Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Dictionaries, ChemicalAcrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Scapegoating: Process in which the mechanisms of projection or displacement are utilized in focusing feelings of aggression, hostility, frustration, etc., upon another individual or group; the amount of blame being unwarranted.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.SwedenDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Floors and Floorcoverings: The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Heredity: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Superstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.

Surface-grafted, environmentally sensitive polymers for biofilm release. (1/591)

Controlling bacterial biofouling is desirable for almost every human enterprise in which solid surfaces are introduced into nonsterile aqueous environments. One approach that is used to decrease contamination of manufactured devices by microorganisms is using materials that easily slough off accumulated material (i.e., fouling release surfaces). The compounds currently used for this purpose rely on low surface energy to inhibit strong attachment of organisms. In this study, we examined the possible use of environmentally responsive (or "smart") polymers as a new class of fouling release agents; a surface-grafted thermally responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM), was used as a model compound. PNIPAAM is known to have a lower critical solubility temperature of approximately 32 degrees C (i.e., it is insoluble in water at temperatures above 32 degrees C and is soluble at temperatures below 32 degrees C). Under experimental conditions, >90% of cultured microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Halomonas marina) and naturally occurring marine microorganisms that attached to grafted PNIPAAM surfaces during 2-, 18-, 36-, and 72-h incubations were removed when the hydration state of the polymer was changed from a wettability that was favorable for attachment to a wettability that was less favorable. Of particular significance is the observation that an organism known to attach in the greatest numbers to hydrophobic substrata (i.e., H. marina) was removed when transition of PNIPAAM to a more hydrated state occurred, whereas an organism that attaches in the greatest numbers to hydrophilic substrata (i.e., S. epidermidis) was removed when the opposite transition occurred. Neither solvated nor desolvated PNIPAAM exhibited intrinsic fouling release properties, indicating that the phase transition was the important factor in removal of organisms. Based on our observations of the behavior of this model system, we suggest that environmentally responsive polymers represent a new approach for controlling biofouling release.  (+info)

Effects of palytoxin on isolated intestinal and vascular smooth muscles. (2/591)

Palytoxin (PTX), the most potent marine toxin isolated from the Zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was studied to determine the effect on isolated smooth muscles. In guinea pig taenia coli PTX at above 3 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which slowly subsided under isotonic recording. Under isometric recording PTX at above 1 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which depended on the spontaneous activity. The PTX-induced contraction was not affected by atropine, tripelenmamine or tetrodotoxin but was inhibited by 5 mM Mg, norephinrphrine, isoprenaline or papaverine. PTX at above 1 X 10(-9) g/ml induced an increase in spike frequency and a slight depolarization accompanied with a contraction when measured using a sucrose gap method. In some cases the spike generation was almost abolished after a long exposure to higher dose of PTX and the developed tension gradually decreased. Under isometric recording PTX caused a sustained contraction in rabbit aorta, dog mesenteric and coronary arteries at above 1 X 10(-10) and 1 X 10(-11) g/ml, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The coronary artery was most sensitive among the preparation used. PTX-induced contraction in aorta was irreversible, was not influenced by phentolamine but diminished with 5 mM Mg and disappeared in a D-600 or Ca-free medium. PTX is thus an extremely potent and direct stimulant which acts on smooth muscles.  (+info)

New biodegradable hydrogels based on a photocrosslinkable modified polyaspartamide: synthesis and characterization. (3/591)

alpha,beta-Poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA), a synthetic water-soluble biocompatible polymer, was derivatized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), in order to introduce in its structure chemical residues having double bonds and ester groups. The obtained copolymer (PHG) contained 29 mol% of GMA residues. PHG aqueous solutions at various concentrations ranging from 30 to 70 mg/ml were exposed to a source of UV rays at lambda 254 nm in the presence or in the absence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS); the formation of compact gel phases was observed beginning from 50 mg/ml. The obtained networks were characterized by FT-IR spectrophotometry and swelling measurements which evidenced the high affinity of PHG hydrogels towards aqueous media at different pH values. In vitro chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis studies suggested that the prepared samples undergo a partial degradation both at pH 1 and pH 10 and after incubation with enzymes such as esterase, pepsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. Finally, the effect of irradiation time on the yield and the properties of these hydrogels was investigated and the sol fractions coming from irradiated samples, properly purified, were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses.  (+info)

Modification of liposomes with N-substituted polyacrylamides: identification of proteins adsorbed from plasma. (4/591)

Liposomes prepared from DMPC (80%) and cholesterol (20%) were modified with a series of hydrophobically modified N-substituted polyacrylamides, namely, poly[N-isopropylacrylamide] (PNIPAM), poly[N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyl) acrylamide] (PMEAM), and poly[(3-methoxypropyl)acrylamide] (PMPAM). The hydrophobic group, N-[4-(1-pyrenylbutyl)-N-n-octadecylamine was attached to one end of the polymer chains to serve as an anchor for incorporation into the liposome bilayer. Liposome-polymer interactions were confirmed using fluorescence spectroscopy and chemical analysis. Microscopy revealed differences in aggregation tendency between unmodified and polymer-modified liposomes. Proteins adsorbed to liposome surfaces during exposure to human plasma were identified by immunoblot analysis. It was found that both unmodified and polymer-modified liposomes adsorb a wide variety of plasma proteins. Contact phase coagulation proteins, complement proteins, cell-adhesive proteins, serine protease inhibitors, plasminogen, antithrombin III, prothrombin, transferrin, alpha(2)-microglobulin, hemoglobin, haptoglobin and beta-lipoprotein as well as the major plasma proteins were all detected. Some differences were found between the unmodified and polymer-modified liposomes. The unmodified liposomes adsorbed plasminogen mainly as the intact protein, whereas on the modified liposomes plasminogen was present in degraded form. Also, the liposomes modified with PNIPAM in its extended conformation (below the lower critical solution temperature) appeared to adsorb less protein than those containing the 'collapsed' form of PNIPAM (above the LCST).  (+info)

Characterization of a palytoxin-induced non-selective cation channel in mouse megakaryocytes. (5/591)

We used the whole-cell clamp and fura-2 techniques to study the membrane current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) changes of mouse megakaryocytes in response to palytoxin (PTX), a highly potent marine toxin. At a holding potential of -60 mV, PTX induced a sustained inward current in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal potentials measured in the presence of various extracellular major cations indicated that the PTX-induced channel had a non-selective permeability to alkali metal ions. Although elimination of intracellular Ca2+ had no effect on the PTX-induced current, removal of external Ca2+ inhibited the current activation. During the sustained phase of the PTX-induced current, treatment with ADP activated an additional current. Pretreatment with ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+-K+-ATPase, suppressed the PTX-induced current. During the stable phase of the PTX-induced current, challenge with NiCl2 (5 mM) or 2,4-dichlorobenzamil (DCB, 25 microM), a non-selective cation channel blocker, partially reversed the current. Simultaneous measurement of the membrane current and [Ca2+]i showed that PTX induced the current response without increasing the [Ca2+]i. Taken together, these results indicate that PTX induces a non-selective cation channel in mouse megakaryocytes. This channel is distinct from the ADP-operated channel and is sensitive to ouabain, NiCl2 and DCB.  (+info)

Determination of acrylamide monomer in polyacrylamide degradation studies by high-performance liquid chromatography. (6/591)

A high-performance liquid chromatography method using C18 and ion-exchange columns in series is developed for the determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid monomers in polymeric samples. The C18 column acts as a guard column, trapping surfactants and impurities and retaining the nonionic species. The ion-exchange column then separates the monomers according to their respective ionic strengths. This method has been proven in the laboratory to work successfully for all types of acrylamide/acrylic acid polymers and matrices. Detection limits for both monomers can be achieved in the parts-per-billion range. The method is used to study the possible degradation of polyacrylamide to acrylamide monomer in the presence of glyphosate (a herbicide) and sunlight. Polyacrylamide is used as a spray drift reduction aid in combination with glyphosate. In normal applications, the polymer and herbicide are in contact with each other in the presence of sunlight. The results show that the polymer does not degrade to acrylamide in the presence of glyphosate or sunlight or any combination of the two. It is also observed that glyphosate influences the solubility of polyacrylamide, and care must be used when combining the two.  (+info)

In vitro characterization of a novel polymeric-based pH-sensitive liposome system. (7/591)

