A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Endosseous dental implantation where implants are fitted with an abutment or where an implant with a transmucosal coronal portion is used immediately (within 1 week) after the initial extraction. Conventionally, the implantation is performed in two stages with more than two months in between the stages.
Removable prosthesis constructed over natural teeth or implanted studs.
The plan and delineation of DENTAL IMPLANT fitting with DENTAL ABUTMENT.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.

Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system in hemodialysis: role of membrane electronegativity, blood dilution, and pH. (1/105)

BACKGROUND: The kallikrein-kinin system activation by contact with a negatively charged surface has been promulgated to be responsible for hypersensitivity reactions. However, to explain the low frequency and heterogeneity of hypersensitivity reactions, we hypothesized that not only the electronegativity of the membrane, but also other physicochemical parameters could influence the activation of the contact phase system of plasma assessed by the measurement of kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. METHODS: Plasma kallikrein activity using chromogenic substrate (S2302) and plasma bradykinin concentration (enzyme immuno assay) were measured during the perfusion of human plasma (2.5 ml/min) through minidialyzers mounted with six different membranes [polyacrylonitrile (PAN) from Asahi (PANDX) and from Hospal (AN69), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) from Toray, cellulose triacetate (CT) from Baxter, cuprophane (CUP) from Akzo and polysulfone (PS) from Fresenius]. RESULTS: A direct relationship was shown between the electronegativity of the membrane assessed by its zeta potential and the activation of plasma during the first five minutes of plasma circulation. With the AN69 membrane, the detection of a kallikrein activity in diluted plasma but not in undiluted samples confirmed the importance of a protease-antiprotease imbalance leading to bradykinin release during the first five minutes of dialysis. With PAN membranes, the use of citrated versus heparinized plasma and the use of various rinsing solutions clearly show a dramatic effect of pH on the kallikrein activity and the bradykinin concentration measured in plasma. Finally, increasing the zeta potential of the membrane leads to a significant increase of plasma kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro experimental approach evidences the importance of the control of these physicochemical factors to decrease the activation of the contact system.  (+info)

Intravitreous transplantation of encapsulated fibroblasts secreting the human fibroblast growth factor 2 delays photoreceptor cell degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats. (2/105)

We developed an experimental approach with genetically engineered and encapsulated mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to delay the progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells in dark-eyed Royal College of Surgeons rats. These xenogeneic fibroblasts can survive in 1. 5-mm-long microcapsules made of the biocompatible polymer AN69 for at least 90 days under in vitro and in vivo conditions because of their stable transfection with the gene for the 18-kDa form of the human basic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF-2). Furthermore, when transferred surgically into the vitreous cavity of 21-day-old Royal College of Surgeons rats, the microencapsulated hFGF-2-secreting fibroblasts provoked a local delay of photoreceptor cell degeneration, as seen at 45 days and 90 days after transplantation. This effect was limited to 2.08 mm2 (45 days) and 0.95 mm2 (90 days) of the retinal surface. In both untreated eyes and control globes with encapsulated hFGF-2-deficient fibroblasts, the rescued area (of at most 0.08 mm2) was significantly smaller at both time points. Although, in a few ocular globes, surgical trauma induced a reorganization of the retinal cytoarchitecture, neither microcapsule rejection nor hFGF-2-mediated tumor formation were detected in any treated eyes. These findings indicate that encapsulated fibroblasts secreting hFGF-2 or perhaps other agents can be applied as potential therapeutic tools to treat retinal dystrophies.  (+info)

Health hazards in the production and processing of some fibers, resins, and plastics in Bulgaria. (3/105)

Results of the toxicological studies of working conditions, general and professional morbidity, and complex examinations carried out on workers engaged in the production of polyamides, polyacrylonitrile fibers, polyester fibers and poly (vinyl chloride) resin, urea-formaldehyde glue, glass fibre materials and polyurethane resins are given. An extremely high occupational hazard for workers in the production of poly (vinyl chloride) resin and porous materials from polyurethane resins and urea-formaldehyde glue has been established. Cases of vinyl chloride disease, poisoning from formaldehyde, isocyanates, and styrene were noted. Prophylactic measures were taken in Bulgaria to lessen the occupational hazard in the productions as set forth included limitation of the work day to 6 hr, free food, additional bonus and leave, and annual physical examinations of workers.  (+info)

Induction of oxidative stress and oxidative damage in rat glial cells by acrylonitrile. (4/105)

Chronic treatment of rats with acrylonitrile (ACN) resulted in a dose-related increase in glial cell tumors (astrocytomas). While the exact mechanism(s) for ACN-induced carcinogenicity remains unresolved, non-genotoxic and possibly tumor promotion modes of action appear to be involved in the induction of glial tumors. Recent studies have shown that ACN induced oxidative stress selectively in rat brain in a dose-responsive manner. The present study examined the ability of ACN to induce oxidative stress in a rat glial cell line, a target tissue, and in cultured rat hepatocytes, a non-target tissue of ACN carcinogenicity. Glial cells and hepatocytes were treated for 1, 4 and 24 h with sublethal concentrations of ACN. ACN induced an increase in oxidative DNA damage, as evidenced by increased production of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in glial cells but not in rat hepatocytes. Hydroxyl radical formation following ACN treatment was also selectively increased in glial cells. Following 1 and 4 h of ACN exposure, the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione, as well as the activities of the enzymatic antioxidants catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased in the rat glial cells. Lipid peroxidation and the activity of glutathione peroxidase were not affected by ACN treatment in rat glial cells. No changes in any of these biomarkers of oxidative stress were observed in hepatocytes treated with ACN. These data indicate that ACN selectively induced oxidative stress in rat glial cells.  (+info)

Encapsulation in hollow fibres of xenogeneic cells engineered to secrete IL-4 or IL-13 ameliorates murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). (5/105)

A strategy of gene therapy using IL-4 or IL-13 xenogeneic transfected cells encapsulated into permeable hollow fibres (HF) was used to treat CIA. Hydrogel-based hollow fibres were obtained from AN-69 copolymer, already known for its biocompatibility and tolerance in rodents. Permeability to IL-4 and lack of cell leakage from the fibres were ascertained in vitro and in vivo. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts transfected with mouse IL-4 gene were encapsulated in HF (6.25 x 105 cells/HF). IL-4 was detected in vitro in the culture supernatant of filled fibres for at least 19 days. IL-4 or IL-13 transfected CHO cells encapsulated in HF were implanted in the peritoneum of mice on days 11-13 after immunization with type II collagen. Control mice were treated with fibre containing CHO cells transfected with beta-galactosidase (betagal) gene; a positive control group consisted of mice treated by subcutaneous injection of 106 cells on days 10 and 25. Mice were monitored for signs of arthritis by observers unaware of the status of animals. Results of these experiments indicate that severity of the articular disease was significantly reduced in the groups of mice treated with CHO/IL-4 or CHO/IL-13 cells encapsulated in HF, compared with control groups receiving CHO/betagal cells encapsulated in HF. Histological analysis confirmed these data and extended them to a better inhibitory effect of encapsulated cells compared with free cells on inflammatory and destructive joint disease. Moreover, such long-term treatment with HF was well tolerated; macroscopic and histological aspects of peritoneal cavity were moderately inflammatory. Thus, our results may have important implications for clinical use of gene transfected cells as therapeutic agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Nitrilase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1. Conversion into the active form by subunit association. (6/105)

