Acrylic ResinsDenture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Methylmethacrylate: The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Tooth, Artificial: A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.Prosthesis Coloring: Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.Denture Cleansers: Substances used to clean dentures; they are usually alkaline peroxides or hypochlorites, may contain enzymes and release oxygen. Use also for sonic action cleaners.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Denture Repair: The process of reuniting or replacing broken or worn parts of a denture.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Denture, Complete: A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.Denture Liners: Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.Denture Rebasing: The process of refitting a denture by replacing the denture base material without changing the occlusal relations of the teeth. Rebasing may include adding to the denture base to compensate for resorptive changes to subjacent structures.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.AcrylatesSiloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Denture, Complete, Upper: A complete denture replacing all the natural maxillary teeth and associated maxillary structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying maxillary bone.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Self-Curing of Dental Resins: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Maxillofacial Prosthesis: A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face, missing as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery. When the prosthesis replaces portions of the mandible only, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Dental Restoration Wear: Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.Fluorocarbon PolymersWettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Air Abrasion, Dental: A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Acid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Dental Debonding: Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.Microbiological Processes: Physiological functions, activities, and interactions of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Dental Etching: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Denture, Partial, Removable: A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Dental Clasps: Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Zinc Phosphate Cement: A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Denture, Complete, Lower: A complete denture replacing all the natural mandibular teeth and associated structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying mandibular bone.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Silorane Resins: Polymeric resins containing a combination of SILOXANES and OXIRANES.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.ThionesDental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tissue Conditioning (Dental): The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Inlays: Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Capsule Opacification: Clouding or loss of transparency of the posterior lens capsule, usually following CATARACT extraction.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Dental Restoration, Temporary: A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system in hemodialysis: role of membrane electronegativity, blood dilution, and pH. (1/1060)

BACKGROUND: The kallikrein-kinin system activation by contact with a negatively charged surface has been promulgated to be responsible for hypersensitivity reactions. However, to explain the low frequency and heterogeneity of hypersensitivity reactions, we hypothesized that not only the electronegativity of the membrane, but also other physicochemical parameters could influence the activation of the contact phase system of plasma assessed by the measurement of kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. METHODS: Plasma kallikrein activity using chromogenic substrate (S2302) and plasma bradykinin concentration (enzyme immuno assay) were measured during the perfusion of human plasma (2.5 ml/min) through minidialyzers mounted with six different membranes [polyacrylonitrile (PAN) from Asahi (PANDX) and from Hospal (AN69), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) from Toray, cellulose triacetate (CT) from Baxter, cuprophane (CUP) from Akzo and polysulfone (PS) from Fresenius]. RESULTS: A direct relationship was shown between the electronegativity of the membrane assessed by its zeta potential and the activation of plasma during the first five minutes of plasma circulation. With the AN69 membrane, the detection of a kallikrein activity in diluted plasma but not in undiluted samples confirmed the importance of a protease-antiprotease imbalance leading to bradykinin release during the first five minutes of dialysis. With PAN membranes, the use of citrated versus heparinized plasma and the use of various rinsing solutions clearly show a dramatic effect of pH on the kallikrein activity and the bradykinin concentration measured in plasma. Finally, increasing the zeta potential of the membrane leads to a significant increase of plasma kallikrein activity and bradykinin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro experimental approach evidences the importance of the control of these physicochemical factors to decrease the activation of the contact system.  (+info)

Intravitreous transplantation of encapsulated fibroblasts secreting the human fibroblast growth factor 2 delays photoreceptor cell degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats. (2/1060)

We developed an experimental approach with genetically engineered and encapsulated mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to delay the progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells in dark-eyed Royal College of Surgeons rats. These xenogeneic fibroblasts can survive in 1. 5-mm-long microcapsules made of the biocompatible polymer AN69 for at least 90 days under in vitro and in vivo conditions because of their stable transfection with the gene for the 18-kDa form of the human basic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF-2). Furthermore, when transferred surgically into the vitreous cavity of 21-day-old Royal College of Surgeons rats, the microencapsulated hFGF-2-secreting fibroblasts provoked a local delay of photoreceptor cell degeneration, as seen at 45 days and 90 days after transplantation. This effect was limited to 2.08 mm2 (45 days) and 0.95 mm2 (90 days) of the retinal surface. In both untreated eyes and control globes with encapsulated hFGF-2-deficient fibroblasts, the rescued area (of at most 0.08 mm2) was significantly smaller at both time points. Although, in a few ocular globes, surgical trauma induced a reorganization of the retinal cytoarchitecture, neither microcapsule rejection nor hFGF-2-mediated tumor formation were detected in any treated eyes. These findings indicate that encapsulated fibroblasts secreting hFGF-2 or perhaps other agents can be applied as potential therapeutic tools to treat retinal dystrophies.  (+info)

The crystal growth technique--a laboratory evaluation of bond strengths. (3/1060)

