Dictionaries, ChemicalAcrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Biological Ontologies: Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Scapegoating: Process in which the mechanisms of projection or displacement are utilized in focusing feelings of aggression, hostility, frustration, etc., upon another individual or group; the amount of blame being unwarranted.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Floors and Floorcoverings: The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Nuclear Respiratory Factors: A family of transcription factors that control expression of a variety of nuclear GENES encoding proteins that function in the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of the MITOCHONDRIA.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
(1/591) Surface-grafted, environmentally sensitive polymers for biofilm release.

Controlling bacterial biofouling is desirable for almost every human enterprise in which solid surfaces are introduced into nonsterile aqueous environments. One approach that is used to decrease contamination of manufactured devices by microorganisms is using materials that easily slough off accumulated material (i.e., fouling release surfaces). The compounds currently used for this purpose rely on low surface energy to inhibit strong attachment of organisms. In this study, we examined the possible use of environmentally responsive (or "smart") polymers as a new class of fouling release agents; a surface-grafted thermally responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM), was used as a model compound. PNIPAAM is known to have a lower critical solubility temperature of approximately 32 degrees C (i.e., it is insoluble in water at temperatures above 32 degrees C and is soluble at temperatures below 32 degrees C). Under experimental conditions, >90% of cultured microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Halomonas marina) and naturally occurring marine microorganisms that attached to grafted PNIPAAM surfaces during 2-, 18-, 36-, and 72-h incubations were removed when the hydration state of the polymer was changed from a wettability that was favorable for attachment to a wettability that was less favorable. Of particular significance is the observation that an organism known to attach in the greatest numbers to hydrophobic substrata (i.e., H. marina) was removed when transition of PNIPAAM to a more hydrated state occurred, whereas an organism that attaches in the greatest numbers to hydrophilic substrata (i.e., S. epidermidis) was removed when the opposite transition occurred. Neither solvated nor desolvated PNIPAAM exhibited intrinsic fouling release properties, indicating that the phase transition was the important factor in removal of organisms. Based on our observations of the behavior of this model system, we suggest that environmentally responsive polymers represent a new approach for controlling biofouling release.  (+info)

(2/591) Effects of palytoxin on isolated intestinal and vascular smooth muscles.

Palytoxin (PTX), the most potent marine toxin isolated from the Zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was studied to determine the effect on isolated smooth muscles. In guinea pig taenia coli PTX at above 3 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which slowly subsided under isotonic recording. Under isometric recording PTX at above 1 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which depended on the spontaneous activity. The PTX-induced contraction was not affected by atropine, tripelenmamine or tetrodotoxin but was inhibited by 5 mM Mg, norephinrphrine, isoprenaline or papaverine. PTX at above 1 X 10(-9) g/ml induced an increase in spike frequency and a slight depolarization accompanied with a contraction when measured using a sucrose gap method. In some cases the spike generation was almost abolished after a long exposure to higher dose of PTX and the developed tension gradually decreased. Under isometric recording PTX caused a sustained contraction in rabbit aorta, dog mesenteric and coronary arteries at above 1 X 10(-10) and 1 X 10(-11) g/ml, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The coronary artery was most sensitive among the preparation used. PTX-induced contraction in aorta was irreversible, was not influenced by phentolamine but diminished with 5 mM Mg and disappeared in a D-600 or Ca-free medium. PTX is thus an extremely potent and direct stimulant which acts on smooth muscles.  (+info)

(3/591) New biodegradable hydrogels based on a photocrosslinkable modified polyaspartamide: synthesis and characterization.

alpha,beta-Poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA), a synthetic water-soluble biocompatible polymer, was derivatized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), in order to introduce in its structure chemical residues having double bonds and ester groups. The obtained copolymer (PHG) contained 29 mol% of GMA residues. PHG aqueous solutions at various concentrations ranging from 30 to 70 mg/ml were exposed to a source of UV rays at lambda 254 nm in the presence or in the absence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS); the formation of compact gel phases was observed beginning from 50 mg/ml. The obtained networks were characterized by FT-IR spectrophotometry and swelling measurements which evidenced the high affinity of PHG hydrogels towards aqueous media at different pH values. In vitro chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis studies suggested that the prepared samples undergo a partial degradation both at pH 1 and pH 10 and after incubation with enzymes such as esterase, pepsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. Finally, the effect of irradiation time on the yield and the properties of these hydrogels was investigated and the sol fractions coming from irradiated samples, properly purified, were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses.  (+info)

(4/591) Modification of liposomes with N-substituted polyacrylamides: identification of proteins adsorbed from plasma.