This study demonstrates rapid and pH-sensitive release of a highly water-soluble fluorescent aqueous content marker, pyranine, from egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes following incorporation of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) copolymers in liposomal membranes. The pH-sensitivity of this system correlates with the precipitation of the copolymers at acidic pH. In vitro release can be significantly improved by increasing the percentage of anchor in the copolymer and thus favoring its binding to the liposomal bilayer. In the case of liposomes containing a poly(ethylene glycol)-phospholipid conjugate, the insertion of the pH-sensitive copolymer in the liposomal membrane appears to be sterically inhibited. Dye release from these formulations at acidic pH can still be achieved by varying the anchor molar ratio and/or molecular mass of the polymers or by including the latter during the liposome preparation procedure. Removal of unbound polymer results in decreased leakage only when the copolymer is inserted by incubation with preformed liposomes, but can be overcome by preparing liposomes in the presence of polymer. Aqueous content and lipid mixing assays suggest contents release can occur without membrane fusion. The results of this study indicate that the addition of pH-sensitive copolymers of NIPA represents promising strategy for improving liposomal drug delivery.  (+info)

Antitumor activity of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer-Mesochlorine e6 and adriamycin conjugates in combination treatments. (8/591)

This study demonstrates the selective tumor targeting and the antitumor efficacy of the N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-bound mesochlorin e6 monoethylenediamine (Mce6) and HPMA copolymer-bound Adriamycin (ADR) in combination photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy against human ovarian OVCAR-3 carcinoma xenografted in female athynmic mice. The concentrations of Mce6 and ADR in blood and tissues, in free or HPMA copolymer-bound form, were determined by fluorescence and high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence assays, respectively. Xenograft responses to single and combination therapies were recorded. The peak concentration of HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugate in tumor was achieved 18 h after administration. For HPMA copolymer-bound drugs, the concentration ratios of liver and spleen versus muscle were significantly higher than those of free drugs. The HPMA copolymer-bound drugs demonstrated selective targeting and accumulation in the tumor, probably attributed to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. In vivo studies revealed that all tumors in the treatment groups showed significant responses after receiving any of the various types of therapy as compared with controls (P < 0.001). PDT with HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugate (PDTMC) at a dose of 13.4 mg/kg (1.5 mg/kg of Mce6 equivalent) and light doses of 110 J/cm2 at 12 and 18 h, respectively, resulted in significant suppression of the growth of OVCAR-3 tumors. Three courses of chemotherapy using 35 mg/kg (2.2 mg/kg of ADR equivalent) of HPMA copolymer-ADR conjugate (CHEMO) were effective in suppressing the growth of tumors. Single PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO exhibited significantly greater therapeutic efficacy than multiple CHEMO. In the group of mice receiving multiple PDTMC, tumor recurrence became obvious after day 20. However, 10 of 12 tumors exhibited complete responses in the group of mice receiving multiple PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO. The least to most effective treatments were ranked as follows: multiple CHEMO < single PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO < multiple PDTMC < multiple PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO. The results clearly demonstrate that: (a) HPMA copolymer-bound drugs exhibited selective tumor accumulation contrary to free drugs; (b) PDT using HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugate with multiple light irradiations was a better therapy than that with single light irradiation; and (c) combination chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy with HPMA copolymer-ADR and HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugates was the most effective regimen.  (+info)

