Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
Substances used to clean dentures; they are usually alkaline peroxides or hypochlorites, may contain enzymes and release oxygen. Use also for sonic action cleaners.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
The process of reuniting or replacing broken or worn parts of a denture.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.
Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.
The process of refitting a denture by replacing the denture base material without changing the occlusal relations of the teeth. Rebasing may include adding to the denture base to compensate for resorptive changes to subjacent structures.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
Acrylates are a group of synthetic compounds based on acrylic acid, commonly used in various industrial and medical applications such as adhesives, coatings, and dental materials, known to cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
A complete denture replacing all the natural maxillary teeth and associated maxillary structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying maxillary bone.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.
An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face, missing as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery. When the prosthesis replaces portions of the mandible only, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.
Fluorocarbon polymers are synthetic, high-molecular-weight compounds consisting of carbon chains with fluorine atoms replacing hydrogen atoms, known for their chemical and thermal stability, as well as their resistance to water, oil, and heat, which make them useful in various medical applications such as biocompatible coatings, drug delivery systems, and implant materials.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.
A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.
Physiological functions, activities, and interactions of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.
A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)
The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.
Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.
Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
Artificial implanted lenses.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A complete denture replacing all the natural mandibular teeth and associated structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying mandibular bone.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Polymeric resins containing a combination of SILOXANES and OXIRANES.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Thiones are organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms, often found in certain drugs and naturally occurring substances, which possess various pharmacological activities.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Clouding or loss of transparency of the posterior lens capsule, usually following CATARACT extraction.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system in hemodialysis: role of membrane electronegativity, blood dilution, and pH. (1/1060)

BACKGROUND: The kallikrein-kinin system activation by contact with a negatively charged surface has been promulgated to be responsible for hypersensitivity reactions. However, to explain the low frequency and heterogeneity of hypersensitivity reactions, we hypothesized that not only the electronegativity of the membrane, but also other physicochemical parameters could influence the activation of the contact phase system of plasma assessed by the measurement of kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. METHODS: Plasma kallikrein activity using chromogenic substrate (S2302) and plasma bradykinin concentration (enzyme immuno assay) were measured during the perfusion of human plasma (2.5 ml/min) through minidialyzers mounted with six different membranes [polyacrylonitrile (PAN) from Asahi (PANDX) and from Hospal (AN69), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) from Toray, cellulose triacetate (CT) from Baxter, cuprophane (CUP) from Akzo and polysulfone (PS) from Fresenius]. RESULTS: A direct relationship was shown between the electronegativity of the membrane assessed by its zeta potential and the activation of plasma during the first five minutes of plasma circulation. With the AN69 membrane, the detection of a kallikrein activity in diluted plasma but not in undiluted samples confirmed the importance of a protease-antiprotease imbalance leading to bradykinin release during the first five minutes of dialysis. With PAN membranes, the use of citrated versus heparinized plasma and the use of various rinsing solutions clearly show a dramatic effect of pH on the kallikrein activity and the bradykinin concentration measured in plasma. Finally, increasing the zeta potential of the membrane leads to a significant increase of plasma kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro experimental approach evidences the importance of the control of these physicochemical factors to decrease the activation of the contact system.  (+info)

Intravitreous transplantation of encapsulated fibroblasts secreting the human fibroblast growth factor 2 delays photoreceptor cell degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats. (2/1060)

We developed an experimental approach with genetically engineered and encapsulated mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to delay the progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells in dark-eyed Royal College of Surgeons rats. These xenogeneic fibroblasts can survive in 1. 5-mm-long microcapsules made of the biocompatible polymer AN69 for at least 90 days under in vitro and in vivo conditions because of their stable transfection with the gene for the 18-kDa form of the human basic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF-2). Furthermore, when transferred surgically into the vitreous cavity of 21-day-old Royal College of Surgeons rats, the microencapsulated hFGF-2-secreting fibroblasts provoked a local delay of photoreceptor cell degeneration, as seen at 45 days and 90 days after transplantation. This effect was limited to 2.08 mm2 (45 days) and 0.95 mm2 (90 days) of the retinal surface. In both untreated eyes and control globes with encapsulated hFGF-2-deficient fibroblasts, the rescued area (of at most 0.08 mm2) was significantly smaller at both time points. Although, in a few ocular globes, surgical trauma induced a reorganization of the retinal cytoarchitecture, neither microcapsule rejection nor hFGF-2-mediated tumor formation were detected in any treated eyes. These findings indicate that encapsulated fibroblasts secreting hFGF-2 or perhaps other agents can be applied as potential therapeutic tools to treat retinal dystrophies.  (+info)

The crystal growth technique--a laboratory evaluation of bond strengths. (3/1060)

An ex vivo study was carried out to determine differences in the bond strengths achieved with brackets placed using a crystal growth technique compared with a conventional acid-etch technique. A solution of 37 per cent phosphoric acid was used for acid-etching and a commercially available polyacrylic acid gel, Crystal-lok for crystal growth. A heavily-filled composite resin was used for all samples to bond brackets to healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Polycrystalline ceramic and stainless steel brackets were used and tested to both tensile and shear failure using an Instron Universal Testing machine. The tensile and shear bond strengths were recorded in kgF. In view of difficulties experienced with previous authors using different units to describe their findings, the data were subsequently converted to a range of units in order to facilitate direct comparison. The crystal growth technique produced significantly lower bond strengths than the acid-etch technique for ceramic and stainless steel brackets, both in tensile and shear mode. The tensile bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 2.2 kg compared with 6.01 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the tensile bond strengths were 3.9 kg for crystal growth and 5.55 kg for acid-etch. The mean shear bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 12.61 kg compared with 21.55 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the shear bond strengths were 7.93 kg with crystal growth compared with 16.55 kg for acid-tech. These bond strengths were below those previously suggested as clinically acceptable.  (+info)

High resolution detection of mechanical forces exerted by locomoting fibroblasts on the substrate. (4/1060)

We have developed a new approach to detect mechanical forces exerted by locomoting fibroblasts on the substrate. Cells were cultured on elastic, collagen-coated polyacrylamide sheets embedded with 0. 2-micrometer fluorescent beads. Forces exerted by the cell cause deformation of the substrate and displacement of the beads. By recording the position of beads during cell locomotion and after cell removal, we discovered that most forces were radially distributed, switching direction in the anterior region. Deformations near the leading edge were strong, transient, and variable in magnitude, consistent with active local contractions, whereas those in the posterior region were weaker, more stable, and more uniform, consistent with passive resistance. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin D or myosin II inhibitors caused relaxation of the forces, suggesting that they are generated primarily via actin-myosin II interactions; treatment with nocodazole caused no immediate effect on forces. Immunofluorescence indicated that the frontal region of strong deformation contained many vinculin plaques but no apparent concentration of actin or myosin II filaments. Strong mechanical forces in the anterior region, generated by locally activated myosin II and transmitted through vinculin-rich structures, likely play a major role in cell locomotion and in mechanical signaling with the surrounding environment.  (+info)

Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part I. New precious metal alloys with base metals for resin bonding. (5/1060)

New dental precious metal alloys for resin bonding without alloy surface modification were developed by adding base metals (In, Zn, or Sn). Before this, binary alloys of Au, Ag, Cu, or Pd containing In, Zn, or Sn were studied for water durability and bonding strength with 4-META resin. The adhesion ability of the binary alloys was improved by adding In equivalent to 15% of Au content, Zn equivalent to 20% of Ag content, and In, Zn, or Sn equivalent to 5% of Cu content. There was no addition effect of the base metals on Pd, however 15% of In addition improved adhesion with Pd-based alloys containing equi-atomic % of Cu and Pd. The alloy surfaces were analyzed by XPS and showed that oxides such as In2O3, ZnO, or SnO play an important role in improving the adhesive ability of the alloys.  (+info)

Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part II. The relationship between surface structure of Au-In alloys and adhesive ability with 4-META resin. (6/1060)

Adhesion of 4-META to Au-In alloy was improved by adding In equivalent to .15% of Au content. On the basis of the results of Au-In alloys analyzed by XPS, the present study investigated the reason why adhesion of the Au-In alloy was improved. The O 1s spectrum could be separated into three oxygen chemical states, In2O3, chemisorbed H2O, and physisorbed H2O. The amount of chemisorbed H2O decreased remarkably with increasing amount of In. It is considered that the poor adhesive ability of the pure gold and alloys containing only small amounts of In was due to the chemisorbed H2O molecules and insufficient indium oxide on the alloy surface. It was established that excellent adhesion requires an oxide with chemical affinity for 4-META to cover at least 50% of the alloy surface.  (+info)

Super pulse CO2 laser for bracket bonding and debonding. (7/1060)

A super pulse and a normal pulse CO2 laser were used to carry out enamel etching and bracket debonding in vitro and in vivo. The shear bond strength of the orthodontic brackets attached to laser-etched and conventional chemically-etched extracted premolars was measured. The pulp cavity temperature was also measured using the same laser irradiation conditions as the shear test. Both super pulse and normal pulse CO2 laser etching resulted in a lower shear bond strength (super pulse: 6.9 +/- 3.4 kg, normal pulse: 9.7 +/- 5.2 kg) than that of chemical etching (15.3 +/- 2.8 kg). Furthermore, the super pulse CO2 laser was able to create debonding at 2 watts within a period of less than 4 seconds (2.9 +/- 0.9 seconds). The super pulse, when irradiating the ceramic brackets from above, during debonding showed a 1.4 degrees C temperature increase in the dental pulp at 2 watts and an increase of 2.1 degrees C at 3 watts. While etching, directly irradiating the enamel surface at 3 watts, the dental pulp showed a temperature increase of 3.5 degrees C. These temperature increases were within the physiologically acceptable limits of the pulp. These results indicate that, in orthodontic treatments, super pulse CO2 laser debonding is more useful than laser etching.  (+info)

Subcellular localization and partial purification of prelamin A endoprotease: an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of farnesylated prelamin A to mature lamin A. (8/1060)

The nuclear lamina protein, lamin A is produced by proteolytic cleavage of a 74 kDa precursor protein, prelamin A. The conversion of this precursor to mature lamin A is mediated by a specific endoprotease, prelamin A endoprotease. Subnuclear fractionation indicates that the prelamin A endoprotease is localized at the nuclear membrane. The enzyme appears to be an integral membrane protein, as it can only be removed from the nuclear envelope with detergent. It is effectively solubilized by the detergent n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and can be partially-purified (approximately 1200-fold) by size exclusion and cation exchange (Mono S) chromatography. Prelamin A endoprotease from HeLa cells was eluted from Mono S with 0.3 M sodium chloride as a single peak of activity. SDS-PAGE analysis of this prelamin A endoprotease preparation shows that it contains one major polypeptide at 65 kDa and smaller amounts of a second 68 kDa polypeptide. Inhibition of the enzyme activity in this preparation by specific serine protease inhibitors is consistent with the enzyme being a serine protease.  (+info)

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

Denture bases are the part of a dental prosthesis that rests on the oral tissues and supports the artificial teeth. They are typically made from polymers such as acrylic resin or polymer-ceramic composites, and are custom-fabricated to fit precisely onto the gums and underlying bone structure in the mouth. The denture base provides stability and retention for the prosthesis, allowing it to remain securely in place during eating, speaking, and other activities. It is important that denture bases fit well and are comfortable, as ill-fitting bases can cause irritation, sores, and difficulty with oral function.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Methyl Methacrylate (MMA) is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. Therefore, I will provide you with a general definition and some of its medical uses.

Methyl methacrylate (C5H8O2) is an organic compound, specifically an ester of methacrylic acid and methanol. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature, with a characteristic sweet odor. MMA is primarily used in the production of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic often referred to as acrylic glass or plexiglass.

In the medical field, PMMA has several applications:

1. Intraocular lenses: PMMA is used to create artificial intraocular lenses (IOLs) that replace natural lenses during cataract surgery. These IOLs are biocompatible and provide excellent optical clarity.
2. Bone cement: MMA is mixed with a powdered polymer to form polymethyl methacrylate bone cement, which is used in orthopedic and trauma surgeries for fixation of prosthetic joint replacements, vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty.
3. Dental applications: PMMA is used in the fabrication of dental crowns, bridges, and dentures due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.
4. Surgical implants: PMMA is also used in various surgical implants, such as cranial plates and reconstructive surgery, because of its transparency and ability to be molded into specific shapes.

Synthetic resins are artificially produced substances that have properties similar to natural resins. They are typically created through polymerization, a process in which small molecules called monomers chemically bind together to form larger, more complex structures known as polymers.

Synthetic resins can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition and properties, including:

1. Thermosetting resins: These resins undergo a chemical reaction when heated, resulting in a rigid and infusible material that cannot be melted or reformed once it has cured. Examples include epoxy, phenolic, and unsaturated polyester resins.

2. Thermoplastic resins: These resins can be repeatedly softened and hardened by heating and cooling without undergoing any significant chemical changes. Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.

3. Elastomeric resins: These resins have the ability to stretch and return to their original shape when released, making them ideal for use in applications that require flexibility and durability. Examples include natural rubber, silicone rubber, and polyurethane.

Synthetic resins are widely used in various industries, including construction, automotive, electronics, and healthcare. In the medical field, they may be used to create dental restorations, medical devices, and drug delivery systems, among other applications.

In a medical context, "resins, plant" refer to the sticky, often aromatic substances produced by certain plants. These resins are typically composed of a mixture of volatile oils, terpenes, and rosin acids. They may be present in various parts of the plant, including leaves, stems, and roots, and are often found in specialized structures such as glands or ducts.

Plant resins have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and other applications. Some resins have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, or analgesic properties and have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions, respiratory infections, and pain.

Examples of plant resins with medicinal uses include:

* Frankincense (Boswellia spp.) resin has been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation, arthritis, and asthma.
* Myrrh (Commiphora spp.) resin has been used as an antiseptic, astringent, and anti-inflammatory agent.
* Pine resin has been used topically for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

It's important to note that while some plant resins have demonstrated medicinal benefits, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some resins can have adverse effects or interact with medications, and it's essential to ensure their safe and effective use.

An artificial tooth, also known as a dental prosthesis or dental restoration, is a device made to replace a missing tooth or teeth. It can be removable, such as a denture, or fixed, such as a bridge or an implant-supported crown. The material used to make artificial teeth can vary and may include porcelain, resin, metal, or a combination of these materials. Its purpose is to restore function, aesthetics, and/or speech, and it is custom-made to fit the individual's mouth for comfort and effectiveness.

"Prosthesis coloring" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of prosthetics. However, I can provide you with some context that might help clarify what you are looking for.