Liposomes prepared from DMPC (80%) and cholesterol (20%) were modified with a series of hydrophobically modified N-substituted polyacrylamides, namely, poly[N-isopropylacrylamide] (PNIPAM), poly[N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyl) acrylamide] (PMEAM), and poly[(3-methoxypropyl)acrylamide] (PMPAM). The hydrophobic group, N-[4-(1-pyrenylbutyl)-N-n-octadecylamine was attached to one end of the polymer chains to serve as an anchor for incorporation into the liposome bilayer. Liposome-polymer interactions were confirmed using fluorescence spectroscopy and chemical analysis. Microscopy revealed differences in aggregation tendency between unmodified and polymer-modified liposomes. Proteins adsorbed to liposome surfaces during exposure to human plasma were identified by immunoblot analysis. It was found that both unmodified and polymer-modified liposomes adsorb a wide variety of plasma proteins. Contact phase coagulation proteins, complement proteins, cell-adhesive proteins, serine protease inhibitors, plasminogen, antithrombin III, prothrombin, transferrin, alpha(2)-microglobulin, hemoglobin, haptoglobin and beta-lipoprotein as well as the major plasma proteins were all detected. Some differences were found between the unmodified and polymer-modified liposomes. The unmodified liposomes adsorbed plasminogen mainly as the intact protein, whereas on the modified liposomes plasminogen was present in degraded form. Also, the liposomes modified with PNIPAM in its extended conformation (below the lower critical solution temperature) appeared to adsorb less protein than those containing the 'collapsed' form of PNIPAM (above the LCST).  (+info)

(5/591) Characterization of a palytoxin-induced non-selective cation channel in mouse megakaryocytes.

We used the whole-cell clamp and fura-2 techniques to study the membrane current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) changes of mouse megakaryocytes in response to palytoxin (PTX), a highly potent marine toxin. At a holding potential of -60 mV, PTX induced a sustained inward current in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal potentials measured in the presence of various extracellular major cations indicated that the PTX-induced channel had a non-selective permeability to alkali metal ions. Although elimination of intracellular Ca2+ had no effect on the PTX-induced current, removal of external Ca2+ inhibited the current activation. During the sustained phase of the PTX-induced current, treatment with ADP activated an additional current. Pretreatment with ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+-K+-ATPase, suppressed the PTX-induced current. During the stable phase of the PTX-induced current, challenge with NiCl2 (5 mM) or 2,4-dichlorobenzamil (DCB, 25 microM), a non-selective cation channel blocker, partially reversed the current. Simultaneous measurement of the membrane current and [Ca2+]i showed that PTX induced the current response without increasing the [Ca2+]i. Taken together, these results indicate that PTX induces a non-selective cation channel in mouse megakaryocytes. This channel is distinct from the ADP-operated channel and is sensitive to ouabain, NiCl2 and DCB.  (+info)

(6/591) Determination of acrylamide monomer in polyacrylamide degradation studies by high-performance liquid chromatography.

A high-performance liquid chromatography method using C18 and ion-exchange columns in series is developed for the determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid monomers in polymeric samples. The C18 column acts as a guard column, trapping surfactants and impurities and retaining the nonionic species. The ion-exchange column then separates the monomers according to their respective ionic strengths. This method has been proven in the laboratory to work successfully for all types of acrylamide/acrylic acid polymers and matrices. Detection limits for both monomers can be achieved in the parts-per-billion range. The method is used to study the possible degradation of polyacrylamide to acrylamide monomer in the presence of glyphosate (a herbicide) and sunlight. Polyacrylamide is used as a spray drift reduction aid in combination with glyphosate. In normal applications, the polymer and herbicide are in contact with each other in the presence of sunlight. The results show that the polymer does not degrade to acrylamide in the presence of glyphosate or sunlight or any combination of the two. It is also observed that glyphosate influences the solubility of polyacrylamide, and care must be used when combining the two.  (+info)

(7/591) In vitro characterization of a novel polymeric-based pH-sensitive liposome system.

This study demonstrates rapid and pH-sensitive release of a highly water-soluble fluorescent aqueous content marker, pyranine, from egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes following incorporation of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) copolymers in liposomal membranes. The pH-sensitivity of this system correlates with the precipitation of the copolymers at acidic pH. In vitro release can be significantly improved by increasing the percentage of anchor in the copolymer and thus favoring its binding to the liposomal bilayer. In the case of liposomes containing a poly(ethylene glycol)-phospholipid conjugate, the insertion of the pH-sensitive copolymer in the liposomal membrane appears to be sterically inhibited. Dye release from these formulations at acidic pH can still be achieved by varying the anchor molar ratio and/or molecular mass of the polymers or by including the latter during the liposome preparation procedure. Removal of unbound polymer results in decreased leakage only when the copolymer is inserted by incubation with preformed liposomes, but can be overcome by preparing liposomes in the presence of polymer. Aqueous content and lipid mixing assays suggest contents release can occur without membrane fusion. The results of this study indicate that the addition of pH-sensitive copolymers of NIPA represents promising strategy for improving liposomal drug delivery.  (+info)

(8/591) Antitumor activity of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer-Mesochlorine e6 and adriamycin conjugates in combination treatments.

