Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Process in which the mechanisms of projection or displacement are utilized in focusing feelings of aggression, hostility, frustration, etc., upon another individual or group; the amount of blame being unwarranted.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.

Surface-grafted, environmentally sensitive polymers for biofilm release. (1/591)

Controlling bacterial biofouling is desirable for almost every human enterprise in which solid surfaces are introduced into nonsterile aqueous environments. One approach that is used to decrease contamination of manufactured devices by microorganisms is using materials that easily slough off accumulated material (i.e., fouling release surfaces). The compounds currently used for this purpose rely on low surface energy to inhibit strong attachment of organisms. In this study, we examined the possible use of environmentally responsive (or "smart") polymers as a new class of fouling release agents; a surface-grafted thermally responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM), was used as a model compound. PNIPAAM is known to have a lower critical solubility temperature of approximately 32 degrees C (i.e., it is insoluble in water at temperatures above 32 degrees C and is soluble at temperatures below 32 degrees C). Under experimental conditions, >90% of cultured microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Halomonas marina) and naturally occurring marine microorganisms that attached to grafted PNIPAAM surfaces during 2-, 18-, 36-, and 72-h incubations were removed when the hydration state of the polymer was changed from a wettability that was favorable for attachment to a wettability that was less favorable. Of particular significance is the observation that an organism known to attach in the greatest numbers to hydrophobic substrata (i.e., H. marina) was removed when transition of PNIPAAM to a more hydrated state occurred, whereas an organism that attaches in the greatest numbers to hydrophilic substrata (i.e., S. epidermidis) was removed when the opposite transition occurred. Neither solvated nor desolvated PNIPAAM exhibited intrinsic fouling release properties, indicating that the phase transition was the important factor in removal of organisms. Based on our observations of the behavior of this model system, we suggest that environmentally responsive polymers represent a new approach for controlling biofouling release.  (+info)

Effects of palytoxin on isolated intestinal and vascular smooth muscles. (2/591)

Palytoxin (PTX), the most potent marine toxin isolated from the Zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was studied to determine the effect on isolated smooth muscles. In guinea pig taenia coli PTX at above 3 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which slowly subsided under isotonic recording. Under isometric recording PTX at above 1 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which depended on the spontaneous activity. The PTX-induced contraction was not affected by atropine, tripelenmamine or tetrodotoxin but was inhibited by 5 mM Mg, norephinrphrine, isoprenaline or papaverine. PTX at above 1 X 10(-9) g/ml induced an increase in spike frequency and a slight depolarization accompanied with a contraction when measured using a sucrose gap method. In some cases the spike generation was almost abolished after a long exposure to higher dose of PTX and the developed tension gradually decreased. Under isometric recording PTX caused a sustained contraction in rabbit aorta, dog mesenteric and coronary arteries at above 1 X 10(-10) and 1 X 10(-11) g/ml, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The coronary artery was most sensitive among the preparation used. PTX-induced contraction in aorta was irreversible, was not influenced by phentolamine but diminished with 5 mM Mg and disappeared in a D-600 or Ca-free medium. PTX is thus an extremely potent and direct stimulant which acts on smooth muscles.  (+info)

New biodegradable hydrogels based on a photocrosslinkable modified polyaspartamide: synthesis and characterization. (3/591)

alpha,beta-Poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA), a synthetic water-soluble biocompatible polymer, was derivatized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), in order to introduce in its structure chemical residues having double bonds and ester groups. The obtained copolymer (PHG) contained 29 mol% of GMA residues. PHG aqueous solutions at various concentrations ranging from 30 to 70 mg/ml were exposed to a source of UV rays at lambda 254 nm in the presence or in the absence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS); the formation of compact gel phases was observed beginning from 50 mg/ml. The obtained networks were characterized by FT-IR spectrophotometry and swelling measurements which evidenced the high affinity of PHG hydrogels towards aqueous media at different pH values. In vitro chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis studies suggested that the prepared samples undergo a partial degradation both at pH 1 and pH 10 and after incubation with enzymes such as esterase, pepsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. Finally, the effect of irradiation time on the yield and the properties of these hydrogels was investigated and the sol fractions coming from irradiated samples, properly purified, were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses.  (+info)

Modification of liposomes with N-substituted polyacrylamides: identification of proteins adsorbed from plasma. (4/591)