An ex vivo study was carried out to determine differences in the bond strengths achieved with brackets placed using a crystal growth technique compared with a conventional acid-etch technique. A solution of 37 per cent phosphoric acid was used for acid-etching and a commercially available polyacrylic acid gel, Crystal-lok for crystal growth. A heavily-filled composite resin was used for all samples to bond brackets to healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Polycrystalline ceramic and stainless steel brackets were used and tested to both tensile and shear failure using an Instron Universal Testing machine. The tensile and shear bond strengths were recorded in kgF. In view of difficulties experienced with previous authors using different units to describe their findings, the data were subsequently converted to a range of units in order to facilitate direct comparison. The crystal growth technique produced significantly lower bond strengths than the acid-etch technique for ceramic and stainless steel brackets, both in tensile and shear mode. The tensile bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 2.2 kg compared with 6.01 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the tensile bond strengths were 3.9 kg for crystal growth and 5.55 kg for acid-etch. The mean shear bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 12.61 kg compared with 21.55 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the shear bond strengths were 7.93 kg with crystal growth compared with 16.55 kg for acid-tech. These bond strengths were below those previously suggested as clinically acceptable.  (+info)

High resolution detection of mechanical forces exerted by locomoting fibroblasts on the substrate. (4/1060)

We have developed a new approach to detect mechanical forces exerted by locomoting fibroblasts on the substrate. Cells were cultured on elastic, collagen-coated polyacrylamide sheets embedded with 0. 2-micrometer fluorescent beads. Forces exerted by the cell cause deformation of the substrate and displacement of the beads. By recording the position of beads during cell locomotion and after cell removal, we discovered that most forces were radially distributed, switching direction in the anterior region. Deformations near the leading edge were strong, transient, and variable in magnitude, consistent with active local contractions, whereas those in the posterior region were weaker, more stable, and more uniform, consistent with passive resistance. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin D or myosin II inhibitors caused relaxation of the forces, suggesting that they are generated primarily via actin-myosin II interactions; treatment with nocodazole caused no immediate effect on forces. Immunofluorescence indicated that the frontal region of strong deformation contained many vinculin plaques but no apparent concentration of actin or myosin II filaments. Strong mechanical forces in the anterior region, generated by locally activated myosin II and transmitted through vinculin-rich structures, likely play a major role in cell locomotion and in mechanical signaling with the surrounding environment.  (+info)

Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part I. New precious metal alloys with base metals for resin bonding. (5/1060)

New dental precious metal alloys for resin bonding without alloy surface modification were developed by adding base metals (In, Zn, or Sn). Before this, binary alloys of Au, Ag, Cu, or Pd containing In, Zn, or Sn were studied for water durability and bonding strength with 4-META resin. The adhesion ability of the binary alloys was improved by adding In equivalent to 15% of Au content, Zn equivalent to 20% of Ag content, and In, Zn, or Sn equivalent to 5% of Cu content. There was no addition effect of the base metals on Pd, however 15% of In addition improved adhesion with Pd-based alloys containing equi-atomic % of Cu and Pd. The alloy surfaces were analyzed by XPS and showed that oxides such as In2O3, ZnO, or SnO play an important role in improving the adhesive ability of the alloys.  (+info)

Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part II. The relationship between surface structure of Au-In alloys and adhesive ability with 4-META resin. (6/1060)

Adhesion of 4-META to Au-In alloy was improved by adding In equivalent to .15% of Au content. On the basis of the results of Au-In alloys analyzed by XPS, the present study investigated the reason why adhesion of the Au-In alloy was improved. The O 1s spectrum could be separated into three oxygen chemical states, In2O3, chemisorbed H2O, and physisorbed H2O. The amount of chemisorbed H2O decreased remarkably with increasing amount of In. It is considered that the poor adhesive ability of the pure gold and alloys containing only small amounts of In was due to the chemisorbed H2O molecules and insufficient indium oxide on the alloy surface. It was established that excellent adhesion requires an oxide with chemical affinity for 4-META to cover at least 50% of the alloy surface.  (+info)

Super pulse CO2 laser for bracket bonding and debonding. (7/1060)

A super pulse and a normal pulse CO2 laser were used to carry out enamel etching and bracket debonding in vitro and in vivo. The shear bond strength of the orthodontic brackets attached to laser-etched and conventional chemically-etched extracted premolars was measured. The pulp cavity temperature was also measured using the same laser irradiation conditions as the shear test. Both super pulse and normal pulse CO2 laser etching resulted in a lower shear bond strength (super pulse: 6.9 +/- 3.4 kg, normal pulse: 9.7 +/- 5.2 kg) than that of chemical etching (15.3 +/- 2.8 kg). Furthermore, the super pulse CO2 laser was able to create debonding at 2 watts within a period of less than 4 seconds (2.9 +/- 0.9 seconds). The super pulse, when irradiating the ceramic brackets from above, during debonding showed a 1.4 degrees C temperature increase in the dental pulp at 2 watts and an increase of 2.1 degrees C at 3 watts. While etching, directly irradiating the enamel surface at 3 watts, the dental pulp showed a temperature increase of 3.5 degrees C. These temperature increases were within the physiologically acceptable limits of the pulp. These results indicate that, in orthodontic treatments, super pulse CO2 laser debonding is more useful than laser etching.  (+info)