This study demonstrates the selective tumor targeting and the antitumor efficacy of the N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-bound mesochlorin e6 monoethylenediamine (Mce6) and HPMA copolymer-bound Adriamycin (ADR) in combination photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy against human ovarian OVCAR-3 carcinoma xenografted in female athynmic mice. The concentrations of Mce6 and ADR in blood and tissues, in free or HPMA copolymer-bound form, were determined by fluorescence and high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence assays, respectively. Xenograft responses to single and combination therapies were recorded. The peak concentration of HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugate in tumor was achieved 18 h after administration. For HPMA copolymer-bound drugs, the concentration ratios of liver and spleen versus muscle were significantly higher than those of free drugs. The HPMA copolymer-bound drugs demonstrated selective targeting and accumulation in the tumor, probably attributed to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. In vivo studies revealed that all tumors in the treatment groups showed significant responses after receiving any of the various types of therapy as compared with controls (P < 0.001). PDT with HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugate (PDTMC) at a dose of 13.4 mg/kg (1.5 mg/kg of Mce6 equivalent) and light doses of 110 J/cm2 at 12 and 18 h, respectively, resulted in significant suppression of the growth of OVCAR-3 tumors. Three courses of chemotherapy using 35 mg/kg (2.2 mg/kg of ADR equivalent) of HPMA copolymer-ADR conjugate (CHEMO) were effective in suppressing the growth of tumors. Single PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO exhibited significantly greater therapeutic efficacy than multiple CHEMO. In the group of mice receiving multiple PDTMC, tumor recurrence became obvious after day 20. However, 10 of 12 tumors exhibited complete responses in the group of mice receiving multiple PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO. The least to most effective treatments were ranked as follows: multiple CHEMO < single PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO < multiple PDTMC < multiple PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO. The results clearly demonstrate that: (a) HPMA copolymer-bound drugs exhibited selective tumor accumulation contrary to free drugs; (b) PDT using HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugate with multiple light irradiations was a better therapy than that with single light irradiation; and (c) combination chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy with HPMA copolymer-ADR and HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugates was the most effective regimen.  (+info)