In the context of artificial limbs (prostheses), patients may want their devices to match their skin tone as closely as possible to make them less noticeable and more aesthetically appealing. This process is called "prosthetic covering" or "cosmesis," which involves applying custom-made covers, sleeves, or skins over the prosthesis to mimic the appearance of natural skin color and texture.

Prosthetic covering materials can be painted, printed, or dyed to achieve the desired color match. This process is often referred to as "coloring" or "painting the prosthesis." The coloring technique may involve using various shades, tones, and textures to create a natural-looking appearance that blends well with the user's remaining limb or body.

In summary, while there is no formal medical definition for "prosthesis coloring," it likely refers to the process of applying custom colors, shading, or patterns to an artificial limb (prosthesis) to create a more natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance that matches the user's skin tone.

Denture cleansers are specialized cleaning products designed to clean and maintain dentures, which are removable artificial teeth. These products typically contain active ingredients that help break down and remove dental plaque, tartar, stains, and odors that can accumulate on dentures over time. Denture cleansers come in various forms, including:

1. Denture cleaning tablets or powders: Users dissolve these products in water and soak their dentures in the solution to clean them.
2. Denture cleaning pastes or gels: These are applied directly to the dentures and then brushed off with a soft toothbrush.
3. Denture cleaning foams: These are sprayed onto the dentures and then rinsed off after a short period of time.

It is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions when using denture cleansers, as some products may not be suitable for specific types of dentures or materials. Additionally, it is recommended to clean dentures daily with a soft toothbrush and warm water, even when using denture cleansers, to ensure optimal oral hygiene.

Methyl Methacrylates (MMA) are a family of synthetic materials that are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. Medically, MMA is often used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic implants, such as artificial hips or knees, into place during surgeries.

Methyl methacrylates consist of a type of acrylic resin that hardens when mixed with a liquid catalyst. This property allows it to be easily molded and shaped before it sets, making it ideal for use in surgical procedures where precise positioning is required. Once hardened, MMA forms a strong, stable bond with the bone, helping to secure the implant in place.

It's important to note that while MMA is widely used in medical applications, there have been concerns about its safety in certain situations. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of methyl methacrylate fumes released during the setting process may be harmful to both patients and surgical staff. Therefore, appropriate precautions should be taken when using MMA-based products in medical settings.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a type of synthetic resin that is widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility and versatility. It is a transparent, rigid, and lightweight material that can be easily molded into different shapes and forms. Here are some of the medical definitions of PMMA:

1. A biocompatible acrylic resin used in various medical applications such as bone cement, intraocular lenses, dental restorations, and drug delivery systems.
2. A type of synthetic material that is used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic joint replacements and vertebroplasty for the treatment of spinal fractures.
3. A transparent and shatter-resistant material used in the manufacture of medical devices such as intravenous (IV) fluid bags, dialyzer housings, and oxygenators.
4. A drug delivery system that can be used to administer drugs locally or systemically, such as intraocular sustained-release drug implants for the treatment of chronic eye diseases.
5. A component of dental restorations such as fillings, crowns, and bridges due to its excellent mechanical properties and esthetic qualities.

Overall, PMMA is a versatile and valuable material in the medical field, with numerous applications that take advantage of its unique properties.

Denture repair is the process of fixing or mending broken, damaged, or ill-fitting dentures to restore their functionality, comfort, and appearance. This may involve repairing fractured denture bases or teeth, rebasing or relining dentures to ensure a better fit, or adding new teeth to replace those that have been lost due to decay or breakage. Denture repairs are typically performed by dental professionals, such as dentists or prosthodontists, who have the necessary training and expertise to provide high-quality and safe repairs. It is essential to have damaged dentures repaired promptly to prevent further damage and potential harm to the oral tissues.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Dental disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are used to inactivate or destroy microorganisms present on dental instruments, equipment, and surfaces in order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. These disinfectants are intended to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe and poses minimal risk of infection.

Dental disinfectants can be classified based on their spectrum of activity, which ranges from low-level disinfectants that are effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses, to high-level disinfectants that also inactivate bacterial spores. The choice of a particular dental disinfectant depends on the intended use, the level of contamination, and the type of microorganisms present.

It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use, including the recommended contact time, concentration, and method of application, to ensure the effectiveness of dental disinfectants. Additionally, proper handling, storage, and disposal of these agents are essential to prevent harm to patients, staff, and the environment.

An artificial eye, also known as a prosthetic eye, is a type of medical device that is used to replace a natural eye that has been removed or is not functional due to injury, disease, or congenital abnormalities. It is typically made of acrylic or glass and is custom-made to match the size, shape, and color of the patient's other eye as closely as possible.

The artificial eye is designed to fit over the eye socket and rest on the eyelids, allowing the person to have a more natural appearance and improve their ability to blink and close their eye. It does not restore vision, but it can help protect the eye socket and improve the patient's self-esteem and quality of life.

The process of fitting an artificial eye typically involves several appointments with an ocularist, who is a healthcare professional trained in the measurement, design, and fabrication of prosthetic eyes. The ocularist will take impressions of the eye socket, create a model, and then use that model to make the artificial eye. Once the artificial eye is made, the ocularist will fit it and make any necessary adjustments to ensure that it is comfortable and looks natural.

Methacrylates are a group of chemical compounds that contain the methacrylate functional group, which is a vinyl group (CH2=CH-) with a carbonyl group (C=O) at the β-position. This structure gives them unique chemical and physical properties, such as low viscosity, high reactivity, and resistance to heat and chemicals.

In medical terms, methacrylates are used in various biomedical applications, such as dental restorative materials, bone cements, and drug delivery systems. For example, methacrylate-based resins are commonly used in dentistry for fillings, crowns, and bridges due to their excellent mechanical properties and adhesion to tooth structures.

However, there have been concerns about the potential toxicity of methacrylates, particularly their ability to release monomers that can cause allergic reactions, irritation, or even mutagenic effects in some individuals. Therefore, it is essential to use these materials with caution and follow proper handling and safety protocols.

In the context of medicine, particularly in physical therapy and rehabilitation, "pliability" refers to the quality or state of being flexible or supple. It describes the ability of tissues, such as muscles or fascia (connective tissue), to stretch, deform, and adapt to forces applied upon them without resistance or injury. Improving pliability can help enhance range of motion, reduce muscle stiffness, promote circulation, and alleviate pain. Techniques like soft tissue mobilization, myofascial release, and stretching are often used to increase pliability in clinical settings.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Denture design refers to the plan and configuration of a removable dental prosthesis, which is created to replace missing teeth and surrounding tissues in the mouth. The design process involves several factors such as:

1. The number and position of artificial teeth (pontics) used to restore the functional occlusion and aesthetics.
2. The type and arrangement of the denture base material that supports the artificial teeth and conforms to the oral tissues.
3. The selection and placement of various rests, clasps, or attachments to improve retention, stability, and support of the denture.
4. The choice of materials used for the construction of the denture, including the type of acrylic resin, metal alloys, or other components.
5. Consideration of the patient's individual needs, preferences, and oral conditions to ensure optimal fit, comfort, and functionality.

The design process is typically carried out by a dental professional, such as a prosthodontist or denturist, in close collaboration with the patient to achieve a custom-made solution that meets their specific requirements.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

Polymerization is not exclusively a medical term, but it is widely used in the field of medical sciences, particularly in areas such as biochemistry and materials science. In a broad sense, polymerization refers to the process by which small molecules, known as monomers, chemically react and join together to form larger, more complex structures called polymers.

In the context of medical definitions:

Polymerization is the chemical reaction where multiple repeating monomer units bind together covalently (through strong chemical bonds) to create a long, chain-like molecule known as a polymer. This process can occur naturally or be induced artificially through various methods, depending on the type of monomers and desired polymer properties.

In biochemistry, polymerization plays an essential role in forming important biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. These natural polymers are built from specific monomer units—nucleotides for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), amino acids for proteins, and sugars for polysaccharides—that polymerize in a highly regulated manner to create the final functional structures.

In materials science, synthetic polymers are often created through polymerization for various medical applications, such as biocompatible materials, drug delivery systems, and medical devices. These synthetic polymers can be tailored to have specific properties, such as degradation rates, mechanical strength, or hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, depending on the desired application.

A complete denture is a removable dental appliance that replaces all of the teeth in an upper or lower arch. It is also commonly referred to as a "full denture." A complete denture is created specifically to fit a patient's mouth and can be made of either acrylic resin (plastic) or metal and acrylic resin.

The upper complete denture covers the palate (roof of the mouth), while the lower complete denture is shaped like a horseshoe to leave room for the tongue. Dentures are held in place by forming a seal with the gums and remaining jawbone structure, and can be secured further with the use of dental adhesives.

Complete dentures not only restore the ability to eat and speak properly but also help support the facial structures, improving the patient's appearance and overall confidence. It is important to maintain regular dental check-ups even if all teeth are missing, as the dentist will monitor the fit and health of the oral tissues and make any necessary adjustments to the denture.

Denture liners are soft, flexible materials that are used to reline or temporarily repair the fitting surface of a denture. They are intended to improve the comfort and fit of the denture by filling in any spaces or irregularities between the denture and the gum tissue. Denture liners are typically made from materials such as silicone, polyphosphazine, or acrylic and can be added to the denture by a dental professional in the dental office. They may need to be replaced or re-adjusted periodically to maintain a proper fit.

Denture rebasing is a dental procedure that involves replacing the entire base of a denture without changing the clinical crown heights of the artificial teeth. This process is typically done when the existing base material has worn out, become unstable, or when there are significant changes in the oral tissues and jawbone structure due to resorption.

The procedure involves removing the existing artificial teeth from the denture, modifying them if necessary, and then placing them onto a new pink acrylic base that fits accurately over the remaining dental ridges. The rebasing material is usually made of a durable, flexible, and comfortable polymer like polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA).

Rebasing can help improve the fit, stability, and comfort of a denture without the need for replacing the entire appliance. It is essential to have regular dental check-ups and follow proper oral hygiene practices to ensure the longevity and effectiveness of the denture rebasing treatment.

Ion exchange resins are insoluble, cross-linked polymeric materials that contain functional groups which can exchange ions with surrounding solutions. These resins are typically used in water treatment and purification processes to remove unwanted dissolved ions, molecules, or gases. They operate through the principle of ion exchange, where ions held on the resin are exchanged for ions in the solution. The process can be used to soften water, remove heavy metals, treat wastewater, and deionize water, among other applications.

The resins consist of a three-dimensional network of cross-linked polymer chains, providing a large surface area for ion exchange. They are often made from styrene and divinylbenzene monomers, which form a rigid structure that can withstand repeated ion exchange cycles without losing its shape or functionality. The functional groups on the resins can be cationic (positively charged) or anionic (negatively charged), allowing them to attract and retain ions of opposite charge from the surrounding solution.

Cation exchange resins are used to remove positively charged ions, such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, while anion exchange resins are used to remove negatively charged ions, such as chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and bicarbonate. The resins can be regenerated by washing them with a strong solution of the ion to be recovered, allowing them to be reused multiple times before they need to be replaced.

Acrylates are a group of chemical compounds that are derived from acrylic acid. They are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of plastics, resins, paints, and adhesives. In the medical field, acrylates are sometimes used in the formation of dental restorations, such as fillings and dentures, due to their strong bonding properties and durability.

However, it is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to acrylates, which can cause skin irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, or other adverse effects. Therefore, medical professionals must use caution when working with these materials and ensure that patients are informed of any potential risks associated with their use.

Siloxanes are a group of synthetic compounds that contain repeating units of silicon-oxygen-silicon (Si-O-Si) bonds, often combined with organic groups such as methyl or ethyl groups. They are widely used in various industrial and consumer products due to their unique properties, including thermal stability, low surface tension, and resistance to water and heat.

In medical terms, siloxanes have been studied for their potential use in medical devices and therapies. For example, some siloxane-based materials have been developed for use as coatings on medical implants, such as catheters and stents, due to their ability to reduce friction and prevent bacterial adhesion.

However, it's worth noting that exposure to high levels of certain types of siloxanes has been linked to potential health effects, including respiratory irritation and reproductive toxicity. Therefore, appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling these compounds in a medical or industrial setting.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "microwaves" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; they are commonly used in communication devices and home appliances such as microwave ovens. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate response.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

A complete upper denture is a removable dental appliance that replaces all of the natural teeth in the upper jaw. It is typically made of acrylic resin and fits over the gums, creating a natural-looking smile and allowing the patient to chew and speak properly. The denture is custom-made to fit the unique contours of the patient's mouth, ensuring a comfortable and secure fit.

Complete upper dentures are designed to replace an entire arch of teeth, providing support for the lips and cheeks and helping to maintain the natural shape of the face. They can be held in place by suction or with the help of dental adhesives, and should be removed and cleaned regularly to ensure good oral hygiene and prevent damage to the gums and underlying bone.

Overall, complete upper dentures are an effective solution for patients who have lost all of their upper teeth due to injury, decay, or other factors. They can help restore function, aesthetics, and confidence, allowing individuals to lead a healthy and fulfilling life.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

Stomatitis, denture is a specific type of stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth) that is caused by ill-fitting or poorly cleaned dentures. It is also known as denture-induced stomatitis. The condition is often characterized by redness and soreness of the oral mucosa, particularly under the denture-bearing area.

The continuous irritation and friction from the denture, combined with the accumulation of microorganisms such as Candida albicans (yeast), can lead to this inflammatory response. Denture wearers, especially those who have been using their dentures for an extended period or those with poor oral hygiene, are at a higher risk of developing denture-induced stomatitis.

To manage this condition, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene, clean the dentures thoroughly, and ensure a proper fit. In some cases, antifungal medications may be prescribed to treat any underlying Candida infection. Regular dental check-ups are also crucial for early detection and prevention of stomatitis, denture.

Dentures are defined as a removable dental appliance that replaces missing teeth and surrounding tissues. They are made to resemble your natural teeth and may even enhance your smile. There are two types of dentures - complete and partial. Complete dentures are used when all the teeth are missing, while partial dentures are used when some natural teeth remain.

Complete dentures cover the entire upper or lower jaw, while partial dentures replace one or more missing teeth by attaching to the remaining teeth. Dentures improve chewing ability, speech, and support the facial muscles and structure, preventing sagging of the cheeks and jowls that can occur with missing teeth.

The process of getting dentures usually involves several appointments with a dental professional, who will take impressions and measurements of your mouth to ensure a proper fit and comfortable bite. It may take some time to get used to wearing dentures, but they are an effective solution for restoring a natural-looking smile and improving oral function in people who have lost their teeth.