Subcellular localization and partial purification of prelamin A endoprotease: an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of farnesylated prelamin A to mature lamin A. (8/1060)

The nuclear lamina protein, lamin A is produced by proteolytic cleavage of a 74 kDa precursor protein, prelamin A. The conversion of this precursor to mature lamin A is mediated by a specific endoprotease, prelamin A endoprotease. Subnuclear fractionation indicates that the prelamin A endoprotease is localized at the nuclear membrane. The enzyme appears to be an integral membrane protein, as it can only be removed from the nuclear envelope with detergent. It is effectively solubilized by the detergent n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and can be partially-purified (approximately 1200-fold) by size exclusion and cation exchange (Mono S) chromatography. Prelamin A endoprotease from HeLa cells was eluted from Mono S with 0.3 M sodium chloride as a single peak of activity. SDS-PAGE analysis of this prelamin A endoprotease preparation shows that it contains one major polypeptide at 65 kDa and smaller amounts of a second 68 kDa polypeptide. Inhibition of the enzyme activity in this preparation by specific serine protease inhibitors is consistent with the enzyme being a serine protease.  (+info)

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the conventional and boiled polymerization cycles on gloss, roughness, hardness and impact strength of acrylic resins. Samples were made for each Classico and QC-20 materials (n=10) in dental stone molds obtained from rectangular metallic matrices embedded in metallic flasks. The powder-liquid ratio and manipulation of the acrylic resins were accomplished according to manufacturers instructions and the resins were conventionally packed in metallic flasks. After polymerization by (1) conventional: 74 °C for 9 h (Classico) and (2) boiled: 20 min (QC-20) cycles, the samples were deflasked after cooling at room temperature and conventionally finished and polished. The properties were evaluated after storage in water at 37 °C for 24 h. Gloss was verified with Multi Gloss 268 meter (Konica Minolta), surface roughness was measured with Surfcorder SE 1700 rugosimeter (Kosaka), Knoop hardness number was obtained with HMV-200 microdurometer, and impact strength was
... aims at providing comprehensive data on sodium polyacrylate market globally and regionally
[116 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Sodium Polyacrylate Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Sodium Polyacrylate in Global market, especially in...
Page contains details about doxorubicin-encapsulated polyacrylamide hydrogel/polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride-capped gold nanoparticles film-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) cube . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
The combination of solid wood and hardened acrylic resin creates these highly functional end tables and uniquely beautiful works of art. The end table pictured on top was made with solid walnut and Caribbean blue acrylic resin. Pictured underneath is a solid beech and frosted acrylic resin top, featuring a knot filled in with emerald green acrylic resin. Because no two tables are alike, each table tells its own story of creativity and craftsmanship.. Top: Solid Walnut/Caribbean Blue resin, Solid Beech/Frosted Resin & Emerald Green knot. Bases: Raw Steel Tripod Bases (gold sheen on beech table base). Finish: Natural Finish. Client: In Collaboration: Scroll down for gallery: ...
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Three PEG molecules (PEG-methacrylate, -diacrylate and -dimethacrylate) were incorporated into galactose-based polyacrylate hydrogels and their relative abilities to reduce non-specific protein adsorption in immunoassays were determined. Highly crosslinked hydrogels containing amine-terminated functionalities were formed and used to covalently attach antibodies specific for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Patterned arrays of immobilized antibodies in the PEG-modified hydrogels were created with a PDMS template containing micro-channels for use in sandwich immunoassays to detect SEB. Different concentrations of the toxin were applied to the hydrogel arrays, followed with a Cy3-labeled tracer antibody specific for the two toxins. Fluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy of the tracer molecules provided both qualitative and quantitative measurements on the detection sensitivity and the reduction in non-specific binding as a result of PEG incorporation. Results showed the PEG-modified hydrogel
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Capacitors comprising at least one electrode pair, the electrodes of the pair, and the electrode pairs, if more than one, being separated by a dielectric member, said dielectric member comprising a polymer of at least one polyacrylate polyether pre-polymer. The capacitor structure may comprise a single dielectric coating separating two electrodes, or it may comprise a plurality of alternating electrode layers and dielectric coatings.
Sodium polyacrylate starch - Surfactant - SAAPedia - SAAPedia(Surfactant.TOP),Surfactant,Anionic surfactants, Cationic surfactants, Non-ionic surfactants, Zwitterionic surfactants, Polymer Surfactants, Fluoro surfactants, Silicone surfactants, Biosurfactants, Natural surfactants, Special surfactants - Page1
Water swellable polyacrylate articles are made from a solution of the polyacrylate having an effective amount of a soluble crosslinking agent therein by heating and/or drying the solution. The polyacrylate solution is made from a polyacrylate by saponification and the cross-linking agent is then added.