Nitrilase-containing resting cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1 converted acrylonitrile and benzonitrile to the corresponding acids, but the purified nitrilase hydrolyzed only benzonitrile, and not acrylonitrile. The activity of the purified enzyme towards acrylonitrile was recovered by preincubation with 10 mM benzonitrile, but not by preincubation with aliphatic nitriles such as acrylonitrile. It was shown by light-scattering experiments, that preincubation with benzonitrile led to the assembly of the inactive, purified and homodimeric 80-kDa enzyme to its active 410-kDa aggregate, which was proposed to be a decamer. Furthermore, the association concomitant with the activation was reached after dialysis of the enzyme against various salts and organic solvents, with the highest recovery reached at 10% saturated ammonium sulfate and 50% (v/v) glycerol, and by preincubation at increased temperatures or enzyme concentrations.  (+info)

Nitrile hydratase and amidase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous hydrolyze acrylic fibers and granular polyacrylonitriles. (7/105)

Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 11216 produced nitrile hydratase (320 nkat mg of protein(-1)) and amidase activity (38.4 nkat mg of protein(-1)) when grown on a medium containing propionitrile. These enzymes were able to hydrolyze nitrile groups of both granular polyacrylonitriles (PAN) and acrylic fibers. Nitrile groups of PAN40 (molecular mass, 40 kDa) and PAN190 (molecular mass, 190 kDa) were converted into the corresponding carbonic acids to 1.8 and 1.0%, respectively. In contrast, surfacial nitrile groups of acrylic fibers were only converted to the corresponding amides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 16% of the surfacial nitrile groups were hydrolyzed by the R. rhodochrous enzymes. Due to the enzymatic modification, the acrylic fibers became more hydrophilic and thus, adsorption of dyes was enhanced. This was indicated by a 15% increase in the staining level (K/S value) for C. I. Basic Blue 9.  (+info)

Acrylonitrile-induced morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells. (8/105)

Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a monomer used in the synthesis of rubber, fibers and plastics. Previous studies demonstrated that ACN induces brain neoplasms (predominately astrocytomas) in rats following chronic treatment. While the mechanisms of ACN-induced glial cell carcinogenicity have not been completely elucidated, investigations by our group and others have suggested a role for the induction of oxidative stress and the resultant oxidative damage in this process. In vitro cell transformation models are useful for detecting and studying the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. Cell transformation by chemical carcinogens in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells exhibits a multistage process similar to that observed in vivo, for both non-genotoxic and genotoxic carcinogens. In the present study, the ability of ACN to induce morphological transformation and oxidative damage was examined in SHE cells. ACN induced an increase in morphological transformation at doses of 50, 62.5 and 75 microg/ml (maximum sub-toxic dose tested) following 7 days of continuous treatment. SHE cells exposed to ACN for 24 h failed to increase morphological transformation. Morphological transformation by ACN was inhibited by co-treatment with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and (-)-epigallocathechin-3 gallate (EGCG) for 7 days. Treatment of SHE cells with 75 microg/ml ACN produced a significant increase in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine that was also inhibited by co-treatment with alpha-tocopherol or EGCG. These results support the proposal that oxidative stress and the resulting oxidative damage is involved in ACN-induced carcinogenicity.  (+info)

Acrylonitrile is a colorless, flammable liquid with an unpleasant odor. It is used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, and synthetic fibers. In terms of medical toxicology, acrylonitrile is classified as a volatile organic compound (VOC) and can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels of acrylonitrile can lead to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Chronic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including lung, laryngeal, and esophageal cancer. However, it's important to note that occupational exposure limits are in place to minimize the risks associated with acrylonitrile exposure.

Ethylene oxide is a colorless gas at room temperature and pressure with a faintly sweet odor. It is used primarily as a sterilant, especially for medical equipment, but also has applications in the manufacture of other chemicals, including antifreeze and textile products. Ethylene oxide is highly flammable and reactive, and exposure can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, as well as more serious health effects with prolonged or high-level exposure. It is also a known human carcinogen, meaning that it has been shown to cause cancer in humans.

The chemical industry is a broad term that refers to the companies and organizations involved in the production or transformation of raw materials or intermediates into various chemical products. These products can be used for a wide range of applications, including manufacturing, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and consumer goods. The chemical industry includes businesses that produce basic chemicals, such as petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers, and industrial gases, as well as those that manufacture specialty chemicals, such as dyestuffs, flavors, fragrances, and advanced materials. Additionally, the chemical industry encompasses companies that provide services related to the research, development, testing, and distribution of chemical products.

Immediate dental implant loading is a dental procedure where a dental implant is placed and a restoration (such as a crown, bridge, or denture) is attached to it during the same appointment or immediately after the implant surgery. Traditionally, dental implants were allowed to heal and integrate with the jawbone for several months before loading (placing the restoration), but recent advances in implant technology and surgical techniques have made immediate loading a viable option in certain cases.

The success of immediate dental implant loading depends on various factors such as the patient's oral health, the quality and quantity of bone, the type and location of the implant, and the expertise of the dental professional. Immediate loading can offer several benefits, including reduced treatment time, fewer surgical procedures, and improved aesthetics and function. However, it is not always suitable for every patient or situation, and a thorough evaluation is necessary to determine if immediate loading is the best option.

A dental prosthesis known as an "overlay denture" is a type of removable restoration that covers and restores only the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the natural teeth, while leaving the remaining tooth structure and surrounding soft tissues intact. This type of denture is typically used when there are still sufficient healthy tooth structures present to provide support and stability for the prosthesis.

Overlay dentures can be made from various materials such as acrylic resin or metal alloys, and they can be fabricated to fit over the natural teeth with precision, ensuring optimal comfort and functionality. These dentures are designed to improve the patient's ability to chew and speak properly, while also enhancing their smile and overall oral esthetics.

It is important to note that proper dental hygiene and regular check-ups with a dental professional are essential for maintaining good oral health and ensuring the longevity of an overlay denture.

A dental implant-abutment design refers to the specific configuration and components used to connect a dental implant, which serves as an artificial tooth root, to a dental restoration, such as a crown, bridge, or denture. The abutment is a connecting element that attaches to the implant and provides the foundation for the dental restoration.