Liposomes prepared from DMPC (80%) and cholesterol (20%) were modified with a series of hydrophobically modified N-substituted polyacrylamides, namely, poly[N-isopropylacrylamide] (PNIPAM), poly[N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyl) acrylamide] (PMEAM), and poly[(3-methoxypropyl)acrylamide] (PMPAM). The hydrophobic group, N-[4-(1-pyrenylbutyl)-N-n-octadecylamine was attached to one end of the polymer chains to serve as an anchor for incorporation into the liposome bilayer. Liposome-polymer interactions were confirmed using fluorescence spectroscopy and chemical analysis. Microscopy revealed differences in aggregation tendency between unmodified and polymer-modified liposomes. Proteins adsorbed to liposome surfaces during exposure to human plasma were identified by immunoblot analysis. It was found that both unmodified and polymer-modified liposomes adsorb a wide variety of plasma proteins. Contact phase coagulation proteins, complement proteins, cell-adhesive proteins, serine protease inhibitors, plasminogen, antithrombin III, prothrombin, transferrin, alpha(2)-microglobulin, hemoglobin, haptoglobin and beta-lipoprotein as well as the major plasma proteins were all detected. Some differences were found between the unmodified and polymer-modified liposomes. The unmodified liposomes adsorbed plasminogen mainly as the intact protein, whereas on the modified liposomes plasminogen was present in degraded form. Also, the liposomes modified with PNIPAM in its extended conformation (below the lower critical solution temperature) appeared to adsorb less protein than those containing the 'collapsed' form of PNIPAM (above the LCST).  (+info)

Characterization of a palytoxin-induced non-selective cation channel in mouse megakaryocytes. (5/591)

We used the whole-cell clamp and fura-2 techniques to study the membrane current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) changes of mouse megakaryocytes in response to palytoxin (PTX), a highly potent marine toxin. At a holding potential of -60 mV, PTX induced a sustained inward current in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal potentials measured in the presence of various extracellular major cations indicated that the PTX-induced channel had a non-selective permeability to alkali metal ions. Although elimination of intracellular Ca2+ had no effect on the PTX-induced current, removal of external Ca2+ inhibited the current activation. During the sustained phase of the PTX-induced current, treatment with ADP activated an additional current. Pretreatment with ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+-K+-ATPase, suppressed the PTX-induced current. During the stable phase of the PTX-induced current, challenge with NiCl2 (5 mM) or 2,4-dichlorobenzamil (DCB, 25 microM), a non-selective cation channel blocker, partially reversed the current. Simultaneous measurement of the membrane current and [Ca2+]i showed that PTX induced the current response without increasing the [Ca2+]i. Taken together, these results indicate that PTX induces a non-selective cation channel in mouse megakaryocytes. This channel is distinct from the ADP-operated channel and is sensitive to ouabain, NiCl2 and DCB.  (+info)

Determination of acrylamide monomer in polyacrylamide degradation studies by high-performance liquid chromatography. (6/591)

A high-performance liquid chromatography method using C18 and ion-exchange columns in series is developed for the determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid monomers in polymeric samples. The C18 column acts as a guard column, trapping surfactants and impurities and retaining the nonionic species. The ion-exchange column then separates the monomers according to their respective ionic strengths. This method has been proven in the laboratory to work successfully for all types of acrylamide/acrylic acid polymers and matrices. Detection limits for both monomers can be achieved in the parts-per-billion range. The method is used to study the possible degradation of polyacrylamide to acrylamide monomer in the presence of glyphosate (a herbicide) and sunlight. Polyacrylamide is used as a spray drift reduction aid in combination with glyphosate. In normal applications, the polymer and herbicide are in contact with each other in the presence of sunlight. The results show that the polymer does not degrade to acrylamide in the presence of glyphosate or sunlight or any combination of the two. It is also observed that glyphosate influences the solubility of polyacrylamide, and care must be used when combining the two.  (+info)

In vitro characterization of a novel polymeric-based pH-sensitive liposome system. (7/591)

