Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Immediate Dental Implant Loading: Endosseous dental implantation where implants are fitted with an abutment or where an implant with a transmucosal coronal portion is used immediately (within 1 week) after the initial extraction. Conventionally, the implantation is performed in two stages with more than two months in between the stages.Denture, Overlay: Removable prosthesis constructed over natural teeth or implanted studs.Dental Implant-Abutment Design: The plan and delineation of DENTAL IMPLANT fitting with DENTAL ABUTMENT.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Skin Irritancy Tests: Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH2 Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Veterans Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of VETERANS.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.Nanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Scandium: Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.DimethylformamideCerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Lanthanoid Series Elements: Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Rubber Dams: Sheets of latex rubber punched and placed over the teeth during dental procedures to isolate the field of operation from the rest of the oral cavity (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982). Rubber dams are useful in preventing the swallowing of instruments or restorations during dental work.Sociometric Techniques: Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.New JerseyFriends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Capitalism: A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.

Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system in hemodialysis: role of membrane electronegativity, blood dilution, and pH. (1/105)

BACKGROUND: The kallikrein-kinin system activation by contact with a negatively charged surface has been promulgated to be responsible for hypersensitivity reactions. However, to explain the low frequency and heterogeneity of hypersensitivity reactions, we hypothesized that not only the electronegativity of the membrane, but also other physicochemical parameters could influence the activation of the contact phase system of plasma assessed by the measurement of kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. METHODS: Plasma kallikrein activity using chromogenic substrate (S2302) and plasma bradykinin concentration (enzyme immuno assay) were measured during the perfusion of human plasma (2.5 ml/min) through minidialyzers mounted with six different membranes [polyacrylonitrile (PAN) from Asahi (PANDX) and from Hospal (AN69), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) from Toray, cellulose triacetate (CT) from Baxter, cuprophane (CUP) from Akzo and polysulfone (PS) from Fresenius]. RESULTS: A direct relationship was shown between the electronegativity of the membrane assessed by its zeta potential and the activation of plasma during the first five minutes of plasma circulation. With the AN69 membrane, the detection of a kallikrein activity in diluted plasma but not in undiluted samples confirmed the importance of a protease-antiprotease imbalance leading to bradykinin release during the first five minutes of dialysis. With PAN membranes, the use of citrated versus heparinized plasma and the use of various rinsing solutions clearly show a dramatic effect of pH on the kallikrein activity and the bradykinin concentration measured in plasma. Finally, increasing the zeta potential of the membrane leads to a significant increase of plasma kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro experimental approach evidences the importance of the control of these physicochemical factors to decrease the activation of the contact system.  (+info)

Intravitreous transplantation of encapsulated fibroblasts secreting the human fibroblast growth factor 2 delays photoreceptor cell degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats. (2/105)

We developed an experimental approach with genetically engineered and encapsulated mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to delay the progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells in dark-eyed Royal College of Surgeons rats. These xenogeneic fibroblasts can survive in 1. 5-mm-long microcapsules made of the biocompatible polymer AN69 for at least 90 days under in vitro and in vivo conditions because of their stable transfection with the gene for the 18-kDa form of the human basic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF-2). Furthermore, when transferred surgically into the vitreous cavity of 21-day-old Royal College of Surgeons rats, the microencapsulated hFGF-2-secreting fibroblasts provoked a local delay of photoreceptor cell degeneration, as seen at 45 days and 90 days after transplantation. This effect was limited to 2.08 mm2 (45 days) and 0.95 mm2 (90 days) of the retinal surface. In both untreated eyes and control globes with encapsulated hFGF-2-deficient fibroblasts, the rescued area (of at most 0.08 mm2) was significantly smaller at both time points. Although, in a few ocular globes, surgical trauma induced a reorganization of the retinal cytoarchitecture, neither microcapsule rejection nor hFGF-2-mediated tumor formation were detected in any treated eyes. These findings indicate that encapsulated fibroblasts secreting hFGF-2 or perhaps other agents can be applied as potential therapeutic tools to treat retinal dystrophies.  (+info)

Health hazards in the production and processing of some fibers, resins, and plastics in Bulgaria. (3/105)

Results of the toxicological studies of working conditions, general and professional morbidity, and complex examinations carried out on workers engaged in the production of polyamides, polyacrylonitrile fibers, polyester fibers and poly (vinyl chloride) resin, urea-formaldehyde glue, glass fibre materials and polyurethane resins are given. An extremely high occupational hazard for workers in the production of poly (vinyl chloride) resin and porous materials from polyurethane resins and urea-formaldehyde glue has been established. Cases of vinyl chloride disease, poisoning from formaldehyde, isocyanates, and styrene were noted. Prophylactic measures were taken in Bulgaria to lessen the occupational hazard in the productions as set forth included limitation of the work day to 6 hr, free food, additional bonus and leave, and annual physical examinations of workers.  (+info)

Induction of oxidative stress and oxidative damage in rat glial cells by acrylonitrile. (4/105)

Chronic treatment of rats with acrylonitrile (ACN) resulted in a dose-related increase in glial cell tumors (astrocytomas). While the exact mechanism(s) for ACN-induced carcinogenicity remains unresolved, non-genotoxic and possibly tumor promotion modes of action appear to be involved in the induction of glial tumors. Recent studies have shown that ACN induced oxidative stress selectively in rat brain in a dose-responsive manner. The present study examined the ability of ACN to induce oxidative stress in a rat glial cell line, a target tissue, and in cultured rat hepatocytes, a non-target tissue of ACN carcinogenicity. Glial cells and hepatocytes were treated for 1, 4 and 24 h with sublethal concentrations of ACN. ACN induced an increase in oxidative DNA damage, as evidenced by increased production of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in glial cells but not in rat hepatocytes. Hydroxyl radical formation following ACN treatment was also selectively increased in glial cells. Following 1 and 4 h of ACN exposure, the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione, as well as the activities of the enzymatic antioxidants catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased in the rat glial cells. Lipid peroxidation and the activity of glutathione peroxidase were not affected by ACN treatment in rat glial cells. No changes in any of these biomarkers of oxidative stress were observed in hepatocytes treated with ACN. These data indicate that ACN selectively induced oxidative stress in rat glial cells.  (+info)

Encapsulation in hollow fibres of xenogeneic cells engineered to secrete IL-4 or IL-13 ameliorates murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). (5/105)

A strategy of gene therapy using IL-4 or IL-13 xenogeneic transfected cells encapsulated into permeable hollow fibres (HF) was used to treat CIA. Hydrogel-based hollow fibres were obtained from AN-69 copolymer, already known for its biocompatibility and tolerance in rodents. Permeability to IL-4 and lack of cell leakage from the fibres were ascertained in vitro and in vivo. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts transfected with mouse IL-4 gene were encapsulated in HF (6.25 x 105 cells/HF). IL-4 was detected in vitro in the culture supernatant of filled fibres for at least 19 days. IL-4 or IL-13 transfected CHO cells encapsulated in HF were implanted in the peritoneum of mice on days 11-13 after immunization with type II collagen. Control mice were treated with fibre containing CHO cells transfected with beta-galactosidase (betagal) gene; a positive control group consisted of mice treated by subcutaneous injection of 106 cells on days 10 and 25. Mice were monitored for signs of arthritis by observers unaware of the status of animals. Results of these experiments indicate that severity of the articular disease was significantly reduced in the groups of mice treated with CHO/IL-4 or CHO/IL-13 cells encapsulated in HF, compared with control groups receiving CHO/betagal cells encapsulated in HF. Histological analysis confirmed these data and extended them to a better inhibitory effect of encapsulated cells compared with free cells on inflammatory and destructive joint disease. Moreover, such long-term treatment with HF was well tolerated; macroscopic and histological aspects of peritoneal cavity were moderately inflammatory. Thus, our results may have important implications for clinical use of gene transfected cells as therapeutic agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Nitrilase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1. Conversion into the active form by subunit association. (6/105)

Nitrilase-containing resting cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1 converted acrylonitrile and benzonitrile to the corresponding acids, but the purified nitrilase hydrolyzed only benzonitrile, and not acrylonitrile. The activity of the purified enzyme towards acrylonitrile was recovered by preincubation with 10 mM benzonitrile, but not by preincubation with aliphatic nitriles such as acrylonitrile. It was shown by light-scattering experiments, that preincubation with benzonitrile led to the assembly of the inactive, purified and homodimeric 80-kDa enzyme to its active 410-kDa aggregate, which was proposed to be a decamer. Furthermore, the association concomitant with the activation was reached after dialysis of the enzyme against various salts and organic solvents, with the highest recovery reached at 10% saturated ammonium sulfate and 50% (v/v) glycerol, and by preincubation at increased temperatures or enzyme concentrations.  (+info)

