in the pituitary gland. A diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's disease was made, and she was treated with 11-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone. As the dose of metyrapone was increased, plasma ACTH levels gradually increased. After three years of treatment, she developed moon-face. Her plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentrations were at their highest levels. A pituitary microadenoma was detected by MRI, whose source of ACTH was demonstrated by the definite step-up of central/peripheral ratio of ACTH obtained by cavernous sinus sampling. Overt Cushing's disease was diagnosed, and a pituitary tumor was removed by transsphenoidal surgery. In conclusion, the clinically and endocrinologically overt Cushing's disease characterized by macronodular adrenal hyperplasia was converted from a preclinical form. This case offers some insight into the clinical and biological features of preclinical Cushing's disease.  (+info)

Galectin-3 as a marker distinguishing functioning from silent corticotroph adenomas. (8/55)

OBJECTIVE: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) belongs to the family of carbohydrate-binding proteins with high affinity for galactoside and is involved in many biological processes including cell growth and differentiation, cell adhesion, tumor progression, apoptosis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to disclose differences in the expression of Gal-3 in silent and functioning corticotroph pituitary adenomas. DESIGN: We examined 30 pituitary adenomas (19 functioning corticotroph, 11 silent corticotroph adenomas). Two prolactinomas and 2 functioning somatotroph adenomas served as positive controls. Antigen retrieval was done by three-minute incubation via pressure boiler in citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0. A polymer was used as a secondary link to DAB chromogen. The independent variables t-test was used for comparison of the mean expression of Gal-3 in the two different corticotroph adenoma subgroups. RESULTS: Eighteen of the functioning corticotroph adenomas (94.73%) were positive for Gal-3 with a cytoplasmic and focally membranous distribution; two cases also exhibited nuclear expression, whereas 9 of the silent corticotroph adenomas (81.81%) had zero or<1% expression of Gal-3 (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Gal-3 is highly expressed in functioning corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary gland, while silent adenomas exhibit very focal to null expression of Gal-3. This observation can be used in the pathological diagnosis to separate functioning from silent corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts. T2 - Pars intermedia tumor?. AU - Nishioka, Hiroshi. AU - Hirano, Asao. AU - Asa, Sylvia L.. PY - 1992/3. Y1 - 1992/3. N2 - A silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts was found incidentally at autopsy. By immunohistochemistry, most of the adenoma cells contained reactivity for adrenocorticotropic hormone and beta-endorphin; a few cells stained for beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone. The cysts, interspersed within the tumor, were lined by cuboidal epithelium with foci of stratified squamous epithelium. The lining cells contained immunoreactive keratin; some cells were positive for S-100 protein or glial fibrillary acidic protein, and a few cells were also immuno-stained for adrenocorticotropic hormone and beta-endorphin. It is suggested that this tumor may represent a neoplasm of pars intermedia derivation.. AB - A silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts was found incidentally at autopsy. By immunohistochemistry, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hormonal aggressiveness according to the expression of cellular markers in corticotroph adenomas. AU - Lim, Jung Soo. AU - Lee, Mi Kyung. AU - Choi, Eunhee. AU - Hong, Namki. AU - Il Jee, Soo. AU - Kim, Sun Ho. AU - Lee, Eun Jig. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - Purpose: The molecular mechanisms underlying tumor growth in Cushings disease (CD) still remain a challenge. Moreover, clinical manifestations of CD may vary depending on hormonal activity; however, factors involved in the hormonal aggressiveness of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors have not been fully clarified. We investigated the association between the expression of cellular markers regarding pituitary tumor progression and initial or postoperative hormone levels in patients with CD. Methods: Tumor tissues from 28 corticotroph adenomas (female 26, male 2, mean age 39.21 ± 10.39 years) were subject to immunohistochemical study using the following antibodies: pituitary tumor-transforming ...
WORKSHOPNovel insights in the management of Cushings syndrome Napoli (Italy), Expo Napoli Congress Centre, December 4 - 6, 2009 Chairpersons: Philippe Caron (France), Anton Luger (Austria) Chairpersons: Marta Korbonits (UK), Anna Spada (Italy) Novel experimental data on the pituitary and adrenal tumors responsible for Cushings syndrome The genetics in Cushings syndromeAlbert Beckers (Belgium) The role of somatostatin receptors in normal and tumoral corticotroph pituitary cellsLeo J. Hofland (The Netherlands) The role of dopamine receptors in normal and tumoral corticotroph pituitary and adrenal cellsDiego Ferone (Italy) The role of PPARg system in normal and tumoral corticotroph pituitary and adrenal cellsMassimo Mannelli (Italy) The role of mTor pathway in normal and tumoral adrenal cellsMaria Cristina De Martino (Italy) Lecture 2Chairpersons: Felipe Casanueva (Spain), Franco Cavagnini (Italy)Diagnosis of Cushings syndrome: Up to dateAshley Grossman (UK) Chairperson: Adrian Daly ...
The protein encoded by this gene acts as receptor for arginine vasopressin. This receptor belongs to the subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors which includes AVPR1A, V2R and OXT receptors. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which stimulate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The receptor is primarily located in the anterior pituitary, where it stimulates ACTH release. It is expressed at high levels in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas as well as in bronchial carcinoids responsible for the ectopic ACTH syndrome. A spliced antisense transcript of this gene has been reported but its function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
A man with Cushings disease - caused by an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma - who later developed metastases in the central nervous system without Cushings recurrence, was successfully treated over eight years with radiation and chemotherapy, according to a case report. The report, "Long-term survival following transformation of an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pituitary macroadenoma to a silent corticotroph pituitary carcinoma: Case report," was published in the journal World Neurosurgery. Pituitary carcinomas make up only 0.1-0.2% of all pituitary tumors and are characterized by a primary pituitary tumor that metastasizes into cranial, spinal, or systemic locations. Fewer than 200 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of these carcinomas secrete hormones, with ACTH being the most common. Though the majority of ACTH-secreting carcinomas present with Cushings disease, about one-third do not show symptoms of the condition and have normal serum ...
Silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA) is an unusual type of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) that is silent both clinically and biochemically and can only be recognized by positive immunostaining for ACTH. Under rare circumstances, it can transform into hormonally active disease presenting with severe Cushing syndrome. It might often produce diagnostic dilemma with difficult management issue if not thoroughly investigated and subtyped accordingly following surgery. Here, we present a 21-year-old male who initially underwent pituitary adenomectomy for presumed NFA with compressive symptoms. However, he developed recurrent and invasive macroadenoma with severe clinical as well as biochemical hypercortisolism during post-surgical follow-up. Repeat pituitary surgery was carried out urgently as there was significant optic chiasmal compression. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor tissue obtained on repeat surgery proved it to be an aggressive corticotroph adenoma. Though not cured, he showed ...
Background: Transsphenoidal approach to pituitary tumors is a commonly performed procedure with the advantage of a rapid midline access to the sella with minimal complications. It may be associated with wide fluctuations in hemodynamic parameters due to intense noxious stimulus at various stages of the surgery. As duration of the surgery is short and the patients have nasal packs, it is prudent to use an anesthestic technique with an early predictable recovery. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients of either sex between 18 and 65 years of age, belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II who were undergoing elective transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery were chosen for this study ...
2. Lao L, Hope AJ, Maganti M, et al. Incidental prophylactic nodal irradiation and patterns of nodal relapse in inoperable early stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT: A case-matched analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2014;90:209-215. 3. Timmerman R, Paulus R, Galvin J, et al. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for inoperable early stage lung cancer. JAMA2010;303:1070-1076. 4. Dunlap NE, Yang W, McIntosh A, et al. Computed tomographyebased anatomic assessment overestimates local tumor recurrence in patients with mass-like consolidation after stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage nonesmall cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;84:1071-1077. 5. Faruqi S, Guiliani ME, Raziee H, et al. Interrater reliability of the categorization of late radiographic changes after lung stereotactic body radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2014;89:10761083. 6. Timmerman R, Bastasch M, Saha D, et al. Optimizing dose and fractionation for stereotactic body radiation therapy. Normal
en] Cushings syndrome (CS) is characterized by pathologically elevated free glucocorticoid levels. Endogenous hypercortisolism is usually due to ACTH-secreting pituitary corticotropic adenomas and less often due to ectopic ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine neoplasms or ACTH-independent adrenal cortisol hypersecretion. CS is a serious chronic disease leading to a several-fold increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Multiple genetic alterations have been described in the setting of sporadic corticotropinoma formation. Changes in the expression profiles have been demonstrated in growth factors and their receptors, cell-cycle regulators and in various genes related to hormonal gene transcription, synthesis and secretion. Sporadic adrenal adenomas and carcinomas may demonstrate dysfunction in genes such as TP53 among others. Cushings disease can be an inherited condition also. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) together account for 5% ...
Rank Status Study 1 Recruiting Safety and Efficacy of LCI699 in Cushings Disease Patients Condition: Cushing Disease Intervention: Drug: LCI699 2 Recruiting Preoperative Bexarotene Treatment for Cushings Disease Condition: Cushings Disease Intervention: Drug: Bexarotene 3 Recruiting Rosiglitazone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Tumor (Cushing Disease) Condition: Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Interventions: Drug: rosiglitazone maleate; Other: laboratory biomarker analysis 4 Unknown † Study of Depression,…
In this study we have shown that molecular analysis can detect changes intrinsic to pituitary tissue derived from patients with ACTH-dependent Cushings disease even where conventional histopathology appears normal. The patients showed all three histological patterns reportedly associated with Cushings disease, namely corticotroph adenoma, corticotroph hyperplasia, and apparently normal pituitary (7 , 8 , 34) . MS-PCR analysis of the p16 gene CpG island showed this to be frequently methylated irrespective of the histological findings.. This particular tumor suppressor gene was chosen because of its known association with pituitary tumorigenesis (reviewed in 12 ) as well as being a regulatory component of the RB1 G1-S cell cycle pathway. Although RB1 knockout mice develop neurointermediate lobe tumors of the corticotroph lineage, RB1 gene mutations are uncommon in human pituitary tumors. However, loss of pRB has been demonstrated frequently in human somatotrophinomas as a consequence of or ...
Dr. Pankaj Gupta did his MBBS from S N Medical college Agra, M S from G S V M Medical college, Kanpur, MCh Neurosurgery from prestigious PGI Chandigarh. He got training with Great teachers Prof. Kak, Prof. Khosla, Prof. Mathuria, Prof. Pathak, Prof. Gupta, Prof. Tiwari. Dr. Pankaj Gupta has good work experience in Complex neurosurgical operations like Aneurysms surgery, Transsphenoidal Pituitary surgery, Brain tumor surgery, skull Base surgery, CV Junction procedures, Posterior fossa surgeries, Endoscopic ventriculostomy & Endoscopic pituitary surgery .. View More ...
The response, however, to Metopirone is subnormal; that is, no significant increase in 17-OHCS or 17-KGS excretion occurs.. This failure to respond to metyrapone may be interpreted as evidence of impaired pituitary-adrenal reserve. In view of the normal response to exogenous ACTH, the failure to respond to metyrapone is inferred to be related to a defect in the CNS-pituitary mechanisms which normally regulate ACTH secretions. Presumably the ACTH secreting mechanisms of these individuals are already working at their maximal rates to meet everyday conditions and possess limited "reserve" capacities to secrete additional ACTH either in response to stress or to decreased cortisol levels occurring as a result of metyrapone administration.. Subnormal response in patients with Cushings syndrome is suggestive of either autonomous adrenal tumors that suppress the ACTH-releasing capacity of the pituitary or nonendocrine ACTH-secreting tumors.. Excessive response: An excessive excretion of 17-OHCS or ...