Dental polishing is a procedure in dentistry that is performed to smooth and clean the surfaces of teeth after professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis), restoration, or other dental treatments. It is usually done using a slow-speed handpiece with a soft, rubber cup attached to it, which holds a polishing paste or a slurry of pumice and water. The polishing paste may contain an abrasive agent, fluoride, or a flavoring agent. The dental professional moves the handpiece in a circular motion over the tooth surface to remove stains, plaque, and minor surface roughness, leaving the teeth smooth and shiny. Dental polishing helps to prevent the buildup of plaque and tartar, reduce the risk of decay and gum disease, and improve the overall oral hygiene and aesthetics of the teeth.

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. It is a pale greenish-yellow liquid that is highly reactive and unstable in its pure form. However, it is commonly available as a dilute aqueous solution known as bleach, which has the characteristic smell of chlorine.

In medical terms, sodium hypochlorite is widely used for its disinfectant and antiseptic properties. It is effective against a broad range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Sodium hypochlorite solution is commonly used to disinfect surfaces, medical instruments, and wounds.

When applied to wounds or skin infections, sodium hypochlorite can help reduce bacterial load, promote healing, and prevent infection. It is also a component of some mouthwashes and toothpastes, where it helps to kill bacteria and freshen breath. However, it can be irritating to the skin and mucous membranes, so it should be used with caution and at appropriate concentrations.

Artificial saliva is a synthetic solution that mimics the chemical composition and properties of natural saliva. It is often used for patients with dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, or certain medications that reduce saliva production. Artificial saliva may contain ingredients like carboxymethylcellulose, mucin, and electrolytes to provide lubrication, moisture, and pH buffering capacity similar to natural saliva. It can help alleviate symptoms associated with dry mouth, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, and chewing, as well as protect oral tissues from irritation and infection.

The dental casting technique is a method used in dentistry to create accurate replicas or reproductions of teeth and oral structures. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Making an impression: A dental professional takes an impression of the patient's teeth and oral structures using a special material, such as alginate or polyvinyl siloxane. The impression material captures the precise shape and contours of the teeth and surrounding tissues.
2. Pouring the cast: The impression is then filled with a casting material, such as gypsum-based stone, which hardens to form a positive model or replica of the teeth and oral structures. This model is called a dental cast or die.
3. Examining and modifying the cast: The dental cast can be used for various purposes, such as analyzing the patient's bite, planning treatment, fabricating dental appliances, or creating study models for teaching or research purposes. Dental professionals may also modify the cast to simulate various conditions or treatments.
4. Replicating the process: In some cases, multiple casts may be made from a single impression, allowing dental professionals to create identical replicas of the patient's teeth and oral structures. This can be useful for comparing changes over time, creating duplicate appliances, or sharing information with other dental professionals involved in the patient's care.

The dental casting technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, as it enables dentists to accurately assess, plan, and implement treatments based on the unique characteristics of each patient's oral structures.

In the context of medical terminology, 'color' is not defined specifically with a unique meaning. Instead, it generally refers to the characteristic or appearance of something, particularly in relation to the color that a person may observe visually. For instance, doctors may describe the color of a patient's skin, eyes, hair, or bodily fluids to help diagnose medical conditions or monitor their progression.

For example, jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes that can indicate liver problems, while cyanosis refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood. Similarly, doctors may describe the color of stool or urine to help diagnose digestive or kidney issues.

Therefore, 'color' is not a medical term with a specific definition but rather a general term used to describe various visual characteristics of the body and bodily fluids that can provide important diagnostic clues for healthcare professionals.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

Adhesives are substances that are used to bind two surfaces together. They can be composed of a variety of materials, including natural substances like tree sap or animal glue, or synthetic substances like cyanoacrylates (super glues) or epoxies. Adhesives can be classified based on their chemical composition, how they cure (set), and their properties such as strength, flexibility, and resistance to environmental factors. In a medical context, adhesives may be used in a variety of applications, such as wound closure, securing medical devices, or attaching bandages or dressings. It's important to choose the right type of adhesive for each application to ensure proper adhesion, safety, and effectiveness.

Self-curing of dental resins, also known as auto-curing or self-cure, refers to the ability of certain dental materials to undergo polymerization and harden without the need for external light activation. This process is typically achieved through a chemical reaction between two components within the material that generates heat and causes the resin to solidify.

Self-curing dental resins are commonly used in dentistry for various applications, such as filling cavities or creating dental restorations like crowns and bridges. These materials offer several advantages over light-cured resins, including easier placement in hard-to-reach areas and reduced dependence on specialized equipment.

However, self-curing resins may have some limitations compared to light-cured alternatives, such as longer setting times, potential for overheating during the curing process, and less precise control over the degree of polymerization.

Silicone elastomers are a type of synthetic rubber made from silicone, which is a polymer composed primarily of silicon-oxygen bonds. They are known for their durability, flexibility, and resistance to heat, cold, and moisture. Silicone elastomers can be manufactured in various forms, including liquids, gels, and solids, and they are used in a wide range of medical applications such as:

1. Breast implants: Silicone elastomer shells filled with silicone gel are commonly used for breast augmentation and reconstruction.
2. Contact lenses: Some contact lenses are made from silicone elastomers due to their high oxygen permeability, which allows for better eye health.
3. Catheters: Silicone elastomer catheters are flexible and resistant to kinking, making them suitable for long-term use in various medical procedures.
4. Implantable drug delivery systems: Silicone elastomers can be used as a matrix for controlled release of drugs, allowing for sustained and targeted medication administration.
5. Medical adhesives: Silicone elastomer adhesives are biocompatible and can be used to attach medical devices to the skin or other tissues.
6. Sealants and coatings: Silicone elastomers can be used as sealants and coatings in medical devices to prevent leakage, improve durability, and reduce infection risk.

It is important to note that while silicone elastomers are generally considered safe for medical use, there have been concerns about the potential health risks associated with breast implants, such as capsular contracture, breast pain, and immune system reactions. However, these risks vary depending on the individual's health status and the specific type of silicone elastomer used.

Polymethacrylic acids are not typically referred to as a medical term, but rather as a chemical one. They are a type of synthetic polymer made up of repeating units of methacrylic acid (MAA). These polymers have various applications in different industries, including the medical field.

In medicine, polymethacrylates are often used in the formulation of controlled-release drug delivery systems, such as beads or microspheres, due to their ability to swell and shrink in response to changes in pH or temperature. This property allows for the gradual release of drugs encapsulated within these polymers over an extended period.

Polymethacrylates are also used in dental applications, such as in the production of artificial teeth and dentures, due to their durability and resistance to wear. Additionally, they can be found in some surgical sealants and adhesives.

While polymethacrylic acids themselves may not have a specific medical definition, their various forms and applications in medical devices and drug delivery systems contribute significantly to the field of medicine.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

A maxillofacial prosthesis is a custom-made device used to replace all or part of a facial feature, such as an eye, ear, nose, or lip, that has been lost due to trauma, cancer surgery, or other causes. It is typically made from materials like silicone, acrylic, or nylon and is designed to mimic the appearance and texture of natural skin and tissues.

Maxillofacial prostheses are created by trained professionals called maxillofacial prosthodontists, who have specialized training in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and rehabilitation of patients with facial defects. The process of creating a maxillofacial prosthesis typically involves taking an impression of the affected area, creating a custom-made mold, and then fabricating the prosthesis to fit precisely over the defect.

Maxillofacial prostheses can help improve patients' appearance, self-confidence, and quality of life by restoring their facial symmetry and functionality. They may also help protect the underlying tissues and structures from injury or infection, and can be used in conjunction with other treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy, to enhance their effectiveness.

A hardness test is a quantitative measure of a material's resistance to deformation, typically defined as the penetration of an indenter with a specific shape and load into the surface of the material being tested. There are several types of hardness tests, including Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell, and Knoop, each with their own specific methods and applications. The resulting hardness value is used to evaluate the material's properties, such as wear resistance, durability, and suitability for various industrial or manufacturing processes. Hardness tests are widely used in materials science, engineering, and quality control to ensure the consistency and reliability of materials and components.

Silanes are a group of chemical compounds that contain silicon and hydrogen. The general formula for silanes is Si_xH_(2x+2), where x is a positive integer. Silanes are named after their parent compound, silane (SiH4), which contains one silicon atom and four hydrogen atoms.

Silanes are colorless and highly flammable gases at room temperature. They are typically prepared by the reaction of metal silicides with acids or by the reduction of halogenated silanes. Silanes have a variety of industrial applications, including as intermediates in the production of silicon-based materials such as semiconductors and polymers.

In medical contexts, silanes are not typically used directly. However, some silane-containing compounds have been investigated for their potential therapeutic uses. For example, some organosilanes have been shown to have antimicrobial properties and may be useful as disinfectants or in the development of medical devices. Other silane-containing materials have been studied for their potential use in drug delivery systems or as imaging agents in diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that some silanes can be hazardous if not handled properly, and they should only be used by trained professionals in a controlled environment. Exposure to silanes can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Dental restoration wear refers to the progressive loss of structure and function of a dental restoration, such as a filling or crown, due to wear and tear over time. This can be caused by factors such as chewing, grinding, or clenching of teeth, as well as chemical dissolution from acidic foods and drinks. The wear can lead to changes in the shape and fit of the restoration, which may result in discomfort, sensitivity, or even failure of the restoration. Regular dental check-ups are important for monitoring dental restorations and addressing any issues related to wear before they become more serious.

Fluorocarbon polymers are a type of synthetic polymeric material that contain carbon-fluorine bonds. These materials are known for their chemical inertness, high stability, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and water. They are often used in various medical applications such as in the coating of medical devices, implants, and drug delivery systems due to their biocompatibility and non-reactive properties.

Fluorocarbon polymers can be classified into two main categories: perfluoropolymers and fluoropolymers. Perfluoropolymers contain only carbon and fluorine atoms, while fluoropolymers contain other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, or nitrogen in addition to carbon and fluorine.

Examples of fluorocarbon polymers used in medical applications include polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). These materials have a wide range of properties that make them useful in various medical applications, such as low coefficient of friction, high electrical resistance, and excellent chemical resistance.

"Wettability" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term that is more commonly used in the fields of chemistry, physics, and materials science to describe how well a liquid spreads on a solid surface. In other words, it refers to the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, which can have implications for various medical applications such as the design of medical devices or the study of biological surfaces. However, it is not a term that would typically be used in a clinical medical context.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

'Adhesiveness' is a term used in medicine and biology to describe the ability of two surfaces to stick or adhere to each other. In medical terms, it often refers to the property of tissues or cells to adhere to one another, as in the case of scar tissue formation where healing tissue adheres to adjacent structures.

In the context of microbiology, adhesiveness can refer to the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to attach themselves to surfaces, such as medical devices or human tissues, which can lead to infection and other health problems. Adhesives used in medical devices, such as bandages or wound dressings, also have adhesiveness properties that allow them to stick to the skin or other surfaces.

Overall, adhesiveness is an important property in many areas of medicine and biology, with implications for wound healing, infection control, and the design and function of medical devices.

Epoxy resins are a type of synthetic polymer that are created through the reaction of an epoxide compound with a hardening agent or curing agent. These materials are known for their strong adhesive properties, chemical resistance, and durability. They are commonly used in coatings, adhesives, and composite materials for various industrial, commercial, and consumer applications.

In medical contexts, epoxy resins may be used to create durable and reliable components for medical devices or equipment. For example, they might be used to make housings for medical instruments, or to bond together different parts of a medical device. However, it's worth noting that epoxy resins are not typically used in direct contact with the body or as part of medical treatments.

It's important to note that while epoxy resins have many useful properties, they can also release potentially harmful chemicals during their production and disposal. As such, appropriate safety precautions should be taken when working with these materials.

Air abrasion, dental, is a method of removing decay and minor defects from teeth using a stream of air and fine particles. This technique is an alternative to the traditional drilling method and is often used in preventative dentistry and for preparing teeth for fillings or sealants. The process is generally considered to be more comfortable for patients as it typically does not require anesthesia, and it can be more precise and less invasive than drilling. However, air abrasion may not be suitable for all types of dental work and its use is determined by the dentist on a case-by-case basis.

Dental restoration failure refers to the breakdown or loss of functionality of a dental restoration, which is a procedure performed to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of a tooth that has been damaged due to decay, trauma, or wear. The restoration can include fillings, crowns, veneers, bridges, and implants. Failure of dental restorations can occur due to various reasons such as recurrent decay, fracture, poor fit, or material failure, leading to further damage or loss of the tooth.

A dental crown is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are used to restore the strength, functionality, and appearance of teeth that have been damaged or weakened due to various reasons such as decay, fracture, or large fillings. They can be made from various materials including porcelain, ceramic, metal, or a combination of these. The crown is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth and is cemented into place, becoming a permanent part of the tooth. Crowns are also used for cosmetic purposes to improve the appearance of discolored or misshapen teeth.

Light-curing of dental adhesives refers to the process of using a special type of light to polymerize and harden the adhesive material used in dentistry. The light is typically a blue spectrum light, with a wavelength of approximately 460-490 nanometers, which activates a photoinitiator within the adhesive. This initiates a polymerization reaction that causes the adhesive to solidify and form a strong bond between the tooth surface and the dental restoration material, such as a filling or a crown.

The light-curing process is an important step in many dental procedures as it helps ensure the durability and longevity of the restoration. The intensity and duration of the light exposure are critical factors that can affect the degree of cure and overall strength of the bond. Therefore, it is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using dental adhesives and light-curing equipment.

Dentin-bonding agents are substances used in dentistry to create a strong and durable bond between the dental restoration material (such as composite resin, glass ionomer cement, or crowns) and the dentin surface of a tooth. Dentin is the hard tissue that lies beneath the enamel and consists of microscopic tubules filled with fluid.

The primary function of dentin-bonding agents is to improve the adhesion of restorative materials to the tooth structure, enhancing the retention and durability of dental fillings, crowns, veneers, and other types of restorations. These agents typically contain one or more types of bonding resins, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), and/or phosphoric acid ester monomers.

The application process for dentin-bonding agents usually involves several steps, including:

1. Etching the dentin surface with a mild acid to remove the smear layer and expose the collagen network within the dentin tubules.
2. Applying a primer that penetrates into the etched dentin and promotes the infiltration of bonding resins into the dentinal tubules.
3. Applying an adhesive, which is typically a mixture of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers, to form a stable bond between the tooth structure and the restoration material.
4. Light-curing the adhesive to polymerize the resin and create a strong mechanical bond with the dentin surface.

Dentin-bonding agents have significantly improved the clinical success of various dental restorations by enhancing their retention, reducing microleakage, and minimizing postoperative sensitivity. However, they may still be susceptible to degradation over time due to factors such as moisture contamination, enzymatic degradation, or hydrolysis, which can lead to the failure of dental restorations. Therefore, continuous advancements in dentin-bonding technology are essential for improving the long-term success and durability of dental restorations.