Nitrile hydratase and amidase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous hydrolyze acrylic fibers and granular polyacrylonitriles. (7/105)

Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 11216 produced nitrile hydratase (320 nkat mg of protein(-1)) and amidase activity (38.4 nkat mg of protein(-1)) when grown on a medium containing propionitrile. These enzymes were able to hydrolyze nitrile groups of both granular polyacrylonitriles (PAN) and acrylic fibers. Nitrile groups of PAN40 (molecular mass, 40 kDa) and PAN190 (molecular mass, 190 kDa) were converted into the corresponding carbonic acids to 1.8 and 1.0%, respectively. In contrast, surfacial nitrile groups of acrylic fibers were only converted to the corresponding amides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 16% of the surfacial nitrile groups were hydrolyzed by the R. rhodochrous enzymes. Due to the enzymatic modification, the acrylic fibers became more hydrophilic and thus, adsorption of dyes was enhanced. This was indicated by a 15% increase in the staining level (K/S value) for C. I. Basic Blue 9.  (+info)

Acrylonitrile-induced morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells. (8/105)

Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a monomer used in the synthesis of rubber, fibers and plastics. Previous studies demonstrated that ACN induces brain neoplasms (predominately astrocytomas) in rats following chronic treatment. While the mechanisms of ACN-induced glial cell carcinogenicity have not been completely elucidated, investigations by our group and others have suggested a role for the induction of oxidative stress and the resultant oxidative damage in this process. In vitro cell transformation models are useful for detecting and studying the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. Cell transformation by chemical carcinogens in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells exhibits a multistage process similar to that observed in vivo, for both non-genotoxic and genotoxic carcinogens. In the present study, the ability of ACN to induce morphological transformation and oxidative damage was examined in SHE cells. ACN induced an increase in morphological transformation at doses of 50, 62.5 and 75 microg/ml (maximum sub-toxic dose tested) following 7 days of continuous treatment. SHE cells exposed to ACN for 24 h failed to increase morphological transformation. Morphological transformation by ACN was inhibited by co-treatment with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and (-)-epigallocathechin-3 gallate (EGCG) for 7 days. Treatment of SHE cells with 75 microg/ml ACN produced a significant increase in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine that was also inhibited by co-treatment with alpha-tocopherol or EGCG. These results support the proposal that oxidative stress and the resulting oxidative damage is involved in ACN-induced carcinogenicity.  (+info)