19/30394366 DC BS ISO 17190-4. Urine-absorbing aids for incontinence. Polyacrylate superabsorbent powders Part 4. Test method for estimation of the
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Sodium polyacrylate Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
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Polycarbophil calcium (INN) is a drug used as a stool stabilizer. Chemically, it is a synthetic polymer of polyacrylic acid cross-linked with divinyl glycol, with calcium as a counter-ion. It is used as stool stabilizer to treat constipation, diarrhea and abdominal discomfort. Bulk laxatives absorb liquid in the intestines and swell to form a soft bulky stool. The bulky mass stimulates the intestinal muscles, speeding stool transit time through the colon. Results usually occur within 12 to 72 hours. Calcium polycarbophil will not work without increased fluid intake. Calcium polycarbophil has been marketed as an over-the-counter agent used for treating functional bowel disorder and as a bulk-producing agent. A study looked at the effects of calcium polycarbophil on general irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Fourteen patients with IBS-diarrhea and twelve with IBS-constipation were given calcium polycarbophil for eight weeks and their colon transit times were measured with radiopaque markers ...
BACKGROUND: Polyacrylamide hydrogel has in the last decade gained popularity as an injectable filler for facial augmentation due to its features of non-toxicity, biocompatibility, safety profile, and immediate effect. However, as all types of injections carry the risk of infection and since the polyacrylamide hydrogel is a non-degradable implant, the possibility of bacterial biofilm formation exists. Theoretically, the risk of infection and subsequent biofilm formation can be avoided by using prophylactic antibiotic treatment prior to the time of injection. METHOD: This retrospective study of outcomes following polyacrylamide hydrogel injections includes 657 subjects from one centre, which had facial injections from 2001 and 2011. Until 2007 prophylactic antibiotics were not given prior to treatment, but in September 2007 a single oral dose of azithromycin (Zitromax) and moxifloxacin (Avelox) was introduced as prophylactic antibiotics. A total of 496 subjects were injected before 2007 without antibiotic
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TH-1100 is the homopolymer of low molecular polyacrylic acid and its salts. Free of phosphate, it can be used i - Manufacturer - Producer - PSL40411YH
Acrylic Resin Flowmeter MODEL RK400 SERIES This acrylic resin flow meter covers a wide flow range Two types, with and without a valve, are available. The flow meter integral with a transparent acrylic panel permits easy reading, making it ideal for water treatment systems, purge systems, and medical equipment. Features : • A variety…
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... are a new line of colors and mediums for professional artists designed with a unique set of working properties that represent a true departure from all other acrylics on the market and that dramatically expand the range of techniques that are available to artists who prefer to use acrylics. GOLDEN OPEN Acrylics are formulated with an optimum balance of pigment load and 100% acrylic polymer dispersion to produce a paint with a uniquely relaxed set of working characteristics and a versatility that allows artists to explore a wider range of techniques such as portraiture and landscape painting that rely on softening, shading, glazing, and creating fine detail. GOLDEN OPEN Acrylics resist skinning, remain wet on the palette for extended periods and exhibit a remarkable versatility that allows them to be used directly from the tube for plein air painting, monoprinting and screenprinting. OPEN Acrylics may be blended with other GOLDEN Acrylic Colors, Mediums and Gels, with the open time
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The research report presents a comprehensive outlook on the Global Acrylic Resin Market contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data. It also contains projections using a suitable set of assumptions and methodologies. The research report provides analysis and information according to categories such as market segments, geographies, types, technology and applications. The Acrylic Resin Market research report provides the newest industry data and industry future trends, allowing you to identify the products and end users driving revenue growth and profitability.It furthermore has an assessment of the factors influencing the demand and supply of the associated products and services, and challenges witnessed by market players. Moreover, the report is made with different graphical representation with the precise arrangement of key outlines, strategic diagrams, and descriptive figures based on the reliable data to depict an exact ...
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A NiS2-modified sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite is prepared by simply co-heating a mixture of sulfur, NiCO3, and polyacrylonitrile. The NiS2-SPAN cathode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, delivering a high reversible capacity of 1533 mA h gsulfur−1 (705 mA h gcomposite−1) at 0.2 A g−1 aft
Materials 3 opaque cups Sodium polyacryate Water Procedure Ahead of class time place some sodium polyacrylate in one of the cups. During class, pour some water into the cup containing the sodium polyacrylate. Ask students to keep their eye on this cup and then rearrange the cups (like a shell game). As the instructor rearranges the cups students are easily able to pick out the spiked cup. However when the instructor inverts the spiked cup no water comes out.