The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or lower consolute temperature is the critical temperature below which the components of a mixture are miscible for all compositions. The word lower indicates that the LCST is a lower bound to a temperature interval of partial miscibility, or miscibility for certain compositions only. The phase behavior of polymer solutions is an important property involved in the development and design of most polymer-related processes. Partially miscible polymer solutions often exhibit two solubility boundaries, the upper critical solution temperature (UCST) and the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), which both depend on the molar mass and the pressure. At temperatures below LCST, the system is completely miscible in all proportions, whereas above LCST partial liquid miscibility occurs. In the phase diagram of the mixture components, the LCST is the shared minimum of the concave up spinodal and binodal (or coexistence) curves. It is in general pressure ...
There are various favourable factors driving the growth of the global acrylamide monomer market. Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby contributing to the growth of the market. Increasing environmental regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, cosmetics, tertiary oil refinery and in the synthesis of dyes and plastic. According to the report, the global acrylamide monomer market is anticipated to reach a value of US$ 4551 Million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of more than 9% during 2017-2022.. The market has been segregated on the basis of end-use where the waste and wastewater treatment sector currently represents the largest end-use segment for acrylamide monomer. Other major end-use segments include ...
There are various favourable factors driving the growth of the global acrylamide monomer market. Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby contributing to the growth of the market. Increasing environmental regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, cosmetics, tertiary oil refinery and in the synthesis of dyes and plastic. According to the report, the global acrylamide monomer market is anticipated to reach a value of US$ 4551 Million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of more than 9% during 2017-2022.. The market has been segregated on the basis of end-use where the waste and wastewater treatment sector currently represents the largest end-use segment for acrylamide monomer. Other major end-use segments include ...
There are various favourable factors driving the growth of the global acrylamide monomer market. Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby contributing to the growth of the market. Increasing environmental regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, cosmetics, tertiary oil refinery and in the synthesis of dyes and plastic. According to the report, the global acrylamide monomer market is anticipated to reach a value of US$ 4551 Million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of more than 9% during 2017-2022.. The market has been segregated on the basis of end-use where the waste and wastewater treatment sector currently represents the largest end-use segment for acrylamide monomer. Other major end-use segments include ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Temperature-responsive smart packing materials utilizing multi-functional polymers. AU - Ayano, Eri. AU - Kanazawa, Hideko. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Polymers that respond to small changes in environmental stimuli with large, sometimes discontinuous changes in their physical state or properties, are often called "smart" polymers. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAAm, is one of the most representative smart polymer that exhibits a thermally reversible soluble-insoluble change in the vicinity of its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 32°C in aqueous solution. Temperature-responsive chromatography for the separation of biomolecules utilizing the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-modified stationary phase is performed with an aqueous mobile phase without using an organic solvent. The surface properties and function of the stationary phase are controlled by external temperature changes without changing the mobile-phase composition. The separation of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fabrication of thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-g-ETFE for cell culture dishes by pre-irradiation grafting. AU - Yamahara, Yumi. AU - Nagasawa, Naotsugu. AU - Taguchi, Mitsumasa. AU - Oshima, Akihiro. AU - Washio, Masakazu. PY - 2018/1. Y1 - 2018/1. N2 - Thermo-responsive templates for the cell cultivation based on Poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-ethylene) (ETFE) were fabricated by pre-irradiation grafting of N-isoproplyacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer by electron beam (EB) irradiation under nitrogen gas atmosphere at room temperature, and their characteristic properties were studied. The detachment of cultured HeLa cells from fabricated thermo-responsive templates were attempted. Furthermore, the reaction mechanism is proposed using ESR spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. It is confirmed that the cultured HeLa cells were detached from fabricated thermo-responsive templates at 20 °C. Water contact angle analysis indicated that obtained templates had thermo-response around 30 °C. It is ...
Molecular modification of a fluorinated polyimide (FPI), 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride + 4,4′-bis(4-aminophenoxy)diphenyl sulfone, via ozone pretreatment and thermally induced graft copolymerization with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) in a N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solution, was carried out. The resulting FPIs with grafted NIPAAm polymer side chains [FPI-g-P(NIPAAm) copolymers] were cast into microfiltration membranes by phase inversion in water at temperatures ranging from 4 to 55°C. The surface composition of the membranes was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface composition, mean pore size, and morphology of the membrane varied with the temperature of the aqueous coagulation bath. For the copolymer membrane cast below the lower critical solution temperature of the NIPAAm polymer (∼32°C), the rate of water permeation increased substantially at a permeate temperature above 32°C. For the flux of 2-propanol through the membrane cast above ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adhesion-based simple capture and recovery of circulating tumor cells using a blood-compatible and thermo-responsive polymer-coated substrate. AU - Hoshiba, Takashi. AU - Orui, Toshihiko. AU - Endo, Chiho. AU - Sato, Kazuhiro. AU - Yoshihiro, Ayano. AU - Minagawa, Yasuhisa. AU - Tanaka, Masaru. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been a focus of study for metastatic cancer diagnostics, in in vitro anti-cancer drug screening to decide the chemotherapeutic course, and cancer biology research. For these purposes, there have been efforts made to collect CTCs from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Here, we explore the possibility of collecting CTCs using blood-compatible and thermo-responsive poly(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethyl acrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate) (P(Et2A-Me2MA)) through adhesion and detachment by incubation under a lower critical solution temperature of P(Et2A-Me2MA). A P(Et2A-Me2MA)-coated substrate is dissolved by ...
The lethal marine toxin, palytoxin, first extracted from the polyps of soft-bodied zoanthids of the genus Palythoa (Moore and Scheuer, 1971), is a potentially useful tool for elucidating the molecular reactions by which the Na/K-ATPase stoichiometrically transports Na+ and K+ ions in opposite directions across the cell surface membrane. Palytoxin was found to depolarize mammalian cells (e.g., Weidmann, 1977) by causing small-conductance (∼10 pS) relatively nonselective cation channels to appear in their surface membranes (e.g., Ikeda et al., 1988; Muramatsu et al., 1988). That the Na/K-ATPase is the target for palytoxin action was initially surmised (Habermann, 1989) largely from antagonism of toxin action by cardiotonic steroids, like ouabain, or by K+ ions. Two experimental approaches have since confirmed that proposal. The first exploited the absence of endogenous Na/K pumps from yeast and showed that palytoxin could elicit ouabain-sensitive cation flux in yeast expressing both α and β ...
The upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or upper consolute temperature is the critical temperature above which the components of a mixture are miscible in all proportions. The word upper indicates that the UCST is an upper bound to a temperature range of partial miscibility, or miscibility for certain compositions only. For example, hexane-nitrobenzene mixtures have a UCST of 19 °C, so that these two substances are miscible in all proportions above 19 °C but not at lower temperatures. Examples at higher temperatures are the aniline-water system at 168 °C (at pressures high enough for liquid water to exist at that temperature), and the lead-zinc system at 798 °C (a temperature where both metals are liquid). A solid state example is the palladium-hydrogen system which has a solid solution phase (H2 in Pd) in equilibrium with a hydride phase (PdHn) below the UCST at 300 °C. Above this temperature there is a single solid solution phase. In the phase diagram of the mixture components, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tannic Acid Mediated Suppression of PNIPAAm Microgels Thermoresponsive Behavior. AU - Ricardo, Ana Isabel Nobre Martins Aguiar de Oliveira. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Tannic acid (TA) complexation with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) microgels changed their morphology and temperature responsiveness, depending on TA concentration and pH (below the TA pK(a)). Complexes prepared with a low TA content had higher low critical solution temperature than pure PNIPAAm microgels as a consequence of the hydrophilic character of TA; however, above a concentration threshold, TA physically cross-links the polymeric network, altering their morphology and suppressing the thermodynamically driven PNIPAAm coil-to-globule transition. DRIFT spectral analysis indicated that within PNIPAAm-TA complexes hydrogen bonds were established between PNIPAAm amide and TA phenolic (C=O center dot center dot center dot H-O and N-H center dot center dot center dot O-H) and ester (N-H center dot ...
0138] The aqueous carrier medium (aqueous vehicle) for the inkjet inks which utilize the encapsulated pigment described above is water or a mixture of water and at least one water-miscible organic solvent. Selection of a suitable mixture depends on requirements of the specific application, such as desired surface tension and viscosity, the selected pigment, drying time of the pigmented ink jet ink, and the type of paper onto which the ink will be printed. Representative examples of water-soluble organic solvents that may be selected include (1) alcohols, such as methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, t-butyl alcohol, iso-butyl alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; (2) ketones or ketoalcohols such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and diacetone alcohol; (3) ethers, such as tetrahydrofuran and dioxane; (4) esters, such as ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate; (5) polyhydric ...