*  Acrylamide
Some acrylamide is used in the manufacture of dyes and the manufacture of other monomers. The discovery of acrylamide in some ... Acrylamide can be prepared by the hydrolysis of acrylonitrile by nitrile hydratase. In industry, most acrylamide is used to ... Acrylamide Archived August 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., WHO Health Canada: Acrylamide. Hc-sc.gc.ca. Retrieved on 2012-06- ... Acrylamide is easily absorbed by the skin and distributed throughout the organism; the highest levels of acrylamide post- ...
*  Carcinogen
Acrylamide Asian Dust History of cancer Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute International Agency for ... "Acrylamide". Villeneuve PJ, Mao Y (1994). "Lifetime probability of developing lung cancer, by smoking status, Canada". Canadian ... Reports from the Food Standards Agency have found that the known animal carcinogen acrylamide is generated in fried or ...
*  Raw foodism
"Acrylamide". American Cancer Society. 1 October 2013. Retrieved September 2014. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Link ... According to the American Cancer Society it is not clear, as of 2013[update], whether acrylamide consumption affects people's ... acrylamide produced by frying, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. While it is true ...
*  Cooking
"Food Controversies-Acrylamide". Cancer Research UK. 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2017. Corpet DE, Yin Y, Zhang XM, et al. (1995 ... until a toasted crust is formed generates significant concentrations of acrylamide, a known carcinogen from animal studies; its ...
*  Roasted grain drink
Acrylamide is found at high levels in dark-colored baked, roasted and fried high-carbohydrate foods, as well as in roasted ... The dark-roasted grains used in roasted grain drinks would also, presumably, have high levels of acrylamide. The substance has ... "Acrylamide and Cancer Risk". cancer.org. American Cancer Society. 10 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2017. ... raised health concerns but it is not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of getting cancer. Coffee ...
*  Glycidamide
There are many studies that combine acrylamide and glycidamide, but the focus is still mainly on acrylamide. Glycidamide is a ... Glycidamide is formed from acrylamide. Acrylamide is an industrial chemical which is used in several ways, such as production ... "Acrylamide" in IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogen risk to humans, International Agency for Research on Cancer, ... Most of the studies focus on the effects of acrylamide, whereas less studies focus specifically on the effects of glycidamide. ...
*  Glycation
October 2002). "Acrylamide from Maillard reaction products". Nature. 419 (6906): 449-50. Bibcode:2002Natur.419..449S. doi: ... acrylamide and other side-products are released), peripheral neuropathy (the myelin is attacked), and other sensory losses such ... Glycation may also contribute to the formation of acrylamide, a potential carcinogen, during cooking. Until recently, it was ...
*  Atom-transfer radical-polymerization
... acrylamides, and acrylonitrile. ATRP are successful at leading to polymers of high number average molecular weight and a narrow ...
*  Polyacrylamides
... is a category of polymers whose monomers are acrylamides. Some important examples are: Polyacrylamide, the ...
*  Immobilized pH gradient
During polymerization, the acrylamide portion of the buffers co polymerize with the acrylamide and bisacrylamide monomers to ... Immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels are the acrylamide gel matrix co-polymerized with the pH gradient, which result in ... Immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are made by mixing two kinds of acrylamide mixure, one with Immobiline having acidic buffering ... Both solutions contain acrylamide monomers and catalysts. ...
*  Chromatolysis
Acrylamide intoxication has been shown to be an agent for the induction of chromatolysis. In one study groups of rats were ... Acrylamide intoxication resembles neural axotomy histologically and mechanically. In each case the neuron undergoes ... Tandrup, T. (2002). "Chromatolysis of A- cells of dorsal root ganglia is a primary structural event in acute acrylamide ... injected with acrylamide for 3, 6, and 12 days and the A- and B-cell perikarya of their L5 dorsal root ganglion were examined. ...
*  Rhoca-Gil
One of the fluids contains acrylamide and methylolacrylamide. The mixed solution becomes a viscous fluid that penetrates cracks ... contaminating it with acrylamide, a known carcinogen and mutagen. Furthermore, the contamination of the area led to a ban on ...
*  QPNC-PAGE
... acrylamide/aqueous solution) to 10 (acrylamide/buffer solution) for acrylamide gels with total monomer concentrations in the ... Thereby, acrylamide chains are created and cross-linked at a time. Due to the properties of the electrophoresis buffer the gel ... As acrylamide starts to hydrolyze at pH around 10 the hydrolysis rate of aqueous solutions of polyacrylamide is at a maximum at ... This preparative technique is based on a new principle and a new constant of acrylamide gel electrophoresis implying the ...
*  Asparaginase
Acrylamide is often formed in the cooking of starchy foods. During heating the amino acid asparagine, naturally present in ... Complete acrylamide removal is probably not possible due to other, minor asparagine-independent formation pathways. As a food ... Gökmen, Vural (2015). Acrylamide in Food: Analysis, Content and Potential Health Effects. Academic Press. p. 415. ISBN ... Kornbrust, B.A., Stringer, M.A., Lange, N.K. and Hendriksen, H.V. (2010) Asparaginase - an enzyme for acrylamide reduction in ...
*  Acorus americanus
Specifically, it has a protective effect against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity. NRCS: USDA Plants Profile: Acorus americanus ... "Protective effect of acorus calamus against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity" Phytother Res. (May 2002) 16(3):256-60. PMID ...
*  Reducing sugar
One example of a toxic product of the Mailard reaction is acrylamide, a neurotoxin and possible carcinogen that is formed from ... Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, María Salomé; Granby, Kit (August 2013). "Current issues in dietary acrylamide: formation, ...
*  Gel electrophoresis
Pore size is controlled by modulating the concentrations of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide powder used in creating a gel. Care ... Acrylamide, in contrast to polyacrylamide, is a neurotoxin and must be handled using appropriate safety precautions to avoid ... The gels are slightly more opaque than acrylamide or agarose. Non-denatured proteins can be separated according to charge and ... introduction of acrylamide gels; disc electrophoresis (Ornstein and Davis); accurate control of parameters such as pore size ...