There are various dental implant-abutment designs available, each with its unique advantages and disadvantages. Some common designs include:

1. External hexagon: This design features an external hexagonal connection between the implant and abutment. It is one of the earliest and most widely used designs but has largely been replaced by internal connection designs due to concerns about screw loosening and microbial leakage.
2. Internal hexagon: In this design, the hexagonal connection is located inside the implant, providing better stability and resistance to rotational forces compared to external hexagon designs.
3. Morse taper: This design uses a tapered connection between the implant and abutment, creating a tight, press-fit interface that resists micromovements and microbial leakage. It is known for its high stability and ease of use.
4. UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) abutment: This design features a custom-milled abutment specifically designed to fit the individual implant platform. The UCLA abutment provides excellent esthetics and precision but requires additional laboratory fabrication time and costs.
5. Platform switching: This design involves using an abutment with a smaller diameter than the implant platform, creating a gap between the implant and abutment. This gap has been shown to reduce crestal bone loss and improve soft tissue esthetics around dental implants.
6. Cement-retained: In this design, the restoration is cemented onto the abutment using a dental cement. While it provides good esthetics and simplicity, there are concerns about excess cement causing peri-implant inflammation and bone loss.
7. Screw-retained: This design involves securing the restoration to the abutment with a screw. It offers easy retrievability and maintenance but may have compromised esthetics due to the presence of a screw access hole.

Each dental implant system has its unique advantages and disadvantages, and selecting the appropriate one depends on various factors such as the patient's anatomy, oral health status, and desired treatment outcomes. Dentists should consider these factors when choosing the most suitable implant system for their patients.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Denture retention, in the field of dentistry, refers to the ability of a dental prosthesis (dentures) to maintain its position and stability within the mouth. It is achieved through various factors including the fit, shape, and design of the denture, as well as the use of dental implants or adhesives. Proper retention helps ensure comfortable and effective chewing, speaking, and smiling for individuals who have lost some or all of their natural teeth.

Nitriles, in a medical context, refer to a class of organic compounds that contain a cyano group (-CN) bonded to a carbon atom. They are widely used in the chemical industry and can be found in various materials, including certain plastics and rubber products.

In some cases, nitriles can pose health risks if ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin. Short-term exposure to high levels of nitriles can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Prolonged or repeated exposure may lead to more severe health effects, such as damage to the nervous system, liver, and kidneys.

However, it's worth noting that the medical use of nitriles is not very common. Some nitrile gloves are used in healthcare settings due to their resistance to many chemicals and because they can provide a better barrier against infectious materials compared to latex or vinyl gloves. But beyond this application, nitriles themselves are not typically used as medications or therapeutic agents.

Elastomers are a type of polymeric material that exhibit elastic behavior when subjected to deforming forces. They have the ability to return to their original shape and size after being stretched or compressed, making them ideal for use in applications where flexibility, resilience, and durability are required.

Elastomers are composed of long chains of repeating molecular units called monomers, which are cross-linked together to form a three-dimensional network. This cross-linking gives elastomers their unique properties, such as high elasticity, low compression set, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and weathering.

Some common examples of elastomers include natural rubber, silicone rubber, neoprene, nitrile rubber, and polyurethane. These materials are used in a wide range of applications, from automotive parts and medical devices to footwear and clothing.

Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) is a chemical compound with the formula H-C≡N. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous and flammable liquid that has a bitter almond-like odor in its pure form. However, not everyone can detect its odor, as some people lack the ability to smell it, which makes it even more dangerous. It is soluble in water and alcohol, and its aqueous solution is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid.

Hydrogen Cyanide is rapidly absorbed by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact, and it inhibits the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase, which is essential for cellular respiration. This leads to rapid death due to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) at the cellular level. It is used industrially in large quantities as a pesticide, fumigant, and chemical intermediate, but it also has significant potential for use as a chemical weapon.

In the medical field, Hydrogen Cyanide poisoning can be treated with high-concentration oxygen, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate, which help to restore the function of cytochrome c oxidase and enhance the elimination of cyanide from the body.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Skin absorption, also known as percutaneous absorption, refers to the process by which substances are taken up by the skin and pass into the systemic circulation. This occurs when a substance is applied topically to the skin and penetrates through the various layers of the epidermis and dermis until it reaches the capillaries, where it can be transported to other parts of the body.

The rate and extent of skin absorption depend on several factors, including the physicochemical properties of the substance (such as its molecular weight, lipophilicity, and charge), the concentration and formulation of the product, the site of application, and the integrity and condition of the skin.

Skin absorption is an important route of exposure for many chemicals, drugs, and cosmetic ingredients, and it can have both therapeutic and toxicological consequences. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and factors that influence skin absorption is crucial for assessing the safety and efficacy of topical products and for developing strategies to enhance or reduce their absorption as needed.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

Skin irritancy tests are experimental procedures used to determine the potential of a substance to cause irritation or damage to the skin. These tests typically involve applying the substance to intact or abraded (damaged) skin of human volunteers or animals, and then observing and measuring any adverse reactions that occur over a specified period. The results of these tests can help assess the safety of a substance for use in consumer products, pharmaceuticals, or industrial applications. It is important to note that the ethical considerations and regulations surrounding animal testing have led to an increased focus on developing alternative methods, such as in vitro (test tube) tests using reconstructed human skin models.

Oxidoreductases acting on CH-NH2 group donors are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation-reduction reactions involving the transfer of electrons from a donor with a CH-NH2 group to an electron acceptor. This category of enzymes is classified under EC 1.5.99 in the Enzyme Commission (EC) system.

The reaction catalyzed by these enzymes typically results in the formation of a carbon-nitrogen double bond, with the concomitant reduction of the electron acceptor. Examples of such reactions include the oxidative deamination of amino acids to produce keto acids and ammonia, as well as the conversion of primary amines to aldehydes or nitro compounds.

These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and play important roles in various biological processes, such as metabolism, detoxification, and biosynthesis. They require various cofactors, such as NAD+, NADP+, FAD, or PQQ, to facilitate the electron transfer during the reaction.

In summary, oxidoreductases acting on CH-NH2 group donors are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of CH-NH2 group donors and the reduction of various electron acceptors, with important roles in diverse biological processes.