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
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United States Patent 3,527,802 ACRYLIC AMINIMIDES Robert C. Slagel, Savage, Minn., assignor to Ashland Oil & Refining Company, Ashland, Ky., a corporation of Kentucky No Drawing. Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 514,705, Dec. 15, 1965. This application May 5, 1967, Ser. No. 636,273 Int. Cl. C07c 103/44 US. Cl. 260-561 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Acrylic aminimides are prepared from acrylic acids or derivatives thereof. The acrylic aminimides can be homopolymerized and copolymerized to result in functional group-containing polymeric products capable of thermosetting. The acrylic aminimides have the general formula: R R wasting. wherein R is a hydrogen, lower alkyl (C -C aryl, chlorine, fluorine, bromine, or cyano group and R R and R are hydrocarbon radicals and R and R can be combined to form a heterocyclic ring with the nitrogen. This application is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 514,705 filed Dec. 15, 1965. The present invention relates to novel acrylic amin imides and to ...
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London Resins range of low viscosity, low toxicity, acrylic resins are specifically formulated for microscopists, including: LR white, LR Gold & Histocryl.
Emelda Acrylic Resin Mini Box Tote with Beads Handle - 3 Colors. Totally gorgeous swirling marble pattern resin bag with beads handle. A perfect evening clutch to complete a party or special event outfit. Have a marble-lous life! Marble pattern and colors will be slightly different per item due to the nature of the pa
Material: Made of acrylic resin and alloy, strong and durable material makes them much pretty and exquisite.Non-Slip: Teeth design can greatly handle whatever thick or thin hair. Enough long clips for hair will hold tightly, perfect for thick, thin, curly, or straight hair.Fashion Design: Hollow geometric hair clips wi
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Authentic Louis Vuitton Night Clubber PM Bangle in Clear Acrylic Resin. Has a silver-tone square engraved with "LOUIS VUITTON PARIS." The size is not adjustable. Simple yet chic item to go with any outfit! SKU: LR086 Size: Diameter: 2.5in or 6.3 ...
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Clear Acrylic (Poly(methyl methacrylate) is used extensively in the medical industry.. Acrylic vacuum chambers, cabinets, boxes, doors and windows can be found in hospitals and laboratories around the world. Premac lead loaded acrylic is used for radiation shielding of radio isotopes.. Bray Plastics have extensive experience in working with acrylic. Machining, fabricating and forming in acrylics under their various trade names of Perspex, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Altuglas etc.. ...
It is an acrylic resin. Dynel was originally produced by Union Carbide corporation. Time Magazine, 1 Jun 1962, Modern Living: ...
The installation is made of acrylic resin tile. It was funded by the Golden Triangle BID and DC Commission on the Arts and ...
7" w. Acrylic resin, lycra, rubber, and sun spectra, done at Roswell Time's Color Arrow, 1971. Acrylic resin, done at Roswell. ... 54" × 38" × 36" Acrylic resin mixed with black sand. Done at Roswell, shown at Sunspot, N.M. Testament Series, 1974-75. St. ... "Sun Touchstone", poured acrylic resin and black marble sand HUD, The National Community Arts Program, 1973: "Times Color Arrow ... Painted acrylic mixed with sand. Sculptural form was to symbolize atom bomb, the interior proto-form was symbol of humanity, ...
Occlusal splints are typically made of a heat-cured acrylic resin. Soft acrylic or light cured composite, or vinyl splints may ... made a breakthrough by using transparent acrylic resin to form what he termed an "acrylic splint". Molded to fit unobtrusively ... "Acrylic Splints for Athletes: Transparent Slip Casings for the Teeth as a Protection From Blows". Journal of the American ... Krause placed strips of a natural rubber resin, gutta-percha, over the maxillary incisors of boxers before they entered the ...
... acrylic resin and polymer emulsion production; stamping and assembly for the appliance industry; manufacturing custom ...
Acrylic polymers - polyurethane resins. The individual components of a multi-component adhesive are not adhesive by nature. The ... phenolic resin was applied to plywood as a coating varnish. In the early 1930s, phenolics gained importance as adhesive resins. ... They are generally acrylic-based. Heat curing adhesives consist of a pre-made mixture of two or more components. When heat is ... The multi-component resins can be either solvent-based or solvent-less. The solvents present in the adhesives are a medium for ...
Additional materials can include aluminum, stainless steel, acrylic, and resin. After considering which material is best suited ... polyester or acrylic), Foam Board (Foamcore), Gator Foam (Gator Board), muslin, Plexiglas, and some metals such as brass and ...
Concrete overlays lacked the long-term performance characteristics of acrylic resins. Acrylic resins provided good UV ... well known chemical companies began to experiment with acrylic paint resins as modifiers for cement and sand mixes. The result ... Some are polymer based, acrylic and epoxy. Concrete overlays date to the 1960s when chemical engineers from some of the larger ... The purpose of adding a polymer resin to the cement and aggregate is to greatly increase the performance characteristics and ...