*  Quenching (fluorescence)
Molecular oxygen, iodide ions and acrylamide are common chemical quenchers. The chloride ion is a well known quencher for ... Förster resonance energy transfer, a phenomenon on which some quenching techniques rely Acrylamide and iodide fluorescence ...
*  Polyacrylamide
Apr 23, 2008). "Acrylamide Release Resulting from Sunlight Irradiation of Aqueous Polyacrylamide/Iron Mixtures". Journal of ... Even though these products are often called 'polyacrylamide', many are actually copolymers of acrylamide and one or more other ... Ahn JS; Castle L. (5 November 2003). "Tests for the Depolymerization of Polyacrylamides as a Potential Source of Acrylamide in ... Concerns have been raised that polyacrylamide used in agriculture may contaminate food with acrylamide, a known neurotoxin. ...
*  CLARITY
... is a method of making brain tissue transparent using acrylamide-based hydrogels built from within, and linked to, the ... This 'scaffolding' is made up of hydrogel monomers such as acrylamide. The addition of molecules like formaldehyde can ... Subsequent published papers using the CLARITY method of building acrylamide-based tissue-gel hybrids within tissue for improved ... thanks to the acrylamide gel and chemical properties of the molecules involved. As reported in the initial paper, the tissue ...
*  Acrydite
The idea of acrylamide modified DNA was developed by T. Christian Boles, while working at Mosaic Technologies, a now-defunct ... 2002 Apr;32(4):808-10, 812, 814-5. Acrylamide capture of DNA-bound complexes: electrophoretic purification of transcription ... where the double bond in the Acrydite group reacts with other activated double bond containing compounds such as acrylamide. ... and also aptamers containing internal acrylamide modifications) have been used to make AptaMIPs, molecularly imprinted polymers ...
*  Hydrogel agriculture
A polymer/clay superabsorbent composite material made by attaching acrylamide to finely powdered attapulgite (a fuller's earth ... they are effectively insoluble but slowly break down releasing toxic acrylamide. Hydrogels of different kinds could be useful ...
*  Reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization
Some monomers capable of polymerizing by RAFT include styrenes, acrylates, acrylamides, and many vinyl monomers. Additionally, ... These monomers include (meth)acrylates, (meth)acrylamides, acrylonitrile, styrene and derivatives, butadiene, vinyl acetate and ...
*  List of cooking appliances
"Reduction of Acrylamide Formation in Potato Chips by Low-temperature Vacuum Frying". Journal of Food Science. Institute of Food ...
*  Vacuum fryer
130 °C (266 °F)), the formation of suspected carcinogen acrylamide is significantly lower than in standard atmospheric fryers, ... "Reduction of Acrylamide Formation in Potato Chips by Low-temperature Vacuum Frying". Journal of Food Science. 69 (8): E405-E411 ...
Acrylamide (HSG 45, 1991)  Acrylamide (HSG 45, 1991)
Acrylamide (ICSC) Acrylamide (WHO Food Additives Series 55) ACRYLAMIDE (JECFA Evaluation) Acrylamide (PIM 652) Acrylamide (IARC ... 49: Acrylamide, Geneva, World Health Organization. See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Acrylamide (EHC 49, 1985) ... Milled solid acrylamide could possibly form an explosive dust cloud. 4.4.2 Fire hazards Acrylamide is combustible in the solid ... a) Solid acrylamide. Shovel spilled material into sealable containers. (b) Acrylamide solution. Minimize spread, dilute with an ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/hsg/hsg/hsg045.htm
Acrylamide  Acrylamide
... is a chemical widely used during the manufacturing of paper, dye, and other industrial products. It can also be ... Acrylamide is also found in cigarette smoke.. How do people get exposed to acrylamide?. Food and cigarette smoke are the major ... Where can I find out more about acrylamide?. *NTP acrylamide and glycidamide data and reports ... Why did the National Toxicology Program (NTP) study acrylamide?. The nomination to study acrylamide came from the FDA. The FDA ...
more infohttps://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/acrylamide/index.cfm
acrylamides  acrylamides
Acrylamide in Foods. May 3, 2009. by Sofia Layarda Leave a Comment ... Topic: Health Related: acrylamides, cancer diet, deep fried, healthy dine-out, prostate ... First detected in some foods in 2002, acrylamide is a substance formed in high-carbohydrate, low-protein foods that have been ...
more infohttps://www.healthcastle.com/tag/acrylamides/
acrylamide (CHEBI:28619)  acrylamide (CHEBI:28619)
... is a N-acylammonia (CHEBI:83628) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) is a acrylamides (CHEBI:22216) ... acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has functional parent acrylic acid (CHEBI:18308) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role alkylating agent ( ... acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role Maillard reaction product (CHEBI:77523) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role mutagen (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:28619 - acrylamide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:28619
Acrylamide  Acrylamide
The only thing I can think of that might : ,, ,be causing a problem is the acrylamide. I read that acrylamide can last up : ... why is acrylamide quality only important for non-SDS applications? : : Because it is clearly not important for SDS-PAGE :-) : : ... Acrylamide. dbell dbell at qnis.net Thu Jan 17 13:23:06 EST 2002 *Previous message: NC od PVDF? ... Could be many things but don't blame it on acrylamide. Here we use : ,, some terrible junk given in large quantity for free ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2002-January/091928.html
Acrylamide and Cancer Risk  Acrylamide and Cancer Risk
Learn what we know about acrylamide and cancer risk here. ... Acrylamide forms in some starchy foods during high-temperature ... Acrylamide and Cancer Risk. What is acrylamide? Acrylamide is a chemical used in industries such as the paper and pulp, ... Are acrylamide levels regulated? In the United States, the FDA regulates the amount of residual acrylamide in a variety of ... The EPA regulates acrylamide in drinking water. The EPA has set an acceptable level of acrylamide exposure, which is low enough ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/acrylamide.html
slicing acrylamide gels  slicing acrylamide gels