... such as styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), and other ... Acrylonitrile is harmful to aquatic life. Acrylonitrile has been detected in the atmosphere of Titan, a moon of Saturn. ... Acrylonitrile was first synthesized by the French chemist Charles Moureu (1863-1929) in 1893. Acrylonitrile is not naturally ... Acrylonitrile Fact Sheet: Support Document (CAS No. 107-13-1). epa.gov National Pollutant Inventory - Acrylonitrile Comparing ...
... (PBAN) copolymer, also noted as polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile terpolymer is a copolymer ... Polybutadiene acrylonitrile is also sometimes used by amateurs due to simplicity, very low cost, and lower toxicity than the ...
... (ASA), also called acrylic styrene acrylonitrile, is an amorphous thermoplastic developed as an ... are chemically grafted with styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer chains, and embedded in styrene-acrylonitrile matrix. The acrylate ... "Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA) Plastic , UL Prospector". plastics.ides.com. Retrieved 2017-01-11. "PETG vs ABS vs ASA". ... ASA can be made by either a reaction process of all three monomers (styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylic ester) or a graft process, ...
Styrene acrylonitrile resin is a copolymer plastic consisting of styrene and acrylonitrile. It is also known as SAN. It is ... The acrylonitrile from SAN containers has been found to migrate to content in variable amounts. Acrylonitrile is classified as ... The chains of between 70 and 80% by weight styrene and 20 to 30% acrylonitrile. Larger acrylonitrile content improves ... The copolymer has a glass transition temperature greater than 100 °C owing to the acrylonitrile units in the chain, thus making ...
ABS is derived from acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene. Acrylonitrile is a synthetic monomer produced from propylene and ... Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x·​(C4H6)y·​(C3H3N)z ) is a common thermoplastic polymer. Its ... Acrylonitrile and styrene make ABS stiff. Butadiene particles are elastic and make ABS impact resistant. Adding methyl ... The proportions can vary from 15% to 35% acrylonitrile, 5% to 30% butadiene and 40% to 60% styrene. The result is a long chain ...
The 7 downstream facilities were: 1. acrylonitrile, 2. synthetic rubber, 3. low-density polyethylene, 4. polypropylene, 5. ...
"Sohio Acrylonitrile Process". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2017-11-11. " ... introduced by Sherwin-Williams in 1941 The Sohio process for production of acrylonitrile, developed by Sohio in 1957 and ...
Currently, most acrylonitrile (90% in 2008) is produced by the SOHIO method, which is based on the catalytic oxidation of ... "The Sohio Acrylonitrile Process". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Archived from the original ... producing acrylonitrile: HO-CH2CH2-CN → CH2=CH-CN + H2O When reacting with the hydrogen sulfide, ethylene oxide forms 2- ...
Three wagons carrying acrylonitrile exploded. One person died and 49 were injured from toxic fumes. 500 were evacuated. 17 May ...
Acrylonitrile is a Michael acceptor. The reaction is normally catalyzed by a base. Cyanethylation is used to prepared numerous ... Cyanoethylation entails addition of protic nucleophiles to acrylonitrile. Typical protic nucleophiles are alcohols, thiols, and ...
Acrylonitrile is commonly employed as a comonomer with styrene, e.g. acrylonitrile, styrene and acrylate plastics. Labelling of ... It is a component repeat unit in several important copolymers, such as styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) and acrylonitrile butadiene ... Most commercial methods for the synthesis of PAN are based on free radical polymerization of acrylonitrile. In most of the ... Gupta, A. K.; Paliwal, D. K.; Bajaj, P. (1998). "Melting behavior of acrylonitrile polymers". Journal of Applied Polymer ...
The findings were liked to a major chemical component of Orlon, acrylonitrile. Citing issues with foreign competition, Dupont ... "Current intelligence bulletin 18 - acrylonitrile". October 16, 2018. doi:10.26616/NIOSHPUB7812718. {{cite journal}}: Cite ...
An important factor in the properties of NBR is the ratio of acrylonitrile groups to butadiene groups, referred to as the ACN ... "Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-15. Retrieved 2014-07-25. Zerka, Sam ( ... Emulsifier (soap), acrylonitrile, butadiene, radical generating activators, and a catalyst are added to polymerization vessels ... Nitrile rubber, also known as nitrile butadiene rubber, NBR, Buna-N, and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, is a synthetic rubber ...
Several million tons of acrylonitrile are produced in this way annually: CH 3 CH = CH 2 + 3 2 O 2 + NH 3 ⟶ N ≡ CCH = CH 2 + 3 H ... "Sohio Acrylonitrile Process - American Chemical Society". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 11 July 2017. Peter Pollak, ... For the production of acrylonitrile, byproducts include hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, and the solvent acetonitrile. The reaction ... doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_363 "The Sohio Acrylonitrile Process". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society ...
Wicht, D. K.; Kourkine, I. V.; Lew, B. M.; Nthenge, J. M.; Glueck, D. S. (1997). "Platinum-Catalyzed Acrylonitrile ... Pringle, P. G.; Smith, M. B. (1990). "Platinum(0)-catalysed hydrophosphination of acrylonitrile". Journal of the Chemical ... These systems catalyze hydrophosphination of acrylonitrile, although this reaction can be achieved without metal catalysts. The ... Typically base-catalysis allows addition of Michael acceptors such as acrylonitrile to give tris(cyanoethyl)phosphine: PH3 + 3 ...
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene is a common example. Copolymers section of Polymer article Thermoplastic elastomer Tholin ... Commercial copolymers include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), styrene/butadiene co-polymer (SBR), nitrile rubber, ... styrene-acrylonitrile, styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and ethylene-vinyl acetate, all of which are formed by chain-growth ...
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is also common. A variant on the kerf bend can be used to create living hinges in laser ...
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ... the pollutant acrylonitrile reacts with hydroxyl radical forming formyl cyanide, hydroperoxyl and formaldehyde: CH 2 = CHCN + ...
Acrylonitrile is the solvent for the reaction. 2-Vinylpyridine is readily polymerized or copolymerized with styrene, butadiene ... H2O An alternative synthesis involves the reaction of acrylonitrile and acetylene below 130-140 ̊C in the presence of ...
As part of his research on acrylic acid and its derivatives, he was the first to synthesize acrylonitrile in 1893. In addition ... "Sohio Acrylonitrile Process - National Historic Chemical Landmark". American Chemical Society. September 13, 1996. Retrieved 23 ...
They developed a resin based on the grafting of acrylonitrile polymer onto the backbone of starch molecules (i.e. starch- ... There are three main classes of SAPs: 1. Cross‐linked polyacrylates and polyacrylamides 2. Cellulose‐ or starch‐acrylonitrile ... grafting). The hydrolyzed product of the hydrolysis of this starch-acrylonitrile co-polymer gave water absorption greater than ...
... of acrylonitrile are formed. During the electrochemical hydrooligomerization of acrylonitrile, these are trimers, such as 1,3,6 ... The DABCO-catalyzed acrylonitrile dimerization of 2,4-dicyano-1-butene after 10 days at room temperature is with 40% yield ... A new class of acrylonitrile oligomers", J. Org. Chem., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1351-1356, doi:10.1021/jo01016a003 M.M. Baizer; J.D ... The reaction of acrylonitrile with tributylphosphine affords 2-methyleneglutaronitrile in a modest yield of about 10% after ...
It comprised two locomotives and 57 freight cars, at least two of which were carrying acrylonitrile. Other railcars in the ... UTLX 901717 LEAKED 24,500 GALLONS OF ACRYLONITRILE STABILIZED. Jamieson, Alastair; Walters, Shamar; Nelson, Chris. "Tennessee ...
The polymer degradation of building blocks made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene]] copolymer (ABS) can take between 100 and ... Since 1963, Lego bricks have been made of the plastic acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). Transparent building ... Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)]. Vortrag im Rahmen der „Übungen im Vortragen mit Demonstrationen - Organische Chemie", ...
It has been used for hydroamination of acrylonitrile. It is also an oxidising agent in Barfoed's test. It reacts with arsenic ...
Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) is often used to toughen epoxies, but using CTBN alone increases the ... Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer is an application of rubber toughening. The properties of this polymer come ... Polystyrene and styrene-acrylonitrile are brittle materials that are prone to craze failure while polycarbonate, polyamides, ... Amine-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (ATBN) is also used. Using ultra-fine full-vulcanized powdered rubber (UFPR) ...
"Polyacrylonitrile nanocomposite fibers from acrylonitrile-grafted carbon nanofibers". Composites Part B: Engineering. 130: 64- ...
ChemicaInvest consists of three business units; Aliancys (composite resins), AnQore (acrylonitrile) and Fibrant (caprolactam). ...
... and acrylonitrile. ATRP is successful at leading to polymers of high number average molecular weight and low dispersity when ... "Photoinduced Metal-Free Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Acrylonitrile". ACS Macro Letters. 4 (2): 192-196. doi:10.1021/ ...
The proposed chemical base for these membranes is acrylonitrile, which has been detected on Titan. Called an "azotosome" (' ... An analysis of Cassini data, completed in 2017, confirmed substantial amounts of acrylonitrile in Titan's atmosphere. In order ... "Absolute Intensities of the Infrared Bands of Gaseous Acrylonitrile". J Mol Spectrosc. 194 (2): 206-210. Bibcode:1999JMoSp.194 ...
... such as styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), and other ... Acrylonitrile is harmful to aquatic life. Acrylonitrile has been detected in the atmosphere of Titan, a moon of Saturn. ... Acrylonitrile was first synthesized by the French chemist Charles Moureu (1863-1929) in 1893. Acrylonitrile is not naturally ... Acrylonitrile Fact Sheet: Support Document (CAS No. 107-13-1). epa.gov National Pollutant Inventory - Acrylonitrile Comparing ...
Workers may be harmed from exposure to acrylonitrile. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being ... Acrylonitrile (CH₂=CHCN) is a toxic, colorless to pale-yellow liquid, harmful to the eyes, skin, lungs, and nervous system. It ... EPA Chemistry Dashboard: Acrylonitrileexternal icon. *EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS): Acrylonitrileexternal icon ... IPCS INCHEM Environmental Health Criteria 28: Acrylonitrileexternal icon. *IPCS INCHEM Health and Safety Guide 1: Acrylonitrile ...
Acrylonitrile primarily affects the nervous system and lungs. If it is spilled on the skin, the skin will turn red and blisters ... Exposure to acrylonitrile occurs mostly from breathing it in the air. ... How can I be exposed to acrylonitrile?. You may be exposed to acrylonitrile from using products that contain acrylonitrile, ... Can acrylonitrile cause cancer?. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that acrylonitrile is ...
Acrylonitrile (ICSC) Acrylonitrile (WHO Food Additives Series 19) ACRYLONITRILE (JECFA Evaluation) Acrylonitrile (FAO Meeting ... IARC (1979) Acrylonitrile, acrylic and modacrylic fibres, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene and styrene-acrylonitrile ... Possible indicators of acrylonitrile uptake at present include: acrylonitrile in urine, acrylonitrile-derived mercapturic acids ... acrylonitrile. 1.1.4. Monitoring of acrylonitrile uptake The most significant uptake of acrylonitrile vapour is through the ...
Our Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene analytics can provide clear data and analysis helping you to meet business demand quickly. ... Home Commodities Chemicals Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). Supporting automotive ... Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene markets are hyper-sensitive to trends in demand in automotive as well as multiple consumer ... Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene markets show significant fluctuation in response to multiple factors. These include styrene ...
Hose, Aircraft Fueling, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber Textile Reinforced, Chloroprene Covered Noncollapsing AMS3387E ... Hose, Aircraft Fueling, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber Single Wire Braid Reinforced, Chloroprene Covered, Noncollapsing ... Hose, Aircraft Fueling, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber, Textile Reinforced, Chloroprene Covered, Collapsing ... Hose, Aircraft Fueling, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber, Textile Reinforced, Chloroprene Covered, Collapsing ...
US-2671072-A chemical patent summary.
The global acrylonitrile butadiene styrene market size was valued at USD 20.54 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a ... Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market Share Report, 2030. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis ...
AnyPromo has the best deals on promotional products and guarantees the print quality, the lowest online price, and on-time shipping for your next promo. AnyPromo.com has the largest selections of marketing giveaways and corporate gifts, including company pens, custom t-shirts, printed mugs, and other promotional swag essentials.
The global acrylonitrile butadiene styrene market size was valued at USD 20.54 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a ... Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market Share Report, 2030. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis ...
... acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (MABS) moulding and extrusion materials - Part 2: Preparation of test specimens and ... Methyl methacrylate/ acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (MABS) moulding and extrusion materials. Part 2: Preparation of test ...
Styrene-acrylonitrile trimer (SAN Trimer), a mixture of six isomers (four isomers of 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-alpha-methyl-1- ... Gargas, M. L., Collins, B., Fennell, T. R., Gaudette, Jr., N. F., & Sweeney, L. M. (2008). Disposition of styrene-acrylonitrile ... Disposition of styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer in female rats: Single dose intravenous and gavage studies ... Disposition of styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer in female rats. Single dose intravenous and gavage studies ...
In part I of this thesis, the kinetics of the photoinitiated polymerisation of acrylonitrile, in bulk, in a precipitating ... Polyacrylonitrile is insoluble in the monomer and the precipitating medium consisted of appropriate mixtures of acrylonitrile ( ... McIntosh, Samuel A (1961) The polymerisation of acrylonitrile. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. ...
Miscibility windows in blends incorporating butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers as the common component ...
Asian acrylonitrile markers CFR Far East Asia jumped US$70 a ton in the last week of September while Southeast Asia rose by a ... Acrylonitrile prices in Asian markets shot up on the week as supply tightened dramatically. South Koreas Tongsuh Petrochemical ... Acrylic fiber prices slip amid low acrylonitrile and propylene costs. Feedstock, propylene prices in Asia fell in April amid ... Acrylonitrile price rises amid tight supply. YarnsandFibers News Bureau 2016-08-25 04:06:45 - ...
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) news and Updates from global markets like middle east, Europe, USA and Asia. ... Domestic Prices of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) China as of 28th September 2023. 29 Sep 2023 09:45 IST ... Domestic Prices of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) China as of 27th September 2023. 28 Sep 2023 04:10 IST ... Domestic Prices of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) China as of 26th September 2023. 27 Sep 2023 09:45 IST ...
Biocatalytic produced acrylonitrile is of great industrial interest to the CO2 footprint of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber ... Acrylonitrile from renewable raw materials. EnzymicalS and Dralon to develop biocatalytic synthesis route. 20-Jul-2017 - ... For this purpose, acrylonitrile (ACN) is to be produced from biomass at several stages. The starting material is bioethanol ... Biocatalytic produced acrylonitrile is of great industrial interest to the "CO2 footprint" of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber ...
Ivanov, V.V. 1981: Evaluation of the role of acrylonitrile metabolism in the mechanism of its toxic action Gigiena Truda i ... Sato, M. 1978: Studies on the Toxic Effect of Acrylonitrile Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene) 33(3): 497- ... Sato, M. 1978: Studies on the toxic effect of acrylonitrile---its metabolism, absorption and excretion Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. ... Luttrell, W E.; LaGrow, A L. 2014: Toxic tips: Acrylonitrile Journal of Chemical Health and Safety 21(1): 34-36. Suleymanlar, G ...