Calcium sulfate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaSO4. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is insoluble in alcohol but soluble in water. Calcium sulfate is commonly found in nature as the mineral gypsum, which is used in various industrial applications such as plaster, wallboard, and cement.

In the medical field, calcium sulfate may be used as a component of some pharmaceutical products or as a surgical material. For example, it can be used as a bone void filler to promote healing after bone fractures or surgeries. Calcium sulfate is also used in some dental materials and medical devices.

It's important to note that while calcium sulfate has various industrial and medical uses, it should not be taken as a dietary supplement or medication without the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Acid etching in dental terminology refers to a surface treatment technique used in dentistry, particularly for bonding procedures. This process involves the application of a mild acid (usually phosphoric or maleic acid) onto the enamel or dentin surface of a tooth. The acid etches the surface by selectively removing the minerals and creating microscopic irregularities or porosities.

This etched surface provides an increased surface area and better mechanical retention for bonding agents, resin composites, or dental cements. As a result, the bond between the tooth and the restorative material becomes stronger and more durable. Acid etching is widely used in various dental procedures such as direct and indirect tooth-colored restorations, veneers, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic attachments.

Dental debonding is a dental procedure that involves the removal or separation of orthodontic appliances, such as brackets and bands, from the surface of teeth. This process is typically performed by an orthodontist or dentist using specialized tools to carefully remove the bonding material that attaches the appliance to the tooth without causing damage to the tooth enamel. Debonding is usually done after the completion of orthodontic treatment, such as when braces are removed. It may also be necessary in cases where an appliance becomes loose or damaged and needs to be replaced.

Microbiological processes refer to the various metabolic activities and reactions carried out by microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic life forms. These processes are crucial for maintaining the balance of ecosystems and play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles, such as nitrogen fixation, carbon cycling, and decomposition.

In medical contexts, microbiological processes can have both beneficial and harmful effects on human health. For example, some microorganisms help break down food in the gut, synthesize vitamins, and protect against harmful pathogens. However, other microorganisms can cause infectious diseases by producing toxins, invading tissues, or disrupting normal physiological functions.

Examples of microbiological processes with medical relevance include:

1. Fermentation: the anaerobic breakdown of organic compounds, such as sugars and amino acids, resulting in the production of acid, gas, or alcohol. This process is used by some bacteria to produce energy and can also be exploited for industrial purposes, such as the production of yogurt, cheese, and other fermented foods.
2. Nitrogen fixation: the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which can then be converted into proteins and other essential nutrients for living organisms. Some bacteria, such as Rhizobia spp., can fix nitrogen in the roots of leguminous plants, providing them with a natural fertilizer.
3. Pathogenesis: the ability of certain microorganisms to cause disease by invading host tissues, evading the immune system, and producing harmful substances such as toxins or enzymes.
4. Biofilm formation: the creation of complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are protected by a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilms can cause chronic infections, resist antibiotics, and contribute to the persistence of pathogens in medical devices and implants.
5. Antibiotic resistance: the ability of microorganisms to survive exposure to antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents. This process can occur through various mechanisms, such as enzymatic degradation of antibiotics, modification of drug targets, or active efflux of drugs from cells.
6. Virulence factors: the specific molecules produced by microorganisms that contribute to their ability to cause disease. These factors can include adhesins, invasins, toxins, and other substances that help pathogens evade host defenses, colonize tissues, or damage host cells.
7. Horizontal gene transfer: the exchange of genetic material between different species or strains of microorganisms, often through processes such as conjugation, transformation, or transduction. This process can facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, and other traits that enhance the fitness and pathogenicity of microbes.
8. Probiotics: live microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts. Probiotics can help maintain a healthy gut microbiota, prevent or treat gastrointestinal disorders, and modulate the immune system.
9. Vaccines: preparations containing antigens or other components of pathogens that stimulate an immune response and provide protection against subsequent infection. Vaccines can be based on whole inactivated or attenuated microorganisms, purified proteins or polysaccharides, DNA or RNA sequences, or recombinant viral vectors.
10. Microbiome: the collective genetic material of all the microorganisms present in a particular environment, such as the human body. The microbiome plays important roles in maintaining health, modulating immunity, and influencing metabolism, but can also contribute to disease when it becomes imbalanced or disrupted.

Dental etching is a dental procedure that involves the use of a chemical agent, such as phosphoric or maleic acid, to create microscopic roughness on the surface of teeth. This process is typically used to prepare the tooth enamel for the application of bonding agents, such as dental adhesives and composite resins, which are used in various restorative and cosmetic dental procedures, such as fillings, veneers, and crowns.

During dental etching, the chemical agent is applied to the tooth surface for a specific amount of time, usually between 15-60 seconds, depending on the strength of the acid and the desired level of etching. The acid dissolves the minerals in the enamel, creating small pores or irregularities that increase the surface area and improve the bonding of the restorative material to the tooth. After etching, the tooth is rinsed with water and dried, and the bonding agent is applied and cured to create a strong and durable bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Dental etching is a safe and effective procedure when performed by a trained dental professional. However, over-etching or improper use of the acid can weaken the tooth structure and lead to sensitivity or other complications. Therefore, it is important to follow proper techniques and guidelines for dental etching to ensure optimal outcomes and patient satisfaction.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

A dental impression technique is a method used in dentistry to create a detailed and accurate replica of a patient's teeth and oral structures. This is typically accomplished by using an impression material, which is inserted into a tray and then placed in the patient's mouth. The material sets or hardens, capturing every detail of the teeth, gums, and other oral tissues.

There are several types of dental impression techniques, including:

1. Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This is a common type of impression material that is made of alginate powder mixed with water. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth.

2. Reversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This type of impression material is similar to irreversible hydrocolloid, but it can be reused. It is made of agar and water and is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and reheated to be used again.

3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS) Impression Material: This is a two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. PVS is known for its high accuracy and detail.

4. Addition Silicone Impression Material: This is another two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is similar to PVS, but it has a longer working time and sets slower. It is often used for full-arch impressions or when there is a need for a very detailed impression.

5. Elastomeric Impression Material: This is a type of impression material that is made of a rubber-like substance. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. Elastomeric impression materials are known for their high accuracy and detail.

The dental impression technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, including creating crowns, bridges, dentures, and orthodontic appliances. The accuracy and detail of the impression can significantly impact the fit and function of the final restoration or appliance.

Dental technology refers to the application of science and engineering in dentistry to prevent, diagnose, and treat dental diseases and conditions. It involves the use of various equipment, materials, and techniques to improve oral health and enhance the delivery of dental care. Some examples of dental technology include:

1. Digital radiography: This technology uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray films to produce images of the teeth and supporting structures. It provides higher quality images, reduces radiation exposure, and allows for easier storage and sharing of images.
2. CAD/CAM dentistry: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology is used to design and fabricate dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and veneers in a single appointment. This technology allows for more precise and efficient production of dental restorations.
3. Dental implants: These are artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to replace missing teeth. They provide a stable foundation for dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures.
4. Intraoral cameras: These are small cameras that can be inserted into the mouth to capture detailed images of the teeth and gums. These images can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient education.
5. Laser dentistry: Dental lasers are used to perform a variety of procedures such as cavity preparation, gum contouring, and tooth whitening. They provide more precise and less invasive treatments compared to traditional dental tools.
6. 3D printing: This technology is used to create dental models, surgical guides, and custom-made dental restorations. It allows for more accurate and efficient production of dental products.

Overall, dental technology plays a crucial role in modern dentistry by improving the accuracy, efficiency, and quality of dental care.

Denture retention, in the field of dentistry, refers to the ability of a dental prosthesis (dentures) to maintain its position and stability within the mouth. It is achieved through various factors including the fit, shape, and design of the denture, as well as the use of dental implants or adhesives. Proper retention helps ensure comfortable and effective chewing, speaking, and smiling for individuals who have lost some or all of their natural teeth.

A partial denture, removable is a type of dental prosthesis used when one or more natural teeth remain in the upper or lower jaw. It is designed to replace the missing teeth and rest on the remaining teeth and gums for support. This type of denture can be removed by the patient for cleaning and while sleeping. It is typically made of acrylic resin, metal, or a combination of both, and is custom-fabricated to fit the individual's mouth for comfort and functionality.

Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate (BPAGM) is a type of chemical compound that belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycidyl methacrylates. It is created by the reaction between bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate.

BPAGM is used in various industrial applications, including the production of coatings, adhesives, and resins. In the medical field, it has been used as a component in some dental materials, such as bonding agents and composite resins. However, due to concerns about its potential health effects, including its possible estrogenic activity and potential to cause reproductive toxicity, its use in dental materials has become more restricted in recent years.

It is important to note that exposure to BPAGM should be limited as much as possible, and appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling this chemical compound.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Tooth preparation in prosthodontics refers to the process of altering the clinical crown of a tooth or teeth to receive a restoration, such as a crown, veneer, or bridge. This procedure involves removing a portion of the enamel and dentin to create a suitable foundation for the prosthetic device. The preparation aims to achieve proper retention, resistance form, and marginal fit, ensuring the successful integration and longevity of the restoration. The process may also include the management of tooth structure loss due to decay, trauma, or wear, and the establishment of harmonious occlusion with the opposing teeth.

Tissue embedding is a process in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) where biological tissue samples are encased in a supporting medium, typically paraffin wax or plastic resins, to maintain their shape and structural integrity during sectioning. This allows for thin slices of the embedded tissue to be cut using a microtome, mounted on slides, and then stained for further examination under a microscope. The embedding process ensures that the tissue remains intact and does not tear or compress during sectioning, providing clear and consistent samples for analysis.

Orthodontic appliances, removable, are dental devices that can be removed and inserted by the patient as needed or directed. These appliances are designed to align and straighten teeth, correct bite issues, and improve the function and appearance of the teeth and jaws. They are typically made from materials such as plastic, metal, or acrylic and may include components like wires, springs, or screws. Examples of removable orthodontic appliances include aligners, retainers, and space maintainers. The specific type and design of the appliance will depend on the individual patient's orthodontic needs and treatment goals.

Dental impression materials are substances used to create a replica or negative reproduction of the oral structures, including teeth, gums, and surrounding tissues. These materials are often used in dentistry to fabricate dental restorations, orthodontic appliances, mouthguards, and various other dental devices.

There are several types of dental impression materials available, each with its unique properties and applications:

1. Alginate: This is a common and affordable material derived from algae. It is easy to mix and handle, sets quickly, and provides a detailed impression of the oral structures. However, alginate impressions are not as durable as other materials and must be poured immediately after taking the impression.
2. Irreversible Hydrocolloid: This material is similar to alginate but offers better accuracy and durability. It requires more time to mix and set, but it can be stored for a longer period before pouring the cast.
3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS): Also known as silicone impression material, PVS provides excellent detail, accuracy, and dimensional stability. It is available in two types: addition-cured and condensation-cured. Addition-cured PVS offers better accuracy but requires more time to mix and set. Condensation-cured PVS sets faster but may shrink slightly over time.
4. Polyether: This material provides high accuracy, excellent detail, and good tear resistance. It is also sensitive to moisture, making it suitable for impressions where a dry field is required. However, polyether has a strong odor and taste, which some patients find unpleasant.
5. Vinyl Polysiloxane (VPS): This material is similar to PVS but offers better tear strength and flexibility. It is also less sensitive to moisture than polyether, making it suitable for various applications.
6. Zinc Oxide Eugenol: This is a traditional impression material used primarily for temporary impressions or bite registrations. It has a low cost and is easy to mix and handle but does not provide the same level of detail as other materials.

The choice of dental impression material depends on various factors, including the type of restoration, the patient's oral condition, and the clinician's preference.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

Anion exchange resins are a type of ion exchange resin that are positively charged and used to remove anions (negatively charged ions) from aqueous solutions. These resins contain functional groups such as quaternary ammonium or tertiary amine groups, which can attract and retain anions like chloride, sulfate, or nitrate ions.

Anion exchange resins are commonly used in water treatment to remove excess dissolved salts, heavy metals, and other impurities from drinking water, industrial wastewater, and process water. They can also be used in the pharmaceutical industry for the purification of drugs and biomolecules, as well as in research and analytical applications.

When anions come into contact with the resin, they are attracted to the positively charged functional groups and exchanged for hydroxide ions (OH-) present on the resin surface. This exchange results in the formation of water and the release of the anion from the resin. The resin can then be regenerated by washing it with a strong base, which replaces the hydroxide ions and restores its ability to exchange anions.

Overall, anion exchange resins are important tools for removing unwanted anions from various types of solutions, including water, biological samples, and industrial process streams.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

The post and core technique is a dental restorative procedure that involves the use of a post made of metal or other materials, which is placed inside the root canal of a severely damaged tooth, to provide support and retention for a dental core. The dental core is then built up using various materials such as composite resin, glass ionomer cement, or amalgam, to restore the missing portion of the tooth structure. This technique is often used as a foundation for a dental crown in cases where there is not enough remaining tooth structure to support the crown on its own. The post and core restoration helps to reinforce the tooth, prevent fractures, and improve the overall functionality and esthetics of the restored tooth.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces missing teeth or parts of teeth and restores their function and appearance. The design of a dental prosthesis refers to the plan and specifications used to create it, including the materials, shape, size, and arrangement of the artificial teeth and any supporting structures.

The design of a dental prosthesis is typically based on a variety of factors, including:

* The number and location of missing teeth
* The condition of the remaining teeth and gums
* The patient's bite and jaw alignment
* The patient's aesthetic preferences
* The patient's ability to chew and speak properly

There are several types of dental prostheses, including:

* Dentures: A removable appliance that replaces all or most of the upper or lower teeth.
* Fixed partial denture (FPD): Also known as a bridge, this is a fixed (non-removable) appliance that replaces one or more missing teeth by attaching artificial teeth to the remaining natural teeth on either side of the gap.
* Removable partial denture (RPD): A removable appliance that replaces some but not all of the upper or lower teeth.
* Implant-supported prosthesis: An artificial tooth or set of teeth that is supported by dental implants, which are surgically placed in the jawbone.

The design of a dental prosthesis must be carefully planned and executed to ensure a good fit, proper function, and natural appearance. It may involve several appointments with a dentist or dental specialist, such as a prosthodontist, to take impressions, make measurements, and try in the finished prosthesis.

A tooth fracture is a dental health condition characterized by a break or crack in the tooth structure. It can occur in different parts of the tooth, including the crown (the visible part), root, or filling. Tooth fractures can result from various factors such as trauma, biting or chewing on hard objects, grinding or clenching teeth, and having large, old amalgam fillings that weaken the tooth structure over time. Depending on the severity and location of the fracture, it may cause pain, sensitivity, or affect the tooth's functionality and appearance. Treatment options for tooth fractures vary from simple bonding to root canal treatment or even extraction in severe cases. Regular dental check-ups are essential for early detection and management of tooth fractures.

Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are a type of dental restorative material that have the ability to chemically bond to tooth structure. They are composed of a mixture of silicate glass powder and an organic acid, such as polyacrylic acid. GICs have several clinical applications in dentistry, including as a filling material for small to moderate sized cavities, as a liner or base under other restorative materials, and as a cement for securing crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

GICs are known for their biocompatibility, caries inhibition, and adhesion to tooth structure. They also have the ability to release fluoride ions, which can help protect against future decay. However, they are not as strong or wear-resistant as some other dental restorative materials, such as amalgam or composite resin, so they may not be suitable for use in high-load bearing restorations.

GICs can be classified into two main types: conventional and resin-modified. Conventional GICs have a longer setting time and are more prone to moisture sensitivity during placement, while resin-modified GICs contain additional methacrylate monomers that improve their handling properties and shorten their setting time. However, the addition of these monomers may also reduce their fluoride release capacity.

Overall, glass ionomer cements are a valuable dental restorative material due to their unique combination of adhesion, biocompatibility, and caries inhibition properties.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is not typically considered a medical definition, but it is a term used in physical and analytical chemistry. However, I can provide a definition for you:

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is a technique used to study the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids by irradiating them with photons (usually from a laser or a synchrotron light source) and measuring the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. The technique provides information about the energy levels of the electrons in the sample, which can be used to determine its chemical composition, bonding, and electronic structure. PES is a valuable tool in surface science, materials research, and environmental analysis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glass" is not a medical term. Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has various uses in everyday life, including medical devices and equipment. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please provide them, and I'll be happy to help.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

A dental abutment is a component of a dental implant restoration that connects the implant to the replacement tooth or teeth. It serves as a support structure and is attached to the implant, which is surgically placed in the jawbone. The abutment provides a stable foundation for the placement of a crown, bridge, or denture, depending on the patient's individual needs.

Dental abutments can be made from various materials such as titanium, zirconia, or other biocompatible materials. They come in different shapes and sizes to accommodate the specific requirements of each implant case. The selection of an appropriate dental abutment is crucial for ensuring a successful and long-lasting dental implant restoration.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Dental clasps are a component of dental restorations, such as removable partial dentures (RPDs), that help to retain and stabilize the appliance in the mouth. They are typically made of metal wires or plastic materials and are designed to fit around specific teeth to hold the denture securely in place.

There are several types of dental clasps, including:

1. Adams clasp: A wire clasp that wraps around a tooth and has a circular loop that fits over the crown of the tooth.
2. Akers clasp: A wire clasp that hooks around the back of a molar tooth and has a flexible arm that extends forward to engage with another tooth.
3. C-clasp: A wire clasp that forms a "C" shape and wraps around the side of a tooth, with the open end facing away from the RPD.
4. I-bar clasp: A plastic or metal clasp that is shaped like an "I" and fits over the front of a tooth, with the two ends extending backward to engage with other teeth.
5. Ring clasp: A wire clasp that forms a complete circle around a tooth and has a small gap where it can be hooked onto the RPD.

Dental clasps are designed to be strong enough to hold the RPD in place, but flexible enough to allow for easy removal when necessary. They should fit comfortably and securely without causing damage to the teeth or gums. Regular dental check-ups and adjustments can help ensure that dental clasps continue to function properly over time.

Boron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element boron (symbol: B) combined with one or more other elements. Boron is a naturally occurring, non-metallic element found in various minerals and ores. It is relatively rare, making up only about 0.001% of the Earth's crust by weight.

Boron compounds can take many forms, including salts, acids, and complex molecules. Some common boron compounds include:

* Boric acid (H3BO3) - a weak acid used as an antiseptic, preservative, and insecticide
* Sodium borate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) - also known as borax, a mineral used in detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes
* Boron carbide (B4C) - an extremely hard material used in abrasives, ceramics, and nuclear reactors
* Boron nitride (BN) - a compound with properties similar to graphite, used as a lubricant and heat shield

Boron compounds have a variety of uses in medicine, including as antiseptics, anti-inflammatory agents, and drugs for the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiation therapy that uses boron-containing compounds to selectively target and destroy cancer cells.

It's important to note that some boron compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or otherwise exposed to the body in large quantities. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained medical professional.

Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are artificial lens implants that are placed inside the eye during ophthalmic surgery, such as cataract removal. These lenses are designed to replace the natural lens of the eye that has become clouded or damaged, thereby restoring vision impairment caused by cataracts or other conditions.

There are several types of intraocular lenses available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodative lenses. Monofocal IOLs provide clear vision at a single fixed distance, while multifocal IOLs offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric IOLs are designed to correct astigmatism, and accommodative IOLs can change shape and position within the eye to allow for a range of vision.

The selection of the appropriate type of intraocular lens depends on various factors, including the patient's individual visual needs, lifestyle, and ocular health. The implantation procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and involves minimal discomfort or recovery time. Overall, intraocular lenses have become a safe and effective treatment option for patients with vision impairment due to cataracts or other eye conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Zinc phosphate cement is a type of dental cement that is created through the chemical reaction between zinc oxide and a phosphoric acid solution. It is commonly used as a base or liner under dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and fillings. The setting process of zinc phosphate cement involves the formation of a hard, stable material that can effectively bond to tooth structure and provide a solid foundation for dental restorations.

Zinc phosphate cement has several desirable properties, including good compressive strength, resistance to dissolution in oral fluids, and low solubility in water. It is also relatively easy to manipulate and handle during dental procedures. However, it does have some limitations, such as a potential for shrinkage during setting, which can lead to marginal gaps and microleakage. Additionally, zinc phosphate cement may not be as durable or long-lasting as some newer types of dental cements.

Overall, zinc phosphate cement remains a widely used and reliable choice for many dental applications, particularly in cases where a strong, stable foundation is required for dental restorations.

Cation exchange resins are a type of ion exchange resin that are positively charged and used to remove cations (positively charged ions) from aqueous solutions. They are often used in water treatment to soften water by removing calcium and magnesium ions, which can cause scale buildup in pipes and appliances. Cation exchange resins can also be used to remove heavy metals and other contaminants from water.

The resin itself is typically made of a cross-linked polymer matrix, such as polystyrene or polyacrylate, which contains functional groups that give the resin its ion exchange properties. The most common type of cation exchange resin is the sulfonated styrene divinylbenzene copolymer (SSDVB), in which the functional group is a sulfonic acid (-SO3H) group. When this resin comes into contact with a solution containing cations, such as a water supply, the cations in the solution will replace the hydrogen ions on the resin, causing the resin to become positively charged and the solution to become deionized.

Cation exchange resins can be regenerated by washing them with a strong acid, which replaces the captured cations with hydrogen ions, allowing the resin to be reused. The regeneration process must be done carefully to avoid damaging the resin and to ensure that it is properly rinsed of any residual acid before being put back into service.

Cation exchange resins are widely used in various industries such as pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, power generation, chemical processing and metal finishing for purification of water and wastewater treatment.

The Elastic Modulus, also known as Young's modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a material. It is defined as the ratio of stress (force per unit area) to strain (partial deformation or change in length per unit length) in the elastic range of deformation of a material. In other words, it measures how much a material will deform (change in length or size) when subjected to a given amount of force. A higher elastic modulus indicates that a material is stiffer and less likely to deform, while a lower elastic modulus indicates that a material is more flexible and will deform more easily. The elastic modulus is typically expressed in units of Pascals (Pa) or Gigapascals (GPa).

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent used for its broad-spectrum germicidal properties. It is effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used as a surgical scrub, hand sanitizer, and healthcare disinfectant. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and sprays. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membrane, leading to the death of the organism. It is also used in mouthwashes and skin cleansers for its antimicrobial effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyurethanes" are not a medical term. They are a type of polymer that is used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including foam cushions, insulation, and packaging materials. Polyurethanes are created through a chemical reaction between diisocyanates and polyols. While they have many applications in the medical field, such as in the production of medical devices and equipment, they are not a medical term themselves.

Dental prosthesis retention refers to the means by which a dental prosthesis, such as a denture, is held in place in the mouth. The retention can be achieved through several methods, including:

1. Suction: This is the most common method of retention for lower dentures, where the shape and fit of the denture base create suction against the gums to hold it in place.
2. Mechanical retention: This involves the use of mechanical components such as clasps or attachments that hook onto remaining natural teeth or dental implants to hold the prosthesis in place.
3. Adhesive retention: Dental adhesives can be used to help secure the denture to the gums, providing additional retention and stability.
4. Implant retention: Dental implants can be used to provide a more secure and stable retention of the dental prosthesis. The implant is surgically placed in the jawbone and acts as an anchor for the prosthesis.

Proper retention of a dental prosthesis is essential for optimal function, comfort, and speech. A well-retained prosthesis can help prevent sore spots, improve chewing efficiency, and enhance overall quality of life.

Peracetic acid (PAA) is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field as a disinfectant and sterilant. Medically, it's often used for high-level disinfection of medical devices and equipment, especially those that are heat-sensitive or cannot be sterilized using traditional methods like steam sterilization.

Peracetic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO3H. It's a colorless liquid with a pungent, acrid smell, similar to that of acetic acid (vinegar). In solution, it's a strong oxidizing agent and can effectively kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores.

It's important to note that peracetic acid should be used with caution due to its potential irritant effects on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Proper handling and use according to manufacturer instructions are essential to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Acrylonitrile is a colorless, flammable liquid with an unpleasant odor. It is used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, and synthetic fibers. In terms of medical toxicology, acrylonitrile is classified as a volatile organic compound (VOC) and can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels of acrylonitrile can lead to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Chronic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including lung, laryngeal, and esophageal cancer. However, it's important to note that occupational exposure limits are in place to minimize the risks associated with acrylonitrile exposure.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

A complete lower denture is a removable dental appliance that replaces all of the natural teeth in the lower jaw. It is typically made of plastic or a combination of plastic and metal, and it rests on the gums and bones of the lower jaw. The denture is designed to look and function like natural teeth, allowing the individual to speak, chew, and smile confidently. Complete lower dentures are custom-made for each patient to ensure a comfortable and secure fit.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Corrosion casting is a specialized technique used in anatomy and pathology to create detailed casts or molds of biological specimens, particularly vascular systems. This method is also known as "acid etching" or "corrosive casting." Here's the medical definition:

Corrosion casting is a process that involves injecting a special resin or plastic material into the vasculature or other hollow structures of a biological specimen, such as an organ or tissue. The injected material thoroughly fills the cavity and then hardens once it has set. After hardening, the surrounding tissues are corroded or dissolved using strong acids or bases, leaving behind only the cast or mold of the internal structures.

This technique results in a detailed three-dimensional representation of the complex internal networks, like blood vessels, which can be used for further study, research, and education. Corrosion casting is particularly useful in visualizing the intricate branching patterns and structural relationships within these systems.

A bicuspid valve, also known as a mitral valve in the heart, is a heart valve that has two leaflets or cusps. It lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle and helps to regulate blood flow between these two chambers of the heart. In a healthy heart, the bicuspid valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle and closes tightly to prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium during contraction of the ventricle.

A congenital heart defect known as a bicuspid aortic valve occurs when the aortic valve, which normally has three leaflets or cusps, only has two. This can lead to narrowing of the valve (aortic stenosis) or leakage of the valve (aortic regurgitation), which can cause symptoms and may require medical treatment.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

Silorane resins are a type of dental restorative material used in dentistry for direct and indirect restorations, such as fillings and crowns. They are composed of a unique chemical structure that includes siloxanes and oxiranes. The siloxane component provides excellent hydrophobicity and wear resistance, while the oxirane component undergoes a polymerization reaction when activated by a curing light, forming a stable and durable restoration.

Silorane resins are known for their low shrinkage during polymerization, which reduces the risk of post-operative sensitivity and marginal gaps. They also have good biocompatibility and are less likely to cause tooth staining compared to other dental restorative materials. However, they may require a longer curing time and can be more technique-sensitive to place compared to other materials.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thiones" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in physiology, pharmacology, or clinical medicine. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in your question. If you meant "thiols," I can provide a definition for that. Thiols are organic compounds containing a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. Thiols are important in biological systems and can be found in some proteins and enzymes, where they play a crucial role in their structure and function. If you meant something else, please clarify so I can provide the most accurate information.

A dental restoration, permanent, is a type of dental treatment that involves the use of materials such as gold, silver amalgam, porcelain, or composite resin to repair and restore the function, form, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. Unlike temporary restorations, which are meant to be replaced with a permanent solution, permanent restorations are designed to last for many years, if not a lifetime.

Examples of permanent dental restorations include:

1. Dental fillings: These are used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. The decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the resulting space is filled with a material such as amalgam, composite resin, or gold.
2. Inlays and onlays: These are similar to dental fillings but are made in a laboratory and then bonded to the tooth. They are used when there is not enough tooth structure left to support a filling.
3. Dental crowns: Also known as caps, these are used to cover and protect a tooth that has been damaged or weakened by decay, injury, or wear. The crown fits over the entire tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength.
4. Dental bridges: These are used to replace one or more missing teeth. A bridge consists of one or more artificial teeth (pontics) that are held in place by crowns on either side.
5. Dental implants: These are used to replace missing teeth. An implant is a small titanium post that is surgically placed in the jawbone, where it functions as an anchor for a replacement tooth or bridge.

Permanent dental restorations are custom-made for each patient and require careful planning and preparation. They are designed to blend in with the surrounding teeth and provide a natural-looking appearance. With proper care and maintenance, these restorations can last for many years and help preserve the health and function of the teeth and mouth.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is a surgical procedure that involves placing a small artificial lens inside the eye to replace the natural lens that has been removed. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with an IOL to restore clear vision.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the eye, and the cloudy lens is broken up and removed using ultrasound waves or laser energy. Then, the folded IOL is inserted through the same incision and positioned in the correct place inside the eye. Once in place, the IOL unfolds and is secured into position.

There are several types of IOLs available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodating lenses. Monofocal lenses provide clear vision at one distance, while multifocal lenses offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric lenses correct astigmatism, and accommodating lenses can change shape to focus on objects at different distances.

Overall, intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective procedure that can help restore clear vision in patients with cataracts or other eye conditions that require the removal of the natural lens.

The crystalline lens of the eye is covered by a transparent, elastic capsule known as the lens capsule. This capsule is made up of collagen and forms the continuous outer layer of the lens. It is highly resistant to both physical and chemical insults, which allows it to protect the lens fibers within. The lens capsule is important for maintaining the shape and transparency of the lens, which are essential for proper focusing of light onto the retina.