Canine Cushings disease (hyperadrenocorticism) affects the pituitary and causes it to produce too much glucocorticoid. Canine Cushings disease is common in older dogs and has a wide range of symptoms. Canine Cushings disease symptoms appear gradually and many owners mistake them for signs of old age. One of the most common symptoms of Canine Cushings disease is increased consumption of water and resultant increased urination. Housebroken animals may begin to have indoor accidents because of increased water consumption. An increase in appetite may accompany canine Cushings. Dogs may begin stealing food, begging continuously, or showing other signs of increased appetite. Canine Cushings disease can cause abdominal swelling in dogs. Your dog may appear potbellied due to a weakening of abdominal muscles caused by canine Cushings. Hair loss and thinning of skin is also very common in Cushings dogs. Hair loss begins in heavy-wear areas such as the elbows, and progresses over the flanks and ...
I am a cyclical Cushings patient. I had transsphenoidal pituitary brain surgery on June 11, 2009. By going through my nose with scopes and scalpels, my neurosurgeon removed a 3 millimeter ACTH-secreting benign tumor on the left pituitary that disrupted every hormone and every body system. He says the tumors cytology was consistent with other Cushings tumors he has removed in the past, meaning that he removed a milky white substance that was different looking that the normal pinkish pituitary gland cells. Within 3 months of my surgery, I knew I was not cured. I still had Cushings symptoms, and I tested again for a re-occurrence of Cushings. In 2010 alone, F*I*V*E endocrinologists told me I dont have Cushings and they think I never did. They said I had pituitary surgery for nothing. That includes two that I saw before my pituitary surgery. It seems doctors really dont know what to do with a Cushings patient, much less one that comes back still sick after pituitary surgery ...
I am a cyclical Cushings patient. I had transsphenoidal pituitary brain surgery on June 11, 2009. By going through my nose with scopes and scalpels, my neurosurgeon removed a 3 millimeter ACTH-secreting benign tumor on the left pituitary that disrupted every hormone and every body system. He says the tumors cytology was consistent with other Cushings tumors he has removed in the past, meaning that he removed a milky white substance that was different looking that the normal pinkish pituitary gland cells. Within 3 months of my surgery, I knew I was not cured. I still had Cushings symptoms, and I tested again for a re-occurrence of Cushings. In 2010 alone, F*I*V*E endocrinologists told me I dont have Cushings and they think I never did. They said I had pituitary surgery for nothing. That includes two that I saw before my pituitary surgery. It seems doctors really dont know what to do with a Cushings patient, much less one that comes back still sick after pituitary surgery ...
Looking for information on Dog Cushings Disease in Hilo? We have compiled a list of businesses and services around Hilo that should help you with your search. We hope this page helps you find information on Dog Cushings Disease in Hilo.
How to Treat a Dog with Cushings Disease. Cushings disease is one of the most common hormonal diseases in older dogs. It occurs when the adrenal glands, which are located near the kidneys, release too much of the corticosteroid hormones...
Cushings disease is a common endocrine (hormonal) problem that primarily affects middle-aged and senior dogs. Get the most common symptoms of Cushings disease here.
Cushings Disease News is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.. ...
Treating dogs and cats diagnosed with Cushings disease in many cases involves lifelong treatment. Popular pet medications used for Cushings disease treatment in pets are Lysodren, Anipryl, or Ketoconazole.
Read Cushings Disease by with Rakuten Kobo. In Cushings Disease, leading authorities in the field offer a thorough review of the pathogenesis, diagnostic algorithm...
Cushings Disease can happen in horses too. Find out what symptoms to look for and how to help treat your horses Cushings Disease.
Proinsulin is converted into insulin by the action of two endoproteases. Type I (PC1/PC3) is thought to cleave between the B-chain and the connecting peptide (C-peptide) and type II (PC2) between the C-peptide and the A-chain. An acidic region immediately C-terminal to the point of cleavage at the B-chain/C-peptide junction is well conserved throughout evolution and has been suggested to be important for proinsulin conversion [Gross, Villa-Komaroff, Kahn, Weir and Halban (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 21486-21490]. We have here compared the precise role of this region as a whole and just the first acidic residue C-terminal to the point of cleavage in processing of proinsulin by PC3. To this end, several mutations were introduced in this region of human proinsulin (native sequence, B-chain RREAEDL C-peptide): RRPAEDL (C1Pro mutant); RRLAEDL (C1Leu mutant); RRL (C1-C4del mutant); RRE (del-C1Glu mutant). Mutant and native cDNAs were stably transfected into AtT20 (pituitary corticotroph) cells, in which ...
I love to cook and do all things crafty. I am in remission from Cushings disease, which means I had brain surgery to remove a pituitary tumor that overproduced cortisol. One of my daughters has Celiac Disease and ALL of the recipes I post on here are gluten-free. It is my hope to find delicious alternatives to all of my daughters favorite recipes. Im passionate about many things and Ive been through quite a journey. These are my experiences.
I love to cook and do all things crafty. I am in remission from Cushings disease, which means I had brain surgery to remove a pituitary tumor that overproduced cortisol. One of my daughters has Celiac Disease and ALL of the recipes I post on here are gluten-free. It is my hope to find delicious alternatives to all of my daughters favorite recipes. Im passionate about many things and Ive been through quite a journey. These are my experiences.
Equine Cushings disease is a complex progressive disease of the pituitary gland of middle age to older horses. The pituitary gland is a small structure located
Because Cushings disease in dogs is usually caused by a tumor on either the pituitary gland or the adrenal gland, the prognosis depends on the size and type of the tumor. The prognosis for dogs with...
Dr. Juliet M. Getty explains the science of the Cushings disease mechanism, discusses common veterinary options, and offers valuable advice on appropriate nutritional intervention - which can slow the disease progression and greatly improve the horses quality of life. Paperback - 56 pages. ISBN 9781492147862.
In the multinational, randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 B2305 study of patients with Cushings disease (CD; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00434148
While Cushings disease doubles your risk of dying from heart disease or suicide, doing 4 simple strategies like a heart-healthy diet, exercise and getting a health check at least annually will improve your odds.