The study methodologies used to examine the Acrylonitrile (ACN) market for the forecast period, 2019 - 2026 further classifies ... 5 Global Acrylonitrile (ACN) Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type. - 6 Global Acrylonitrile (ACN) Market Analysis ... 3 Global Acrylonitrile (ACN) Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2013-2019). - 4 Global Acrylonitrile (ACN) Supply ... There are 13 Chapters to deeply display the global Acrylonitrile (ACN) market.. - 1 Acrylonitrile (ACN) Market Overview. - 2 ...
Acrylic acid-acrylonitrile (AA-AN) comonomer mixture was prepared at the optimum copolymerization process and potassium ... polyacrylic acid-acrylonitrile, heavy metals, potassium titanate, equilibrium. ... polyacrylic acid-acrylonitrile, heavy metals, potassium titanate, equilibrium. ... Acrylic acid-acrylonitrile (AA-AN) comonomer mixture was prepared at the optimum copolymerization process and potassium ...
The Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Market report also provides an in-depth survey of key players... ... EMAILWIRE.COM, September 24, 2018 ) This report provides in depth study of Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) market using SWOT ... Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Breakdown Data by Type: Injection Grade SAN. General Grade SAN. Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) ... The Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Market report also provides an in-depth survey of key players in the market which is based on ...
The Demand for Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (Abs) in Europe Region is Rising with a Commendable CAGR of 7.13% Due to Rise in ... 2. Europe Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Demand Outlook, 2015-2030, By Volume. 2.1. By End use. 2.2. By Sales Channel (Direct/ ... 1. Europe Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market Outlook, 2015-2030. 1.1. Capacity, By Volume. 1.1.1. By Country. 1.2. ... The Demand for Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (Abs) in Europe Region is Rising with a Commendable CAGR of 7.13% Due to Rise in ...
Hammond Electronics 1591DSGY Universal enclosure 150 x 80 x 50 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Grey-white (RAL 7035). ...
TRU COMPONENTS TC-7910932 Universal enclosure 118 x 78 x 55 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Grey 1 pc(s) , Fast delivery , ... TRU COMPONENTS TC-7910932 Universal enclosure 118 x 78 x 55 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Grey 1 pc(s) ...
SAN Styrene Acrylonitrile materials with good UV stability. ... The properties are dependent on the acrylonitrile content and ... SAN (Styrene Acrylonitrile). Typical Applications Electrical (receptacles, mixer bowls, housings, etc. for kitchen appliances, ... SAN copolymers are produced by the polymerization reaction of styrene and acrylonitrile. They are strong, transparent materials ... The styrene component imparts clarity, stiffness, and processibility and the acrylonitrile component imparts chemical and ...
... and this study investigates the potential to use this approach to form stamp sand and acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA) ... reduction plateaus and the tensile strength of the ASA and stamp sand composites can be compared favorably with acrylonitrile ... 10% stamp sand added to acrylonitrile styrene acrylate reduced tensile strength.. *After 10%, the addition of more stamp sand ... Evaluation of lab performance of stamp sand and acrylonitrile styrene acrylate waste composites without asphalt as road surface ...
A metabolite of acrylonitrile was identified as acrylic acid and ammonia. The strain grow best at 30°C, pH 7.0 and substrate ... A bacterium utilizing acrylonitrile as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as the genus ... METABOLISM OF ACRYLONITRILE BY ARTHROBACTER SP. H-1 VENKAT S. HAMDE and M.S. ANDHALE. Abstract ...
  • Acrylonitrile is used principally as a monomer to prepare polyacrylonitrile, a homopolymer, or several important copolymers, such as styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), and other synthetic rubbers such as acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene markets are hyper-sensitive to trends in demand in automotive as well as multiple consumer goods sectors. (icis.com)
  • Constantly tracking market activity through our established international network of ABS market experts based in key trading hubs around the globe means our data and insight is relied on by buyers, sellers and traders of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene the world over. (icis.com)
  • Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene markets show significant fluctuation in response to multiple factors. (icis.com)
  • The Demand for Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (Abs) in Europe Region is Rising with a Commendable CAGR of 7.13% Due to Rise in Demand of Automobiles, Electrical & Electronic Equipment, and in Construction Sector. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Europe Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) demand stood at 2.12 Million Tonnes in 2020 and is forecast to reach 3.093 Million Tonnes by 2030, growing at a healthy CAGR of 3.91% until 2030. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • However, the rising adoption of electronic devices and growing urban population with increased consumer spending are likely to impact the growth of the Europe Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene market in the coming years. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Under this subscription, you would be able to access Europe Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene market demand and supply analysis on a cloud-based platform for one year. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The data is updated on a near real-time basis to add any new movement in the industry including, but not limited to new plant announcements, plant shutdowns, temporary disruptions in demand or supply, news, and deals specific to Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • To extract data for the Europe Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene market, the analyst conducts primary research surveys with Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, wholesalers, and customers, followed by exhaustive secondary research to cross-validate the information being collected through primary research surveys. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • However, this strength reduction plateaus and the tensile strength of the ASA and stamp sand composites can be compared favorably with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) at any level. (appropedia.org)
  • Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber has good oil and acid resistance as compared to Natural Isoprene Rubber. (chemstationasia.com)
  • Nonetheless, EPA has categorized the risk of AN as being comparable to acrylonitrile and higher than benzene, butadiene and styrene, and other animal and potential human carcinogens. (angroup.org)
  • ABS-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styreneis an opaque thermoplastic that possesses a diverse combination of properties. (millennium-metals.com)
  • The Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber market revenue was xx.xx Million USD in 2013, grew to xx.xx Million USD in 2017, and will reach xx.xx Million USD in 2023, with a CAGR of x.x% during 2018-2023. (maiaresearch.com)
  • Based on the Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber industrial chain, this report mainly elaborate the definition, types, applications and major players of Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber market in details. (maiaresearch.com)
  • In a word, this report will help you to establish a panorama of industrial development and market characteristics of the Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber market. (maiaresearch.com)
  • The Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber market can be split based on product types, major applications, and important regions. (maiaresearch.com)
  • There are 13 Chapters to thoroughly display the Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber market. (maiaresearch.com)
  • Chapter 2: Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber Industry Chain Analysis, Upstream Raw Material Suppliers, Major Players, Production Process Analysis, Cost Analysis, Market Channels and Major Downstream Buyers. (maiaresearch.com)
  • Chapter 3: Value Analysis, Production, Growth Rate and Price Analysis by Type of Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber. (maiaresearch.com)
  • Chapter 4: Downstream Characteristics, Consumption and Market Share by Application of Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber. (maiaresearch.com)
  • Chapter 5: Production Volume, Price, Gross Margin, and Revenue ($) of Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber by Regions (2013-2018). (maiaresearch.com)
  • Chapter 6: Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber Production, Consumption, Export and Import by Regions (2013-2018). (maiaresearch.com)