Root canal preparation is a procedure in endodontics, which is the branch of dentistry dealing with the dental pulp and tissues surrounding the root of a tooth. The goal of root canal preparation is to thoroughly clean, shape, and disinfect the root canal system of an infected or damaged tooth, in order to prepare it for a filling material that will seal and protect the tooth from further infection or damage.

The procedure involves the use of specialized dental instruments, such as files and reamers, to remove the infected or necrotic pulp tissue and debris from within the root canal. The root canal is then shaped using progressively larger files to create a tapering preparation that facilitates the placement of the filling material. Irrigation solutions are used to help flush out any remaining debris and disinfect the canal.

The success of root canal preparation depends on several factors, including the thoroughness of cleaning and shaping, the effectiveness of disinfection, and the sealing ability of the filling material. Properly performed, root canal preparation can alleviate pain, save a tooth from extraction, and restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental enamel is the hard, white, outermost layer of a tooth. It is a highly mineralized and avascular tissue, meaning it contains no living cells or blood vessels. Enamel is primarily composed of calcium and phosphate minerals and serves as the protective covering for the crown of a tooth, which is the portion visible above the gum line.

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and its primary function is to provide structural support and protection to the underlying dentin and pulp tissues of the tooth. It also plays a crucial role in chewing and biting by helping to distribute forces evenly across the tooth surface during these activities.

Despite its hardness, dental enamel can still be susceptible to damage from factors such as tooth decay, erosion, and abrasion. Once damaged or lost, enamel cannot regenerate or repair itself, making it essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices and seek regular dental checkups to prevent enamel damage and protect overall oral health.

A tooth root is the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jawbone and cannot be seen when looking at a person's smile. It is the lower portion of a tooth that typically has a conical shape and anchors the tooth to the jawbone through a periodontal ligament. The tooth root is covered by cementum, a specialized bone-like tissue, and contains nerve endings and blood vessels within its pulp chamber.

The number of roots in a tooth can vary depending on the type of tooth. For example, incisors typically have one root, canines may have one or two roots, premolars usually have one or two roots, and molars often have two to four roots. The primary function of the tooth root is to provide stability and support for the crown of the tooth, allowing it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing.

Zirconium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a gray-white, strong, corrosion-resistant transition metal that is used primarily in nuclear reactors, as an opacifier in glazes for ceramic cookware, and in surgical implants such as artificial joints due to its biocompatibility.

In the context of medical devices or implants, zirconium alloys may be used for their mechanical properties and resistance to corrosion. For example, zirconia (a form of zirconium dioxide) is a popular material for dental crowns and implants due to its durability, strength, and natural appearance.

However, it's important to note that while zirconium itself is not considered a medical term, there are various medical applications and devices that utilize zirconium-based materials.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

Silicones are not a medical term, but they are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in medical devices and healthcare products. Silicones are synthetic polymers made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms. They can exist in various forms such as oils, gels, rubbers, and resins.

In the medical context, silicones are often used for their unique properties, including:

1. Biocompatibility - Silicones have a low risk of causing an adverse reaction when they come into contact with living tissue.
2. Inertness - They do not react chemically with other substances, making them suitable for use in medical devices that need to remain stable over time.
3. Temperature resistance - Silicones can maintain their flexibility and elasticity even under extreme temperature conditions.
4. Gas permeability - Some silicone materials allow gases like oxygen and water vapor to pass through, which is useful in applications where maintaining a moist environment is essential.
5. Durability - Silicones have excellent resistance to aging, weathering, and environmental factors, ensuring long-lasting performance.

Examples of medical applications for silicones include:

1. Breast implants
2. Contact lenses
3. Catheters
4. Artificial joints and tendons
5. Bandages and wound dressings
6. Drug delivery systems
7. Medical adhesives
8. Infant care products (nipples, pacifiers)

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Dental porcelain is a type of biocompatible ceramic material that is commonly used in restorative and cosmetic dentistry to create tooth-colored restorations such as crowns, veneers, inlays, onlays, and bridges. It is made from a mixture of powdered porcelain and water, which is heated to high temperatures to form a hard, glass-like substance. Dental porcelain has several desirable properties for dental restorations, including:

1. High strength and durability: Dental porcelain is strong enough to withstand the forces of biting and chewing, making it suitable for use in load-bearing restorations such as crowns and bridges.
2. Natural appearance: Dental porcelain can be matched closely to the color, translucency, and texture of natural teeth, allowing for highly aesthetic restorations that blend seamlessly with the surrounding dentition.
3. Biocompatibility: Dental porcelain is biologically inert and does not cause adverse reactions or toxicity in the body, making it a safe choice for dental restorations.
4. Chemical resistance: Dental porcelain is resistant to staining and chemical attack from substances such as coffee, tea, red wine, and acidic foods and drinks.
5. Low thermal conductivity: Dental porcelain has low thermal conductivity, which means it does not transmit heat or cold readily, reducing the risk of temperature sensitivity in dental restorations.

Overall, dental porcelain is a versatile and reliable material for creating high-quality, natural-looking, and durable dental restorations.

Dental marginal adaptation refers to the way in which a dental restoration, such as a filling or crown, fits precisely and accurately along the margin or edge where it meets the tooth structure. The term "marginal" describes the border between the restoration and the tooth. Ideally, this junction should be tight and smooth, without any gaps or spaces that could allow for the accumulation of bacteria, food debris, or dental plaque.

Achieving good marginal adaptation is crucial to ensure the longevity and success of a dental restoration. When the margin is well-adapted, it helps prevent microleakage, secondary tooth decay, and sensitivity. It also contributes to the overall seal and integrity of the restoration, minimizing the risk of recurrent caries or other complications.

The process of achieving optimal marginal adaptation involves careful preparation of the tooth structure, precise impression-taking techniques, and meticulous fabrication of the dental restoration. The use of high-quality materials and modern technologies, such as digital impressions and CAD/CAM systems, can further enhance the accuracy and predictability of the marginal adaptation.

Inlays are a type of dental restoration used to repair and restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are custom-made fillings made in a laboratory, typically from materials such as gold, porcelain, or composite resin. Inlays are designed to fit precisely into the cavity or damaged area of a tooth, restoring its strength, function, and appearance. Unlike traditional fillings, which are molded directly onto the tooth, inlays are created outside of the mouth and then bonded or cemented into place during a separate dental appointment. This makes them a more durable and long-lasting solution for repairing damaged teeth. Inlays can also be used to replace old or failing fillings, providing a stronger and more aesthetically pleasing alternative.

Phosphoric acids are a group of mineral acids known chemically as orthophosphoric acid and its salts or esters. The chemical formula for orthophosphoric acid is H3PO4. It is a weak acid that partially dissociates in solution to release hydrogen ions (H+), making it acidic. Phosphoric acid has many uses in various industries, including food additives, fertilizers, and detergents.

In the context of medical definitions, phosphoric acids are not typically referred to directly. However, they can be relevant in certain medical contexts, such as:

* In dentistry, phosphoric acid is used as an etching agent to prepare tooth enamel for bonding with dental materials.
* In nutrition, phosphorus is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in many bodily functions, including energy metabolism, bone and teeth formation, and nerve function. Phosphoric acid is one form of phosphorus found in some foods and beverages.
* In medical research, phosphoric acids can be used as buffers to maintain a stable pH in laboratory experiments or as reagents in various analytical techniques.

Aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that consist of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen in their chemical structure. They are often found in nature and can be categorized into several groups, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite. These minerals have various industrial and commercial uses, including as fillers and extenders in products like paper, paint, and rubber. In the medical field, certain types of aluminum silicates (like bentonite) have been used in some medicinal and therapeutic applications, such as detoxification and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these minerals in medical treatments is not widely accepted or supported by extensive scientific evidence.

Phacoemulsification is a surgical procedure used in cataract removal. It involves using an ultrasonic device to emulsify (break up) the cloudy lens (cataract) into small pieces, which are then aspirated or sucked out through a small incision. This procedure allows for smaller incisions and faster recovery times compared to traditional cataract surgery methods. After the cataract is removed, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is typically implanted to replace the natural lens and restore vision.

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Capsule opacification, also known as posterior capsular opacification (PCO) or "after-cataract," is a condition that can occur after cataract surgery. During cataract surgery, the cloudy natural lens of the eye is removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). However, over time, the remaining capsule that holds the IOL in place can become cloudy, leading to blurry or distorted vision. This clouding of the capsule is called capsule opacification. It is not a true reformation of the cataract but a separate condition that can occur after cataract surgery.

Capsule opacification can be treated with a simple laser procedure called YAG capsulotomy, which creates an opening in the cloudy capsule to restore clear vision. This procedure is typically quick, painless, and performed on an outpatient basis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nanocomposites" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to refer to a type of composite material where at least one of the phases has dimensions in the nanoscale (typically less than 100 nanometers). Nanocomposites can have unique properties that make them useful for various applications, including biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems or tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the term itself is not a medical definition.

A dental restoration, temporary, is a type of dental restorative material or device that is used for a short period of time to restore the function, shape, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. It serves as a placeholder until a permanent restoration can be created and placed.

Temporary dental restorations are typically made of materials such as cotton, plastic, or metal alloys that are easy to manipulate and remove. They may be used in various situations, including:

1. To protect the tooth pulp from further damage or infection after a deep cavity preparation or root canal treatment.
2. To restore the shape and function of a fractured or chipped tooth while waiting for a permanent restoration to be fabricated.
3. As a provisional restoration during the period of healing following oral surgery, such as extraction or implant placement.
4. In some cases, temporary dental restorations may also serve as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the patient's comfort and function before proceeding with a permanent restoration.

It is important to note that temporary dental restorations are not intended for long-term use and should be replaced with a permanent restoration as soon as possible to ensure optimal oral health and functionality.