Acrylonitrile is a monomer used extensively as a raw material in the manufacturing of acrylic fibers, plastics, synthetic rubbers, and acrylamide. It has been classified as a probable human carcinogen according to the results of numerous chronic rat bioassays. The present report summarizes the toxicity data on acrylonitrile and reviews available data concerning the mechanism (genetic versus epigenetic) by which acrylonitrile is carcinogenic in rats. From the evaluation of the relevant toxicity data, it can be concluded that acrylonitrile is indeed carcinogenic to rats after either oral or inhalational exposure. However, information on other mammalian species is lacking, and, moreover, the exact mechanism of the carcinogenic process is unclear. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct an additional long-term inhalation carcinogenicity study with acrylonitrile in mice, as well as studies into the mechanism by which acrylonitrile induces (brain) tumors in rats (genetic versus epigenetic).. ...
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For those looking to keep abreast of the global Acrylonitrile market, our independent, unbiased pricing information, news and market analysis is an invaluable resource.. Whether you buy or sell Acrylonitrile or related products, you need to know about the prices and the factors driving the prices in the global Acrylonitrile market as they happen. Our network of price reporters throughout Asia, Europe and the US provide key local insights. We collate this intelligence into daily and weekly price reports, ensuring you have the up-to-date information you need at all times.. Find out more about our Acrylonitrile coverage. ...
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Acrylonitrile is highly flammable and toxic at low doses. It undergoes explosive polymerization. The burning material releases fumes of hydrogen cyanide and oxides of nitrogen. It is classified as a Class 2B carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC),[16] and workers exposed to high levels of airborne acrylonitrile are diagnosed more frequently with lung cancer than the rest of the population.[17] It evaporates quickly at room temperature (20 °C) to reach dangerous concentrations; skin irritation, respiratory irritation, and eye irritation are the immediate effects of this exposure.[7] Acrylonitrile increases cancer in high dose tests in male and female rats and mice.[18] Pathways of exposure for humans include emissions, auto exhaust, and cigarette smoke that can expose the human subject directly if they inhale or smoke. Routes of exposure include inhalation, oral, and to a certain extent dermal uptake (tested with volunteer humans and in rat ...
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The market research report by QY Research provides detailed study on the overall Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) market size, its financial positions, its unique selling points, key products, and key developments. This research report has segmented the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) market based on the segments covering all the domains in terms of type, country,…
The market research report by QY Research provides detailed study on the overall Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) market size, its financial positions, its unique selling points, key products, and key developments. This research report has segmented the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) market based on the segments covering all the domains in terms of type, country,…
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Compositions which have substantial weatherability and impact resistance include a substantially uniform blend of (1) a physical mixture of an uncross-linked acrylonitrile/styrene copolymer and a cross-linked alkyl acrylate/graft (meth)acrylate copolymer; and (2) a filler component, preferably wood, in an amount effective as a filler in the composition. Methods for making such compositions include forming a substantially uniform physical blend of such copolymers and filler component. The compositions preferably are substantially free of cross-linked acrylonitrile/styrene copolymer.
A disulphimide group-containing acrylonitrile copolymer semi-permeable membrane which comprises:(A) from 99 to 50% by weight of acrylonitrile units;(B) from 1 to 50% by weight of units of an acrylonitrile-copolymerizable ethylenically unsaturated monomer containing one or two disulphimide groups; and(C) from 0 to 30% by weight of units of one or more other acrylonitrile-copolymerizable olefinically unsaturated monomer, the sum of the percentages amounts to 100.The semi-permeable membranes may be used in reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration.
This edition of the Inside R&D TOE profiles innovations in acrylonitrile production from biomass, genome editing, and wearables. The TOE also focuses on advancements in hydrogen fuel production and building control systems. Inside R&D TechVision Opportunity Engine (TOE) covers global innovations that are in research and development in virtually all technology areas. We provide intelligence and insights on innovations spanning a wide variety of industry areas, including automation, electronics, sensors, information and communication technologies, manufacturing, health, wellness, medical devices, pharma, biotechnology, materials, coatings, renewable fuels, automotive, power systems, sustainable energy solutions and innovations that contribute to a cleaner and greener environment. Keywords: Acrylonitrile, genome editing, Parkinsons disease, hydrogen fuel, building control systems
Human exposure to acrylonitrile (ACN), a carcinogen in rats, may occur in industrial settings, through waste water and tobacco smoke. ACN is an electrophilic compound and binds covalently to nucleophilic sites in macromolecules.Measurements of adducts with hemoglobin could be utilized for improved exposure assessments. In this study, a method for quantification of N-(2-cyanoethyl)valine (CEVal), the product of reaction of ACN with N-terminal valine in hemoglobin has been developed.
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Nominated Substances: Styrene-acrylonitrile trimer. Nomination Date: 06/17/1998 Nominator: US House Representative Jim Saxton of New Jersey Rationale: Suspicion of carcinogenicity which appears to be formed during chemical reaction between styrene and acrylonitrile; identified in water supply. NTP Principles: not specified Status: Selected ...
Industry Insights:. The global acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) market was USD 20.22 billion in 2014. The product is expected to witness significant gains as a result of exhibiting properties including excellent mechanical strength and superior durability at low temperatures. ABS is an amorphous thermoplastic polymer, with an ability to display glass transition temperature of 105 degrees and high impact strength. The product finds use in manufacturing automotive ancillaries, construction materials, electronics consumer goods, and appliances on account of exhibiting lightweight characteristics and easy processing characteristics during extrusion and injection molding.. Growing importance of lightweight plastics as a replacement to conventional metals as a raw material for producing automotive ancillaries is expected to have a high impact. Furthermore, the rising spending toward ensuring Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) by automobile vendors in four wheelers is projected to fuel the ...
Industry Insights:. The global acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) market was USD 20.22 billion in 2014. The product is expected to witness significant gains as a result of exhibiting properties including excellent mechanical strength and superior durability at low temperatures. ABS is an amorphous thermoplastic polymer, with an ability to display glass transition temperature of 105 degrees and high impact strength. The product finds use in manufacturing automotive ancillaries, construction materials, electronics consumer goods, and appliances on account of exhibiting lightweight characteristics and easy processing characteristics during extrusion and injection molding.. Growing importance of lightweight plastics as a replacement to conventional metals as a raw material for producing automotive ancillaries is expected to have a high impact. Furthermore, the rising spending toward ensuring Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) by automobile vendors in four wheelers is projected to fuel the ...
The report focuses on Europe major leading industry players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. The Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene plastic industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new investment projects are assessed and overall research conclusions offered ...
Additive manufacturing also known as 3D printing is being utilised in electrochemistry to reproducibly develop complex geometries with conductive properties. In this study, we explored if the electrochemical behavior of 3D printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)/carbon black electrodes was influenced by printing direction. The electrodes were printed in both horizontal and vertical directions. The horizsontal direction resulted in a smooth surface (HPSS electrode) and a comparatively rougher surface (HPRS electrode) surface. Electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. For various redox couples, the vertical printed (VP) electrode showed enhanced current response when compared the two electrode surfaces generated by horizontal print direction. No differences in the capacitive response was observed, indicating that the conductive surface area of all types of electrodes were identical. The VP electrode had reduced charge
I am looking for advice on how to treat and prevent further damage to a large hollow form made of vacuum formed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic. The form is about 50 inches in diameter at the widest point and is irregular in shape. It appears to having been fabricated by adhering together 8 petal shapes that have vacuumed-form horizontal striations which allow them to bend easily. The tips of petal shapes meet at the top and bottom of the form (like the sections of a beachball--or of an orange) and are adhered together along all the joints, which are then painted over to conceal them. When I first looked at this object 4 years ago there were a few narrow intermittent openings along some joints Now, on one of the joints what used to be an intermittent opening (Like a broken line about 3 inches long) there is continuous 3 inch long opening. The opening is slight--at its widest point you can just barely slip the tip of a sheet of 10mm photocopy paper into it. The release of stress at ...
Biocomposites compounded using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene with sunflower hull and distillers dried grains with soluble fibers were analyzed for their effectiveness in hybrid form to understand the combined effect of two fillers. The thermal and mechanical properties of the 20 wt.% fiber hybrid biocomposites were compared against the neat polymer. The biocomposites were processed using twin screw extrusion and injection molded as ASTM test specimens. The hybrid biocomposites showed marginal variations in thermal and physical properties, and showed near equivalent mechanical properties. The thermal and structural properties were attributed to the nonstructural and structural constituents of the fibers, respectively.. ...