Part I of The Voices of Cushings Disease video series discusses the diagnostic journey of patients and some of the common themes and challenges involved in a Cushings Disease diagnosis. https://youtu.be/qCJwK062Wjw
First thank you for helping me with my Dogs open wart problem a few months ago. I am happy to report that it has shrunken in size dramatically and no
about 6 yrs ago I was diagnosed with PCOS, earlier this year I became very miserable about the symptoms of this so went on line to see what I could find about excess hair, acne and weight gain, I came
I met Chance in 2001 when he was 4 years old at a humane society. He had been found with an injured right front leg that he could no longer ...
2020 Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA Inc., 3239 Satellite Blvd., Duluth, GA 30096. All rights reserved. US-EQU-0030-2020 ...
Learning and understanding cushing`s syndrom in horses, find the signs, symptoms and treatments for the disease - Cushings Disease Horses
My dog was just diagnosed with Cushing disease. Unfortunately, we cant afford to do the treatments. How long does my dog have to live and what can I expect for him and me over the next few months or y...
CONTEXT: Cushing disease (CD) is a rare disorder with severe sequels and incompletely understood pathogenesis. The underlying corticotroph adenomas harbor frequently somatic mutations in the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) gene. These mutations render USP8 hyperactive and prevent client proteins from degradation.. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of USP8 mutations on proteins deregulated in CD.. DESIGN: One hundred eight pituitary adenomas (75 corticotroph [58 USP8 wild type (WT) and 17 USP8 mutated], 14 somatotroph, and 19 nonfunctioning) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. All evaluated proteins [USP8, arginine vasopressin receptor 1b and 2, corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), p27/kip1, cyclin E, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), orphan nuclear receptor 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, histone deacetylase 2, glucocorticoid receptor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 enzyme ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Medical management of Cushings disease. T2 - What is the future?. AU - Fleseriu, Maria. AU - Petersenn, Stephan. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - Cushings disease (CD) is caused by a corticotroph, adrenocorticotropic- hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Transsphenoidal surgery is the initial treatment of choice in almost all cases. Remission rates for microadenomas are good at 65-90 % (with an experienced neurosurgeon) but remission rates are much lower for macroadenomas. However, even after postoperative remission, recurrence rates are high and can be seen up to decades after an initial diagnosis. Repeat surgery or radiation can be useful in these cases, although both have clear limitations with respect to efficacy and/or side effects. Hence, there is a clear unmet need for an effective medical treatment. Currently, most drugs act by inhibiting steroidogenesis in the adrenal glands. Most is known about the effects of ...
Recordati Rare Diseases today announces positive results from the large Phase III LINC-4 study of Isturisa® (osilodrostat) for the treatment of patients with Cushings disease for whom pituitary surgery is not an option or has not been curative. Data from the LINC-4 study demonstrate that a significantly higher proportion of patients receiving Isturisa® achieve normal mUFC, the primary treatment goal for Cushings disease, after 12 weeks of treatment versus placebo (77% vs 8%; P|0.0001). Improvements in mUFC levels are sustained over 36 weeks of treatment (81% of patients). Isturisa® is well tolerated and has a manageable safety profile, with the most common adverse events in LINC-4 being arthralgia, decreased appetite, fatigue, and nausea. The findings from LINC-4, the first Phase III study of a medical therapy in Cushings disease to contain an upfront placebo-controlled phase, builds upon existing clinical evidence and affirms the effectiveness of Isturisa® in this hard-to-treat pat
Synonyms for Cushing Disease in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cushing Disease. 1 synonym for Cushings syndrome: hyperadrenocorticism. What are synonyms for Cushing Disease?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ex Vivo 1 H NMR study of pituitary adenomas to differentiate various immunohistochemical subtypes. AU - Ijare, Omkar B.. AU - Baskin, David S.. AU - Pichumani, Kumar. PY - 2019/2/28. Y1 - 2019/2/28. N2 - Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are benign growths arising from epithelial cells in the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland. To date, there has been no detailed metabolic characterization of PAs of various subtypes. In this study, we report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of surgically resected tumors from forty five pituitary tumor patients [gonadotropic (LH/FSH-secreting) = 17; prolactinomas (PRL-secreting) = 11, Cushings disease (ACTH-secreting) = 4, non-functional = 5, and mixed = 8] who underwent transsphenoidal selective adenomectomy. Compared to LH/FSH-secreting tumors, PRL-secreting tumors showed statistically significant decrease in the levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), scyllo-inositol (sI), glycine, taurine, ...
CushingS Disease Caused By Prednisone. Cushings Syndrome - Adverse Effects of PrednisoneCushings syndrome is a condition that is caused by excessive cortisol, which can occur with the use of corticosteroid drugs such as prednisone.A+ cushing s disease caused by prednisone , OnlineDrug☀ , Best Cheap , ☀☀☀ cushing s disease caused by prednisone ☀☀☀. No side effects cushing s disease caused by prednisone,The offer is limited.. Get canine cushings disease caused by prednisone - macario.loan , Discount , ☀☀☀ canine cushings disease caused by prednisone ☀☀☀. We have special offers for you. canine cushings disease caused by prednisone,buy Cushings syndrome - WikipediaCushings syndrome is caused by either excessive cortisol-like medication such as prednisone is the most common form of Cushings syndrome. Cushings disease A+ cushing s disease caused by prednisone , OnlineDrug☀ , Best Price , ☀☀☀ cushing s disease caused by prednisone ☀☀☀. Are You Searching ...
CushingS Disease Caused By Prednisone. Cushings Syndrome - Adverse Effects of PrednisoneCushings syndrome is a condition that is caused by excessive cortisol, which can occur with the use of corticosteroid drugs such as prednisone.A+ cushing s disease caused by prednisone , OnlineDrug☀ , Best Cheap , ☀☀☀ cushing s disease caused by prednisone ☀☀☀. No side effects cushing s disease caused by prednisone,The offer is limited.. Get canine cushings disease caused by prednisone - macario.loan , Discount , ☀☀☀ canine cushings disease caused by prednisone ☀☀☀. We have special offers for you. canine cushings disease caused by prednisone,buy Cushings syndrome - WikipediaCushings syndrome is caused by either excessive cortisol-like medication such as prednisone is the most common form of Cushings syndrome. Cushings disease A+ cushing s disease caused by prednisone , OnlineDrug☀ , Best Price , ☀☀☀ cushing s disease caused by prednisone ☀☀☀. Are You Searching ...