The aim of this study was to synthesis and characterization of a novel stimuli-responsive polymeric nanosystem for theranostic applications. For this purpose, starch was modified by itaconic anhydride to afford an itaconat-functionalized starch macromonomer (starch-IA). This macromonomer with carboxylic functional groups was subsequently adsorbed onto the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs), and then copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer via a free radical initiated polymerization technique to produce a temperature-responsive magnetic nanohydrogel (MNHG). The chemical structures of all samples as representatives were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST), thermal responsibility, morphology, elemental composition, thermal stability, and magnetic properties of the synthesized MNHG were investigated. In addition, the methotrexate (MTX)-loading capacity (∼74%) and stimuli-responsive drug
article{f1616b59-e887-44fb-b460-9b6de8fb47a6, abstract = {The effect of a water-soluble uncharged polymer on the stability of the lamellar phase of the Aerosol OT (AOT)/water system is studied. The lamellar phase still exists when water is replaced by an aqueous solution of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (Rapproximate to4x10(2) Angstrom). Since the coil dimensions are (much) larger than the thickness of the water layers (d(w)approximate to51 Angstrom), the polymer molecules do not enter the lamellar phase. Instead segregation in small domains occurs, and in equilibrium with the AOT-rich phase another separate phase containing the polymer is formed. The polymer-rich phase exerts an osmotic pressure that reduces the water content in the AOT-rich phase, and by compression the repeat distance is reduced.}, author = {Pacios, IE and Lindman, Björn and Horta, A and Thuresson, Krister and Renamayor, CS}, issn = {0303-402X}, keyword = {N-dimethylacrylamide),poly(N,lamellar,Aerosol OT,segregation}, ...
Synthesis, characterization, and applications of novel thermoresponsive polymeric coatings for quantum dots (QDs) are presented. Comb-copolymers featuring hydrophobic alkyl groups, carboxylic groups and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) side chains with molar masses ranging from 1000 g/mol to 25,400 g/mol were obtained. The amphiphilic comb-copolymers were shown to efficiently transfer the QDs to aqueous media. The PNIPAM-coated QD materials display a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The absorbance, luminescence emission, size of the assemblies, and electrophoretic mobility were followed as a function of temperature and the reversibility of the temperature induced changes is demonstrated by cyclic heating and cooling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Disclosed is a process for preparing temperature-responsive polymers that may be formed into a thermally-processable form which exhibits flushability properties when immersed in water such that the temperature-responsive polymer may be used in a disposable absorbent product to impart flushability properties to the product. The process prepares the temperature-responsive polymer in an aqueous solution using a chain transfer agent such as isopropanol.
Buildings can be effectively cooled by a bioinspired sweating-like action based on thermoresponsive hydrogels (PNIPAM), which press out their stored water when exceeding the lower critical solution temperature. The surface temperature is reduced by 15 °C compared to that of a conventional hydrogel (pHEMA) and by 25 °C compared to the bare ground ...
Reported here is the synthesis of perfectly sequence defined, monodisperse diblock copolypeptides of hydrophilic elastin-like and hydrophobic resilin-like polypeptide blocks and characterization of their self-assembly as a function of structural parameters by light scattering, cryo-TEM, and small-angle neutron scattering. A subset of these diblock copolypeptides exhibit lower critical solution temperature and upper critical solution temperature phase behavior and self-assemble into spherical or cylindrical micelles. Their morphologies are dictated by their chain length, degree of hydrophilicity, and hydrophilic weight fraction of the ELP block. We find that (1) independent of the length of the corona-forming ELP block there is a minimum threshold in the length of the RLP block below which self-assembly does not occur, but that once that threshold is crossed, (2) the RLP block length is a unique molecular parameter to independently tune self-assembly and (3) increasing the hydrophobicity of the corona
In this paper, we investigated the activation energies of the aggregation-disaggregation self-oscillation induced by the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction by utilizing the nonthermoresponsive polymer chain in a wide temperature range. This is because the conventional type self-oscillating polymer chain, with thermoresponsive poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm) main-chain covalently bonded to the ruthenium catalyst (Ru(bpy)3) of the BZ reaction, cannot evaluate the activation energy over the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The nonthermoresponsive self-oscillating polymer chain is composed of a poly-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) main-chain with the ruthenium catalyst (Ru(bpy)3). As a result, we clarified that the activation energy of the aggregation-disaggregation self-oscillation of the polymer chain is hardly affected by the concentrations of the BZ substrates. In addition, the activation energy of the nonthermoresponsive self-oscillating polymer chain was found to be almost the same value as
The Global And China Acrylamide Monomer Industry 2017 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Acrylamide...
A series of water-soluble, stimuli-responsive (co)polymers was synthesized via the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The end group of a RAFT polymer, poly(N -isopropylacrylamide), was modified to ene or yne function via thiol-ene click chemistry. The ene or yne end group subsequently underwent thiol-ene or thiol-yne addition affording mono- or di-functional end group. First, three methacrylic monomers containing 2 or 3 pendent tertiary amine functional groups, 1,3-bis(dimethylamino)propan-2-ylmethacrylate ( M1 ), 1-(bis(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)amino)propan-2-yl methacrylate (M2 ), and 2-((2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)ethyl)methylamino)ethyl acrylate (M3 ), were synthesized via an acylation reaction between methacryloyl chloride and the corresponding aminoalcohol. All of these three monomers were successfully homopolymerized under RAFT conditions with 1-methyl-l-cyanoethyl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain transfer agent (CTA). For each monomer, homopolymerization using
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrolysis of starch or pullulan by glucoamylase or pullulanase immobilized on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel. AU - Ohtani, N.. AU - Ishidao, T.. AU - Iwai, Yoshio. AU - Arai, Y.. PY - 1999/6/3. Y1 - 1999/6/3. N2 - Starch or pullulan was hydrolyzed using glucoamylase or pullulanase immobilized on N-isopropylacrylamide gel. The gel used is temperature sensitive; its mesh size becomes smaller at higher temperatures (30°C) and larger at lower temperatures (20°C). The molecular weight distribution of starch is wide and it consists of high-molecular-weight amylopectin, amylose and glucose. From the change in the chromatograms for the substrate and products it was found that the hydrolysis rate at 30°C was faster than that at 20°C for amylose, though it was the reverse for amylopectin. This finding suggests that the smaller molecular sized amylose can enter the gel phase at both temperature, while the larger molecular sized amylopectin can hardly do so; only the end group,which ...
The report generally describes n-isopropylacrylamide, examines its uses, production methods, patents. N-ISOPROPYLACRYLAMIDE market situation is overviewed;
A novel thermosensitive adsorbent was developed, which adsorbs and/or desorbs heavy metals through temperature swing process. The gel-type and polymer-type adsorbents, composed of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) as a thermosensitive component and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate (MEP) as an interactive component, were prepared by free radical copolymerization. For each type of poly(NIPA-co-MEP), phase transitions and temperature dependences for the amount of Cu, a model metal ion, adsorbed was examined. The proposed mechanism associated with the temperature swing adsorption (TSA) of Cu to poly(NIPA-co-MEP) is as follows. In the case of the shrinking gel at higher temperatures, two MEP groups are positioned so as to interact with one Cu ion, while in the swelling gel at lower temperatures, Cu is desorbed from isolated MEP groups. In the case of copolymers, at temperatures lower than the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), two MEP groups interact with one Cu ion as well as those in shrunken ...
DescriptionPoly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) is one of the most popular temperature responsive hydrogel which is widely used in many research fields. However, the application of PNIPAAm is significantly limited because of lack of suitable three-dimensional (3D) fabrication method. Projection Micro-StereoLithography (PμSL) is an additive manufacturing method for fabricating 3D complex micro structures. Various photo-curable resins have been processed and fabricated into 3D micro structures by PμSL. This thesis applies PμSL technique to the PNIPAAm temperature responsive hydrogel. This method can not only realize the complex three-dimensional PNIPAAm microstructures but also help reduce responsive time of PNIPAAm structures by allowing for micro scale manufacturing. Firstly, the fundamental principle of PNIPAAm temperature responsive property is investigated by temperature dependent swelling behavior experiments. Then the effects of various PμSL process parameters on temperature dependent ...
The interest in utilizing cellulose based materials has grown rapidly in recent years, due to the growing environmental concerns about utilizing fossil based material. One potential application of cellulose is in thermoresponsive materials, which are attracting attention due to their ability of altering conformation when exposed to changes in external temperature. In this study, a variation of cellulose substrates have been utilized; both as the main component and as reinforcing fillers in thermoresponsive composites.. Photoinduced controlled radical polymerization was utilized to graft the thermoresponsive polymer poly(di(ethylene glycol) ethyl ether acrylate) (PDEGA) from the surface of filter paper. The method showed to be efficient to graft large amounts of polymer from the cellulose surface in short reaction times, while utilizing smaller amounts of catalyst than typically employed in controlled radical polymerizations.. Di-, tri, and star block copolymers of quaternized ...
The self-assembly of linear polymers containing chiral IL units generates a high-order supramacromolecular structure with a complex hierarchical architecture, which is able to exhibit thermoresponsive behavior (lower critical solution temperature: LCST) with different structural elements that can be used to fine tune this LCST. [-] ...
Opening the epoxide rings of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) with imidazole produces poly(3-imidazolyl-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PiGMA). PiGMA is soluble in room-temperature water due to protonation of the unsubstituted imidazole nitrogen atom at pH values below 5.9 but becomes insoluble at pH values