... is considered extremely weatherproof and is well-suited for outdoor applications. In solid form, acrylic resin ... Melanin-producing Cladosporium fungi damaged dried acrylic resin samples in the Milan Cathedral. Acrylic fiber Acrylic rubber ... Acrylic resin is a common ingredient in latex paint (UK: "emulsion paint"). Latex paints with a greater proportion of acrylic ... Thermoplastic acrylics designate a group of acrylic resins typically containing both a high molecular weight and a high glass ...
Made from resin, acrylic, and an epoxy modeling compound…they are each partly translucent and in places almost evanescent, ... Pigmented resin and acrylic.(Zevitas Marcus). Rona Pondick's sculptures at Zevitas Marcus gallery are both serene and ... The artist makes casts of her own head in brightly colored resins, then perches them atop tiny, atrophied bodies, or embeds ...
7" w. Acrylic resin, lycra, rubber, and sun spectra, done at Roswell Time's Color Arrow, 1971. Acrylic resin, done at Roswell. ... 54" × 38" × 36" Acrylic resin mixed with black sand. Done at Roswell, shown at Sunspot, N.M. Testament Series, 1974-75. St. ... "Sun Touchstone", poured acrylic resin and black marble sand HUD, The National Community Arts Program, 1973: "Times Color Arrow ... Painted acrylic mixed with sand. Sculptural form was to symbolize atom bomb, the interior proto-form was symbol of humanity, ...
It is an acrylic resin. Dynel was originally produced by Union Carbide corporation. "Modern Living: The Extra". Time. 1 June ...
... preparations for dental fillings based on acrylic resins; surgical suture material (consisting of a needle with thread); and ...
Bath production using acrylic resin started in 1986. In 1996, the company Sanifrance was created by the combination of ...
The installation is made of acrylic resin tile. It was funded by the Golden Triangle BID and DC Commission on the Arts and ...
... black Cladosporium attacked dried acrylic resin using melanin. Marble is a rock composed of calcium and magnesium carbonate, ... "Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins". Science of the ... cathedral marble treated with acrylics". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73 (1): 271-7. Bibcode:2007ApEnM..73..271C. ...
DGEBA reacts with acrylic acid to give vinyl ester resins. The reaction results in opening of the epoxide ring, generating ... Such materials are often diluted with styrene and converted to resin. Epoxy resins are thermosetting polymers, which are ... Ashcroft, W. R. (1993), Ellis, Bryan (ed.), "Curing agents for epoxy resins", Chemistry and Technology of Epoxy Resins, ... From the 1990s onward, concern has been raised over the use of BADGE-based epoxy resins in the lining of some cans for ...
Concrete overlays lacked the long-term performance characteristics of acrylic resins. Acrylic resins provided good UV ... well known chemical companies began to experiment with acrylic paint resins as modifiers for cement and sand mixes. The result ... Some are polymer based, acrylic and epoxy. Concrete overlays date to the 1960s when chemical engineers from some of the larger ... The purpose of adding a polymer resin to the cement and aggregate is to greatly increase the performance characteristics and ...
Acrylic resins form a topical film membrane on the substrate surface. They are available in both water-based and solvent-based ... Acrylic resins are also commonly used as curing agents for new concrete, and many comply with ASTM C309. Epoxy/polyurethane ... Despite being the softest and least lasting of the major sealer categories, price and convenience make acrylic resins a very ... They share many of the same characteristics as acrylics, but the performance levels and life span are superior and ...
Provisional bridges can either be made of acrylic resins or metal. The resins are the most commonly used, they are either made ... Acrylic resin was the first veneering material used to help restore the aesthetics of crown and bridges, the aim was to ... WorkNC Dental machining video, "Dental Bridge implant CNC Machining 5 axis" PATTERN RESIN™ LS Self-Curing, Acrylic Die Material ... Resin bonded bridge: A dental prostheses where the pontic is connected to the surface of natural teeth which are either ...
This laid the foundation for synthetic acrylic resins created from acetone cyanohydrin. Anne C. Hughes, "Vera Evstaf'evna ...
Additional materials can include aluminum, stainless steel, acrylic, and resin. After considering which material is best suited ... polyester or acrylic), Foam Board (Foamcore), Gator Foam (Gator Board), muslin, Plexiglas, and some metals such as brass and ...
Waterborne acrylic resins are also used frequently in water-based paints. Acrylic latices prepared by emulsion polymerization ... Waterborne resins are sometimes called water-based resins. They are resins or polymeric resins that use water as the carrying ... An epoxy resin system generally consists of a curing agent and an epoxy resin. Both the curing agent and the epoxy resin can be ... see article Electrophoretic deposition The resins used for electrodeposition are usually epoxy, acrylic or phenolic resin types ...
These derivatives form products such as acrylic fibers, glasses, paints, resins, and polymers. Except in China, use of ... In addition to ethynylation, acetylene reacts with carbon monoxide, acetylene reacts to give acrylic acid, or acrylic esters. ... "Acrylic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry: 7. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_161.pub2. ISBN ...
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"Acrylic and other resins: Provisional restorations". Acrylic and other resins: Provisional restorations - Esthetic Dentistry ( ... Discoloration of the acrylic resin to a white denture often occurs; however, this can be due to the use of very hot water with ... Moreover, they are safe for use and do not cause deterioration of the acrylic resin or the metals used in denture construction ... heat cured acrylics-also called permanent denture acrylics-go through a process called polymerization, causing the acrylic ...
... tissues may also be embedded directly in water-miscible acrylic resin. After the resin has been polymerized (hardened) the ... Luft, J.H. (1961). "Improvements in epoxy resin embedding methods". The Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology. Vol. 9 ... followed by critical point drying or infiltration with embedding resins. See also freeze drying.[citation needed] Embedding, ... or acetone and then infiltrated with an epoxy resin such as Araldite, Epon, or Durcupan; ...
In the 20th century, acrylic resin and other plastics were used. In Britain, sequential Adult Dental Health Surveys revealed ... The resin that is typically used is thermosetting resin, which is cured when exposed to a light source. DLP printers are ... "A clinical trial of light cure acrylic resin for orthodontic use". Journal of Orthodontics. 29 (1): 51-55. doi:10.1093/ortho/ ... The process starts with the build platform being lowered into a vat of liquid resin. A digital light source is then used to ...
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Modern acrylic paints use an acrylic resin dispersion as a binder. Watercolor painters before the turn of the 18th century had ... Watercolors may appear more vivid than acrylics or oils because the pigments are laid down in a purer form, with few or no ... Watercolor paints typically do not form a cohesive paint layer, as do acrylic or oil paints, but simply scatter pigment ... Acrylic painting techniques History of painting Ink wash painting Oil painting Category:Watercolorists "aquarelle". Oxford ...
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Otto Röhm invented acrylic resin, which was quickly transformed into acrylic paint. As early as 1934, the first usable acrylic ... Liquitex Heavy Body Acrylics and Golden Heavy Body Acrylics. Medium viscosity acrylics - Fluid acrylics, Soft body acrylics, or ... Acrylic paints can be used on many different surfaces. Both acrylic and watercolor are easy to clean up with water. Acrylic ... Meanwhile, acrylic paint is very elastic, which prevents cracking from occurring. Acrylic paint's binder is acrylic polymer ...
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Standard cast acrylic plastic, acrylic plastic sheet, and other cast resins generally laser very well. A commonly engraved ... award is a cast acrylic shape designed to be lasered from the back side. Styrene (as in compact disc cases) and many of the ...
In Magna pigments are ground in an acrylic resin with alcohol-based solvents. Unlike modern water-based acrylics, Magna is ... Acrylic paint stops at its own edge. Color field painting came in at the same time as the invention of this new paint. Acrylics ... Water-based acrylic paints were subsequently sold as "latex" house paints, although acrylic dispersion uses no latex derived ... The number of artists who stained in the 1960s greatly increased with the availability of acrylic paint. Staining acrylic paint ...
Acrylic resin is considered extremely weatherproof and is well-suited for outdoor applications. In solid form, acrylic resin ... Melanin-producing Cladosporium fungi damaged dried acrylic resin samples in the Milan Cathedral. Acrylic fiber Acrylic rubber ... Acrylic resin is a common ingredient in latex paint (UK: "emulsion paint"). Latex paints with a greater proportion of acrylic ... Thermoplastic acrylics designate a group of acrylic resins typically containing both a high molecular weight and a high glass ...
... activities globally and need for ecologically friendly formulations are some key factors driving global acrylic resins market ... activities globally and need for ecologically friendly formulations are some key factors driving global acrylic resins market ... Acrylic Resins Market size Acrylic Resins Market share Acrylic Resins Market trend market research press release us ... Emergen Research has segmented the global acrylic resins on the ...
... vinyl and acrylic by Deiter Barry. Sculpture size: 19 x 19 x 19 cm (7.5 x 7.5 x 7.5) Stone Troll Pups are native to ... John Chen - "Spawn" - resin, acrylic & oil paint. limited edition of 3. *John Chen - "Toddlerzilla" - resin, acrylic & oil ... Alex Garant - "One For Comfort" - acrylic, acrylic marker on birch panel. *Alex Garant - "One For Love" - acrylic, acrylic ... Brad Gunn - "Stigmartyr" - resin, synthetic fibers & paint. *Brad Gunn - "The Lush (Wine)" - resin, synthetic fibres, acrylic ...
... acrylic paint and epoxy resin by Ronit Baranga (2020). Sculpture size: 11 x 11 x 3.5 cm (4.3 x 4.3 x 1.3) View Ronit ...
Best Acrylic Paint For Resin FAQs. Are there any specific techniques or tips for using acrylic paint on resin?. ... Yes, acrylic paint can be used on resin. Acrylic paint is a versatile medium that works well on many surfaces, including resin ... Best Acrylic Paint For Resin FAQs*Are there any specific techniques or tips for using acrylic paint on resin? ... Can you mix different brands of acrylic paint on resin?. *How do you properly prepare resin surfaces for painting with acrylics ...
Arkema Awarded Patent for Key Innovation Behind Plexiglas Frosted Acrylic Sheet and Resin Products - Sep 19, 2006 - Altuglas ... Resins Arkema Awarded Patent for Key Innovation Behind Plexiglas® Frosted Acrylic Sheet and Resin Products Altuglas ... brand of acrylic sheet and resin products, today announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted U.S. ... Clear-Edge Frosted acrylic sheet and resin products, also provides a textured finish on exposed surfaces, requiring no ...
Clarité Curing Resin From OPI. Eliminates surface residue, Saves time, Fast application. ... Acrylic Liquids & Powders. Add to Wishlist. Clarité Curing Resin. Get true color, every time with Clarité Curing Resin and ... Saves time No more odor-free acrylic residue roll-off! Files just like traditional acrylics. Fast application Easy-to-use brush ... Saves time No more odor-free acrylic residue roll-off! Files just like traditional acrylics. Fast application Easy-to-use brush ...
Report Overview The Global Acrylic Resin Market Size was estimated at USD 12844.11 million in 2021 and is projected to reach ... 8 ACRYLIC RESIN MARKET SEGMENTATION BY REGION. 8.1 Global Acrylic Resin Sales by Region. 8.1.1 Global Acrylic Resin Sales by ... 9.2.1 BASF Acrylic Resin Basic Information. 9.2.2 BASF Acrylic Resin Product Overview. 9.2.3 BASF Acrylic Resin Product Market ... 9.14.1 DSM Acrylic Resin Basic Information. 9.14.2 DSM Acrylic Resin Product Overview. 9.14.3 DSM Acrylic Resin Product Market ...
Concrete and Resin Pendant. August 15, 2023 I work primarily with bronze and sterling silver but I enjoy experimenting with ... This piece represents the style of my cast bronze and fabricated silver collection but is cast in concrete and resin. I ... Photopolymerizing crushed gemstones and sterling silver using UV-curing resin is developed through series of experiments as a ... Hypersonic is a work created from copper, powdercoat, and acrylic rod that references current global topics. ...
Buy Acrylic Plastic Clear Chiavari Chairs,Event Party Wedding Stacking Chiavari Chair,Chair For Sale Product on ... Acrylic Plastic Clear Resin Pc Rental Event Party Wedding Stacking Chiavari Chair For Sale - ... acrylic plastic clear resin pc rental event party wedding stacking chiavari chair for sale. ...
Apte & Apte Organic Coatings Private Limited in Igatpuri, Nashik, Maharashtra. Get Apte & Apte Organic Coatings Private Limited reviews, ratings, contact address, phone numbers, contact person and send quotes instantly to the company at
But it is her printed acrylic and resin art jewelry - especially her hoop earrings - which captivates!. ... Easy Photo Resin Jewelry Tutorial. Disclosure. This blog may contain affiliate links. I do receive a small fee for any products ... Upcycled Plastic and Acrylic Jewelry by Enna Jewelry. * ... Printed Acrylic and Resin Art Jewelry by AimeeArtz. *. 24 June ...
... No chance ... More products KREUL Transparent protective varnish on synthetic-resin base KREUL Acrylic Gloss Varnish synthetic resin-based 50 ... To ensure that small and large artwork is protected from dirt and wet, the KREUL Acrylic Gloss Varnish can be used. Being ... KREUL Transparent protective varnish on synthetic-resin base * ... Synthetic resin-based. *Weather-resistant and saliva-resistant ...
... chlorhexidine gluconate and fluconazole on heat polymerized acrylic denture base resin - an in vitro study Gerodontology. 2016 ... albicans growth on heat-polymerised acrylic resin. ... and tea tree oil on heat-polymerised denture base resin, which ... albicans growth on heat-polymerised acrylic resin. ...
Medium elasticity multi-layered acrylic resin-based system for professional indoor and outdoor tennis courts ... Medium elasticity multi-layered acrylic resin-based system for professional indoor and outdoor tennis courts. Sport and urban ...
Carrie Penley, Return to the Wild, 2020, acrylic, collage, resin, 50″ x 38″. ... Carrie Penley, Return to the Wild, 2020, acrylic, collage, resin, 50″ x 38″ ...
This definition explains the meaning of Acrylic Resin and why it matters. ... Corrosionpedia Explains Acrylic Resin. The adhesion of coatings or paints made from acrylic resin is accomplished by a cross- ... The acrylic resin is made from water-based acrylic polymers through solution or suspension polymerization; hence, it can be ... What Does Acrylic Resin Mean?. This is a mildly alkaline polymer substance (methyl isobutyl ketone) that is used in making high ...
100pcs acrylic chain link/resin chain buckle/acrylic bag chain assembly buckle/bag decoration, eyeglass chain material Material ... 100Pcs Acrylic Chain Link/Resin Buckle/Acrylic Bag Assembly Buckle/Bag Decoration, Eyeglass Material. * ... 100Pcs Acrylic Chain Link/Resin Buckle/Acrylic Bag Assembly Buckle/Bag Decoration, Eyeglass Material ... 100Pcs Acrylic Chain Link/Resin Buckle/Acrylic Bag Assembly Buckle/Bag Decoration, Eyeglass Material ...
... heat-cured acrylic resin, auto-polymerizing acrylic resin, and auto-polymerizing acrylic resin reinforced with glass fibers. ... by glass-fiber-reinforced auto-polymerizing acrylic resin than by auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and light-cured acrylic resin ... by glass-fiber-reinforced auto-polymerizing acrylic resin than by auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and light-cured acrylic resin ... The effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of acrylic resin denture base with different repair acrylic resin: ...
"Skies are Clearing" By Shelley Wilder, Resin, Acrylics and Inks on Glass. Regular Price $3,000.00 Sale ...
12.25 Inch 14W LED Decorative Louver Resin Acrylic Overhead Fixture 3000K 1 ... 15 Inch 14W LED Decorative Louver Resin Acrylic Overhead Fixture 4000K 1 ... 15 Inch 13W LED Decorative Louver Resin Acrylic Overhead Fixture 3000K 1 ... 15 Inch 14W LED Decorative Louver Resin Acrylic Overhead Fixture 3000K 1 ...
Dianal products are based on acrylic, methacrylic and styrenic monomers. ... Dianal produces coating resins that add value to the inherent properties of objects made from metals, plastics and paper. ... Effective March 15, 2013, Dianal America, Inc., will increase prices of their resins by up to 9% as contracts and agreements ...
Return to Article Details Use of Acrylic Resin to Fill the Orbital Cavity after Exenteration in a Dog with Conjunctival ...
Acrylic resin for casting and fiber lamination Solvent and VOCfree Fire Resistant Lightweight and impact resistant ... High thickness epoxy resin up to 12cm. in a single casting. Ideal for: Large format river tables, sculpture, encapsulation, etc ... 1 organic resin in the world, for sale in Feroca Posted in: News ... Jesmonite Resins. Jesmonite AC100 -Acrylic resin for casting ... Utilizes our exclusive Flex Resin Technology to create the first and only water-based metallic gel coat system. ...
Acrylic Resins. Acrylic resins feature excellent transparency and durability, and are used in a broad range of applications ... Acrylic Resins for Coatings Polysiloxane Acrylic Hybrid Resins Acrylic Emulsions For Fiber Processing Acrylic Emulsions For ... DICs Acrylic Resins. * Acrylic Resins for Coatings. Acrylic resins are considered excellent transparency and weather ... Polysiloxane Acrylic Hybrid Resins. CERANATE products are acrylic resins containing polysiloxane. They form coating films with ...
US-4369283-A chemical patent summary.
Buy Acrylic Resins , Certified Distributor , TER Chemicals , Specialty Chemicals Experts , Request an offer ... Acrylic resin Acrylic resin. Acrylic resins are important synthetic binders in modern paint technology due to their excellent ... Solvent-based acrylic resins can be used in physically drying paints and water-based acrylic dispersions enable the production ... Acrylic resins are polymerisation products of acrylic and methacrylic acid and their esters. They are often copolymerized with ...
Store your valuables in a beautiful handmade dish with Mod Podge Resin. Add a touch of gold to your project for extra flair to ... Acrylic Craft Paint Tools & Accessories. *Enamel & Glass Paint Tools & Accessories. *Chalk Finish Acrylic Paint Tools & ... How do I mix Mod Podge Resin?. To mix Mod Podge Resin, begin by measuring out equal amounts of Resin and Hardener - (measure by ... When the resin is cured, use a liner brush to paint the word "love" on the surface of the resin using Treasure Gold. ...