The Global Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market is expected to reach USD 34.88 billion by 2022, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Rising government funding for large-scale infrastructure projects in Asian countries of China, India, and Indonesia is expected to propel construction industry growth which in turn is expected to have a positive impact on product demand over the next seven years. Increasing need for lightweight automobiles on account of need for better fuel efficiency particularly in developed regions including Europe and North America is expected to be a major market driver. Rising investments for innovative product developments and high-quality manufacturing processes, is expected to augment industry growth over the forecast period. Furthermore, strong economic growth coupled with removal of barriers for foreign investments in India is expected to spur construction sector which in turn will propel product demand over the forecast period. Countries including ...
The Global Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market is expected to reach USD 34.88 billion by 2022, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Rising government funding for large-scale infrastructure projects in Asian countries of China, India, and Indonesia is expected to propel construction industry growth which in turn is expected to have a positive impact on product demand over the next seven years. Increasing need for lightweight automobiles on account of need for better fuel efficiency particularly in developed regions including Europe and North America is expected to be a major market driver. Rising investments for innovative product developments and high-quality manufacturing processes, is expected to augment industry growth over the forecast period. Furthermore, strong economic growth coupled with removal of barriers for foreign investments in India is expected to spur construction sector which in turn will propel product demand over the forecast period. Countries including ...
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Bharatbook added a new report on Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Industry Outlook in Poland to 2016 which gives an overview, Demand, Supply Trends and industry analysis reports. #569679
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, Saxalac 320A is an antistatic, high impact resistant and easy flowing ABS injection molding grade, characterized by good processability and high stiffness. Mechanical property data tested at 50% RH.
Cure characteristics and mechanical properties of short nylon fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene rubber-reclaimed rubber composites were studied. Minimum torque, (maximum-minimum) torque and cure rate increased with fiber concentration. Scorch time and cure time decreased by the addition of fibers. Properties like tensile strength, tear strength, elongation at break, abrasion loss and heat build up were studied in both orientations of fibers. Tensile and tear properties were enhanced by the addition of fibers and were higher in the longitudinal direction. Heat build up increased with fiber concentration and were higher in the longitudinal direction. Abrasion resistance was improved in presence of short fibers and was higher in the longitudinal direction. Resilience increased on the introduction of fibers. Compression set was higher for blends ...
Abd. Razak, Mohd. Zahidfullah (2011) Mechanical and rheological properties of waste polyethylene terephthalate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/montmorillonite nanocomposite. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Chemical Engineering. Full text not available from this repository. ...
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Rubber compounds based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) containing organically modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were prepared using peroxide as a curing agent. The LDHs intercalated by organic compounds including sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) while the unmodified LDHs were used as contrast. Experimental results from TGA and XRD showed that both SSS- and SDBS-intercalated LDHs were successfully obtained. The morphology of the LDH composites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and XRD. The chemical structure of NBR/LDHs compounds were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectrum. The thermal properties were measured by TGA and differential scanning calorimetry. Other properties such as mechanical and swelling properties were also investigated. The results showed that a chemical bonding ...
Biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) are currently viewed by the transportation sector as the most viable alternative fuels to replace petroleum-based fuels. The use of biodiesel has, however, been limited by the deteriorative effect of biodiesel on rubber parts in automobile fuel systems. This work therefore aimed at investigating the degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and fluoroelastomers (FKM) on exposure to biodiesel and HVO at different temperatures and oxygen concentrations in an automated ageing equipment and a high-pressure autoclave. The oxidation of biodiesel at 80 °C was promoted by an increase in the oxygen partial pressure, resulting in the formation of larger amounts of hydroperoxides and acids in the fuel. The fatty acid methyl esters of the biodiesel oxidized less at 150 °C on autoclave aging, because the termination reactions between alkyl and alkylperoxyl radicals dominated over the initiation reactions. HVO consists of saturated hydrocarbons, and ...
The report analyzes and forecasts the styrene acrylonitrile resins market on the global and regional level. The study provides historic data of 2015 along with forecast ...
57913-80-1 - Propoxylated, ethoxylated glycerol, styrene, acrylonitrile polymer - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
ACRYLONITRILE | H2C(CH)CN or CH2=CH-CN or C3H3N | CID 7855 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 107-13-1 ACRYLONITRILE (D3, 98%)(+0.1% 4-METHOXYPHENOL). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
A new enzymatic process is described. Different preparations of lipase B from Candida antarctica are able to catalyse Michael-type addition of secondary amines to acrylonitrile. This new reaction widens the applicability of these biocatalysts in organic synthesis.
3-(Dimethylamino)-2-(methylsulphonyl)acrylonitrile/ACM106073272 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
This report studies the global Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) market status and forecast, categorizes the global Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. This report
VOLUME 1. Abrasives.. Absorption.. Acetaldehyde.. Acetic Acid.. Acetic Acid, Halogenated Derivatives.. Acetic Anhydride.. Acetone.. Acetylene.. Acetylene-Derived Chemicals.. Acrolein and Derivatives.. Acrylamide.. Acrylamide Polymers.. Acrylic Acid and its Derivatives.. Acrylic Ester Polymers.. Acrylonitrile.. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Polymers.. Acrylonitrile Polymers, Survey and Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN).. Actinides and Transactinides.. Adhesion.. Adhesives.. Adipic Acid.. Adsorption.. Adsorption, Gas Separation.. Adsorption, Liquid Separation.. Advanced Materials, Economic Evaluation.. Aeration, Biotechnology.. Aerogels.. Aerosols.. Air Pollution.. Air Pollution and Control, Indoor.. VOLUME 2.. Alcohols, Higher Aliphatic, Survey.. Alcohols, Higher Aliphatic, Synthetic Processes.. Alcohols, Polyhydric.. Aldehydes.. Alkaloids.. Alkanolamines from Nitro Alcohols.. Alkanolamines from Olefin Oxides and Ammonia.. Alkyd Resins.. Alkylation.. Alkylphenols.. Allyl Alcohol and Monoallyl ...
Global Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Pipes Sales Market Report 2016 is a market research report available at US $4000 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
Several of the pathways of metabolism of the suspected carcinogen acrylonitrile (AN) were identified previously in this laboratory with the use of subcellular fractions and purified enzymes (Guengerich, F. P., Geiger, L. E., Hogy, L. L., and Wright, P. L., Cancer Res., 41: 4925-4933, 1981). In order to establish the relative contributions of the various pathways leading to activated and detoxicated products, we examined AN metabolism in isolated Fischer 344 rat hepatocytes as a model. Reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted, and cell viability was lost in an AN concentration-dependent manner. The major GSH adduct formed at all AN concentrations was identified as S-(2-cyanoethyl)GSH using thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. Acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis of labeled hepatocellular protein revealed S-(2-carboxyethyl)-cysteine as the major adduct formed, indicating direct alkylation of cysteinyl residues by AN. 2-Cyanoethylene oxide accumulated in the hepatocyte ...
Styrenic Polymers (Polystyrene (PS), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN), Methyl - Methacrylate Butadiene Styrene (MBS), Methyl - Methacrylate Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (MABS), Styrene Methyl - Methacrylate (SMMA), Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS), Styrene Ethylene Butylene Styrene (SEBS) and Other Product Types) Market for Medical Applications - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 - ...
A laminate to extend the life of photographs and prevent them from gradual deterioration due to environmental conditions comprises a laminate made of a transparent film of ultraviolet-stabilized polyethylene terephthalate or ultraviolet-stabilized acrylonitrile and a transparent silicone or acrylic adhesive bonded to the film, the laminate being adapted to be bonded to the image surface of a photograph by the adhesive. Alternatively, to provide even greater protection against moisture vapor and oxidation, an additional layer of a transparent fluorocarbon polymer may be bonded to the ultraviolet-stabilized polyethylene terephthalate or ultraviolet-stabilized acrylonitrile with a silicone or acrylic adhesive. Alternately, to provide a better aesthetic appearance by means of thermal texturization, an ultraviolet-absorbing polymethylmethacrylate film may be bonded to the ultraviolet-stabilized polyethylene terephthalate or ultraviolet-stabilized acrylonitrile with a silicone or acrylic adhesive. Any of
[(2-Cyanoethyl)(phenyl)carbamoyl]methyl 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)acetate | C20H20N2O5 | CID 2380977 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
0133] In yet another aspect, (M, D) moieties are constructed from one or more of the same or different common or commercially available linking, cross-linking, and labeling reagents that permit facile assembly, especially using a commercial DNA or peptide synthesizer for all or part of the synthesis. In this aspect, (M, D) moieties are made up of subunits usually connected by phosphodiester and amide bonds. Exemplary, precusors include, but are not limited to, dimethoxytrityl (DMT)-protected hexaethylene glycol phosphoramidite, 6-(4 Monomethoxytritylamino)hexyl-(2-cyanoethyl)-(N,N-diisopropyl)-phosphorami- dite, 12-(4-Monomethoxytritylamino)dodecyl-(2-cyanoethyl)-(N,N-diisopropyl- )-phosphoramidite, 2-[2-(4-Monomethoxytrityl)aminoethoxy]ethyl-(2-cyanoethyl), N,N-diisopropyl)-phosphoramidite, (S Trityl-6-mercaptohexyl)-(2-cyanoethyl)-(N,N-diisopropyl)-phosphoramidite, 5-Fluorescein phosphoramidite, 5-Hexachloro-Fluorescein Phosphoramidite, 5-Tetrachloro-Fluorescein Phosphoramidite, ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Diethyl 2-(2-cyanoethyl)malonate Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
Research Report on Global 2-Cyanoethyl Acrylate Market Professional Survey Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 12-(2-Cyanoethyl)-6,7,12,13-tetrahydro-13-methyl-5-oxo-5H-indolo[2,3-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole.
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 615288-66-9, 5-O-[Bis(4-methoxyphenyl)phenylmethyl]-2-deoxy-5-ethynyl-uridine 3-[2-cyanoethyl bis(1-methylethyl)phosphoramidite], molecular formula: C41H47N4O8P.