This study demonstrates rapid and pH-sensitive release of a highly water-soluble fluorescent aqueous content marker, pyranine, from egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes following incorporation of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) copolymers in liposomal membranes. The pH-sensitivity of this system correlates with the precipitation of the copolymers at acidic pH. In vitro release can be significantly improved by increasing the percentage of anchor in the copolymer and thus favoring its binding to the liposomal bilayer. In the case of liposomes containing a poly(ethylene glycol)-phospholipid conjugate, the insertion of the pH-sensitive copolymer in the liposomal membrane appears to be sterically inhibited. Dye release from these formulations at acidic pH can still be achieved by varying the anchor molar ratio and/or molecular mass of the polymers or by including the latter during the liposome preparation procedure. Removal of unbound polymer results in decreased leakage only when the copolymer is inserted by incubation with preformed liposomes, but can be overcome by preparing liposomes in the presence of polymer. Aqueous content and lipid mixing assays suggest contents release can occur without membrane fusion. The results of this study indicate that the addition of pH-sensitive copolymers of NIPA represents promising strategy for improving liposomal drug delivery.  (+info)

Antitumor activity of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer-Mesochlorine e6 and adriamycin conjugates in combination treatments. (8/591)

This study demonstrates the selective tumor targeting and the antitumor efficacy of the N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-bound mesochlorin e6 monoethylenediamine (Mce6) and HPMA copolymer-bound Adriamycin (ADR) in combination photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy against human ovarian OVCAR-3 carcinoma xenografted in female athynmic mice. The concentrations of Mce6 and ADR in blood and tissues, in free or HPMA copolymer-bound form, were determined by fluorescence and high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence assays, respectively. Xenograft responses to single and combination therapies were recorded. The peak concentration of HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugate in tumor was achieved 18 h after administration. For HPMA copolymer-bound drugs, the concentration ratios of liver and spleen versus muscle were significantly higher than those of free drugs. The HPMA copolymer-bound drugs demonstrated selective targeting and accumulation in the tumor, probably attributed to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. In vivo studies revealed that all tumors in the treatment groups showed significant responses after receiving any of the various types of therapy as compared with controls (P < 0.001). PDT with HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugate (PDTMC) at a dose of 13.4 mg/kg (1.5 mg/kg of Mce6 equivalent) and light doses of 110 J/cm2 at 12 and 18 h, respectively, resulted in significant suppression of the growth of OVCAR-3 tumors. Three courses of chemotherapy using 35 mg/kg (2.2 mg/kg of ADR equivalent) of HPMA copolymer-ADR conjugate (CHEMO) were effective in suppressing the growth of tumors. Single PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO exhibited significantly greater therapeutic efficacy than multiple CHEMO. In the group of mice receiving multiple PDTMC, tumor recurrence became obvious after day 20. However, 10 of 12 tumors exhibited complete responses in the group of mice receiving multiple PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO. The least to most effective treatments were ranked as follows: multiple CHEMO < single PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO < multiple PDTMC < multiple PDTMC plus multiple CHEMO. The results clearly demonstrate that: (a) HPMA copolymer-bound drugs exhibited selective tumor accumulation contrary to free drugs; (b) PDT using HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugate with multiple light irradiations was a better therapy than that with single light irradiation; and (c) combination chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy with HPMA copolymer-ADR and HPMA copolymer-Mce6 conjugates was the most effective regimen.  (+info)