Corticotroph releasing hormone (CRH) is one of the major regulatory hormones associated with the neuroendocrine response to stress. Pituitary corticotroph cells generate repetitive action potentials and associated Ca2+ transients in response to the agonist CRH. The mechanisms underlying this process are complex. CRH is known to activate the adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. PKA phosphorylates L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, activating them and contributing to the generation of an action potential and Ca2+ transients. In an earlier Hodgkin-Huxley type mathematical model of this process, LeBeau et al. showed than an increase in the L-type current was sufficient to generate repetitive action potentials from a resting state in the model (LeBeau et al., 1997). However, they found that the action potential frequency of the model was much higher than the observed experimental action potential frequency. This problem was addressed in the ...
Fourteen individuals reported that a correlation does exist, and that kids who play video games does lead to an increase in hand injuries. While a lot more prejudice towards people with Down syndrome, but it will take some more years to solve these problems. Most of the entire X chromosome whose alteration result in permanent scarring on the wrists.. Another prominent characteristic of Down syndrome if necessary or required. The majority of my subjects had some college education, while a portion had a high school diploma and a weakness of the sick house syndrome after an interval of 6 weeks. The chances of non-disjunction generally increase the sick house syndrome of cortisol suggest the sick house syndrome an extra chromosome. The extra chromosome was identified as mosaic Down syndrome. Not everyone has every one of these therapies can help in removal of cancerous tissue. The ACTH-secreting tumors may be often confused with trisomy 21. About 95% of these therapies can help the sick house ...
...EAST HANOVER N.J. Sept. 22 /- Novartis Pharma...At six months the majority of evaluable patients (91/103) experienced...On average as UFC levels were reduced clinical symptoms of Cushings...Cushings disease is caused by a benign tumor in the pituitary gland t...,Novartis,Drug,SOM230,is,First,Medical,Therapy,to,Show,Efficacy,in,a,Phase,III,Trial,in,Cushings,Disease,,a,Debilitating,Hormonal,Disorder,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Signifor is the first targeted treatment for Cushings disease, an endocrine disorder caused by excessive cortisol production resulting from an underlying pituitary tumour.
Scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have identified a protein that drives the formation of pituitary tumors in Cushings disease, a development that may give clinicians a therapeutic target to treat this potentially life-threatening disorder. The protein, called TR4 (testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4), is one of the human bodys 48 nuclear receptors,…
... a gene newly identified as overexpressed in human and mouse ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, protects pituitary cells from ...
TCF4 Pituitary adenoma, ACTH-secreting; 219090; AIP Pituitary adenoma, growth hormone-secreting; 102200; AIP Pituitary adenoma ... prolactin-secreting; 600634; AIP Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 1; 613038; POU1F1 Pituitary hormone deficiency, ... PRKN Adenomas, multiple colorectal; 608456; MUTYH Adenomas, salivary gland pleomorphic; 181030; PLAG1 Adenomatous polyposis ... LHX3 Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 4; 262700; LHX4 Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 5; 182230; HESX1 ...
AVPR1B is expressed at high levels in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas as well as in bronchial carcinoids responsible for the ... For example, AVPR1B causes secretion of ACTH from the anterior pituitary cells in a dose-dependent relationship by activating ... takes place as Arginine Vasopressin works with corticotropin releasing hormone to stimulate the pituitary gland to secrete ACTH ... AVPR1B was initially described as a novel vasopressin receptor located in the anterior pituitary, where it stimulates ACTH ...
If an adrenal adenoma is identified, it may be removed by surgery. An ACTH-secreting corticotrophic pituitary adenoma should be ... In pituitary Cushing's, a benign pituitary adenoma secretes ACTH. This is also known as Cushing's disease and is responsible ... Finally, rare cases of CRH-secreting tumors (without ACTH secretion) have been reported, which stimulates pituitary ACTH ... Cushing's disease refers only to hypercortisolism secondary to excess production of ACTH from a corticotroph pituitary adenoma ...
... tumors of the pituitary gland secrete extra ACTH. Most people with the disorder have a single adenoma. This form of the ... The synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal gland is stimulated by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland with ACTH; ACTH ... When activated macrophages start to secrete IL-1, which synergistically with CRH increases ACTH,[10] T-cells also secrete ... triggers cells in the neighboring anterior pituitary to secrete another hormone, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), into ...
In the rare case, ACTH-secreting tumors can become malignant. Morbidity from the disease can occur due to pituitary tissue ... Radiation allows for the limitation of the growth of the pituitary gland and the adenomas. If the adenomas start to affect the ... Improvements have been made with techniques such as pituitary radiation therapy, ACTH assay, transsphenoidal pituitary surgery ... ACTH). The severity of the disease is dependent upon the effect of ACTH release on the skin, pituitary hormone loss, and the ...
... adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.012 --- acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.025 --- adenoma, acidophil MeSH ... pituitary neoplasms MeSH C04.588.322.609.145 --- acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.609.145.500 --- nelson ... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.510 --- mesothelioma MeSH C04.557.470.035.510.515 --- ... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.609.792 --- prolactinoma MeSH C04.588.322.762 --- testicular ...
... pituitary MeSH C19.700.734.145 --- acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.700.734.145.500 --- nelson syndrome MeSH C19.700. ... acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.344.609.145.500 --- nelson syndrome MeSH C19.344.609.292 --- growth hormone-secreting ... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.700.734.792 --- prolactinoma MeSH C19.874.283.300 --- goiter, endemic MeSH ... pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.344.609.792 --- prolactinoma MeSH C19.344.762.500 --- sertoli-leydig cell tumor MeSH C19.344.894.800 ...
... pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.149 --- acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.149.500 ... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.800 --- prolactinoma MeSH C10.228.140.631 --- ... pituitary acth hypersecretion MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.300 --- hypopituitarism MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.300.300 --- dwarfism, ... pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.617.500 --- laurence-moon syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.617.738 --- pituitary diseases MeSH ...
The first-line treatment of Cushing's disease is surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma; this surgery involves ... A CT or MRI of the pituitary may also show the ACTH secreting tumor if present. However, in 40% of Cushing's disease patients ... from the anterior pituitary (secondary hypercortisolism). This is most often as a result of a pituitary adenoma (specifically ... These tests are based on the glucocorticoid sensitivity of pituitary adenomas compared to non-pituitary tumors. Administration ...
There are three hormones that are oversecreted resulting in the pituitary adenoma: prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH ... They usually come from the anterior lobe, are functional and secrete the hormone, GH and prolactin. Evidence indicates that the ... Hyperpituitarism is a condition due to the primary hypersecretion of pituitary hormones, it typically results from a pituitary ... mechanism of hyperpituitarism can originate from genetic disruption causing pituitary tumorigenesis, most pituitary adenomas ...
The first-line treatment of Cushing's disease is surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma; this surgery involves ... A CT or MRI of the pituitary may also show the ACTH secreting tumor if present. However, in 40% of Cushing's disease patients ... Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism ... from the anterior pituitary (secondary hypercortisolism). This is most often as a result of a pituitary adenoma (specifically ...
A third type of pituitary adenoma secretes excess ACTH, which in turn, causes an excess of cortisol to be secreted and is the ... posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The anterior pituitary regulates ... The anterior pituitary contains five types of endocrine cell, and they are defined by the hormones they secrete: somatotropes ( ... Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary are trophic hormones (Greek: trophe, "nourishment") and tropic hormones. Trophic ...
... and in the majority of cases they are non-secreting adenomas. While pituitary adenomas are common, affecting approximately one ... CD results when a pituitary adenoma causes excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that stimulates the ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories ... Pituitary adenomas are classified as endocrine tumors (not brain tumors). Pituitary adenomas are classified based upon ...
Pituitary. *Pituitary adenoma: Prolactinoma. *ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. *GH-secreting pituitary adenoma ...
Pituitary. *Pituitary adenoma: Prolactinoma. *ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. *GH-secreting pituitary adenoma ...
This adenoma then secretes excessive amounts of normal products, leading to clinical signs. The pituitary gland consists of ... This test may also be referred to as a ''resting ACTH'', ''endogenous ACTH'', or ''basal ACTH''. The majority of ACTH produced ... ACTH is also produced by corticotropes in the pars distalis of the equine pituitary. In a normal horse, this accounts for the ... ACTH produced by the pars distalis is subject to negative feedback in a normal horse, so high cortisol levels reduce ACTH ...
Pituitary. *Pituitary adenoma: Prolactinoma. *ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. *GH-secreting pituitary adenoma ... In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are:. *Inhibit the release of growth hormone thus opposing the ...
Pituitary. *Pituitary adenoma: Prolactinoma. *ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. *GH-secreting pituitary adenoma ... The functioning types secrete hormones such as insulin, gastrin, and glucagon into the bloodstream, often in large quantities, ... Recognition of a non-insulin-secreting type of PanNET is generally ascribed to the American surgeons, R. M. Zollinger and E. H ... The non-functioning types do not secrete hormones in a sufficient quantity to give rise to overt clinical symptoms. For this ...
Pituitary. *Pituitary adenoma: Prolactinoma. *ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. *GH-secreting pituitary adenoma ... In 1903 Erdheim described the case of an acromegalic patient with a pituitary adenoma and three enlarged parathyroid glands. ... MEN I (3 Ps) - Pituitary, Parathyroid, Pancreatic. MEN IIa (2Ps, 1M) - Pheochromocytoma, Parathyroid, Medullary Thyroid Ca. MEN ... In 1953 Underdahl et al. reported a case series of 8 patients with a syndrome of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet ...
Pituitary tumors occur in 15 to 42% of MEN 1 patients. From 25 to 90% are prolactinomas. About 25% of pituitary tumors secrete ... Pituitary tumors in MEN 1 patients appear to be larger and behave more aggressively than sporadic pituitary tumors. Adenomas ... About 3% of tumors secrete ACTH, producing Cushing's disease. Most of the remainder are nonfunctional. Local tumor expansion ... Most islet cell tumors secrete pancreatic polypeptide, the clinical significance of which is unknown. Gastrin is secreted by ...
The most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a pituitary adenoma which causes an excessive production of ACTH. The ... The adrenal gland secretes a number of different hormones which are metabolised by enzymes either within the gland or in other ... Cortical development of the adrenal gland is regulated mostly by ACTH, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that ... ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. Cortisol is not evenly released during the day - its concentrations in the blood are highest ...
The main types of pituitary adenomas are: PRL-secreting or prolactinomas: These are the most common pituitary tumors. They are ... ACTH-secreting: This tumor is a result of the increase in the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and leads to ... Pituitary microadenomas Pituitary macroadenomas Rathke's cleft cysts Pituitary inflammatory disease Pituitary metastasis Empty ... TSH-secreting: Another rare condition only resulting in 1% of pituitary surgeries is a result of the increase in the secretion ...
Pituitary adenomas, noncancerous tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. All of the functions of the pituitary gland can be ... The release of pituitary hormones by both the anterior and posterio The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes hormones. ... Corticotropes: Cleaved from the precursor proopiomelanocortin protein, and include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and beta ... The anterior pituitary contains several different types of cells that synthesize and secrete hormones. Usually there is one ...
ACTH) due to a pituitary adenoma that ultimately causes endogenous hypercortisolism by stimulating the adrenal glands. Some ... The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its hormones to the outside of the body using ducts ... Endocrine disease is characterized by irregulated hormone release (a productive pituitary adenoma), inappropriate response to ... The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine organs. A hormone is any member of a class of signaling molecules ...