... Eric Kofoid kofoid at BIOLOGY.UTAH.EDU Mon Jun 24 11:35:11 EST 1996 *Previous message: [Q] ... like to cut my acrylamide gel in thin slices of about 2mm, because in this -way I can identify the molecular weights of ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1996-June/046104.html
Acrylamide | Food Standards Agency  Acrylamide | Food Standards Agency
Acrylamide is a chemical created when some foods, particularly starchy foods like potatoes and bread, are cooked for long ... FSA's work on acrylamide. The FSA has been working to understand more about acrylamide, reduce the risk that it presents and ... What is acrylamide. Acrylamide is a chemical substance formed by a reaction between amino acids and sugars. It typically occurs ... Foods high in acrylamide. Acrylamide is found in wide range of foods including roasted potatoes and root vegetables, chips, ...
more infohttps://www.food.gov.uk/science/acrylamide-0
Acrylamide  Acrylamide
... -BIS-ACRYL 37,5:1 fr Acrylamide/Bis-acrylamide 37, 5:1 is convenient ready-to-use solutions of 4X crystalized high ... ACRYLAMIDE-BIS-ACRYL 19:1 (fr) Acrylamide/Bis-acrylamide 19:1 is convenient ready-to-use solutions of 4X crystalized high ... ACRYLAMIDE-BIS-ACRYL 29:1 (fr) Acrylamide/Bis-acrylamide 29:1 is convenient ready-to-use solutions of 4X crystalized high ... Premixed 19:1 liquid solution eliminates the need to weigh toxic acrylamide and bis-acrylamide. The concentration is based on ...
more infohttps://www.mpbio.com/life-sciences/biochemicals/gel-forming-reagents/acrylamide
INTERCHIM: Gels (Acrylamides, Agaroses)  INTERCHIM: Gels (Acrylamides, Agaroses)
INTERCHIM UPTIMA ACRYLAMIDE POLYMERISATION SACHET (include TEMED and APS to avoid weighing) to prepare 125ml gel ... INTERCHIM UPTIMA ACRYLAMIDE POLYMERISATION SACHET (include TEMED and APS to avoid weighing) to prepare 125ml gel ... INTERCHIM UPTIMA 4.5% 8% Manual Sequencing Gel Solution Bis-Acrylamide Rati19:1, Ready to Use with 7M Urea, 1X TBE ... INTERCHIM UPTIMA 4.5% 8% Manual Sequencing Gel Solution Bis-Acrylamide Rati19:1, Ready to Use with 7M Urea, 1X TBE ...
more infohttp://www.interchim.com/catalogue/469/gels-acrylamides-agaroses.html
WHO | Health implications of acrylamide in food  WHO | Health implications of acrylamide in food
Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and existing data and research on acrylamide ... Health implications of acrylamide in food. Report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation. ... The FAO/WHO Consultation on Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and ...
more infohttp://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/acrylamide-food/en/
Acrylamide | European Food Safety Authority  Acrylamide | European Food Safety Authority
Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during high-temperature cooking, including frying, ... 1. What is acrylamide?. Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during everyday high-temperature ... Food Contaminants: Acrylamide - European Commission. *Commission Recommendation of 3 May 2007 on the monitoring of acrylamide ... 5. What happens to acrylamide in the body?. Acrylamide consumed orally is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, distributed ...
more infohttp://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/topics/topic/acrylamide?qt-quicktabs_field_collection=3
CDC - Acrylamide - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic  CDC - Acrylamide - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic
Acrylamide NIOH and NIOSH Basis for an Occupational Health Standard: Acrylamide: A Review of the Literature DHHS (NIOSH) ... Acrylamide Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) The IDLH documents the criteria and ... Acrylamide CAS No. 79-06-1. International Chemical Safety Cards An ICSC summarizes essential health and safety information on ... Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Acrylamide [PDF - 410.7 KB]. Related Resources. OSHA (Safety and Health Topics): ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/acrylamide/
ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMER || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG  ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMER || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
more infohttp://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/700116/ACRYLAMIDE_COPOLYMER/
Acrylamide  Acrylamide
EPIC publications on acrylamide]. * Vesper HW, Slimani N, Hallmans G et al. Cross-sectional study on acrylamide hemoglobin ... The Acrylamide Working Group. Acrylamide (AA) is a human neurotoxin and is currently classified by IARC as a Group 2A probable ... Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. J Agric Food Chem 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4998-5006. PMID: ... Dietary intake of acrylamide and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort. Ann Oncol. 2013 Oct; 24(10):2645-51. PMID: 23857962 ...
more infohttp://epic.iarc.fr/research/acrylamide.php
Commission publishes acrylamide monitoring recommendations  Commission publishes acrylamide monitoring recommendations
... By Jess Halliday 07-Jun-2010. - Last updated on 08-Jun-2010 at 11: ... Related tags: Acrylamide levels, European union The European Commission has published precise recommendations for the ... Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and genotoxic substance that forms during high temperature cooking by a heat-induced reaction ... Since it first became apparent in 2002 that there are high levels of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, the CIAA ( ...
more infohttps://www.foodnavigator.com/Article/2010/06/08/Commission-publishes-acrylamide-monitoring-recommendations
Acrylamide in foods | IFST  Acrylamide in foods | IFST
This IFST information statement provides information on acrylamide including regulations, recommendations, analysis, occurrence ... Acrylamide intake was not associated with breast cancer.. *No positive associations were found between acrylamide intake and ... Petersen, B J. and Tran N, 2005, Chapter 3: Exposure to Acrylamide In "Chemistry and Safety of Acrylamide in Food," Advances in ... Schieberle, P et al (2005) New Aspects on the Formation and Analysis of Acrylamide, In "Chemistry and Safety of Acrylamide in ...
more infohttps://www.ifst.org/resources/information-statements/acrylamide-foods
Acrylamide cleared of causing breast cancer | New Scientist  Acrylamide cleared of causing breast cancer | New Scientist