The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or lower consolute temperature is the critical temperature below which the components of a mixture are miscible for all compositions. The word lower indicates that the LCST is a lower bound to a temperature interval of partial miscibility, or miscibility for certain compositions only. The phase behavior of polymer solutions is an important property involved in the development and design of most polymer-related processes. Partially miscible polymer solutions often exhibit two solubility boundaries, the upper critical solution temperature (UCST) and the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), which both depend on the molar mass and the pressure. At temperatures below LCST, the system is completely miscible in all proportions, whereas above LCST partial liquid miscibility occurs. In the phase diagram of the mixture components, the LCST is the shared minimum of the concave up spinodal and binodal (or coexistence) curves. It is in general pressure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein adsorption modes determine reversible cell attachment on poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) brushes. AU - Xue, Changying. AU - Choi, Byun Chan. AU - Choi, Sangwook. AU - Braun, Paul V.. AU - Leckband, Deborah E.. PY - 2012/6/6. Y1 - 2012/6/6. N2 - Protein adsorption and reversible cell attachment are investigated as a function of the grafting density of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes. Prior studies demonstrated that the thermally driven collapse of grafted PNIPAM above the lower critical solution temperature of 32 °C is not required for protein adsorption. Here, the dependence of reversible, protein-mediated cell adhesion on the polymer chain density, above and below the lower critical solution temperature, is reported. Above 32 °C, protein adsorption on PNIPAM brushes grafted from a non-adsorbing, oligo(ethylene oxide)-coated surface exhibits a maximum with respect to the grafting density. Few cells attach to either dilute or densely grafted PNIPAM chains, ...
There are various favourable factors driving the growth of the global acrylamide monomer market. Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby contributing to the growth of the market. Increasing environmental regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, cosmetics, tertiary oil refinery and in the synthesis of dyes and plastic. According to the report, the global acrylamide monomer market is anticipated to reach a value of US$ 4551 Million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of more than 9% during 2017-2022.. The market has been segregated on the basis of end-use where the waste and wastewater treatment sector currently represents the largest end-use segment for acrylamide monomer. Other major end-use segments include ...
There are various favourable factors driving the growth of the global acrylamide monomer market. Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby contributing to the growth of the market. Increasing environmental regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, cosmetics, tertiary oil refinery and in the synthesis of dyes and plastic. According to the report, the global acrylamide monomer market is anticipated to reach a value of US$ 4551 Million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of more than 9% during 2017-2022.. The market has been segregated on the basis of end-use where the waste and wastewater treatment sector currently represents the largest end-use segment for acrylamide monomer. Other major end-use segments include ...
There are various favourable factors driving the growth of the global acrylamide monomer market. Acrylamide monomer is majorly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamide which is further used in wastewater treatment, thereby contributing to the growth of the market. Increasing environmental regulations aimed to limit the waste produced by industrial and municipal plants has boosted the demand for polyacrylamide. Further, the consumption of acrylamide monomer has increased in various sectors such as ore processing, gel electrophoresis, cosmetics, tertiary oil refinery and in the synthesis of dyes and plastic. According to the report, the global acrylamide monomer market is anticipated to reach a value of US$ 4551 Million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of more than 9% during 2017-2022.. The market has been segregated on the basis of end-use where the waste and wastewater treatment sector currently represents the largest end-use segment for acrylamide monomer. Other major end-use segments include ...
Methacrylamide is acute toxic by oral exposure. LD50 rat oral (OECD 403) is 1815 mg/kg bw. According to CLP , methacrylamide is classified with Hazard category Acute 4, H302, Harmful if swallowed. - Acute dermal toxicity is not predicted based on available data and in silico prediction of skin penetration. - Acute toxicity by inhalation is not predicted due to low vapour pressure. - Methacrylamide aerosols caused irritative effects in the respiratroy system of rats after short-term repeated dose exposure. Thus, methacrylamide is classified with STOT-SE category 3/ respiratory system, H335 according to CLP. - Methacrylamide caused neurotoxic effects in rats after single exposure to , 2000 mg/kg bw. According to CLP, methacrylamide is classified with STOT-SE category 2, H302, for its neurotoxicological potential. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Temperature-responsive smart packing materials utilizing multi-functional polymers. AU - Ayano, Eri. AU - Kanazawa, Hideko. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Polymers that respond to small changes in environmental stimuli with large, sometimes discontinuous changes in their physical state or properties, are often called smart polymers. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAAm, is one of the most representative smart polymer that exhibits a thermally reversible soluble-insoluble change in the vicinity of its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 32°C in aqueous solution. Temperature-responsive chromatography for the separation of biomolecules utilizing the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-modified stationary phase is performed with an aqueous mobile phase without using an organic solvent. The surface properties and function of the stationary phase are controlled by external temperature changes without changing the mobile-phase composition. The separation of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fabrication of thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-g-ETFE for cell culture dishes by pre-irradiation grafting. AU - Yamahara, Yumi. AU - Nagasawa, Naotsugu. AU - Taguchi, Mitsumasa. AU - Oshima, Akihiro. AU - Washio, Masakazu. PY - 2018/1. Y1 - 2018/1. N2 - Thermo-responsive templates for the cell cultivation based on Poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-ethylene) (ETFE) were fabricated by pre-irradiation grafting of N-isoproplyacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer by electron beam (EB) irradiation under nitrogen gas atmosphere at room temperature, and their characteristic properties were studied. The detachment of cultured HeLa cells from fabricated thermo-responsive templates were attempted. Furthermore, the reaction mechanism is proposed using ESR spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. It is confirmed that the cultured HeLa cells were detached from fabricated thermo-responsive templates at 20 °C. Water contact angle analysis indicated that obtained templates had thermo-response around 30 °C. It is ...
Molecular modification of a fluorinated polyimide (FPI), 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride + 4,4′-bis(4-aminophenoxy)diphenyl sulfone, via ozone pretreatment and thermally induced graft copolymerization with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) in a N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solution, was carried out. The resulting FPIs with grafted NIPAAm polymer side chains [FPI-g-P(NIPAAm) copolymers] were cast into microfiltration membranes by phase inversion in water at temperatures ranging from 4 to 55°C. The surface composition of the membranes was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface composition, mean pore size, and morphology of the membrane varied with the temperature of the aqueous coagulation bath. For the copolymer membrane cast below the lower critical solution temperature of the NIPAAm polymer (∼32°C), the rate of water permeation increased substantially at a permeate temperature above 32°C. For the flux of 2-propanol through the membrane cast above ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adhesion-based simple capture and recovery of circulating tumor cells using a blood-compatible and thermo-responsive polymer-coated substrate. AU - Hoshiba, Takashi. AU - Orui, Toshihiko. AU - Endo, Chiho. AU - Sato, Kazuhiro. AU - Yoshihiro, Ayano. AU - Minagawa, Yasuhisa. AU - Tanaka, Masaru. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been a focus of study for metastatic cancer diagnostics, in in vitro anti-cancer drug screening to decide the chemotherapeutic course, and cancer biology research. For these purposes, there have been efforts made to collect CTCs from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Here, we explore the possibility of collecting CTCs using blood-compatible and thermo-responsive poly(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethyl acrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate) (P(Et2A-Me2MA)) through adhesion and detachment by incubation under a lower critical solution temperature of P(Et2A-Me2MA). A P(Et2A-Me2MA)-coated substrate is dissolved by ...
The phase behavior of linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), linear copolymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PNIPA-SA), and chemically cross-linked PNIPA in water has been determined by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TM-DSC). Experiments related to linear polymers (PNIPA and PNIPA-SA) indicated nontypical demixing/mixing behavior with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST), which do not correspond to the three classical types of limiting critical behavior. Some similarities and differences are observed in comparison to our literature data using standard TM-DSC for PNIPA/water. Furthermore no influence of composition cross-linked PNIPA/water system on demixing/mixing temperature was observed.
Strem offers a range of RAFT Agents (Reversible Additional-Fragmentation chain Transfer) for research purposes only under licence from CSIRO.
The lethal marine toxin, palytoxin, first extracted from the polyps of soft-bodied zoanthids of the genus Palythoa (Moore and Scheuer, 1971), is a potentially useful tool for elucidating the molecular reactions by which the Na/K-ATPase stoichiometrically transports Na+ and K+ ions in opposite directions across the cell surface membrane. Palytoxin was found to depolarize mammalian cells (e.g., Weidmann, 1977) by causing small-conductance (∼10 pS) relatively nonselective cation channels to appear in their surface membranes (e.g., Ikeda et al., 1988; Muramatsu et al., 1988). That the Na/K-ATPase is the target for palytoxin action was initially surmised (Habermann, 1989) largely from antagonism of toxin action by cardiotonic steroids, like ouabain, or by K+ ions. Two experimental approaches have since confirmed that proposal. The first exploited the absence of endogenous Na/K pumps from yeast and showed that palytoxin could elicit ouabain-sensitive cation flux in yeast expressing both α and β ...
The upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or upper consolute temperature is the critical temperature above which the components of a mixture are miscible in all proportions. The word upper indicates that the UCST is an upper bound to a temperature range of partial miscibility, or miscibility for certain compositions only. For example, hexane-nitrobenzene mixtures have a UCST of 19 °C, so that these two substances are miscible in all proportions above 19 °C but not at lower temperatures. Examples at higher temperatures are the aniline-water system at 168 °C (at pressures high enough for liquid water to exist at that temperature), and the lead-zinc system at 798 °C (a temperature where both metals are liquid). A solid state example is the palladium-hydrogen system which has a solid solution phase (H2 in Pd) in equilibrium with a hydride phase (PdHn) below the UCST at 300 °C. Above this temperature there is a single solid solution phase. In the phase diagram of the mixture components, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tannic Acid Mediated Suppression of PNIPAAm Microgels Thermoresponsive Behavior. AU - Ricardo, Ana Isabel Nobre Martins Aguiar de Oliveira. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Tannic acid (TA) complexation with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) microgels changed their morphology and temperature responsiveness, depending on TA concentration and pH (below the TA pK(a)). Complexes prepared with a low TA content had higher low critical solution temperature than pure PNIPAAm microgels as a consequence of the hydrophilic character of TA; however, above a concentration threshold, TA physically cross-links the polymeric network, altering their morphology and suppressing the thermodynamically driven PNIPAAm coil-to-globule transition. DRIFT spectral analysis indicated that within PNIPAAm-TA complexes hydrogen bonds were established between PNIPAAm amide and TA phenolic (C=O center dot center dot center dot H-O and N-H center dot center dot center dot O-H) and ester (N-H center dot ...
0138] The aqueous carrier medium (aqueous vehicle) for the inkjet inks which utilize the encapsulated pigment described above is water or a mixture of water and at least one water-miscible organic solvent. Selection of a suitable mixture depends on requirements of the specific application, such as desired surface tension and viscosity, the selected pigment, drying time of the pigmented ink jet ink, and the type of paper onto which the ink will be printed. Representative examples of water-soluble organic solvents that may be selected include (1) alcohols, such as methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, t-butyl alcohol, iso-butyl alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; (2) ketones or ketoalcohols such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and diacetone alcohol; (3) ethers, such as tetrahydrofuran and dioxane; (4) esters, such as ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate; (5) polyhydric ...
The aim of this study was to synthesis and characterization of a novel stimuli-responsive polymeric nanosystem for theranostic applications. For this purpose, starch was modified by itaconic anhydride to afford an itaconat-functionalized starch macromonomer (starch-IA). This macromonomer with carboxylic functional groups was subsequently adsorbed onto the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs), and then copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer via a free radical initiated polymerization technique to produce a temperature-responsive magnetic nanohydrogel (MNHG). The chemical structures of all samples as representatives were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST), thermal responsibility, morphology, elemental composition, thermal stability, and magnetic properties of the synthesized MNHG were investigated. In addition, the methotrexate (MTX)-loading capacity (∼74%) and stimuli-responsive drug
article{f1616b59-e887-44fb-b460-9b6de8fb47a6, abstract = {The effect of a water-soluble uncharged polymer on the stability of the lamellar phase of the Aerosol OT (AOT)/water system is studied. The lamellar phase still exists when water is replaced by an aqueous solution of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (Rapproximate to4x10(2) Angstrom). Since the coil dimensions are (much) larger than the thickness of the water layers (d(w)approximate to51 Angstrom), the polymer molecules do not enter the lamellar phase. Instead segregation in small domains occurs, and in equilibrium with the AOT-rich phase another separate phase containing the polymer is formed. The polymer-rich phase exerts an osmotic pressure that reduces the water content in the AOT-rich phase, and by compression the repeat distance is reduced.}, author = {Pacios, IE and Lindman, Björn and Horta, A and Thuresson, Krister and Renamayor, CS}, issn = {0303-402X}, keyword = {N-dimethylacrylamide),poly(N,lamellar,Aerosol OT,segregation}, ...
Synthesis, characterization, and applications of novel thermoresponsive polymeric coatings for quantum dots (QDs) are presented. Comb-copolymers featuring hydrophobic alkyl groups, carboxylic groups and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) side chains with molar masses ranging from 1000 g/mol to 25,400 g/mol were obtained. The amphiphilic comb-copolymers were shown to efficiently transfer the QDs to aqueous media. The PNIPAM-coated QD materials display a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The absorbance, luminescence emission, size of the assemblies, and electrophoretic mobility were followed as a function of temperature and the reversibility of the temperature induced changes is demonstrated by cyclic heating and cooling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Disclosed is a process for preparing temperature-responsive polymers that may be formed into a thermally-processable form which exhibits flushability properties when immersed in water such that the temperature-responsive polymer may be used in a disposable absorbent product to impart flushability properties to the product. The process prepares the temperature-responsive polymer in an aqueous solution using a chain transfer agent such as isopropanol.