Vulcanchem offers qualified products for CAS No. 25189-55-3(Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM)), please inquire us for more detail.
Biocompatible and stimuli-responsive copolymer-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were studied at the air/water interface, below and above their lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The NP layers have been characterized in situ by compression-expansion isotherms, infrared reflection-absorption spectrome
This study demonstrated a method for toughening a highly crosslinked anhydride cured DGEBA epoxy using rubbery block copolymer grafted SiO2 nanoparticles. The particles were synthesized by a sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The inner rubbery block poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) (PHMA) had a glass transition temperature below room temperature. The outer block poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) was matrix compatible. A rubbery interlayer thickness of 100% and 200% of the particle core radius was achieved by grafting a 20 kg/mol and a 40 kg/mol PHMA at a graft density of 0.7 chains/nm2 from the SiO2 surface. The 20 kg/mol rubbery interlayer transferred load more efficiently to the SiO2 cores than the 40 kg/mol rubbery interlayer and maintained the epoxy modulus up to a loading of 10 vol% of the rubbery interlayer. Both systems enabled cavitation or plastic dilatation. Improvement of the strain-to-break and the tensile toughness was found in both systems. We
This talk focuses on the use of RAFT chemistry (Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer polymerization) under different conditions. In the first section of the talk I will present how RAFT chemistry was employed to modify cellulose and a novel route to improve and tune the physical properties of cellulose. In a second part, I will present the syntheses of a range of glycopolymeric architectures (linear, branched and hyper branched) by a combination of RAFT and click chemistry. Finally, I will show the synthesis and in situ self-assembly of diblock and triblock functional copolymers; as well as the preparation of core-shell organic/inorganic particles using these self-assembled structures.. ...
Just what are acrylamides, and why are they so dangerous to our health? Acrylamides are potent compounds that cause genetic mutations, resulting in the development of various cancers. Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that acrylamide forms as a byproduct in foods when they are fried, baked, roasted, grilled, or barbequed. Steamed or boiled foods, on the other hand, do not contain these compounds. Deep fried foods, in particular high carbohydrate foods such as fries and potato chips, have been shown to have the highest levels of acrylamides. Noted nutrition expert Joel Fuhrman, MD, states that "the safest way to cook food is steaming", and expressed concern that more MDs and public health agencies are not actively informing people about this issue ...
N-Isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM), N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA), and 2-acetamidoethyl acrylate (AcAMEA) were copolymerized with ethylene employing [(P^O)PdMe(DMSO)] (1-DMSO; P^O = κ2-P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O with Ar = 2-MeOC6H4) as a catalyst precursor. Inhibition studies with nonpolymerizable polar additives show that reversible κ-O-coordination of free amide retards polymerization significantly. Retardation of polymerization increases in the order ethyl acetate methyl ethyl sulfone , acetonitrile , N,N-dimethylacetamide ≈ N-methylacetamide ≈ propionic acid , dimethylsulfoxide. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for the insertion into 1-DMSO were determined to increase in the order DMAA , AcAMEA , NIPAM , methyl acrylate. Exposure of 1-DMSO to NIPAM resulted in the formation of consecutive insertion products [(P^O)Pd(C6H11NO2)nMe] (n ≤ 3), as determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The solid-state structure of the methanol adduct of the 2,1-insertion product of NIPAM into 1-DMSO, ...
Silane coupling agents are commonly employed to link an organic polymer to an inorganic substrate. One of the widely utilized coupling agents is 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APTES). In this study, the authors investigated the ability of APTES to retain thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) on hydroxylated surfaces such as glass. For comparison purposes, the authors also evaluated the retention behaviors of (1) polystyrene, which likely has weaker van der Waals interactions and acid-base interactions (contributed by hydrogen-bonding) with APTES, on APTES as well as (2) pNIPAAm on two other silane coupling agents, which have similar structures to APTES, but exhibit less interaction with pNIPAAm. Under our processing conditions, the stronger interactions, particularly hydrogen bonding, between pNIPAAm and APTES were found to contribute substantially to the retention of pNIPAAm on the APTES modified surface, especially on the cured APTES layer when the interpenetration was ...
(2017) Islamy Mazrad et al. RSC Advances. Here, we report novel thermo-responsive fluorescent nanoparticles of carbonized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) through two pathways, partial carbonized PNIPAAm (F-PNIPAAm) and full carbonized PNIPAAm (FNP) acid treatment. The carbonized PNIPAAm gen...
In one aspect, the present invention is directed to a thermally responsive AB diblock copolymer prepared by RAFT polymerization wherein the diblock copolymer comprises poly(N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride)-block-(N-isopropylacrylamide). Nanostructures of the thermally responsive diblock copolymer are formed by molecularly dissolving the diblock copolymer in aqueous solution at room temperature; and increasing the solution temperature to form nanostructures, for example vesicles or micelles. The first RAFT polymerization of an unprotected amino acid based monomer directly in water is also disclosed. The present invention also provides a method of forming shell cross-linked vesicles by adding a RAFT synthesized anionic homopolymer to a solution of the thermally responsive diblock copolymer. A method of forming interpolyelectrolyte complexed micelles or vesicles is also disclosed, the method comprising preparing by sequential aqueous RAFT polymerization a block copolymer comprised of N,N,
It is likely that many tissue engineers hypothesized the idea of harvesting a sheet of cells as one, well before it was first accomplished. The actual success of producing a cell sheet did not, however, become a reality until the discovery of thermo-responsive polymer surface technology in 1990 [1]. This discovery was motivated by the biggest flaw of cell injection therapy, the use of trypsin to separate cells from polymeric culture surfaces. While trypsin, a hydrolyzing protease, is effective in breaking down cell-surface adhesions, it also breaks down cell-cell adhesions and hydrolyzes cell membrane proteins, decreasing cell functionality [1]. Thermo-responsive polymer surface technology allows for the detachment of cells from their polymer surface without compromising cell function. This is possible because the polymer itself experiences a change in its attraction to water molecules as temperature changes over a certain range. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) is the most notable polymer ...
In this thesis, the topics around stimuli-responsive hydrogel actuators were discussed. In each project, a specially designed, stimuli-responsive, hydrogel was fabricated. By initiating a corresponding stimuli, swell-deswell changes were triggered within the hydrogels, and certain mechanical movements can be created and controlled by manipulating the patterns and structures of the hydrogels. With these projects, we are targeting improvement of the fabrication of biomimetic actuators and soft robotics. Among the 5 projects that will be discussed in this thesis, the first 3 systems are chemically initiated stimuli-responsive actuators (chemomechanical actuators), and the other two systems are non-chemically initiated. In the chemomechanical systems, we explored relationships between different chemical systems and hydrogels, as well as the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical movements in a biomimetic fashion. For the first chemomechanical project, we described a new planar processing ...
Read "Mutual Solubility of Components and Critical Solution Points in the System Water-Isopropyl Alcohol-n-Dodecane in the Temperature Range 5-120°C, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A stimuli-responsive microgel is a three-dimensional polymer network that is able to absorb and expel a solvent (commonly water). These materials are unique in the fact that their sponge-like behavior can be actuated by environmental cues, like temperature, ion concentration, pH, and light. Because of the dynamic properties of these materials they have found applications in drug-delivery systems, micro-assays, selective filtration, artificial muscle, and non-fouling surfaces. The most well-known stimuli-responsive polymer is Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) or PNIPAAm and it experiences a switchable swelling or deswelling over a critical temperature ( Tc=~32°C). Below the critical temperature, the gel begins mixing with the surrounding solvent and swells; above this temperature, the opposite is true. The unconstrained hydrogel will continue to swell in all directions until equilibrium is established between its propensity for mixing with the surrounding solvent and the elastic restoring forces of the gel
The foods that have the highest amount of acrylamides are carbohydrates baked or fried at high temperatures (french fries and potato chips top the list) and
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A nonwoven surface treating article suitable for treating surfaces while emitting little formaldehyde includes an open, lofty, three-dimensional nonwoven web of a plurality of thermoplastic organic fibers a bound together at places where they contact by a binder, binder comprising 1) a copolymer of an acrylate monomer and an acrylamide monomer, 2) the crosslinked reaction product of a polyol and a melamine crosslinking agent, and 3) the reaction product of a urea derivative and formaldehyde.
Download Art 4 (PDF). Key words: N, N-dimethylacrylamide; 3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro(5.5)undecane; radical polymerization; smart macromolecular systems. 5. Loredana E. NITA, Aurica P. CHIRIAC, Manuela T. NISTOR and Iordana NEAMTU ...
32 Cold is a Supply Chain Operating and Third Party Logistics/Distribution Company with expertise in temperature controlled product handling.
The Photon etc ZEPHIR camera is based on a sensitive HgCdTe FPA integrated with a four stage thermoelectric cooler. It offers a 346 fps rate while reaching superior low-noise levels. It is perfectly ...
In order to point out the driven forces in the loading and release of protein onto thermally sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAM) nanogel particles, which largely claimed in drug delivery and analytical processes, various polyNIPAM based nanogel particles were prepared, and the loading and release of two model proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and -Globulins (G), onto various cationically or anionically charged polyNIPAM nanocrogel particles were investigated. At first, the nanogels particles were well characterized regarding their colloidal properties (swelling ability, particle size, and electrokinetic properties). Then, the loading and release of proteins behaviour onto the elaborated particles were investigated as a function of temperature, pH, and salinity. It was found that the loaded amount of both proteins increases as a function of temperature irrespective of the nature of charge of polyNIPAM nanogels. The protein loaded amount onto the two lower charged polyNIPAM ...