  • Chapter 7: Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber Market Status and SWOT Analysis by Regions. (maiaresearch.com)
  • Chapter 8: Competitive Landscape, Product Introduction, Company Profiles, Market Distribution Status by Players of Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber. (maiaresearch.com)
  • Chapter 9: Hydrogenated Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber Market Analysis and Forecast by Type and Application (2018-2023). (maiaresearch.com)
  • Transform your creative ideas into tangible objects with SKILCRAFT ® 3D Printer Filament made of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). (ncsight.com)
  • The levels of acrylonitrile found in the environment are lower than levels known to cause adverse health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • Tests are available to measure levels of acrylonitrile or one of its breakdown products (metabolites) in blood and urine. (cdc.gov)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of acrylonitrile vapor as adults may receive larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of acrylonitrile vapor found nearer to the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • any low levels of acrylonitrile present in aquatic emissions will not be expected to accumulate in sediment based on the physicochemical properties of the substance (Koc and water solubility). (europa.eu)
  • Recent work on developing a circular economy using recycled plastic for distributed manufacturing technologies has proven promising, and this study investigates the potential to use this approach to form stamp sand and acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA) composites. (appropedia.org)
  • 10% stamp sand added to acrylonitrile styrene acrylate reduced tensile strength. (appropedia.org)
  • Recent research on the Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA) Polymer Market is focused on offering lucrative insights and viewpoints studied on the basis of qualitative and quantitative data evaluation for the forecast period 2020-2025. (reportsinsights.com)
  • Moreover, in-depth research on the Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA) Polymer Market highlights important statistics for major investments, product cost, and associated growth opportunities for the report buyers to gain maximum profit and become a leader in the competition. (reportsinsights.com)
  • The research also categorizes the Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA) Polymer Market into product, application, end user, and region for the forecast period 2020-2025. (reportsinsights.com)
  • For better insights, the Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA) Polymer Market report is segmented on the basis of product, application, end user, and geography. (reportsinsights.com)
  • Within the body acrylonitrile releases cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile (ACN), one of the top 50 chemicals produced in the world, is a very powerful pro-oxidant compound whose metabolism leads to a profound glutathione (GSH) depletion and to a production of cyanide (CN) which, in turn, can inhibit superoxide dismutase (SOD). (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of acrylonitrile on the growth of the freshwater unicellular green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were reliably determined following exposure for 72 hours under static conditions in sealed vessels (Japan MoE, 2011). (europa.eu)
  • A study is also available which investigates the sub-lethal effects of acrylonitrile on Dicentrarchus labrax (seabass). (europa.eu)
  • If you work in an industry that uses acrylonitrile, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, the 2008-2009 acetonitrile shortage was caused by a decrease in demand for acrylonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aqueous solution consists of acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, hydrocyanic acid, and ammonium sulfate (from excess ammonia). (wikipedia.org)
  • A recovery column removes bulk water, and acrylonitrile and acetonitrile are separated by distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitriles includes acrylonitrile, which is used to make carbon fibre, acrylic clothing, soft toys and upholstery, together with acetonitrile and. (ineos.com)
  • INEOS Nitriles is the world's largest producer of acrylonitrile & acetonitrile. (ineos.com)
  • Hydrodimerization of acrylonitrile affords adiponitrile, used in the synthesis of certain nylons: 2 CH2=CHCN + 2 e− + 2 H+ → NCCH2−CH2−CH2−CH2CN Acrylonitrile is also a precursor in the manufacture of acrylamide and acrylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glutamic acid route employs oxidative decarboxylation to 3-cyanopropanoic acid, followed by a decarbonylation-elimination to acrylonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of action of acrylonitrile appears to involve oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms of oxidative stress in the potentiation of noise -induced hearing loss by acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile is absorbed through intact skin, and this can lead to systemic toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • The high toxicity of acrylonitrile [AN], its mutagenic effect and the possibility of carcinogenic effects were discussed. (eurekamag.com)
  • The long-term toxicity of acrylonitrile to fish was determined in a fish early life stage test with P. promelas (fathead minnow), using flow-through conditions. (europa.eu)
  • 1996) carried out a 14-day and a 21-day chronic toxicity study in D. magna using the OECD 1987 Testing Guidelines with daily renewal of test solutions, but without measurement of acrylonitrile. (europa.eu)
  • The acute toxicity of acrylonitrile to 2 -3 day old Bufo bufo gargarizans toad tadpoles was evaluated in a flow through test, with exposure periods of 48 and 96 hours. (europa.eu)
  • Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN and the structure H2C=CH−C≡N. It is a colorless, volatile liquid although commercial samples can be yellow due to impurities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylonitrile is a colorless, liquid, man-made chemical with a sharp, onion- or garlic-like odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile is a clear, colorless or slightly yellow liquid that is highly volatile and toxic. (cdc.gov)
  • It is classified as a Class 2B carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and workers exposed to high levels of airborne acrylonitrile are diagnosed more frequently with lung cancer than the rest of the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that acrylonitrile is possibly carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The EPA draft, which concludes that acrylonitrile is "likely to be carcinogenic to humans," strengthens EPA's previously adopted position that AN is "probably carcinogenic to humans. (angroup.org)
  • Polyacrylonitrile is insoluble in the monomer and the precipitating medium consisted of appropriate mixtures of acrylonitrile (AN) and dimethylformamide (DMF). (gla.ac.uk)
  • Acrylonitrile is used to make other chemicals such as plastics, synthetic rubber, and acrylic fibers. (cdc.gov)
  • The reaction of acrylonitrile with protic nucleophiles is a common route to a variety of specialty chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In air, acrylonitrile breaks down quickly (about half will disappear within 1-12 hours) by reacting with other chemicals and sunlight. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile, one of the world's most important industrial chemicals, is produced by catalytic reaction of propylene with ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Criteria for a Recommended Occupational Exposure Standard for Acrylonitrile - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 78-116. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that acrylonitrile is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcingen. (cdc.gov)
  • SAN copolymers are produced by the polymerization reaction of styrene and acrylonitrile. (imtechdesign.com)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • Tobacco and marijuana smoke may also be a source of exposure to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • In people with hearing damage caused by noise, exposure to high doses of acrylonitrile can make hearing loss worse. (cdc.gov)
  • These tests cannot predict whether you will have health problems from exposure to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • The odor threshold is about 10-fold greater than the OSHA permissible exposure limit, so workers can be overexposed to acrylonitrile without being aware of its presence. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile is heavier than air and exposure can result in asphyxiation in poorly ventilated, enclosed, or low-lying areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to acrylonitrile vapor can cause skin and eye irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • sediment dwelling organisms will therefore be exposed to acrylonitrile in the aqueous phase. (europa.eu)