... of 100,000 nurses suggests that their risk of developing breast cancer was the same regardless of the amount of acrylamide in ... Acrylamide cleared of causing breast cancer. Health 22 August 2007 It was responsible for one of the biggest food scares in ... Now acrylamide, which is found in coffee, French fries and many other foods, has been cleared of causing breast cancer. ... The alarm was raised in 2002 when researchers discovered that acrylamide, which had been shown to cause cancers in animals, can ...
more infohttps://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19526186-000-acrylamide-cleared-of-causing-breast-cancer/
Acrylamide: Industry Statement | The Dr. Oz Show  Acrylamide: Industry Statement | The Dr. Oz Show
This includes assessing exposure levels, conducting toxicology research, and finding ways to mitigate acrylamide levels in food ... The FDA is currently conducting research studies to determine whether acrylamide in food is a potential risk to human health. ... acrylamide levels in food are much lower. The FDA intends to issue draft guidance for industry concerning acrylamide in food. ... While some studies have shown that acrylamide in very high doses caused cancer in animals and nerve damage in people exposed to ...
more infohttp://www.doctoroz.com/acrylamide-industry-statement
ACRYLAMIDE TESTING  ACRYLAMIDE TESTING
... and Determination of Acrylamide in Water, Paperboard and Foodstuff by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography ... Acrylamide Testing. Determination of Acrylamide in Water, Paperboard and Foodstuff by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography ... of 0.1 μg/L in water and 1 μg/kg for acrylamide in paperboard and foodstuff.. Acrylamide is classified by the International ... Acrylamide has been measured in bread and candy at low μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations, and in coffee, biscuits and potato chips at ...
more infohttp://www.caslab.com/Acrylamide-Testing/
  • Evidence from animal studies shows that acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide are genotoxic and carcinogenic: they damage DNA and cause cancer. (europa.eu)
  • Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and genotoxic substance that forms during high temperature cooking by a heat-induced reaction between sugar and an amino acid called asparagine. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The European Parliament's environment committee will vote on Thursday (28 September) on a resolution which seeks to stop a Commission proposal to regulate levels of carcinogenic acrylamide in food, amid continuing pleas from food safety advocates to endorse the original proposal. (euractiv.com)
  • Representatives of the EU's 28 member states voted yesterday (19 July) in favour of a European Commission proposal to reduce the presence in food of acrylamide, a known carcinogenic substance present in fries, crisps, bread, biscuits, or coffee. (euractiv.com)
  • FoodDrinkEurope (which represents the food and drink industry's interests at the European and international level) has produced a document known as the 'toolkit' that outlines ways of reducing acrylamide in food manufacture for a variety of foods and processes. (food.gov.uk)
  • PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES 1.1 Identity Common name: acrylamide Chemical formula: C 3 H 5 N0 Chemical Structure: H H 0 H ' ' " ' C = C - C - N ' ' H H Relative molecular mass: 71.08 Common synonyms: 2-propenamide, acrylamide monomer, acrylic acid amide, acrylic amide, ethylene carboxamide, propenamide, propeneamide, propenoic acid amide. (inchem.org)
  • 6. A process as defined in claim 1 wherein said polymeric material is a copolymer of a (meth)acrylamide and a cationic monomer copolymerizable therewith. (google.com)
  • A 40% solution containing 38.96% (w/v) Acrylamide and 1.04% (w/v) bis-Acrylamide for a monomer to crosslinker ratio of 37.5:1. (thomassci.com)
  • 2012 - EFSA received a proposal from organisations belonging to four EU Member States (Denmark, France, Germany and Sweden) to consider new scientific findings on the possible carcinogenicity of acrylamide. (europa.eu)
  • Acrylamide can be found in small amounts in consumer products including caulk, food packaging, and some adhesives. (cancer.org)
  • The food industry has undertaken a lot of work to identify and implement measures to reduce acrylamide levels in food. (food.gov.uk)
  • New legislation will require food businesses operators to put in place simple practical steps to manage acrylamide within their food safety management systems. (food.gov.uk)
  • The FAO/WHO Consultation on Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and existing data and research on acrylamide. (who.int)
  • Acrylamide also has many non-food industrial uses and is present in tobacco smoke. (europa.eu)
  • Experts from EFSA's Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) reconfirmed previous evaluations that acrylamide in food potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (europa.eu)
  • 2014 - Together with national partners in the Member States, EFSA published an infographic on acrylamide in food to help increase awareness about this issue. (europa.eu)
  • 2013 - EFSA accepted a request from the European Commission to provide a scientific opinion on the potential risks for human health of acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • The Authority has also consulted consumer organisations, NGOs and the food industry through its Stakeholder Consultative Platform to find out about on-going and recent research related to acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • 2009-2012 - EFSA published four consecutive reports on acrylamide levels in food, comparing data from 2007 to 2010 over the series. (europa.eu)
  • The reports generally did not reveal any considerable differences from previous years in the levels of acrylamide in most food categories assessed. (europa.eu)
  • The European Commission has published precise recommendations for the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food products, as the reduction of levels is patchy across categories. (foodnavigator.com)
  • It may be appropriate to assume that the application of the acrylamide toolbox was effective only in a limited number of food groups. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The acrylamide content of food(s) varies widely within the same food product, within the same manufacturing facility at different times, and between manufacturers (using different formulations and processing conditions). (ifst.org)
  • The FDA is currently conducting research studies to determine whether acrylamide in food is a potential risk to human health. (doctoroz.com)
  • While some studies have shown that acrylamide in very high doses caused cancer in animals and nerve damage in people exposed to very high levels at work, acrylamide levels in food are much lower. (doctoroz.com)