The complex production of carbon fibres is very time comsuming. There are many steps to producing carbon fibres and each company makes it differently than their competitors. The first step, polymerization, is done with polyacrylonitrile(PAN). PAN is the base for carbon fibers. PAN is mixed with a catalyst. The stirring helps polymerization, which is the chemical process for creating long-chain polymers that can be formed into acrylic fibres. After washing and drying the acrylic fibres, they are crushed to form a powder. The powder is mixed with a solvent and produce a mixture with the consistency of maple syrup. The variations in different companys is in the kind of solvent used. The mixture is now known as PAN fibres. The PAN fibres are formed with spinning. The spinning seperates the mixture into tiny holes. Te fibres are coated with oil to prevent cluping and is now wound onto bobbins. The PAN fibre bobbins are now put into oxidaion. The oxiation oven combines oxygenin the ai with the pan ...
Dyes are classified according to their solubility and chemical properties.[2]. Acid dyes are water-soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibers such as silk, wool, nylon and modified acrylic fibers using neutral to acid dye baths. Attachment to the fiber is attributed, at least partly, to salt formation between anionic groups in the dyes and cationic groups in the fiber. Acid dyes are not substantive to cellulosic fibers. Most synthetic food colors fall in this category. Examples of acid dye are Alizarine Pure Blue B, Acid red 88, etc. Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes that are mainly applied to acrylic fibers, but find some use for wool and silk. Usually acetic acid is added to the dye bath to help the uptake of the dye onto the fiber. Basic dyes are also used in the coloration of paper. Direct or substantive dyeing is normally carried out in a neutral or slightly alkaline dye bath, at or near boiling point, with the addition of either sodium chloride (NaCl) or sodium sulfate ...
Define Orlon. Orlon synonyms, Orlon pronunciation, Orlon translation, English dictionary definition of Orlon. A trademark for an acrylic fiber or yarn made from this fiber. n 1. trademark a crease-resistant acrylic fibre or fabric used for clothing, furnishings, etc...
Dining, dancing and dating are in the future for this glamorous, whirl skirted dress, made in a luxurious new fabric of Orlon acrylic fiber and wool called Thalspun Doeskin Jersey. Exceptionally soft and appealing to the hand, this fabric has superior loft, drapes beautifully and comes in a wide range of appealing colors. It can be durably pleated and is washable, because of inherent qualities of DuPonts acrylic fiber. Snugly fitted bodice with scoop neck and three quarter sleeves tops an extra full pleated skirt ...
A memory device is provided with a structure for improved transmission line operation on integrated circuits. The structure for transmission line operation includes a first layer of electrically conductive material on a substrate. A first layer of insulating material is formed on the first layer of the electrically conductive material. A number of high permeability metal lines are formed on the first layer of insulating material. The number of high permeability metal lines includes composite hexaferrite films. A number of transmission lines is formed on the first layer of insulating material and between and parallel with the number of high permeability metal lines. A second layer of insulating material is formed on the transmission lines and the high permeability metal lines. The structure for transmission line operation includes a second layer of electrically conductive material on the second layer of insulating material.
ZEONs flagship Nipol line of specialty nitrile rubber provides an excellent balance of performance and cost-effectiveness for synthetic elastomers.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The mention of the grant of European patent No. 0 712 893, in respect of European patent application no. 95 117 874.8 in the name of Mitsubishi Plastics Inc., filed on 13 November 1995 and claiming priorities from Japanese applications filed on 14 November 1994 (JP 27942594) and 19 July 1995 (JP 18275495), was published on 11 August 1999 (Bulletin 1999/32). The granted patent contained 9 claims, whereby Claims 1, 2 and 9 read as follows:. 1. A plastic composition which comprises a copolymer comprising an acrylonitrile component, a butadiene component and a styrene component, wherein the content of the butadiene component is from 5 to 15 mol%, the content of the acrylonitrile component is from 40 to 50 mol% and the content of the styrene component is from 40 to 50 mol%, said composition having a melt flow index of at least 5 g/10 min (as measured at 260ºC with a force of 2.16 kg in accordance with JIS K7210).. 2. A plastic composition which comprises a ...
Piedmont Plastics carries fire rated ABS and Kydex, lightweight and easily fabricated plastics for use in aircraft, train, and bus luggage storage bins.
In addition to this several other companies has shifted their manufacturing facilities to the region from west on account of above mentioned reasons. Other countries in Asia such as India, Indonesia, South Korea Taiwan and Japan are also anticipated to show a rapid growth for the global ABS market over the next five years. This is driven by the increasing construction activities and industrialization in the region. The region still contributes to the low consumption of ABS products which is expected to be a scope for further growth in the region. India is projected to be the most emerging market in the region owing to growing application industries. ...
Technical construction is Fendis forte when it comes to leather goods. Championing the luxurious minimalism that makes their handbags a universal favourite, the Italian brand are constantly pushing their own boundaries, reimagining classics for the new season. This black calf leather bow detail mini backpack from Fendi features a double top zip closure, a front zip pocket, adjustable shoulder straps and faux-pearl embellishments. Size: One Size. Gender: Female. Material: Calf
Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Copper Paste Market 2018 Forecast to 2023. COPPER PASTE is a high temperature anti-seize lubricant. A soft, copper-coloured paste, based on micronized copper powder and synergistic anti-oxidant, anti-corrosion and anti-wear additives suspended in premium grade stable oil. It is an effective anti-seize formulation, preventing metal-to-metal contact, seizing, galling, and fretting corrosion. Scope of the Report: This report focuses on .... February 2018 , $4880 ,View Details>> ...
Buy EHC (ELECTRONIC HARDWARE) 412D2B online at Newark element14. Buy your 412D2B from an authorized EHC (ELECTRONIC HARDWARE) distributor.
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Karl Lagerfield is an icon unto himself and has been imparting his playful stylistic vision into the designs of Fendi for over fifty years. Expect to see adorable plush fur Karlito bag charms, angry little monster motifs and pret-a-porter that is swoon worthy. Dusty pink fox and lamb fur Pompom bag charm featuring a spring-ring fastening, a waved leather tab and yellow stud detailing. Please note that this item cannot be shipped outside the E.U. Size: One Size. Color: Pink/purple. Gender
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The flammability of acrylonitrile-butadiene-sytrene resin is significantly decreased by adding thereto a combination of a brominated aromatic ether and iron or chromium naphthenate.The brominated aromatic ethers which may be used are illustrated by the generalized structure: ##STR1## in which x is 2 to 5 and y is 0 to 5, provided x plus y equals at least 2. Examples of these compounds include decabromodiphenyl oxide, octabromodiphenyl oxide, hexabromodiphenyl oxide, pentabromodiphenyl oxide or tetrabromodiphenyl oxide.The ABS resins which can be treated include the terpolymer produced by polymerization of acrylonitrile, butadiene and stryene monomers, as well as terpolymers produced by grafting acrylonitrile and styrene on polybutadiene, or blends of the component polymers.
Opening a project to combine the following very similar specifications AMS-P-5315, AMS 7270 and AMS 7271 into one specification.. ...
Adhesive formula, epoxy adhesives and resin, araldite epoxy adhesives, urea formaldhehyde resin, fenol formaldhehyde, 3M adhesive formula, adhesive tape, adhesive glue, super glue, polyurethane glue, metal glue, metal adhesive, cyanoacrylate glue, vinyl adhesive, silicon sealant, polyester resin, tile adhesive, power glue, hot melt adhesive, hardener, wood glue, plastic glue, steel glue, paper glue, rubber glue, acrylic glue, nylon resin, hard resin. ...
Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, 35 % acrylonitrile contents) cure processing was carried out at different temperatures by rheometer. Surface and cut-surface functional groups were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface and cut-surface O element quantities of NBR cured at 140 were almost the same (2.1, 2.0 at.%), but much more than the O element content of uncured NBR (0.16 at.%). It means that there are some other chemistry reactions except the peroxide reacted with NBR rubber to get the cross-linking chain. And the oxide functional groups (,*CHOH and ,C=O) were made from the O2 which was left in the rubber. However, there are no -COOH on the surface and cut-surface of NBR cured at 140 . When the curing temperature is higher than 160 , the concentration of O on the surface of the NBR is increasing with the ,*CHOH, ,C=O and-COOH total functional oxide group number growing up, while the concentration of N1s has contrary trend with curing temperature increasing. It is ...
The key rising opportunities of the fastest growing international Styrene Acrylonitrile Resins market segments are coated throughout this Market Research Report. The Market N Reports gives the brief study report of the Styrene Acrylonitrile Resins market around the globe. The study of reports gives always satisfactory solution to the user. The research study includes analysis, […]. ...
|p|Gastec Detector Tubes indicate concentrations directly by way of a calibrated scale printed on the tubes. Gastec detector tubes are used for analysing airborne gases/vapours, as well as pollutants in soil and water.|/p|
Each 7th Edition Documentation summarizes and evaluates the scientific data from which its TLV® or BEI® is derived. Knowing the basis of each TLV® and BEI®, as described in its Documentation, is essential to the application of that TLV® or BEI®. This Documentation is available for download in PDF format. Before downloading, ACGIH® requires that you read the Policy Statement on the Uses of TLVs® and BEIs®, Special Note to User, and the Introduction to the Chemical Substances TLVs®, available at https://www.acgih.org/Products/tlvintro.htm. This document is fully protected by copyright and no part of it may be reproduced in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems - without written permission from ACGIH®, 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634.. ...
article{cf22e409-6a34-4b4b-ba61-8b1498d91334, abstract = {Pure Sb0.9V0.9O4 and various preparations with excess of either vanadia or antimony oxide, including mechanical mixtures, have been investigated for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile. The catalysts were characterized before and after use in catalysis by various methods, including electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and XPS. The catalytic data show that preparations with approximate to SbVO4 and alpha-Sb2O4, compared with the single phases, are more selective to acrylonitrile formation on the condition that the excess antimony oxide is present while synthesising the approximate to SbVO, phase. Considering the catalytic data together with the results from the characterisations, various possibilities are discussed to explain the role of excess alpha-Sb2O4 in propane ammoxidation. Possibilities that can be excluded on rational grounds are catalysis on two phases, or, at grain boundaries, an influence on the morphology of ...
Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 1910.1045 of this chapter. ...
The authors summarize the-state-of-the-art in ABS polymers with major sections on synthesis, characterization, mechanical properties, and stabilization.
The authors summarize the-state-of-the-art in ABS polymers with major sections on synthesis, characterization, mechanical properties, and stabilization.
Looking at the periodic chart and going down, the electronegativity goes down, ie Na = .9 and K = .8 From the definition electronegativity is the ability to attract electrons. So is that to say the more electronegative would actually be the more positively charged? I ask because I am getting confused with the K pump in a neuron cell. It seems as though the side that has more Na ions is more positive than the membrane side with K ions ...
Electronegativity tends to decrease moving down a group and tends to increase traversing left to right across periods. Electronegativity tends to decrease when moving down a group because the...
A review in 4 sections comprising synthetic methods and prodn. processes of plastics (section I), apparatuses for prodn., processing, and making of plastics (section II), manufg. processes for the most important plastics (section III), and processing of thermoplastic masses and polyurethane raw materials (section IV). In section I, the following methods and processes are considered: polymn., polycondensation, polyaddn., modification of macromols., chem. reactions on macromols., and blending as well as polyreactions in bulk, soln., dispersion, suspension, or emulsion. In section II, the machinery of plastics manuf. (e.g., reactors, mixers, compounders, heat exchangers, conveyors, pumps, degassing extruders, centrifuges, filtration units, and dryers) is described. In section III, the following plastics are discussed: polyolefins (polyethylene, polypropylene, polybutylene), styrene polymers (polystyrene, styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer, and styrene-maleic ...
Working with health and social care partners we are looking at how to improve the cancer experience for people diagnosed with rare brain and CNS cancer.
Factors that are expected to fuel the growth prospects of the market during the forecast period are precisely mentioned. Players in this market how they are making efforts to improve their more quality of the products through developments are explained in detail.
Incorporated in the year 1962, The Vardhman Group is a globally recognized textile conglomerate in India with an annual turnover of more than 1 billion USD. Spanning over 24 manufacturing facilities located in five states of the country, the Groups business portfolio includes Yarn, Greige and Processed Fabric, Sewing Thread, Acrylic Fibre and Alloy Steel. The Vardhman Groups manufacturing capabilities span more than 9,27,430 spindles, 55.5 tons per day yarn. ...
Additives China, Manufacture Of Sodium Allyl Sulfonate Sas, 1)As the third monomer of acrylic fiber, this product can improve the dying properties, the heat resistance and flexibil...
Acrylic elastomer is a general term for a type of synthetic rubber whose main component is acrylic acid alkylester (ethyl or butyl ester).[6] Acrylic elastomer has characteristics of heat and oil resistance. It is divided into old type and new type: Old types include ACM (copolymer of acrylic acid ester and 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether) containing chlorine and ANM (copolymer of acrylic acid ester and acrylonitrile) without chloride. Other than the slightly better water resistance of ANM, there are no physical differences; even processability is poor for both types. Since prices are also high, demand is not so high vis-à-vis the characteristics. On the other hand, the new type of acrylic rubber does not contain any chlorine despite its unclear chemical composition. Processability has been improved; most of the tackiness to rolls, as well as staining problems related to mold have been solved. Major characteristics of acrylic rubber include heat resistance and oil resistance; it can endure a ...
AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals and INEOS Nitriles have signed a long-term co-operation agreement that will allow AkzoNobel to expand its production of biodegradable chelates, used in detergents and other industries, utilizing one of INEOS Nitriles chemical products. The move will significantly strengthen AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals leadership position in the chelates business, supporting customer growth as well as improving both companies sustainability profile.. AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals will invest in production facilities at INEOSs site at Cologne, Germany. INEOS Nitriles is the worlds largest producer of acrylonitrile a key chemical building block used ultimately in the automotive, home appliance, garment, carbon fiber and water purification industries. With this partnership, AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals will be able to expand its chelates production in Europe. Construction of the new facilities at Cologne will start later this year and completion is due in 2020, INEOS will operate ...
... technology is used by 95% of the worlds acrylonitrile and is the worlds largest manufacture of acetonitrile, with four global sites.
he use of enzymes in organic synthesis has produced some spectacular successes. For example, Rhodococcus bacteria can transform acrylonitrile to acrylamide in yields over 99% with no risk of polymerization or over-oxidation to acrylic acid. This is used commercially at a scale of 30,000 tons per year. Proteases have found wide usage in laundry detergents. Enzymes have the advantage that they are enantioselective, easy to separate from the product, are highly specific, and not least, are less likely to frighten consumers who have been conditioned by the media to fear synthetic chemicals. However, because of the specificity of enzymes, and the real and imaginary limitations of enzymes, most organic chemists use enzymes only as a last resort. Many chemists are also unfamiliar with the vast number of enzymes that are available, their reactions and cofactor requirements, and the potential side-reactions and problems that can occur with enzymes. These two books aim to introduce enzymes to organic ...
View detailed Table of Content here - https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/electric-vehicle-polymers-market-37745124.html. Engineering plastics is estimated to be the larger type segment of the electric vehicle (car) polymers market. Engineering plastics is the larger than elastomers type segment of the electric vehicle (car) polymers market. Owing to their enhanced properties and advantages, they are used in electric cars as a substitute for metals for lightweighting of the cars. These polymers can be used in all three segments of components, namely powertrain, exterior, and interior. Some of the majorly used engineering plastics are acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polyamide, polycarbonate, and polyphenylene sulfide. The exterior component in the electric car is expected to register the highest CAGR during the forecast period. Exterior body of an electric car accounts for the second largest share in the overall weight of the electric car. Earlier, metal alloys were used in exterior ...
Engineering control technology for the plastics and resins industry (SIC-2821 through 2824) was investigated. Detailed studies were conducted for polyvinyl-chloride (9002862) (PVC) mass polymerization, suspension, and dispersion; acrylonitrile (107131), butadiene (106990) and styrene (100425) resin manufacture; polystyrene process, styrene-butadiene (9003558) rubber emulsion polymerization; phenol
0184]Nitriles compounds listed in the CRC Handbook (pages 344-368) can be used in this invention include but not limited to the followings: Cyanoacetylene, Cyanoacetaldehyde, Acrylonitrile, Fluoroacetonitrile, Acetonitrile (or Cyanomethane), Trichloroacetonitrile, Methacrylonitrile (or α-Methylacrylonitrile), Proionitrile (or Cyanoethane), Isobutyronitrile, Trimethylacetonitrile (or tert-Butylcyanide), 2-Ethyacrylonitrile, Dichloroacetonitrile, α Chloroisobutyronitrile, n-Butyronitrile (or 1-Cyanopropane), trans-Crotononitrile, Allycyanide, Methoxyacetonitrile, 2 Hydroxyisobutyronitrile (or Acetone cyanohydrins), 3-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile, 2-Methylbutyronitrile, Chloroacetonitrile, Isovaleronitrile, 2,4-Pentadienonitrile, 2-Chlorocrotononitrile, Ethoxyacetonitrile, 2-Methycrotononitrile, 2-Bromoisobutyronitrile, 4-Pentenonitrile, Thiophene-2,3-dicarbonitrile (or 2,3-Dicyanothiophene), 3,3-Dimethylacrylonitrile, Valeronitrile (or 1 Cyanobutane), 2-Chlorobutyronitrile, Diethylacetonitrile, ...
Bond IDs with Electronegativities. Differences in electronegativites will help determine if a bond is ionic, polar covalent, or non-polar covalent. The separation points are 1.7, and .5 If the difference is 1.7 or more, it is considered to be ionic. Slideshow 6706718 by lacota-robbins
Colorfully painting designs by EDDA Froehlich / EDDArt | COLOR YOUR LIFE with this crazy multicolored running SPLASHES! HAVE FUN & BE HAPPYCarry your coffee around in style! Now you can personalize this tumbler with your favorite photos and images. The customizable insulated travel tumbler comes with a non-spill lid, holds up to 350 ml and is made of plastic exterior and interior that is great for both hot and cold beverages. It is a fun and creative gift for anyone who always love to take their drink on the go. Polystyrene plastic exterior and interior Polypropylene plastic lid ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) base Capacity: 350 ml Approximate size: 7.68 (H) x 2.44 in diameter base Opening diameter: 2.8 Weight: 199.2g , %SiteName% is an online platform for creative designers and art enthusiasts to showcase their art work and designs.
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). Acrylonitrile styrene (AS). Polybutadiene (PBR). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polyethylene ... Acrylonitrile (AN). Ammonia. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (dioctyl phthalate). n-Butene. Cyclohexane. Dimethyl terephthalate ( ... or a plastic such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) *synthetic rubbers - synthetic elastomers made of any one or more of ...
acrylonitrile - cancer. *formaldehyde - cancer and respiratory effects. *acrolein - respiratory effects. *chlorine - ...
Polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). Special considerations[edit]. Though increasing the ratio of metal fuel to oxidizer up to ... or polybutadiene acrylic acid acrylonitrile prepolymer (PBAN), powdered metal (typically aluminum), and various burn rate ...
Cycolac (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). *Cycoloy (polycarbonate / acrylonitrile butadiene styrene blend). *Ultem ( ...
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 105 221[26] Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 115 239[27] Teflon ...
Polymerization of acrylonitrile to PAN,. *Cyclization during low temperature process,. *High temperature oxidative treatment of ...
"Sohio Acrylonitrile Process". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2017-11-11. " ... introduced by Sherwin-Williams in 1941 The Sohio process for production of acrylonitrile, developed by Sohio in 1957 and ...
Currently, most acrylonitrile (90% in 2008) is produced by the SOHIO method, which is based on the catalytic oxidation of ... "The Sohio Acrylonitrile Process". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Archived from the original ... producing acrylonitrile: HO-CH2CH2-CN → CH2=CH-CN + H2O When reacting with the hydrogen sulfide, ethylene oxide forms 2- ...