  • Acrylonitrile can potentially be redistributed to soil from the atmospheric or aqueous compartments, by the spreading of acrylonitrile-contaminated sewage sludge or as a result of accidental spills. (europa.eu)
  • Various green chemistry routes to acrylonitrile are being explored from renewable feedstocks, such as lignocellulosic biomass, glycerol (from biodiesel production), or glutamic acid (which can itself be produced from renewable feedstocks). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biocatalytic produced acrylonitrile is of great industrial interest to the "CO2 footprint" of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber production. (bionity.com)
  • To address this, the main component for the production of PAN fibers , acrylonitrile, will be completely synthesized from renewable resources. (bionity.com)
  • The glycerol route begins with its dehydration to acrolein, which undergoes ammoxidation to give acrylonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luran ECO is a styrene acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) resulting from a cooperation between INEOS Styrolution and BASF . (industryintel.com)
  • Styrene-acrylonitrile trimer (SAN Trimer), a mixture of six isomers (four isomers of 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-alpha-methyl-1-naphthaleneacetonitrile [THAN] and two isomers of 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthaleneproprionitrile [THNP]), is a by-product of a specific production process of styrene-acrylonitrile polymer. (rti.org)
  • Decreased birth weight and birth defects have been observed in some laboratory animals exposed to high concentrations of acrylonitrile in air or drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile is moderately toxic with LD50 = 81 mg/kg (rats). (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxic effects are due primarily to the bioreactivity of acrylonitrile with cellular proteins and to its epoxide intermediate that is mutagenic and genotoxic. (cdc.gov)
  • The study methodologies used to examine the Acrylonitrile (ACN) market for the forecast period, 2019 - 2026 further classifies the industry by type, geography, end-use and end-user to add more precision and bring to light factors responsible for augmenting business development. (sbwire.com)
  • New York, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 02/15/2019 -- The latest report Acrylonitrile (ACN) Market discusses everything a business owner needs to know about the Acrylonitrile (ACN) market for the forecast period, 2019 to 2026. (sbwire.com)
  • Data on the entire size of the Acrylonitrile (ACN) market for a particular product or a service for the forecast period, 2019 to 2026 covered in the report makes it valuable. (sbwire.com)
  • What is the estimated growth rate of the Acrylonitrile (ACN) market for the forecast period 2019 - 2026? (sbwire.com)
  • Hydrogenation of acrylonitrile is one route to propionitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • You may be exposed to acrylonitrile from using products that contain acrylonitrile, such as acrylic fiber clothing or carpeting or from food stored in containers made from acrylonitrile-based plastics. (cdc.gov)
  • Children should avoid playing in the dirt near hazardous waste sites to avoid coming in contact with acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • This is converted into acrylonitrile in several synthesis steps. (bionity.com)
  • Besides, this exclusive report cloaks the global Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Market based on applications, regions, competitive landscape and products. (emailwire.com)
  • This report on Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Market assists in analyzing the condition and situation of the market in primary regions of the world. (emailwire.com)
  • A bacterium utilizing acrylonitrile as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as the genus Arthrobactcr. (envirobiotechjournals.com)
  • The research methodologies used for evaluating the Acrylonitrile (ACN) market are inventive and also provides enough evidence on the demand and supply status, production capability, import and export, supply chain management and investment feasibility. (sbwire.com)
  • The market intelligence study for the Acrylonitrile (ACN) market further provides an inside-out overview of necessary aspects associated with the product classification, important definitions, major orders and other industry-centric parameters. (sbwire.com)
  • What are the significant trends shaping the growth prospects of the Acrylonitrile (ACN) market? (sbwire.com)
  • Qy research groups added Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) market to 2025 to its research database with Information such as company profiles, product picture and specification. (emailwire.com)
  • EMAILWIRE.COM , September 24, 2018 ) This report provides in depth study of Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) market using SWOT analysis i.e. (emailwire.com)
  • The Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Market report also provides an in-depth survey of key players in the market which is based on the various objectives of an organization such as profiling, the product outline, the quantity of production, required raw material, and the financial health of the organization. (emailwire.com)
  • Additionally, it talks about the vital prospects such as market Restrains, growth drivers, challenges and potential opportunities that may affect the overall Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) market. (emailwire.com)
  • This report focuses on the top manufacturers' Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) capacity, production, value, price and market share of Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) in global market. (emailwire.com)
  • To focus on the key Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) manufacturers and study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in next few years. (emailwire.com)
  • The global Acrylonitrile Polymer market is expected to reach US$ XX Million by 2028, with a CAGR of XX% from 2023 to 2028, based on HNY Research newly published report. (worldwidemarketreports.com)
  • In part I of this thesis, the kinetics of the photoinitiated polymerisation of acrylonitrile, in bulk, in a precipitating medium, and in solution, have been studied and compared. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Acrylonitrile is produced by catalytic ammoxidation of propylene, also known as the SOHIO process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In US, there was no change in ACN price talks, but higher pricing in September propylene contracts could translate to higher acrylonitrile pricing in October amid stable fundamentals. (yarnsandfibers.com)
  • Acrylonitrile is one of seven toxicants in cigarette smoke that are most associated with respiratory tract carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylonitrile is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile and derivatives, such as 2-chloroacrylonitrile, are dienophiles in Diels-Alder reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA 28 ACRYLONITRILE This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization. (inchem.org)
  • The 3 day old tadpoles were exposed to acrylonitrile in a freshwater flow through test system for 28 days, according to US EPA guidelines. (europa.eu)
  • Dralon GmbH will investigate the polymerization of biocatalytically prepared acrylonitrile. (bionity.com)
  • This report increases awareness and recommends work practices to reduce exposures to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • We report the discovery of a series of acrylonitrile-containing molecules and α-amino amides which cause 99-100% lethality in H. contortus. (edu.au)
  • Acrylonitrile in the environment can be found in air, soil, and water near industrial sites where it is made. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile dissolves in water where it is broken down by bacteria or will evaporate to the air. (cdc.gov)
  • This is supported by calculation of the Koc (soil adsorption coefficient) using QSAR and from the water solubility of acrylonitrile when values of 11.5 and 9.0 L, respectively were derived, showing little potential for adsorption to soil. (europa.eu)
  • Thus, this route would enable the production of biobased acrylonitrile. (bionity.com)
  • Stomach irritation has been observed in animals orally exposed to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile is anticipated to be relatively mobile in soil, and this was supported by the results of an adsorption:desorption study of acrylonitrile, which provides no evidence of adsorption, the adsorption:desorption processes being in equilibrium. (europa.eu)