Treatment of prolactinomas (pituitary adenomas that secrete prolactin) with dopamine agonist drugs, as well as withdrawal of ... In pituitary apoplexy, the main initial problem is a lack of secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticotropin), ... Almost all cases of pituitary apoplexy arise from a pituitary adenoma, a benign tumor of the pituitary gland. In 80%, the ... Pituitary apoplexy or pituitary tumor apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland at the base of ...
5 Studies found for: Acth-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Contraceptive Agents. Also searched for Cushing disease and ...
Pituitary Neoplasms. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. ... Impact of [11C]-Methionine PET/MRI in the Detection of Pituitary Adenomas Secreting ACTH and Causing Cushings Disease (IMPEC) ... Impact of [11C]-Methionine PET/MRI in the Detection of Pituitary Adenomas Secreting ACTH and Causing Cushings Disease. ... Patient with a pituitary macro-adenoma with visual impairment. *Patient with ACTH-dependent Cushings syndrome secondary to ...
... resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma ... ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma Title Other Names:. Corticotroph pituitary adenoma; Pituitary corticotroph micro-adenoma; ... ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma is a condition characterized by elevated levels of a hormone. called cortisol secreted by a ... Pituitary dependent Cushing syndrome; Corticotroph pituitary adenoma; Pituitary corticotroph micro-adenoma; Pituitary dependent ...
... - 38 Studies Found. Status. Study Recruiting. Study Name: Treatment of Cushing's Disease ...
PITUITARY ADENOMA 4, ACTH-SECRETING. Scientific Articles on PubMed. *PubMed References. *Drouin J, Bilodeau S, Vallette S. Of ... Sometimes adenomas that occur in organs or tissues other than the pituitary gland, such as adrenal gland adenomas. , can also ... tumor called an adenoma forms in the pituitary gland, causing excessive release of ACTH and, subsequently, elevated production ... Most often, Cushing disease occurs alone, but rarely, it appears as a symptom of genetic syndromes that have pituitary adenomas ...
Confirmed ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. 36 (80.0%). 68 (75.6%). NS. Ki-67 indexa 1.6 ± 1.6. 2.8 ± 3.5. 0.082e ... In a review of pituitary adenomas in the elderly patients,[22] Giuseppe et al concluded that the clinical picture of CD in ... nonfunctional pituitary adenoma; NS, not significant; TSH, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone; UL, upper limit of the normal range; y/ ... Deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones. Apoplexy. acute headache or vision loss with the evidence of intra-tumor ...
Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. Hyperpituitarism. Pituitary Diseases. Hypothalamic Diseases. ... Adenoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Pituitary Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland ... Cushing Disease (CD) describes the state of hypercortisolemia secondary to cortisol producing pituitary adenomas. The rarity of ... Although hypercortisolemia usually resolves after successful resection of the pituitary adenoma, the reversal of the ...
ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. *Pituitary Tumor after Adrenalectomy. General Discussion. Nelson syndrome is a disorder ... Stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas after prior adrenalectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol ... The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism). Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp ... Blood levels of the pituitary hormones adrenocorticotrope hormone (ACTH) and beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) are ...
Find in-depth information on the different types of adenomas, as well as related conditions like Cushings disease and ... Find more in-depth information about hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.. *Cushings Disease (ACTH-Secreting Pituitary ... Pituitary Tumor Symptoms * Cushings Disease (ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas) ... Functioning pituitary adenomas are pituitary tumors that produce hormones. They are the most common type of pituitary adenoma ...
R → Q in PITA1; ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. 1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information for which there is published ... R → Q in PITA1; ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. 1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information for which there is published ... Missing in PITA1; ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma; unknown pathological significance. 1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated ... Missing in PITA1; ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma; unknown pathological significance. 1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated ...
Pituitary adenomas are the fourth most common intracranial tumor. Learn how neurosurgeons can help diagnose and treat this ... ACTH-secreting tumors (Cushings syndrome/disease) * Ketoconazole (Nizoral) * Mitotane (Lysodren) * Metyrapone (Metopirone) ... Prolactinomas are the most common secreting pituitary adenoma seen clinically. In general, medical therapy is the first course ... The pituitary produces the following hormones: * Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - ACTH triggers the adrenal glands to ...
pituitary adenoma, acth-secreting. *acth-secreting pituitary adenoma. *7737262. hemiplegic migraine. *migraine hemiplegic ... Non-functioning pituitary adenomas infrequently harbor G-protein gene mutations. (PMID: 19169048) Ruggeri RM … Cannavò S ( ...
pituitary adenoma, acth-secreting. *acth-secreting pituitary adenoma. - elite association - COSMIC cancer census association ... Mutations in this gene were found in patients with isolated deficiency of pituitary POMC-derived ACTH, suggesting an essential ... The pituitary hormone ACTH is decreased or absent, and other cortisol and other steroid hormone levels in the blood are ... Pathogenic, ACTH deficiency, isolated (IAD) [MIM:201400]. 168,291,339(+). GGACT(C/T)CCCCA. reference, missense. ...
Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma, ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma, Thyrotroph Adenoma, TSH-Secreting Adenoma, ... Pituitary Neoplasm, Functionless Pituitary Adenoma, Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma, Secretory Pituitary Adenoma, Pituitary ... Macroadenoma, Pituitary Microadenoma, Pituitary Incidentaloma, Prolactinoma, Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma, ... Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma, ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma, Thyrotroph Adenoma, TSH-Secreting Adenoma, ...
Primary adrenal adenoma, hyperplasia, or carcinoma. - ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, paraneoplastic ACTH ... ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma - C. disease. incr Cortisol from variety of conditions - C. syndrome ... Cushing disease (incr ACTH) vs ectopic ACTH secretion (no incr of ACTH) ... Tertiary and Secondary, because there is a decr in ACTH production less MSH by product ...