Acrylonitrile is commonly employed as a comonomer with styrene, e.g. acrylonitrile, styrene and acrylate plastics. PAN absorbs ... It is a component repeat unit in several important copolymers, such as styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) and acrylonitrile butadiene ... All commercial methods of production of PAN are based on free radical polymerization of Acrylonitrile (AN). Most of the cases, ... Almost all polyacrylonitrile resins are copolymers made from mixtures of monomers with acrylonitrile as the main component. It ...
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Miller, Dustin. "Microcellular Plastics Lab - University of Washington". faculty.washington.edu ... "Ultrasound assisted cyclic solid-state foaming for fabricating ultra-low density porous acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene foams ...
The surface was modified with acrylonitrile via a plasma coating technique. The resulting acrylonitrile-coated membrane was ... The researchers found that acrylonitrile was more susceptible to be compatible with the electrolyte due to the wettability ... trying to improve the wettability of the polymer separators by co-doping the normal polyethylene separator with acrylonitrile. ...
An important application of this process is the production of acrylonitrile: CH3CH=CH2 + 3/2 O2 + NH3 → NCCH=CH2 + 3 H2O ... "Sohio Acrylonitrile Process - American Chemical Society". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 11 July 2017. Peter Pollak, ... doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_363 "The Sohio Acrylonitrile Process". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society ... Several million tons of acrylonitrile are produced in this way annually. The solvent acetonitrile is a byproduct of this ...
The carbanion intermediate would attack another molecule of acrylonitrile affording a product that would be expected from many ... 1990, 1701.Pringle, P. G.; Smith, M. B. (1990). "Platinum(0)-catalysed hydrophosphination of acrylonitrile". Journal of the ... such as acrylonitrile inserts into the Pt-P bond and then reductively eliminate to afford the hydrophosphinated acrylonitrile. ... "Platinum-Catalyzed Acrylonitrile Hydrophosphination via Olefin Insertion into a Pt−P Bond". Journal of the American Chemical ...
... and acrylonitrile in which the carboxylic acid group is replaced by the related nitrile group. ... copolymer of acrylic acid ester and acrylonitrile) without chloride. Other than the slightly better water resistance of ANM, ... and even its electrical characteristics are considerably poor compared with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and butyl rubber. ...
Acrylonitrile 29.3 Oxidative stress causing increased 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine [76]. 1,3-butadiene 105.0 Global loss of DNA ... "Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicol. Sci. 111 (1): 64-71. ...
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene is a common example. Copolymers section of Polymer article Thermoplastic elastomer Tholin ... Commercially relevant copolymers include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), styrene/butadiene co-polymer (SBR), nitrile ... rubber, styrene-acrylonitrile, styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and ethylene-vinyl acetate, all formed by chain-growth ...
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ... the pollutant acrylonitrile reacts with hydroxyl radical forming formyl cyanide, hydroperoxyl and formaldehyde: CH2=CHCN + OH ...
Acrylonitrile is the solvent for the reaction. Vinylpyridine is sensitive to polymerization. It may be stabilized with a free ... An alternative synthesis involves the reaction of acrylonitrile and acetylene below 130-140 ̊C in the presence of organocobalt ...
... of acrylonitrile are formed. During the electrochemical hydrooligomerization of acrylonitrile, these are trimers, such as 1,3,6 ... The DABCO-catalyzed acrylonitrile dimerization of 2,4-dicyano-1-butene after 10 days at room temperature is with 40% yield ... The reaction of acrylonitrile with tributylphosphine affords 2-methyleneglutaronitrile in a modest yield of about 10% after ... A new class of acrylonitrile oligomers", J. Org. Chem. 30 (5): pp. 1351-1356, doi:10.1021/jo01016a003 M.M. Baizer, J.D. ...
It comprised two locomotives and 57 freight cars, at least two of which were carrying acrylonitrile. Other railcars in the ... UTLX 901717 LEAKED 24,500 GALLONS OF ACRYLONITRILE STABILIZED. Jamieson, Alastair; Walters, Shamar; Nelson, Chris. "Tennessee ...
It has been used for hydroamination of acrylonitrile. It combines with arsenic trioxide to form copper acetoarsenite, a ...
100% ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene is nearly indestructible. Disadvantages: it doesn't manage as well with UV light, ... ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, used as the foundation and provides dimensional stability and then layered with 15% ...
ChemicaInvest consists of three business units; Aliancys (composite resins), AnQore (acrylonitrile) and Fibrant (caprolactam). ...
... and acrylonitrile. ATRP are successful at leading to polymers of high number average molecular weight and a narrow ... "Photoinduced Metal-Free Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Acrylonitrile". ACS Macro Letters. 4 (2): 192-196. doi:10.1021/ ...
A solid propellant, polybutadiene acrylonitrile, was used as fuel. The stage had an external diameter of 120 inches. Attitude ...
"Acrylonitrile_msds".. *^ a b "Acrylonitrile". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National ... "Acrylonitrile: Carcinogenic Potency Database". berkeley.edu. *^ a b Acrylonitrile Fact Sheet: Support Document (CAS No. 107-13- ... acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), and other synthetic rubbers such as acrylonitrile ... Acrylonitrile and derivatives, such as 2-chloroacrylonitrile, are dienophiles in Diels-Alder reactions. Acrylonitrile is also a ...
Workers may be harmed from exposure to acrylonitrile. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being ... Acrylonitrile (CH₂=CHCN) is a toxic, colorless to pale-yellow liquid, harmful to the eyes, skin, lungs, and nervous system. It ... EPA Chemistry Dashboard: Acrylonitrileexternal icon. *EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS): Acrylonitrileexternal icon ... IPCS INCHEM Environmental Health Criteria 28: Acrylonitrileexternal icon. *IPCS INCHEM Health and Safety Guide 1: Acrylonitrile ...
Acrylonitrile primarily affects the nervous system and lungs. If it is spilled on the skin, the skin will turn red and blisters ... Exposure to acrylonitrile occurs mostly from breathing it in the air. ... What happens to acrylonitrile when it enters the environment?. *Acrylonitrile may be found in the soil, water, or air near ... What is acrylonitrile?. Acrylonitrile is a colorless, liquid, man-made chemical with a sharp, onion- or garlic-like odor. It ...
Acrylonitrile is a high-volume chemical primarily used in the manufacturing of synthetic fibers, resins, plastics, elastomers, ... In 1990, acrylonitrile was ranked 38th among the top 50 chemicals produced in the United States; an estimated 3.03 billion ... Acrylonitrile is a high-volume chemical primarily used in the manufacturing of synthetic fibers, resins, plastics, elastomers, ...
Polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN) copolymer, also noted as polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile terpolymer is a copolymer ...
Toxicological profile for acrylonitrile. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
A mixture of acrylonitrile and carbon tetrachloride was used as a pesticide in the past; however, all pesticide uses have ... Acrylonitrile is used to make other chemicals such as plastics, synthetic rubber, and acrylic fibers. ... Acrylonitrile is a colorless, liquid, man-made chemical with a sharp, onion- or garlic-like odor. It can be dissolved in water ... Acrylonitrile. CAS ID #: 107-13-1. Affected Organ Systems: Developmental (effects during periods when organs are developing), ...
A meta description is an HTML tag in the HTML code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in SERPs
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), also called acrylic styrene acrylonitrile, is a thermoplastic developed as an alternative ... are chemically grafted with styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer chains, and embedded in styrene-acrylonitrile matrix. The acrylate ... "Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA) Plastic , UL Prospector". plastics.ides.com. Retrieved 2017-01-11. "~/media/Main/Files/ ... to acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), but with improved weather resistance, and is widely used in the automotive industry. ...
Styrene acrylonitrile resin is a copolymer plastic consisting of styrene and acrylonitrile. It is also known as SAN. It is ... The acrylonitrile from SAN containers has been found to migrate to content in variable amounts. Acrylonitrile is classified as ... The relative composition is typically between 70 and 80% by weight styrene and 20 to 30% acrylonitrile. Larger acrylonitrile ... The copolymer has a glass transition temperature greater than 100 °C owing to the acrylonitrile units in the chain, thus making ...
ABS is derived from acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene. Acrylonitrile is a synthetic monomer produced from propylene and ... Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x·​(C4H6)y·​(C3H3N)z) is a common thermoplastic polymer. Its ... The proportions can vary from 15 to 35% acrylonitrile, 5 to 30% butadiene and 40 to 60% styrene. The result is a long chain of ... ABS - acrylonitrile butadiene styrene On Designsite.dk, lists applications. Retrieved 27 October 2006. Market Study Engineering ...
Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 1910.1045 of this chapter. ...
Acrylonitrile is used mostly to make plastics, acrylic fibers, and synthetic rubber. Because acrylonitrile evaporates quickly, ... Acrylonitrile breaks down quickly in the air. It has been found in small amounts in the water and soil near manufacturing ... In water, acrylonitrile usually breaks down in about 1 to 2 weeks, although this can vary depending on conditions. For example ... In one case, measurable amounts of acrylonitrile were found in nearby wells 1 year after a spill. ...
... acrylonitrile is a clear, colorless, or slightly yellow liquid. It is very volatile, producing flammable and toxic air ... What tests can be done if a person has been exposed to acrylonitrile? Specific tests for the presence of acrylonitrile (or ... What immediate health effects can be caused by exposure to acrylonitrile? Breathing acrylonitrile can result in a variety of ... Can acrylonitrile poisoning be treated? The treatment for acrylonitrile poisoning includes breathing pure oxygen and, in the ...
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • Criteria for a Recommended Occupational Exposure Standard for Acrylonitrile - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 78-116. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to acrylonitrile occurs mostly from breathing it in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • In a few cases, children have died following exposure to acrylonitrile vapors that caused only minor nose and throat irritation in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the metabolites (cyanide) could come from other chemicals you might have been exposed to, so it is not a definite indicator of acrylonitrile exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to acrylonitrile can be determined by measuring parent acrylonitrile, acrylonitrile metabolites and adducts. (cdc.gov)