In the 20th century, acrylic resin and other plastics were used. In Britain, sequential Adult Dental Health Surveys revealed ... heat cured acrylics-also called permanent denture acrylics-go through a process called polymerization, causing the acrylic ... Dentures should also be removed while smoking, as the heat can damage the denture acrylic and overheated acrylic can burn the ... "A clinical trial of light cure acrylic resin for orthodontic use". Journal of Orthodontics. 29 (1): 51-55. doi:10.1093/ortho/ ...
It consists of a gypsum-based material in an acrylic resin. Jesmonite is a versatile material and is used in several ways. It ... It is considered an attractive alternative to other resin-based materials, such as polyester and fiberglass. It can be used for ...
... black Cladosporium attacked dried acrylic resin using melanin. As the favorite medium for Greek and Roman sculptors and ... Marble dust is combined with cement or synthetic resins to make reconstituted or cultured marble. The appearance of marble can ... "Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins". Science of the ... cathedral marble treated with acrylics". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73 (1): 271-7. doi:10.1128/AEM.02220-06. PMC ...
In 1955, Levison developed a quick-drying, water-emulsified acrylic polymer resin. In selecting a name for the new product, ... He continued to use oil paint for some work, but mostly used acrylics after the mid-1960s.[citation needed] "Brands". ColArt. ... The company offers the largest number of acrylic paint products in the world. Liquitex was birthed from the Permanent Pigments ... Abstract expressionist artist Robert Motherwell switched to acrylic paints due to his use of large amounts of black, a color ...
She used lead, resin, acrylic, textiles, cardboard or wood in her works. In Paris, she experimented with cardboard boxes ...
This laid the foundation for synthetic acrylic resins created from acetone cyanohydrin. Anne C. Hughes, "Vera Evstaf'evna ...
These derivatives form products such as acrylic fibers, glasses, paints, resins, and polymers. In 1881, the Russian chemist ... With carbon monoxide to give acrylic acid, or acrylic esters, which can be used to produce acrylic glass: Cyclization to give ... Another major application of acetylene, especially in China is its conversion to acrylic acid derivatives. ... "Acrylic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry: pg. 7. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_161.pub2. ...
"The planning and contouring of acrylic resin veneer crowns for partial denture clasping". thejpd. "Zirconia Crowns". dental- ... Resin veneer crowns are a combination of stainless steel and resin. They are widely used for intermediate to long-term ... Polycarbonate crowns are made of polycarbonate resin shells with microglass fibers and have been temporarily used to restore ...
Materials used to create the heel design include polycarbonate, PVC, lucite and acrylic resin. The transparency may be used ...
... including acrylic paint, oil paint, and polyester resin. Against a golden background, it depicts the portrait of a black woman ...
Standard cast acrylic plastic, acrylic plastic sheet, and other cast resins generally laser very well. A commonly engraved ... award is a cast acrylic shape designed to be lasered from the back side. Styrene (as in compact disc cases) and many of the ...
... acrylic, cobalt, chromium), or in response to substances within denture adhesives. Incomplete curing of the acrylic resin (the ...
... s using acrylic resin, a synthetic polymer, were developed in the 1950s. Acrylic resin is colourless, transparent ... The active ingredient of the resin is urushiol, a mixture of various phenols suspended in water, plus a few proteins. The resin ... Acrylic is also used in enamel paints, which have the advantage of not needing to be buffed to obtain a shine. Enamels, however ... The fresh resin from the T. vernicifluum trees causes urushiol-induced contact dermatitis and great care is required in its use ...
Alternatively, polyurethane, spray acrylic, epoxy resin or other lacquers are usually used. Someone who does decoupage is known ...
The mural is 40' wide x 65' tall and is painted with acrylic resin on stucco. Hostel Adventure travel Backpacking (Canada) ...
In Magna pigments are ground in an acrylic resin with alcohol-based solvents. Unlike modern water-based acrylics, Magna is ... Acrylic paint stops at its own edge. Color field painting came in at the same time as the invention of this new paint. Acrylics ... Water-based acrylic paints were subsequently sold as "latex" house paints, although acrylic dispersion uses no latex derived ... The number of artists who stained in the 1960s greatly increased with the availability of acrylic paint. Staining acrylic paint ...
Court surfaces are made of various materials including rubber, silica, and acrylic resin. Laykold is manufactured by Advanced ...
In order to prevent further accidents, all of the ID-PMTs were covered by fiber-reinforced plastic with acrylic front windows. ... but it was removed when IE resin was found to be a significant radon source. The RO step that removes additional particulates, ... and by adding protective acrylic shells that are hoped will prevent another chain reaction from recurring (Super-Kamiokande-II ...
Our expertise in ion exchange resin technology, coupled with the high quality of cartridge components and precision ... manufacturing techniques, allow us to provide you with the highest quality, best performing ion exchange resin cartridges. ... High Capacity Weak Base Acrylic Anion Resin, Free Base Form is a high capacity macroporous anion exchange resin with an acrylic ... Weak Base Anion Exchange Resin is a macroporous-type anion exchange resin with an acrylic matrix. The macroporous acrylic ...