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Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to continue rising, with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancers cause the most cancer deaths each year.Conjugation of cytotoxic drugs with macromolecules improves their pharmacokinetic profile, prolonging the distribution and elimination phases. Furthermore, the slow release of active drug from the carrier may result in sustained high intratumoral drug levels and lower plasma concentrations of the active drug. In order to achieve this combined effect, a macromolecule-drug conjugate should preferentially release the active drug within the tumor tissue. The following components are essential to reach this goal: a biodegradable linkage, a suitable spacer, and a potent bioactive anticancer agent. Among the most widely studied macromolecules are N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA), ...
Acrylamide[edit]. Shaddack, I would be very grateful if you could please give an intelligent, rational and mature justification ... Please put your rely on the Talk:Acrylamide Talk page. Thanks very much. Droid. ...
Acrylamide Asian Dust History of cancer Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute International Agency for ... "Acrylamide". Villeneuve PJ, Mao Y (1994). "Lifetime probability of developing lung cancer, by smoking status, Canada". Canadian ... Reports from the Food Standards Agency have found that the known animal carcinogen acrylamide is generated in fried or ...
"Acrylamide". American Cancer Society. 1 October 2013. Retrieved September 2014. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Link ... According to the American Cancer Society it is not clear, as of 2013[update], whether acrylamide consumption affects people's ... acrylamide produced by frying, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. While it is true ...
"Food Controversies-Acrylamide". Cancer Research UK. 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2017. Corpet DE, Yin Y, Zhang XM, et al. (1995 ... until a toasted crust is formed generates significant concentrations of acrylamide, a known carcinogen from animal studies; its ...
Acrylamide is found at high levels in dark-colored baked, roasted and fried high-carbohydrate foods, as well as in roasted ... The dark-roasted grains used in roasted grain drinks would also, presumably, have high levels of acrylamide. The substance has ... "Acrylamide and Cancer Risk". cancer.org. American Cancer Society. 10 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2017. ... raised health concerns but it is not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of getting cancer. Coffee ...
Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 mg/l (or equivalent); Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 mg/l (or equivalent).[11] ...
There are many studies that combine acrylamide and glycidamide, but the focus is still mainly on acrylamide. Glycidamide is a ... Glycidamide is formed from acrylamide. Acrylamide is an industrial chemical which is used in several ways, such as production ... "Acrylamide" in IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogen risk to humans, International Agency for Research on Cancer, ... Most of the studies focus on the effects of acrylamide, whereas less studies focus specifically on the effects of glycidamide. ...
October 2002). "Acrylamide from Maillard reaction products". Nature. 419 (6906): 449-50. Bibcode:2002Natur.419..449S. doi: ... acrylamide and other side-products are released), peripheral neuropathy (the myelin is attacked), and other sensory losses such ... Glycation may also contribute to the formation of acrylamide, a potential carcinogen, during cooking. Until recently, it was ...
... acrylamides, and acrylonitrile. ATRP are successful at leading to polymers of high number average molecular weight and a narrow ...
See text: acrylamides, esp introduction; acrylamide was accidentally discovered in foods in April 2002 by scientists in Sweden ... 2002). "Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs". J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (17): 4998-5006. doi:10.1021 ... The discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in 2002 has led to international health concerns. They are believed to be ... which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep- ...
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... is a category of polymers whose monomers are acrylamides. Some important examples are: Polyacrylamide, the ...
During polymerization, the acrylamide portion of the buffers co polymerize with the acrylamide and bisacrylamide monomers to ... Immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels are the acrylamide gel matrix co-polymerized with the pH gradient, which result in ... Immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are made by mixing two kinds of acrylamide mixure, one with Immobiline having acidic buffering ... Both solutions contain acrylamide monomers and catalysts. ...
Acrylamide intoxication has been shown to be an agent for the induction of chromatolysis. In one study groups of rats were ... Acrylamide intoxication resembles neural axotomy histologically and mechanically. In each case the neuron undergoes ... Tandrup, T. (2002). "Chromatolysis of A- cells of dorsal root ganglia is a primary structural event in acute acrylamide ... injected with acrylamide for 3, 6, and 12 days and the A- and B-cell perikarya of their L5 dorsal root ganglion were examined. ...
One of the fluids contains acrylamide and methylolacrylamide. The mixed solution becomes a viscous fluid that penetrates cracks ... contaminating it with acrylamide, a known carcinogen and mutagen. Furthermore, the contamination of the area led to a ban on ...
... acrylamide/aqueous solution) to 10 (acrylamide/buffer solution) for acrylamide gels with total monomer concentrations in the ... Thereby, acrylamide chains are created and cross-linked at a time. Due to the properties of the electrophoresis buffer the gel ... As acrylamide starts to hydrolyze at pH around 10 the hydrolysis rate of aqueous solutions of polyacrylamide is at a maximum at ... This preparative technique is based on a new principle and a new constant of acrylamide gel electrophoresis implying the ...
Acrylamide is often formed in the cooking of starchy foods. During heating the amino acid asparagine, naturally present in ... Complete acrylamide removal is probably not possible due to other, minor asparagine-independent formation pathways. As a food ... Gökmen, Vural (2015). Acrylamide in Food: Analysis, Content and Potential Health Effects. Academic Press. p. 415. ISBN ... Kornbrust, B.A., Stringer, M.A., Lange, N.K. and Hendriksen, H.V. (2010) Asparaginase - an enzyme for acrylamide reduction in ...
Acrylamide is carcinogenic,[23] a neurotoxin, and a reproductive toxin.[24] It is also essential to store acrylamide in a cool ... Preparing acrylamide gels[edit]. The gels typically consist of acrylamide, bisacrylamide, the optional denaturant (SDS or urea ... Hydration of acrylonitrile results in formation of acrylamide molecules (C3H5NO) by nitrile hydratase.[2] Acrylamide monomer is ... Acrylamide (C3H5NO; mW: 71.08) when dissolved in water, slow, spontaneous autopolymerization of acrylamide takes place, joining ...
Specifically, it has a protective effect against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity. NRCS: USDA Plants Profile: Acorus americanus ... "Protective effect of acorus calamus against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity" Phytother Res. (May 2002) 16(3):256-60. PMID ...
One example of a toxic product of the Mailard reaction is acrylamide, a neurotoxin and possible carcinogen that is formed from ... Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, María Salomé; Granby, Kit (August 2013). "Current issues in dietary acrylamide: formation, ...
Pore size is controlled by modulating the concentrations of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide powder used in creating a gel. Care ... Acrylamide, in contrast to polyacrylamide, is a neurotoxin and must be handled using appropriate safety precautions to avoid ... The gels are slightly more opaque than acrylamide or agarose. Non-denatured proteins can be separated according to charge and ... introduction of acrylamide gels; disc electrophoresis (Ornstein and Davis); accurate control of parameters such as pore size ...
Molecular oxygen, iodide ions and acrylamide are common chemical quenchers. The chloride ion is a well known quencher for ... Förster resonance energy transfer, a phenomenon on which some quenching techniques rely Acrylamide and iodide fluorescence ...
Apr 23, 2008). "Acrylamide Release Resulting from Sunlight Irradiation of Aqueous Polyacrylamide/Iron Mixtures". Journal of ... Even though these products are often called 'polyacrylamide', many are actually copolymers of acrylamide and one or more other ... Ahn JS; Castle L. (5 November 2003). "Tests for the Depolymerization of Polyacrylamides as a Potential Source of Acrylamide in ... Concerns have been raised that polyacrylamide used in agriculture may contaminate food with acrylamide, a known neurotoxin. ...
... is a method of making brain tissue transparent using acrylamide-based hydrogels built from within, and linked to, the ... This 'scaffolding' is made up of hydrogel monomers such as acrylamide. The addition of molecules like formaldehyde can ... Subsequent published papers using the CLARITY method of building acrylamide-based tissue-gel hybrids within tissue for improved ... thanks to the acrylamide gel and chemical properties of the molecules involved. As reported in the initial paper, the tissue ...
The idea of acrylamide modified DNA was developed by T. Christian Boles, while working at Mosaic Technologies, a now-defunct ... 2002 Apr;32(4):808-10, 812, 814-5. Acrylamide capture of DNA-bound complexes: electrophoretic purification of transcription ... where the double bond in the Acrydite group reacts with other activated double bond containing compounds such as acrylamide. ... and also aptamers containing internal acrylamide modifications) have been used to make AptaMIPs, molecularly imprinted polymers ...
Acrylamide (ICSC) Acrylamide (WHO Food Additives Series 55) ACRYLAMIDE (JECFA Evaluation) Acrylamide (PIM 652) Acrylamide (IARC ... 49: Acrylamide, Geneva, World Health Organization. See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Acrylamide (EHC 49, 1985) ... Milled solid acrylamide could possibly form an explosive dust cloud. 4.4.2 Fire hazards Acrylamide is combustible in the solid ... a) Solid acrylamide. Shovel spilled material into sealable containers. (b) Acrylamide solution. Minimize spread, dilute with an ...
... is a chemical widely used during the manufacturing of paper, dye, and other industrial products. It can also be ... Acrylamide is also found in cigarette smoke.. How do people get exposed to acrylamide?. Food and cigarette smoke are the major ... Where can I find out more about acrylamide?. *NTP acrylamide and glycidamide data and reports ... Why did the National Toxicology Program (NTP) study acrylamide?. The nomination to study acrylamide came from the FDA. The FDA ...