AY6705 waterborne acrylic modified alkyd resin extends durability with its outstanding penetration for timber substrates. ... Cytec: The new RESYDROL™ AY6705 waterborne acrylic modified alkyd resin extends durability with its outstanding penetration for ... The new RESYDROL™ AY6705 waterborne acrylic modified alkyd resin extends durability with its outstanding penetration for timber ...
Session 2 : mastering acrylics on nail trainer. Session 3 : application of acrylic on tips and nail trainer. Session 4 : ... Session 5 : manicure and preparation of the nail + acrylic (model 1). Session 6 : complete acrylic application (model 1). ... Session 9 : application of acrylic + semi-permanent polish (nail trainer). Session 10 : Exam (model 4) ... Acrylic Resins. , Trainings>In classroom>All-in trainings>Acrylic Resins View larger ...
  • Acrylic resins can also be thermally cured if they have functional groups, such as hydroxymethyl groups, or they are crosslinked with substances such as epoxy resins, (poly)isocyanates or amino resins. (
  • Totally, 120 heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate denture base resin materials which are rectangular shaped with the size of 65 mm × 10 mm × 2.5 mm were fabricated. (
  • 2 Also, various materials have been used in the restoration of broken/fractured denture bases, such as visible-light-polymerized, heat-polymerized, auto-polymerized, or microwave-polymerized acrylic resin. (
  • Effect of potentially chromogenic beverages on shear bond strength of acrylic denture teeth to heat-polymerized denture base resins. (
  • This is a mildly alkaline polymer substance (methyl isobutyl ketone) that is used in making high-quality and durable acrylic coatings or paintings. (
  • The adhesion of coatings or paints made from acrylic resin i s accomplished by a cross-link system. (
  • Acrylic resins feature excellent transparency and durability, and are used in a broad range of applications from consumer items like lenses to industrial products like molding materials, coatings and adhesives. (
  • Due to their excellent durability and weatherability as coating materials, acrylic resins are used extensively in applications such as automotive, architectural and plastic coatings. (
  • DIC stocks acrylic emulsion additives according to your goals such as adding processing suitability or improving the properties of coatings. (
  • Our resins are widely used in the manufacture of paints and coatings. (
  • These performances attributes have contributed to the important role that the two pack acrylic isocyanate coatings play in the wide range of end user applications, such as: Marin paints, industrial finishing, automotive paint and clear coating refinishes, military applications, masonry coating, vehicle refinishing, aircraft coating, transport finishes and floor coatings. (
  • The allnex product line consists of a broad collection of acrylic polyol resins taken from every region of the world and all major coatings markets so you're virtually guaranteed to find a resin suited for your next application. (
  • Anhui Derun devote ourself to the research and development of resins, adhesion promoter, defoamer agent, wax and other products for coatings, inks. (
  • Acrylic resins are produced in different liquid carriers such as a hydrocarbon solvent (solventborne acrylics or solution acrylics solventborne acrylic selector) or water in which case they are referred to as emulsions or dispersions and they are also provided in 100% solids bead form. (
  • Although this page is dedicated to solventborne acrylic resin chemistries, allnex has a variety of other resin systems for you to consider for your next, premium, thermoplastic, urethane 2k or thermosetting, solvent based coating. (
  • Acrylic resins are available in solvent-based as well as watery emulsion solutions. (
  • Dicfine products have superior solvent resistance and heat resistance compared to normal acrylic resins. (
  • Solvent-based acrylic resins can be used in physically drying paints and water-based acrylic dispersions enable the production of emulsion paints. (
  • What Type of Solvent Based Acrylic Resin are you interested in? (
  • Whether you're looking for a solvent based acrylic polymer or resin to make a coating or ink with reduced solvent content, or higher gloss or improved chemical resistance, for a completely different or entirely new application, we hope that you'll use our product selector and or reach out to an allnex technical expert to ensure that you quickly get focused on the right resin for your next innovation. (
  • An acrylic resin is a thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic substance typically derived from acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and acrylate monomers such as butyl acrylate and methacrylate monomers such as methyl methacrylate. (
  • Thermoplastic acrylics designate a group of acrylic resins typically containing both a high molecular weight and a high glass transition temperature which exhibit lacquer dry capability. (
  • PLEXIGLAS® V825T-9110 PMMA is a standard grade thermoplastic acrylic resin formulated for injection molding and extrusion applications. (
  • PLEXIGLAS® V045i PMMA is a lightly impact modified thermoplastic acrylic resin formulated for extrusion applications. (
  • Acrylic resins are polymers whether thermoplastic or in combination with an isocyanate creating a premium acrylic urethane resin based system, have provided the coating industry with fast curing, versatile, durable coating systems for decades. (
  • PLEXIGLAS® V Grade Acrylic Resins promise superior thermal stability, extrusion melt strength, excellent tool surface reproduction, and release properties. (
  • High impact modified resin for extrusion with up to 12 times the strength of general purpose acrylic. (
  • Latex paints with a greater proportion of acrylic resin offer better stain protection, greater water resistance, better adhesion, greater resistance to cracking and blistering, and resistance to alkali cleaners compared to those with vinyl. (
  • Acrylic resins are resistant to varying weather conditions and hydrolysis, and also have shiny aesthetic qualities, and offer color stability and adhesion. (
  • Acrylic resins are the materials which when added to latex increases its gloss properties, mechanical durability (i.e. scratch resistance) and improves the gloss over vinyl-only resins. (
  • This product is ideal for adding a high gloss finish to acrylic paintings, protecting them from UV light and damage. (
  • To ensure that small and large artwork is protected from dirt and wet, the KREUL Acrylic Gloss Varnish can be used. (
  • Providing exceptional optical clarity and resistance to UV light degradation, PLEXIGLAS® V Grade polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resins set the industry standard for applications requiring outdoor and indoor weatherability. (
  • If you're looking for the best acrylic paint to use with resin, you've come to the right place. (
  • Acrylic paint is a versatile and durable medium, which makes it a great choice for resin projects. (
  • Firstly, consider the viscosity of the acrylic paint. (
  • Before buying any acrylic paint for your resin projects, ask yourself these questions: What colors do I need? (
  • By answering these questions, you'll be able to narrow down your options and find the best acrylic paint for your project. (
  • In conclusion, finding the best acrylic paint for resin doesn't have to be daunting. (
  • Ideal for acrylic pouring paint projects on various surfaces such as canvas, wood, rocks, and more. (
  • This product is ideal for artists and DIY enthusiasts who want to create fluid art with acrylic paint and resin pouring. (
  • The product is ideal for paint pouring, DIY resin art, and drawing. (
  • The product is ideal for art enthusiasts who want to quickly and easily mix and pour acrylic paint or resin. (
  • The product is ideal for paint pouring and resin art crafts, with 3-5 channel dividers for convenient mixing. (
  • Ideal for acrylic paint and resin pouring DIY projects, with a unique pattern train art supplies that can be reused. (
  • The product is ideal for adding a fluorescent glow in the dark effect to epoxy resin, slime, nails, and acrylic paint. (
  • The Magicfly high flow acrylic paint set is a pre-mixed and ready-to-pour solution that comes with 14 vibrant metallic colors and a bonus 30ml silicone oil. (
  • Acrylic resins are important synthetic binders in modern paint technology due to their excellent stabilities and versatility. (
  • When the resin is cured, use a liner brush to paint the word "love" on the surface of the resin using Treasure Gold. (
  • Can a Mod Podge Resin project be decorated with paint? (
  • Once Mod Podge Resin has been completely cured, it can be decorated or embellished with paint, markers, ink, and more. (
  • The first is the urethane linkage which is formed at ambient temperature by the reaction between the acrylic polyol and the isocyanate pre polymers. (
  • Acrylic resins are polymerisation products of acrylic and methacrylic acid and their esters. (
  • We Manufacture Graphene Dispersions in Acrylic-based resins. (
  • Our agile team partners with you to determine the right resin for your specific application. (
  • This proprietary acrylic product, which is used to create the company's Plexiglas® Frosted and Plexiglas® Clear-Edge Frosted acrylic sheet and resin products, also provides a textured finish on exposed surfaces, requiring no secondary finishing. (
  • CERANATE products are acrylic resins containing polysiloxane. (
  • DIC acrylic emulsions are products built from long-years of cultivated techniques and experience, and as acrylic emulsions for fiber processing, they possess processing suitability for impregnation processing, spray processing, and knife coating applications. (
  • Aim: This study aims to evaluate the staining capacity of microhybrid and nanohybrid resin-based composites, to saffron extract, tandoori powder, and turmeric powder. (
  • Subjects and Methods: Forty samples of microhybrid (Kulzer Charisma) and nanohybrid (3M Filtek Z350) resin composites were prepared using an acrylic template of dimension 5 mm × 3 mm. (
  • Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Results and Discussion: All the immersion media changed the color of the resin composites to varying degrees. (
  • However, turmeric solution showed the maximum mean color variation ΔE*ab of 14.8 ± 2.57 in microhybrid resin composites and 16.8 ± 3.50 in nanohybrid resin composites. (
  • Conclusion: Microhybrid and nanohybrid resin composites tend to stain to Indian food colorants, especially to turmeric powder. (
  • The patent covers the breakthrough technology developed by Arkema that results in an acrylic product having a frosted appearance in its structure. (
  • This resin has excellent weatherability and optical properties allowing it to excel in applications requiring outdoor stability, high quality surface appearance and/or precision optics. (
  • The new RESYDROL™ AY6705 waterborne acrylic modified alkyd resin extends durability with its outstanding penetration for timber substrates. (
  • The aim and objective of the present study was to assess the flexural strength of denture base resin based on surface treatment with different acrylic resin repair materials. (
  • Emulsion-based acrylic resins possess excellent binding strength in inorganic fibers such as glass fibers. (
  • By considering factors like viscosity and drying time, and asking yourself key questions, you'll be able to make an informed purchase and create stunning resin art. (
  • Please note : these components are individually handmade, colour & glitter placement with vary slightly from piece to piece due to the viscosity of resin. (
  • Our product line features a wide range of hydroxyl values and solids levels including some of the highest solids acrylics in the industry for your next conventional or ultra low VOC application. (
  • Maxillary central incisor acrylic teeth were placed at 45° to denture base resin and submitted to short polymerization cycle according to manufacturers. (
  • Maxillary complete acrylic denture and mandibular cast partial denture. (
  • A full-coverage maxillary stabilization splint is made of acrylic resin (Resilit-S, Erkodent, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) with a thickness of 1.5 mm. (
  • Acrylic resins designed for use in two component systems for crosslinking with isocyanate are referred to as polyols and are made with the monomers previously mentioned as well as hydroxy monomers such as hydroxy ethyl methacrylate. (
  • Two component isocyanate cure acrylics can be attributed to two main factors. (
  • The impressions were taken over a resin and retention of dental prostheses, dimene master cast. (
  • Acrylic resins are considered excellent transparency and weather resistance. (
  • Thicker paints are better suited for adding texture and dimensionality to your resin art, while thinner paints are better for layering and creating a smooth finish. (
  • The global Acrylic Resins Market size reached USD 15.98 Billion in 2020 and is expected to register a significantly robust revenue CAGR during the forecast period, according to latest analysis by Emergen Research. (
  • The global acrylic resins market size is expected to expand at a CAGR of 5.4% and increase from USD 15.98 Billion in 2020 to USD 29.40 Billion in 2032. (
  • Hundreds of chemicals (e.g. metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) and proteins (e.g. natural rubber latex, plant proteins, mould, animal dander) present in virtually every industry have been identified as causes of allergic disease. (
  • Acrylic fiber Acrylic rubber Stoye, D. (
  • Workers in the production of rubber, plastics, and resins are likely exposed to higher levels of 1,3-butadiene. (
  • In addition, acrylic resins are also used in other areas, such as binders for paper/fiber processing, PC screens, display windows for cellular phones and light guide panels for liquid crystal display (LCD) backlights. (
  • Add a small scoop of iridescent pink powder to the resin and stir. (
  • Group I: glass-fiber-reinforced auto-polymerizing acrylic resin, group II: auto-polymerizing acrylic resin, and group III: light-cured acrylic resin. (
  • After considering the limitations, the present study concluded that the highest flexural strength is shown by glass-fiber-reinforced auto-polymerizing acrylic resin than by auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and light-cured acrylic resin. (
  • Eliminates surface residue Brush on acrylic nail surfaces after sculpting, prior to filing and contouring nails. (
  • Acrylic resins can be extensively designed from extremely hard to sticky according to the performance requirements by selecting monomer and adjusting molecular weight. (
  • The influence of Indian food colorants and spices on resin composite restorations has not been evaluated extensively. (
  • This study evaluates and compares the antifungal action of fluconazole, chlorhexidine gluconate and tea tree oil on heat-polymerised denture base resin, which has been previously contaminated with C. albicans grown in BHI broth. (
  • All the 120 heat-cured, surface-treated acrylic denture base resin samples were randomly divided into three groups. (
  • The most commonly used denture base material in prosthodontic clinical practice is acrylic resin. (
  • The fracture of acrylic denture base is uncommon, none the less an inevitable problem of denture care. (
  • The high bond strength between auto-polymerizing acrylic repair and heat-processed denture base resin is not always presumable. (
  • Detachment of denture acrylic resin artificial teeth from denture base resin is one of the most common problems presented by denture wearers. (
  • This study investigated the shear bond strength (SBS) and fracture type of bonding interface of two commercial acrylic teeth (Vipi Dent Plus e Biolux) to two denture base resins (Vipi Cril e Lucitone 550) after immersion in potentially chromogenic beverages ( coffee , cola soft drink , and red wine ) or control solution ( distilled water ). (
  • The SBS of acrylic teeth to denture base resins was not generally influenced by immersion in the tested staining beverages . (
  • This piece represents the style of my cast bronze and fabricated silver collection but is cast in concrete and resin. (
  • View cart "Zuri Acrylic Resin, Bronze" has been added to your cart. (
  • Store your valuables in a beautiful handmade dish with Mod Podge Resin. (
  • The report structure also focuses on the competitive landscape of the Global Acrylic Resin Market, this report introduces in detail the market share, market performance, product situation, operation situation, etc. of the main players, which helps the readers in the industry to identify the main competitors and deeply understand the competition pattern of the market. (
  • Resin dice and acrylic dice are two common materials used in the production of tabletop gaming dice, like those used in role-playing games (RPGs) and board games. (
  • Tulsi resin store is a top player in the category of Epoxy Resin Craft Materials, Clock Materials, Shells, and other craft materials in India. (
  • Tomaselli collects and incorporates unusual materials into his works, including pharmaceutical and street drugs and myriad images of plants, birds, and body parts cut from catalogs and magazines, suspending them in layers of clear epoxy resin. (
  • Resin composite restorative materials can mimic the natural color and shade of the tooth. (
  • The repair of acrylic fracture could be performed easily and possess satisfactory repair strength. (
  • Acrylic dice are more durable, transparent, and cost-effective, while resin dice offer intricate and artistic designs with a lighter weight but are more fragile. (
  • This commitment to R&D continues to result in exciting breakthroughs like Plexiglas® Frosted acrylic technology, which has opened up a world of exciting design possibilities for visual displays, illuminated signage, lighting diffusers and other customer applications. (
  • Altuglas International, a business of Arkema, is a global leader in PMMA and uses two widely known trademarks for its resin and sheet - Altuglas® in the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Africa and the Middle East, and Plexiglas® in North and Latin America. (
  • PLEXIGLAS® HT121-LPL™ PMMA is one of the latest Trinseo innovations to join the PLEXIGLAS® acrylic resin family. (
  • It is a tougher resin than PLEXIGLAS® V045 allowing improved fabrication. (
  • It is a tougher resin than PLEXIGLAS® V052 resin and PLEXIGLAS® V825T resin, allowing improved fabrication. (
  • It is ideal for adding a glossy finish to acrylic paintings and protecting them from damage. (
  • Sprinkle some gold flakes around the word and apply a coat of clear resin to seal. (
  • Graphene Dispersion in Acrylic-based resins is supplied in Small Quantities for Researchers and In bulk quantity of Graphene Dispersion in Acrylic-based resins to companies and institutes for application developments at the very cheapest price. (

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