  • 1979. Evaluation and control of industrial exposure to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • This Statement was prepared to give you information about acrylonitrile and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. (cdc.gov)
  • The information is important for you to know because acrylonitrile may cause harmful health effects and because these sites are potential or actual sources of human exposure to acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • In water, acrylonitrile usually breaks or actual sources of human exposure to down in about 1 to 2 weeks, although this can vary acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • Concentrations in the air near a factory producing or the exposure is for a long enough period of time, using acrylonitrile average less than 1 part per acrylonitrile can cause death. (cdc.gov)
  • This Statement was prepared to give you information about acrylonitrile and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,177 sites on its National Priorities List (NPL). (cdc.gov)
  • The odor threshold is about 10-fold greater than the OSHA permissible exposure limit, so workers can be overexposed to acrylonitrile without being aware of its presence. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile is heavier than air and exposure can result in asphyxiation in poorly ventilated, enclosed, or low-lying areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to acrylonitrile vapor can cause skin and eye irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recently been informed that occupational exposure to acrylonitrile may be associated with an excess of lung and colon cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • A preliminary epidemiologic study conducted by the E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., indicated an excess risk of lung and colon cancer among workers with potential acrylonitrile exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Human exposure to acrylonitrile (ACN), a carcinogen in rats, may occur in industrial settings, through waste water and tobacco smoke. (rti.org)
  • This work therefore aimed at investigating the degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and fluoroelastomers (FKM) on exposure to biodiesel and HVO at different temperatures and oxygen concentrations in an automated ageing equipment and a high-pressure autoclave. (diva-portal.org)
  • From the evaluation of the relevant toxicity data, it can be concluded that acrylonitrile is indeed carcinogenic to rats after either oral or inhalational exposure. (sjweh.fi)
  • The processing of ABS leads to the emission of acrylonitrile and styrene into the atmosphere and long-term human exposure can have substantial health hazards. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The National Cancer Institute (USA) nominated MeAN for research because of its potential for human exposure, the common features shared with the known carcinogen acrylonitrile and the shortcoming of knowledge in toxicity and carcinogenicity of MeAN. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jacobs and Syrjala 1978) is useful for monitoring low levels of acrylonitrile in air. (cdc.gov)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of acrylonitrile vapor as adults may receive larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of acrylonitrile vapor found nearer to the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • In air, acrylonitrile breaks down quickly (about half will disappear within 5 to 50 hours) by reacting with other chemicals and sunlight. (cdc.gov)
  • 1990. Public comments on scientific and technical issues on the Draft Toxicological Profile for Acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for acrylonitrile . (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile is highly flammable and toxic at low doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. Fire and Explosion Hazards: Acrylonitrile is a flammable liquid. (ca.gov)
  • 7. For purposes of compliance with the requirements of Articles 141 through 148 of the General Industry Safety Orders, acrylonitrile is classified as a Class 1B flammable liquid. (ca.gov)
  • Concerned because acrylonitrile is flammable, highly toxic, and possibly a carcinogen, local officials ordered an evacuation until the leak could be stopped and the car moved to a remote part of the rail yard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylonitrile has been used, in a mixture with carbon tetrachloride, as a fumigant for flour milling and bakery food processing equipment and for stored tobacco. (cdc.gov)
  • In the past, acrylonitrile was also used as a room fumigant and pediculicide (an agent used to destroy lice). (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile is also used as a fumigant. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that acrylonitrile may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer in people. (cdc.gov)
  • Any release to the environment greater than 100 pounds of acrylonitrile must be reported to the EPA. (cdc.gov)
  • And given that the carbon fiber industry is especially sensitive to price fluctuations in their base chemical acrylonitrile (it takes roughly 2 pounds of acrylonitrile to generate 1 pound of carbon fiber), there is a clear need to develop alternative cost-competitive processes. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Various green chemistry routes are being developed for the synthesis of acrylonitrile from renewable feedstocks, such as lignocellulosic biomass , glycerol (from biodiesel production), or glutamic acid (which can itself be produced from renewable feedstocks). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first reason of choosing this process in production of acrylonitrile is because it is very simple that could be easily carry out with best understanding. (scribd.com)
  • Besides that, the convincing of choosing this process flow diagram is because it has not very high temperature condition to proceed this production of Acrylonitrile. (scribd.com)
  • Moreover, in this process production of Acrylonitrile has a maximum beneficial of the products. (scribd.com)
  • Where there to have the maximum of production of acrylonitrile (Michael, 2010). (scribd.com)
  • An important application of this process is the production of acrylonitrile: CH3CH=CH2 + 3/2 O2 + NH3 → NCCH=CH2 + 3 H2O Several million tons of acrylonitrile are produced in this way annually. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1982. Microsomal metabolism of acrylonitrile in liver and brain. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile may be found in the soil, water, or air near industrial sites where it is made, or at hazardous waste sites where it has been disposed of. (cdc.gov)
  • Unless you live near a factory where acrylonitrile is made or near a hazardous waste site that contains acrylonitrile, you are unlikely to be exposed to it. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing contaminated air near hazardous waste sites that contain acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • Because acrylonitrile is listed as a hazardous substance, disposal of waste acrylonitrile is controlled by a number of federal regulations (see Chapter 7). (cdc.gov)
  • If you are exposed to a hazardous substance such as acrylonitrile, several factors will determine whether harmful health effects will occur and what the type and severity of those health effects will be. (cdc.gov)
  • Because acrylonitrile has been found in water and soil in some hazardous waste sites that contain this chemical, residents living very close to waste sites might possibly be exposed to acrylonitrile by breathing the air or drinking contaminated groundwater. (cdc.gov)
  • It has been found in small amounts in the water know because acrylonitrile may cause harmful and soil near manufacturing plants and hazardous health effects and because these sites are potential waste sites. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile (AN) wastewater is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is generated during the production of AN. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 9. For purpose of compliance with the Electrical Safety Orders (California Administrative Code, Chapter 4, Subchapters 5 and 6) locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of acrylonitrile shall be Class I Group D. (ca.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile is produced today industrially via an energy-intensive and chemically hazardous process. (greencarcongress.com)
  • ABS comprises butadiene, styrene, and acrylonitrile, all of which are hazardous to human health and the environment. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Moreover, PP does not have environmentally hazardous monomers like styrene and acrylonitrile, thus making them a safer option. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Decreased fertility and birth defects have been observed in some laboratory animals exposed to high concentrations of acrylonitrile in air or drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, high concentrations of acrylonitrile (such as might occur after a spill) tend to be broken down more slowly. (cdc.gov)
  • Concentrations in the air near a factory producing or using acrylonitrile average less than 1 part per billion (ppb). (cdc.gov)
  • 1.1 This test method covers the determination of total acidity as acetic acid in concentrations below 500 μg/g in acrylonitrile. (bsigroup.com)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on acrylonitrile - NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile: Acrylonitrile - NIOSH reviews relevant scientific data and researches methods for developing IDLH values. (cdc.gov)
  • Many of the analytical methods used to detect acrylonitrile in environmental samples are the methods approved by federal agencies such as EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (cdc.gov)
  • The determination of acrylonitrile in air may be accomplished by collection on a solid sorbet, such as activated charcoal, followed by elution and gas chromatographic measurement (NIOSH 1984). (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH estimates that 125,000 persons are potentially exposed to acrylonitrile in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). (lookchem.com)
  • If you work in an industry that uses acrylonitrile, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • There is a test that can detect acrylonitrile in blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons whose clothing or skin are contaminated with liquid acrylonitrile can secondarily contaminate response personnel by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • It therefore leased a tank car from the North American Car Corporation, filled it with 20,000 gallons of liquid acrylonitrile, and the Missouri Pacific Railroad then picked up the car from the Louisiana plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several of the pathways of metabolism of the suspected carcinogen acrylonitrile (AN) were identified previously in this laboratory with the use of subcellular fractions and purified enzymes (Guengerich, F. P., Geiger, L. E., Hogy, L. L., and Wright, P. L., Cancer Res. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because acrylonitrile is relatively volatile and is also readily soluble in water, release to the environment from waste sites is of concern. (cdc.gov)
  • Improvements in cryofocusing of volatile organic analytes for capillary GC determination (Washall and Wampler 1988) should improve sensitivity for the determination of acrylonitrile. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile can enter your body if you breathe its vapors or eat or drink acrylonitrile-contaminated food or water. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylonitrile vapors are heavier than air and may travel along the ground and be ignited by open flames or sparks at locations remote from the site at which acrylonitrile is being handled. (ca.gov)