Workers may be harmed from exposure to acrylamide. The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. ... Acrylamide (CH2=CHCONH2) is a white, crystalline solid. It can be harmful to the eyes, skin, and nervous and reproductive ... EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants: Acrylamideexternal icon. *EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS): Acrylamideexternal icon ... OSHA Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acrylamideexternal icon. *New Jersey Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet: Acrylamideexternal ...
... is a N-acylammonia (CHEBI:83628) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) is a acrylamides (CHEBI:22216) ... acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has functional parent acrylic acid (CHEBI:18308) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role alkylating agent ( ... acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role Maillard reaction product (CHEBI:77523) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role mutagen (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:28619 - acrylamide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ...
How likely is acrylamide to cause cancer?. Acrylamide has caused several types of cancer in animals. Adequate human data are ... What is acrylamide?. Acrylamide is a colorless, odorless, crystalline solid that can react violently when melted. When it is ... How can acrylamide affect my health?. The main targets of acrylamide toxicity are the nervous system and reproductive system. ... How can acrylamide affect children?. Acrylamide is expected to affect children in the same manner as adults. ...
Some acrylamide is used in the manufacture of dyes and the manufacture of other monomers. The discovery of acrylamide in some ... Acrylamide can be prepared by the hydrolysis of acrylonitrile by nitrile hydratase. In industry, most acrylamide is used to ... Acrylamide Archived August 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., WHO Health Canada: Acrylamide. Hc-sc.gc.ca. Retrieved on 2012-06- ... Acrylamide is easily absorbed by the skin and distributed throughout the organism; the highest levels of acrylamide post- ...
Acrylamide (en-ca); Akrylamid (cs); Acrilammide (it); Acrylamide (fr); อะคริลาไมด์ (th); Acrylamide (vi); アクリルアミド (ja); ... acrylamide (nl); Akrilamid (sh); Akrilamid (uz); akrylamid (pl); Акриламід (uk); acrylamide (en); أكريلاميد (ar); acrilamida ( ... Media in category "Acrylamide". The following 37 files are in this category, out of 37 total. ... Acrilamida (es); Akrilamid (hu); Акриламид (ru); Acrylamid (de); acrylamide (en-gb); آکریل آمید (fa); 丙烯酰胺 (zh); akrylamid (da ...
Acrylamide is produced as a result of industrial processes and is generated in certain foods as a result of cooking at high ... Acrylamide, a white, odourless, crystalline substance belonging to the family of organic compounds; its molecular formula is ... Acrylamide toxicity and food safety. In the 1950s and 60s, acrylamide was identified as a potential source of occupational ... Manufacture and applications of acrylamide. On an industrial scale, acrylamide historically was manufactured mainly through the ...
Learn what we know about acrylamide and cancer risk here. ... Acrylamide forms in some starchy foods during high-temperature ... Acrylamide and Cancer Risk. What is acrylamide? Acrylamide is a chemical used in industries such as the paper and pulp, ... Are acrylamide levels regulated? In the United States, the FDA regulates the amount of residual acrylamide in a variety of ... The EPA regulates acrylamide in drinking water. The EPA has set an acceptable level of acrylamide exposure, which is low enough ...
Toxicological profile for Acrylamide. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ... Toxicological Profile for Acrylamide. CAS#: 79-06-1. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile ...
Consumer Factsheet on Acrylamidepdf iconexternal icon. Food and Drug Administration. *Acrylamide Questions and Answersexternal ... Acrylamide: A Review of the Literature. *Detailed information about Acrylamide and public health is available at the NIOSH ... How Acrylamide Affects Peoples Health. Human health effects from environmental exposure to low levels of acrylamide are ... How People Are Exposed to Acrylamide. Acrylamide exposure usually happens when people eat foods cooked at high temperatures ...
Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and existing data and research on acrylamide ... Health implications of acrylamide in food. Report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation. ... The FAO/WHO Consultation on Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and ...
Acrylamide in Foods. May 3, 2009. by Sofia Layarda Leave a Comment ... Topic: Health Related: acrylamides, cancer diet, deep fried, healthy dine-out, prostate ... First detected in some foods in 2002, acrylamide is a substance formed in high-carbohydrate, low-protein foods that have been ...
The only thing I can think of that might : ,, ,be causing a problem is the acrylamide. I read that acrylamide can last up : ... why is acrylamide quality only important for non-SDS applications? : : Because it is clearly not important for SDS-PAGE :-) : : ... Acrylamide. dbell dbell at qnis.net Thu Jan 17 13:23:06 EST 2002 *Previous message: NC od PVDF? ... Could be many things but dont blame it on acrylamide. Here we use : ,, some terrible junk given in large quantity for free ...
Acrylamide is a chemical created when some foods, particularly starchy foods like potatoes and bread, are cooked for long ... FSAs work on acrylamide. The FSA has been working to understand more about acrylamide, reduce the risk that it presents and ... What is acrylamide. Acrylamide is a chemical substance formed by a reaction between amino acids and sugars. It typically occurs ... Foods high in acrylamide. Acrylamide is found in wide range of foods including roasted potatoes and root vegetables, chips, ...
Acrylamide is classified as a "probable" human carcinogen but only based on earlier animal studies in which the animals were ... "The data are accumulating, and it appears that acrylamide in the diet does not appear to be an important breast cancer risk ... The result: The incidence of breast cancer among women with a high acrylamide intake was about the same as women with low ... "The food industry has been spending a lot of time and research on how to avoid acrylamide formation in food, and toxicologists ...
... of 100,000 nurses suggests that their risk of developing breast cancer was the same regardless of the amount of acrylamide in ... Acrylamide cleared of causing breast cancer. Health 22 August 2007 It was responsible for one of the biggest food scares in ... Now acrylamide, which is found in coffee, French fries and many other foods, has been cleared of causing breast cancer. ... The alarm was raised in 2002 when researchers discovered that acrylamide, which had been shown to cause cancers in animals, can ...
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during high-temperature cooking, including frying, ... 1. What is acrylamide?. Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during everyday high-temperature ... Food Contaminants: Acrylamide - European Commission. *Commission Recommendation of 3 May 2007 on the monitoring of acrylamide ... 5. What happens to acrylamide in the body?. Acrylamide consumed orally is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, distributed ...
... Eric Kofoid kofoid at BIOLOGY.UTAH.EDU Mon Jun 24 11:35:11 EST 1996 *Previous message: [Q] ... like to cut my acrylamide gel in thin slices of about 2mm, because in this -way I can identify the molecular weights of ...
acrylamide synonyms, acrylamide pronunciation, acrylamide translation, English dictionary definition of acrylamide. n. A ... Environmental Protection Agency all say that acrylamide is likely to be a human carcinogen.. Acrylamide: avoiding a likely ... Acrylamide - definition of acrylamide by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/acrylamide ... acrylamide. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. a·cryl·a·mide. (ə-krĭl′ə-mīd′). n.. A readily ...
... acrylamide containing, polymeric material are disclosed. They are prepared using inverse microemulsion polymerization ... acrylamide monomer comprises acrylamide; methacrylamide; an N-alkyl acrylamide, an N-alkyl methacrylamide or mixtures thereof. ... acrylamide monomer comprises acrylamide; methacrylamide; an N-alkyl acrylamide, an N-alkyl methacrylamide or mixtures thereof. ... acrylamide monomers as acrylamide; per se, methacrylamide; N-alkylacrylamides such as N-methyl acrylamide; N-butylacrylamide ...
... as well as other areas of science relevant for acrylamide, the expert panel will determine if exposure to acrylamide is a ... Acrylamide is known to be a health hazard. It has been shown to induce neurotoxicity in highly exposed occupational groups. In ... Acrylamide was selected for evaluation because of the recent discovery that many people are exposed to small amounts of ... Acrylamide is also used in the production of polyacrylamide -- used in water treatment, pulp and paper production, mineral ...
ACRYLAMIDE, 2-ACRYLAMIDO-2-METHYLPROPANESULFONIC ACID, SODIUM SALT POLYMER, ACRYLAMIDE-SODIUM 2-ACRYLAMIDE-2- ... Acrylamide/Sodium Acryloyldimethyltaurate Copolymer is a copolymer of acrylamide andsodium acryloyldimethyltaurate monomers. ... METHYLPROPANESULFONATE COPOLYMER, ACRYLAMIDE/ SODIUM ACRYLOYLDIMETHYLTAURATE COPOLYMER, ACRYLAMIDE/SODIUM ... ACRYLAMIDE/ SODIUM ACRYLOYLDIMETHYLTAURATE COPOLYMER. Click here for all products containing this ingredient ...
This includes assessing exposure levels, conducting toxicology research, and finding ways to mitigate acrylamide levels in food ... The FDA is currently conducting research studies to determine whether acrylamide in food is a potential risk to human health. ... acrylamide levels in food are much lower. The FDA intends to issue draft guidance for industry concerning acrylamide in food. ... While some studies have shown that acrylamide in very high doses caused cancer in animals and nerve damage in people exposed to ...
  • If frying potatoes or toasting bread, cook them to a lighter color (as opposed to dark brown), which produces less acrylamide. (cancer.org)
  • Avoid storing potatoes in the refrigerator, which can result in increased acrylamide levels during cooking. (cancer.org)
  • Storing raw potatoes in the fridge may lead to the formation of more free sugars in the potatoes (a process sometimes referred to as 'cold sweetening') and can increase overall acrylamide levels especially if the potatoes are then fried, roasted or baked. (food.gov.uk)
  • They first examined raw potatoes that arrived at the factory and were able to identify potatoes susceptible to acrylamide formation before these enter production. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This led to investigation of food as a possible source, and the discovery that acrylamide was formed when potatoes were heated above 120̊C. (ifst.org)
  • It has been shown that the reducing sugars are the limiting factors in acrylamide formation in potatoes, while asparagine appears to be the limiting factor in cereal products (Stadler 2006). (ifst.org)
  • The government agency also recommends keeping potatoes out of the refrigerator, as refrigeration can raise acrylamide formation during cooking. (redorbit.com)
  • It found that a bag of potato chips contained five-hundred times more acrylamide than is considered safe by the W-H-O. Researchers also tested French fried potatoes from an American fast-food eating place. (manythings.org)