Acrylic resin is considered extremely weatherproof. This makes it ideal for outdoor applications. In solid form acrylic resin ... Acrylic fiber Acrylic rubber acrylic resin definition, TheFreeDictionary quoting The American Heritage Dictionary of the ... the acrylic resin market is forecast to reach $22 billion by 2020. Currently, acrylic resins are most often used in automotive ... Acrylic resins are a group of related thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic substances derived from acrylic acid, methacrylic ...
... any of a group of thermoplastic resins formed by polymerizing the esters of amides of acrylic or methacrylic acid: used chiefly ... where transparency is desired, as in the methacrylate resins Lucite and Plexiglas. See more. ... acrylic resin in Science Expand. acrylic resin Any of numerous thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers or copolymers of acrylic ... acrylic resin. noun 1. any of a group of polymers or copolymers of acrylic acid, its esters, or amides, used as synthetic ...
... Report finds toxic BPA common in food cans. Two out of three food cans tested have toxic BPA in the linings, ... Filed Under: Find Safer Products, Mind the Store Tagged With: acrylic resins, Albertsons, alternatives, American College of ... polyester resins, polyvinyl chloride, private label, product testing, prostate cancer, publix, PVC, Randalls, regrettable ...
Impact modified grade resins are characterized by three primary features: toughness, heat resistance, and processability. ... Plexiglas® Impact Modified Acrylic Resins. Product. Plexiglas® Impact Modified resins are characterized by three primary ... Plexiglas® SG7 is an impact modified acrylic resin suitable for injection molding and extrusion. It is a high flow resin ... Plexiglas® SG10 is an impact modified acrylic resin suitable for injection molding and extrusion. It is a high flow resin ...
1 Industry Overview of Acrylic Resin. 1.1 Definition and Specifications of Acrylic Resin. 1.1.1 Definition of Acrylic Resin. ... The Global Acrylic Resin Industry Report 2016 is an in depth study analyzing the current state of the Global Acrylic Resin ... 1.2 Classification of Acrylic Resin. 1.2.1 Methacrylates. 1.2.2 Acrylates. 1.3 Applications of Acrylic Resin. 1.3.1 Paint and ... 6.5 Sale Price of Acrylic Resin by Regions 2011-2016. 6.6 Sale Price of Acrylic Resin by Types 2011-2016. 6.7 Sale Price of ...
... tips and instructions to create the most beautiful acrylic tips. ... The ASP Acrylic Resin Organica Kit includes powder, liquid, ... The ASP Acrylic Resin Organica Kit is a revolutionary new choice in acrylic. A patented copolymer with optical enhancers that ... Kit Contains: 2 oz Resin Organica Monomer,1.6 oz Whtie, Pink & Clear Resin Organica So Clear Acrylic Powder, Primer Pen, White ... https://www.sallybeauty.com/acrylic-nail-kit/SBS-156604,default,pd.html SBS-156604. , ...
If you have a stain on your 100 percent acrylic resin countertop, feel fortunate that you have an acrylic countertop. Acrylic ... Wipe the surface of the acrylic resin countertop with clean water and a cotton rag or abrasive-free sponge and then wipe dry ... How to Remove Stain From an Acrylic Resin Counter By Lisa Wampler eHow ... Wipe the surface of the countertop with a deep cleaner designed specifically for acrylic resin surfaces. Wipe the countertop ...
Although this blank can be turned to make a great looking pen, poly acrylic is really brittle and easily chipped. Make sure ...
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Acrylic Resins Market report categorizes the Global Market by Type (Acrylates, Methacrylates, Hybrids), by Property ( ... 7.4.4 Germany: Acrylic Resin Market Size, By Type. 7.4.5 U.K.: Acrylic Resin Market Size, By Type. 7.4.6 France: Acrylic Resin ... 7.5.4 China: Acrylic Resin Market Size, By Type. 7.5.5 India: Acrylic Resin Market Size, By Type. 7.5.6 Japan: Acrylic Resin ... 7.3.4 U.S.: Acrylic Resins Market Size, By Type. 7.3.5 Mexico: Acrylic Resin Market Size, By Type. 7.3.6 Canada: Acrylic Resin ...
... acrylic resins are suistanable, high performance emulsions for flexible packaging adhesives. Easy to handle, they adhere to a ... Carbobond™ acrylic resins are suistanable, high performance emulsions for flexible packaging adhesives. Easy to handle, they ...
Coating compositions comprising a polyepoxide resin, an acrylic terpolymer resin anda latent curing catalyst, and method of ... Coating compositions comprising a polyepoxide resin, an acrylic terpolymer resin anda latent curing catalyst, and method of ... CGATHNG COMPOSITHGNts (IQMPRISING A POLY- EIPUXKDE RESTN, AN ACRYLIC TERPULYMER RESIN AND A LATENT CURING CATALYST, AND METHQD ... Such epoxy condensates are commercially available under the trade-mark Epon epoxy resin, Epi-Rez epoxy resin and Araldite ...
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Acrylic Resin Market by Type (Methacrylates, Acrylates & Hybrids), Solvency, Property (Thermoplastic & Thermosetting) & ... What are the Known and Unknown Adjacencies Impacting the Acrylic Resin Market ...
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Acrylic-Resin Top, Integrated Sink, E for $999.00. Was $1,178.66. ... One-piece acrylic-resin countertop with integrated sink(s) ... Wyndham Collection Amare Dove Grey Acrylic Resin Top Integrated Sink 72-inch Single Vanity with 70-inch Mirror (Acrylic Resin ... Wyndham Collection Amare Dove Grey Acrylic Resin Top Integrated Sinks 72-inch Double Vanity with 70-inch Mirror (Acrylic Resin ... Wyndham Collection Daniella Acrylic Resin 30-inch Single-vanity Countertop with Integrated Sink and 24-inch Mirror (dove gray) ...