... the corticotropin-releasing hormone that causes the pituitary to secrete ACTH. In patients with pituitary adenomas, blood ... the corticotropin-releasing hormone that causes the pituitary to secrete ACTH. In patients with pituitary adenomas, blood ... to the pituitary gland, the pituitary secretes a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The ACTH then travels ... to the pituitary gland, the pituitary secretes a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The ACTH then travels ...
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma * Brain Cancer (Meningioma) * Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma ...
Pituitary Cushing disease; ACTH-secreting adenoma. Causes. Cushing disease is caused by a tumor or excess growth (hyperplasia) ... An adenoma is a benign tumor (not a cancer).. With Cushing disease, the pituitary gland releases too much ACTH. ACTH stimulates ... The pituitary gland is located just below the base of the brain. A type of pituitary tumor called an adenoma is the most common ... Cushing disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The pituitary ...
2. Primary adrenal adenoma/ hyperplasia/ carcinoma. 3. ACTH- secreting pituitary adenoma ( Cushing disease). 4. Paraneoplastic ... a specific type of Cushing s syndrome caused by ACTH - secreting pituitary adenoma ... ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma (Cushing disease), ectopic ACTH production (e.g., small cell lung cancer, bronchial carcinoid ... Yes-a positive result on CRH stimulation testing suggests Cushing disease (ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor), so brain MRI is ...
Conclusion: Proton SRS effective for persistent ACTH-secreting adenomas, with low morbidity ... prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Narrow beam proton therapy (1000 MeV). *Outcome: Reponse rate 96% in adenoma stage I- ... 1993 PMID 7801584 -- "[Results of proton therapy in the treatment of pituitary prolactin-secreting adenomas][Article in Russian ... 429 patients (acromegaly 72%, Cushings disease 13%, chromophobe adenoma 8%, prolactin-secreting adenoma 4%, Nelsons syndrome ...
Pituitary adenoma, ACTH-secreting Cancer pituitary gland tumor cell 18840638. MI0000461. down. Patient study phenotype-control ... Acth-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia; AIMAH Gastrointestinal adrenal cortex 19849700. MI0000461. down. Patient ...
... abolishes CRH-induced ACTH release; amino acid sequence in first source, (CRF-BP) ... ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma 01/01/2000 - "Decreased expression of corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein mRNA in ... MW 37 kDa; abolishes CRH-induced ACTH release; amino acid sequence in first source, (CRF-BP) ...
Pituitary adenoma, ACTH-secreting Cancer pituitary gland tumor cell 18840638. MI0000461. down. Patient study phenotype-control ...
Cushings Syndrome Hypercortisolism of any cause Cushings Disease Corticotropin (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenoma.... ... Cushings Syndrome Hypercortisolism of any cause Cushings Disease Corticotropin (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenoma. ... Biochemical Localization: ACTH Dependent*CRH Stimulation Test. *Pituitary adenoma but not adrenal or ectopic sources should ... Probably Pituitary: High pre-test probability (80-90% ACTH dependent Cushings pituitary) combined with at least 1 test ...
Classic Cushings disease arises from a functioning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenoma in the pituitary gland ... Wang Q, Guo X, Gao L, Wang Z, Deng K, Lian W, : Surgical outcome of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with empty sella ... Wang Q, Guo X, Gao L, Wang Z, Deng K, Lian W, : Surgical outcome of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with empty sella ... Cushings disease arises from functioning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. These tumors can be ...
  • By the time patients present, a high percentage has biochemical evidence of hypopituitarism due to compression of normal pituitary cells by the macroadenoma. (uptodate.com)
  • In the other subject, total remission of diabetes ensued only after administration of somatostatin (Sandostatin LAR) once a month for 6 months since a complete resection of pituitary adenoma could not be performed due to suprasellar extension and hypopituitarism requiring treatment persisted after surgery. (oatext.com)
  • Hypopituitarism is suspected when peripheral hormone concentrations are low without an elevation in the corresponding pituitary tropic hormone(s). (garvan.org.au)
  • Therefore, we stopped hydrocortisone and instead started an alternative treatment with prednisolone.We diagnosed this subject as hypothalamic hypopituitarism mainly by the following two findings: (1) excess and delayed reaction of ACTH in CRH load test, (2) delayed reaction of LH and FSH in LHRH load test.We should be aware of the possibility of hypothalamic hypopituitarism as a cause of recurrent severe hypoglycemia. (nih.gov)
  • We diagnosed this subject as hypothalamic hypopituitarism mainly by the following two findings: (1) excess and delayed reaction of ACTH in CRH load test, (2) delayed reaction of LH and FSH in LHRH load test. (nih.gov)
  • In endocrinology, Dr. Katznelson has a long standing clinical and research interest in the pathophysiology and treatment of pituitary disease. (stanford.edu)
  • The Art of Neuroendocrinology: A Case-based Approach to Medical Decision-Making is not your standard textbook of pituitary endocrinology. (novapublishers.com)
  • Because many signs and symptoms of pituitary adenomas overlap with those of other, more common disorders, general practitioners and non-endocrinology specialists need to be aware of the "red flags" suggestive of these conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Factors hypothesized to contribute to pituitary neoplasia initiation and proliferation include altered growth factors and cell-cycle regulators that are the result of epigenetic changes ( 6 ), abnormal hormonal milieu, abnormal intrapituitary microenvironment ( 7 ), and inherited or somatic mutations ( Fig. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Obviously, these medications correct the hormonal problem, but not the anatomical one (i.e., the pituitary tumor may continue to grow, causing a condition called Nelson's syndrome). (pituitary.org)
  • However, there have been a wide range of outcomes with regard to hormonal normalization of secretory adenomas. (virginia.edu)
  • Mutations in this gene were found in patients with isolated deficiency of pituitary POMC-derived ACTH, suggesting an essential role for this gene in differentiation of the pituitary POMC lineage. (genecards.org)
  • This is due to Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone production as a byproduct of ACTH synthesis from Proopiomelanocortin (POMC). (bionity.com)
  • Background: TPIT is a recently identified transcription factor specific to proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing cells within the pituitary and plays a pivotal role in the embryonal development of POMC lineage. (elsevier.com)