  • The new data claim that acrylamide is formed spontaneously in foods while frying potatoes, for example, or baking bread or cookies. (fao.org)
  • Cooking methods like boiling and steaming are among measures that help in curbing the formation of cancer-causing acrylamides in a wide range of foods from potatoes to rice, research shows. (mainichi.jp)
  • In an experiment, when potatoes that had been stored at room temperature and ones that had been refrigerated were stir-fried at 200 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes, the potatoes that had been refrigerated produced about twice the amount of acrylamides as the ones stored at room temperature. (mainichi.jp)
  • Acrylamide forms during frying, grilling, baking, roasting and toasting, when the amino acid asparagine (for example, in potatoes and grains) reacts with naturally occurring sugars-in something you may remember from high school chemistry class called the Maillard reaction, which gives the foods their brown color, crusty texture and distinctive taste. (berkeleywellness.com)
  • Despite all the unknowns, if you want to reduce your potential risk by cutting out the chemical from your diet, the ACS recommends boiling potatoes, which results in less acrylamide formation than roasting or frying. (time.com)
  • Reducing exposure to acrylamide can be as easy as soaking your potatoes before cooking them and cutting the crusts off your bread. (sharecare.com)
  • There are a few simple tips that can be helpful, if you're going to cook potatoes, soaking them in water just putting them in a bowl of water for a half an hour before you cook can reduce your acrylamide by 38% soaking them longer reduces it even more but even just for a couple of minutes you can make the difference. (sharecare.com)
  • Also when you store potatoes don't store them in a refrigerator, acrylamide levels is going to be higher after they've been stored in a fridge, another simple thing that you can do is if you're making a sandwich cut the crust off the bread, the crust is the part where most of the Acrylamide is, kids everywhere like that, and they're up to something here. (sharecare.com)
  • Please remember that raw or boiled potatoes test negative or very low for acrylamide. (drbenkim.com)
  • Acrylamide more commonly forms when the potatoes are fried, cooked or roasted than when they are steamed or boiled. (potatopro.com)
  • This means it can fry products with a higher sugar content, like potatoes, without over Potato Pro_Acrylamide_2019 Page 3 of 6 browning. (potatopro.com)
  • In the case of potatoes and other root vegetables, this process allows sugars and amino acids to be released from the potato prior to cooking, which in turn lessens the occurrence of acrylamide. (potatopro.com)
  • The biggest contributors to acrylamide exposure remain fried potatoes and chips. (anses.fr)
  • The main targets of acrylamide toxicity are the nervous system and reproductive system. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the body is capable of metabolizing acrylamide, leading to its excretion in the urine, acute toxicity can cause confusion, muscle weakness, loss of coordination, and hallucination . (britannica.com)
  • Laboratory research has found that some phytochemicals may have the potential to be developed into drugs which could alleviate the toxicity of acrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity are potential human health risks based on animal studies. (springer.com)
  • A joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives report, published in February 2005, reviewed the various studies on acrylamide toxicity, the process of its formation in food products and possible ways to reduce its presence in such foods. (bakersjournal.com)
  • It has petitioned EFSA in order to consolidate information on acrylamide, its toxicity and the means of reducing consumer exposure to it. (anses.fr)
  • FoodDrinkEurope (which represents the food and drink industry's interests at the European and international level) has produced a document known as the 'toolkit' that outlines ways of reducing acrylamide in food manufacture for a variety of foods and processes. (food.gov.uk)
  • On 4 June 2015, EFSA published its first full risk assessment of acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • 2015 - EFSA publishes its first full risk assessment of acrylamide in food, which experts conclude potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (europa.eu)
  • EFSA's experts identified hundreds of scientific studies to consider for the Authority's first full risk assessment of acrylamide. (europa.eu)
  • The majority of acrylamide is used to manufacture various polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of preparing cationically modified acrylamide polymers is old in the art and due to problems associated with forming a secondary amine--formaldehyde adduct, it has not been widely adopted. (google.com)
  • It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide an improved method for the preparation of dilute solutions of water soluble cationically modified acrylamide polymers. (google.com)
  • The preparation of reaction products of acrylamide polymers and amino-aldehyde resins is taught in U.S. Pat. (google.ca)
  • Among water-soluble polymers, acrylamide based copolymers and homopolymers provide a wide range of functionalities and benefits to a variety of applications [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Acrylamide-based polymers suffer from some deficiencies such as their rapid hydrolysis, facile thermal degradation, and undesirable properties. (hindawi.com)
  • In June last year the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published an opinion on acrylamide ​ ​ in food, reconfirming previous evaluations that found it increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published its final opinion on acrylamide in food, reconfirming previous evaluations that it increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • Currently, the authority's expert panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) has outlined some key aspects about its opinion on acrylamide, which can be found in baked and cooked products such as bread and crispbreads. (bakeryinfo.co.uk)
  • 9. A process as defined in claim 6 wherein said (meth)acrylamide polymer comprises a copolymer of acrylamide and a diallydialkylammonium chloride. (google.com)
  • Acrylamide/Sodium Acryloyldimethyltaurate Copolymer is a copolymer of acrylamide andsodium acryloyldimethyltaurate monomers. (ewg.org)
  • The copolymer of acrylamide (AM) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) was synthesized through radical solution polymerization by potassium persulfate as initiator. (hindawi.com)
  • The European Snacks Association welcomes the establishment of benchmark values that go along with the legal obligation to implement so-far voluntary acrylamide mitigation measures," said Sebastian Emig, Director General of the European Snacks Association. (euractiv.com)
  • This consideration prompted us to provide a qualitative science-based ranking of the mitigation strategies proposed in the acrylamide Toolbox, focusing on bakery and fried potato products. (rsc.org)
  • On the basis of their own experience and considering selected literature of the last ten years, the authors scored for each key parameter the acrylamide mitigation strategies proposed in the Toolbox. (rsc.org)
  • With that in mind, a group of scientists set out in 2011 to identify potato varieties that form less acrylamide , and recently published their research in Crop Science. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acrylamide is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- There seems to be little or no link between breast cancer and acrylamide, a substance found in many baked and fried foods, according to the largest epidemiological study on the subject conducted to date. (go.com)
  • Acrylamide is a substance that forms when foods rich in carbohydrates are fried, toasted or roasted . (botanical-online.com)
  • Representatives of the EU's 28 member states voted yesterday (19 July) in favour of a European Commission proposal to reduce the presence in food of acrylamide, a known carcinogenic substance present in fries, crisps, bread, biscuits, or coffee. (euractiv.com)
  • This proposed risk management approach document builds on the previously released risk management scope document for acrylamide, and outlines the proposed control actions for this substance. (gc.ca)
  • On investigation, Rhoca-Gil was revealed to contain a toxic substance called acrylamide, which caused health problems for the tunnel workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014 - Together with national partners in the Member States, EFSA published an infographic on acrylamide in food to help increase awareness about this issue. (europa.eu)
  • 2013 - EFSA accepted a request from the European Commission to provide a scientific opinion on the potential risks for human health of acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • 2012 - EFSA received a proposal from organisations belonging to four EU Member States (Denmark, France, Germany and Sweden) to consider new scientific findings on the possible carcinogenicity of acrylamide. (europa.eu)
  • It found that acrylamide concentrations in main food categories did not differ to EFSA's 2015 study with three exceptions - the category 'potato crisps and snacks' had higher acrylamide concentrations in Norwegian samples than in those reported by EFSA, while the categories 'Baby foods, other than cereal-based' and 'Processed cereal-based baby food', such as infant porridge, had lower concentrations than EFSA's samples. (foodnavigator.com)
  • But studies involving people have produced "limited and inconsistent evidence" when it comes to the ties between acrylamide and cancer, the EFSA says. (time.com)
  • In addition, the French, Danish, German and Swedish health agencies/institutes have decided, in light of the new scientific data available, to petition EFSA for an update of risk assessments linked to acrylamide ingestion through food. (anses.fr)
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is launching a public consultation on its scientific opinion about acrylamide in food. (bakeryinfo.co.uk)
  • The final outcome was a science based commented ranking which can enrich the acrylamide Toolbox supporting individual manufacturer in taking the best actions to reduce the acrylamide content in their specific production context. (rsc.org)
  • Here is an example of a situation which caused a great deal of concern based on laboratory studies, and now we have a reasonably definitive study showing that there's no link between acrylamide consumption and breast cancer. (go.com)
  • Since then, independent studies in the United States, Germany, Norway, Switzerland, and England have confirmed the link between acrylamide consumption and risk of developing cancer. (drbenkim.com)
  • Regardless of how this most recent legal battle goes, we are already well aware of the strong link between acrylamide consumption and risk of developing cancer. (drbenkim.com)
  • According to the Food Safety Commission of Japan, the average acrylamide intake of Japanese people is 0.24 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day, less than the averages for countries in the European Union, which ranged from 0.4 to 1.9 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day. (mainichi.jp)
  • In fact, many foods that children regularly consume contain high amounts of acrylamides-for example, processed breakfast cereals, both sweetened and unsweetened types. (peertrainer.com)