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  • Thermoplastic toughening of epoxy resins has been actively studied since the early 1980s with considerable progress in property improvement and understanding having been made since then May 31, 2016 · In this review, thermosetting polymers derived from natural resources thermosetting acrylic resins literature review are highlighted for future generation with greater sustainability for different applications. (fablesounds.com)
  • They are widely used thermosetting acrylic resins literature review as -linkinga cross agent with alkyd, polyester, polyurethanes and epoxy resins in the resume traditional format coating industry . (fablesounds.com)
  • I am a fluid artist located in Upstate New York, and I make one-of-a-kind paintings from a variety of mediums, including fluid acrylic paints, resin, and alcohol inks. (patreon.com)
  • This study evaluated the effect of denture base acrylic, denture tooth composition, and ridge-lap surface treatment on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of three commercially available denture teeth and two injection denture processing systems. (ovid.com)
  • PATTERN RESIN LS is a self-curing, general purpose acrylic resin used for making patterns for fabricating copings, post and core build-ups, lingual and palatal bars, implant attachments, adhesion bridges, clasps, telescoping crowns and certain pre-soldering techniques. (gcamerica.com)
  • Acrylic resin is the fastest-growing coating resin as it is used in a wide range of applications because of their chemical characteristics and unique aesthetic properties. (marketresearch.com)
  • This Stone Resin Floating Acrylic Plaque is made with a stylish acrylic that sets on top of an elegant stone resin plaque that is truly unique. (k2awards.com)
  • The DuraStone low profile shower tray uses the most up to date materials to create its mineral stone resin construction. (buyaparcel.com)
  • At only 45mm high it creates the minimalistic look whilst being lighter than traditional stone resin trays. (buyaparcel.com)
  • The Durastone 45 has an Acrylic Capped ABS surface with a durable mineral stone resin infill and an integral baseboard which will also accommodate the Easy Plumb panel set. (buyaparcel.com)
  • A typical example is the reaction of hexamethoxymethyl melamine with … Cited by: 10 Publish Year: 1985 Author: G.Y. Method This study is a structured literature review of articles thermosetting acrylic resins literature review published from 1990 to 2014 of unsaturated polyester resins was done by Penezek . (fablesounds.com)
  • Contemporary artist Bich Nguyen mixes acrylic paint and resin to create mesmerizing swirls of color, which appear like brightly hued hot springs seen from above, or perhaps nebulae given the tie-dye treatment. (mymodernmet.com)
  • From our new line of product, Resin Mirrors are a very light weight type of product, yet resistant. (dezignwithaz.com)
  • Sixteen experimental groups were formed (n = 3), according to denture tooth surface treatment (no treatment or surface treatment recommended by the manufacturer), denture base processing technique and acrylic (SR-Ivocap-Ivocap Plus or Success-Lucitone 199), and tooth type-composition at bonding interface (BlueLine DCL-PMMA, Portrait IPN-PMMA, Phonares II-PMMA, Phonares II-NHC). (ovid.com)
  • These are the major resin type considered in the report. (reportsnreports.com)
  • This research report categorizes the global automotive coating market based on resin type, technology type, coat type, and region. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The paper was based on the assumption that the appropri- ate selection of the type of acrylic material and. (fablesounds.com)
  • As a member of the Mitsubishi Chemical High-Performance Chemicals business complex, Dianal produces coating resins that add value to the inherent properties of objects made from metals, plastics and paper. (dianal.com)
  • Elvacite® acrylic resins offer a unique combination of properties that aid in key functions including substrate adhesion, pigment dispersion, durability, and flexibility. (chempoint.com)
  • With human technological advances came the realization that resins could be formulated into polymers and discovery of synthetic resins followed shortly after. (niir.org)
  • For most part, polymers made with resins are actually made with synthetic resin which is cheaper and easier to refine. (niir.org)
  • Synthetic resin is much more stable, predictable and uniform than natural resin as well, since it is made under controlled condition without the possibility of the introduction of impurities. (niir.org)
  • When evaluating the μTBS of PMMA and NHC denture teeth to base resins, a stronger bond was achieved using materials produced by the same manufacturer. (ovid.com)
  • Relying on the strong technical skills of the R&D department, we are constantly introducing new competitive resin products that well meets the needs of customers. (opencroquet.org)
  • For thermoset products, the resultant resin was blended with styrene for cross-linking and small amount of peroxide as initiator. (fablesounds.com)
  • Founded as a private single-investor enterprise in 1984, this factory specializes in making 'FUKANG'brand acrylic resin teeth. (made-in-china.com)
  • FUDANG' brand acrylic resin teeth are acceptable by debtists and enjoy a good reputation for their stable and reliable quality. (made-in-china.com)
  • Within the Luctione 199 specimens, the Phonares II NHC group demonstrated significantly lower bond strength than other specimens, suggesting that gross ridge-lap reduction of NHC denture teeth is not recommended if a base acrylic by a different manufacturer from the tooth is going to be used. (ovid.com)
  • The resin teeth showed no significant changes in the AE* values. (quintpub.com)