  • The FDA intends to issue draft guidance for industry concerning acrylamide in food. (doctoroz.com)
  • Ways to reduce acrylamide through food storage and preparation can be found at fda.gov . (doctoroz.com)
  • ALS Environmental has developed special prep procedures for water, paperboard and complex food matrices, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of acrylamide . (caslab.com)
  • Coffee is not the only food item that acrylamide can be found in. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acrylamide levels appear to rise as food is heated for longer periods of time. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A study by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a mechanism that involves asparagine , which, when heated in the presence of glucose , forms acrylamide. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Yet most people would be hard-pressed to name a food that has acrylamides in it, or to tell you exactly what an acrylamide is, or what it does to the body. (peertrainer.com)
  • Food manufacturers risk falling well short of meeting new EU rules aimed at limiting levels of cancer-causing acrylamide, according to a series of new tests released on Thursday (11 January). (euractiv.com)
  • The European Parliament's environment committee objected to the Commission's proposed criteria for endocrine disruptors on Thursday (28 September), and threw out another objection to the executive's proposal to regulate levels of cancer-causing acrylamide in food. (euractiv.com)
  • Thus, it is a public health concern to evaluate whether intake of acrylamide at levels found in the food supply is an important cancer risk factor. (nih.gov)
  • The importance of epidemiological studies to establish the public health risk associated with acrylamide in food is discussed, as are the limitations and future directions of such studies. (nih.gov)
  • In general, acrylamide levels rise when cooking is done for longer periods or at higher temperatures, and when certain types of cooking methods are used (such as frying or roasting). (cancer.org)
  • Acrylamide intake through diet and human cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, there was no relationship between estimated acrylamide intake in the diet and cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • For each 10-microgram per day increment of acrylamide intake, the lung cancer hazard ratio for men was 1.03,with a 95% confidence interval from 0.96 to 1.11. (medpagetoday.com)
  • There was also no trend when male participants were divided into quintiles based on acrylamide intake. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Perhaps the safer conclusion we can make from the Netherlands study is that the findings do not support a positive association between acrylamide intake from diet and risk of lung cancer," they concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Senior author Dr. Lian-Yu Lin pointed out that, "Since the decrease of HOMA index is a result of decreasing insulin level, it is possible that acrylamide intake might be toxic to islet cells. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Class 6.1 Conversion factors: 1 ppm = 2.91 mg/m 3 air, or 1 mg/m 3 = 0.34 ppm at 25 C and 101.4 kPa (760 mm Hg) 1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties Acrylamide is a colourless to white odourless solid that are melts at 84-85 C. On crystallization from benzene, leaf- or flake-like crystals are formed. (inchem.org)
  • As of 2016[update] it is still not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this prep and analytical approach, ALS Environmental is able to achieve method reporting limits (MRL) of 0.1 μg/L in water and 1 μg/kg for acrylamide in paperboard and foodstuff. (caslab.com)
  • Researchers found that 65 per cent infant products contained arsenic, 58 per cent contained cadmium, 36 per cent contained lead and 10 per cent contained acrylamide out of the products analysed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The researchers said it might be that acrylamide has a hormonal effect on cancer risk, which might explain the contrast between this study and earlier ones showing an increase in postmenopausal endometrial and ovarian cancer. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Acrylamide is a well-known industrial chemical whose primary use is the synthesis of polyacrylamide. (ifst.org)
  • Acrylamide (or acrylic amide ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C 3 H 5 N O . Its IUPAC name is 2-propenamide . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another use of polyacrylamide is as a chemical intermediate in the production of N-methylol acrylamide and N-butoxyacrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide can be metabolically-activated by cytochrome P450 to a genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide, which is considered to be a critical mode of action to the carcinogenesis of acrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, acrylamide and glycidamide can be detoxified via conjugation with glutathione to form acrylamide- and isomeric glycidamide-glutathione conjugates, subsequently metabolized to mercapturic acids and excreted in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • On investigation, Rhoca-Gil was revealed to contain a toxic substance called acrylamide, which caused health problems for the tunnel workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is primarily a surface reaction, i.e . acrylamide in bread is primarily located in the crust with very low or no amounts in the crumb. (ifst.org)
  • Meat products are very low in acrylamide content, lacking the precursors required for its formation. (ifst.org)
  • Acrylamide/Bis-acrylamide 19:1 is convenient ready-to-use solutions of 4X crystalized high quality acrylamide for molecular biology, and NN'-Methylenebisacrylamide in deonised water. (mpbio.com)
  • One reason for the high acrylamide content of potato crisps is that a crisp is essentially two surfaces with very little matter between them. (ifst.org)
  • Acrylamide has been measured in bread and candy at low μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations, and in coffee, biscuits and potato chips at high μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations 3 . (caslab.com)
  • Acrylamide has many other uses in molecular biology laboratories, including the use of linear polyacrylamide (LPA) as a carrier which aids in the precipitation of small amounts of DNA . (thefullwiki.org)
  • A member of the class of acrylamides that results from the formal condensation of acrylic acid with ammonia. (ebi.ac.uk)