Stimuli-responsive polymers that undergo equilibrium, aqueous phase separation in response to environmental stimuli have driven innovations in nanotechnology (1), drug delivery (2), tissue engineering (3), regenerative medicine (4, 5), and biotechnology (6, 7). More recently, the discovery that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) in nature also undergo aqueous phase separation in the cell has led to intense interest in understanding their phase separation behavior (8, 9). Progress in this understanding promises to advance biology and deliver tools to engineer advanced protein-based materials (10, 11).. Polymers and IDPs that exhibit liquid-liquid phase separation belong to one of two classes: They exhibit lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or upper critical solution temperature (UCST) phase behavior (10, 12); and a smaller subset exhibit both behaviors (12, 13) . For polymers that exhibit LCST phase behavior, below a critical temperature-the cloud point temperature (Tcp)-the polymer ...
Buildings can be effectively cooled by a bioinspired sweating-like action based on thermoresponsive hydrogels (PNIPAM), which press out their stored water when exceeding the lower critical solution temperature. The surface temperature is reduced by 15 °C compared to that of a conventional hydrogel (pHEMA) and by 25 °C compared to the bare ground ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In Situ Surface-Selective Modification of Uniform Size Macroporous Polymer Particles with Temperature-Responsive Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide. AU - Hosoya, Ken. AU - Sawada, Etsuko. AU - Kimata, Kazuhiro. AU - Araki, Takeo. AU - Tanaka, Nobuo. AU - Frechet, Jean. PY - 1994/7/1. Y1 - 1994/7/1. N2 - A new in situ surface-selective modification procedure for the incorporation of temperature-responsive poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (poly-NIPAM) into porous polymer beads has been developed. This procedure allows the incorporation of the poly-NIPAM either on the internal surface of the macroporous beads or on their external surface selectively. The process involves the addition of NIPAM monomer and a water-soluble radical initiator to a polymerizing mixture consisting of uniformly sized monomer and porogen particles prepared by a two-step swelling and polymerization method. NIPAM polymerizes in the aqueous phase but soon precipitates out because the upper critical solution temperature of ...
Reported here is the synthesis of perfectly sequence defined, monodisperse diblock copolypeptides of hydrophilic elastin-like and hydrophobic resilin-like polypeptide blocks and characterization of their self-assembly as a function of structural parameters by light scattering, cryo-TEM, and small-angle neutron scattering. A subset of these diblock copolypeptides exhibit lower critical solution temperature and upper critical solution temperature phase behavior and self-assemble into spherical or cylindrical micelles. Their morphologies are dictated by their chain length, degree of hydrophilicity, and hydrophilic weight fraction of the ELP block. We find that (1) independent of the length of the corona-forming ELP block there is a minimum threshold in the length of the RLP block below which self-assembly does not occur, but that once that threshold is crossed, (2) the RLP block length is a unique molecular parameter to independently tune self-assembly and (3) increasing the hydrophobicity of the corona
In this paper, we investigated the activation energies of the aggregation-disaggregation self-oscillation induced by the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction by utilizing the nonthermoresponsive polymer chain in a wide temperature range. This is because the conventional type self-oscillating polymer chain, with thermoresponsive poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm) main-chain covalently bonded to the ruthenium catalyst (Ru(bpy)3) of the BZ reaction, cannot evaluate the activation energy over the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The nonthermoresponsive self-oscillating polymer chain is composed of a poly-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) main-chain with the ruthenium catalyst (Ru(bpy)3). As a result, we clarified that the activation energy of the aggregation-disaggregation self-oscillation of the polymer chain is hardly affected by the concentrations of the BZ substrates. In addition, the activation energy of the nonthermoresponsive self-oscillating polymer chain was found to be almost the same value as
The Global And China Acrylamide Monomer Industry 2017 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Acrylamide...
A series of water-soluble, stimuli-responsive (co)polymers was synthesized via the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The end group of a RAFT polymer, poly(N -isopropylacrylamide), was modified to ene or yne function via thiol-ene click chemistry. The ene or yne end group subsequently underwent thiol-ene or thiol-yne addition affording mono- or di-functional end group. First, three methacrylic monomers containing 2 or 3 pendent tertiary amine functional groups, 1,3-bis(dimethylamino)propan-2-ylmethacrylate ( M1 ), 1-(bis(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)amino)propan-2-yl methacrylate (M2 ), and 2-((2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)ethyl)methylamino)ethyl acrylate (M3 ), were synthesized via an acylation reaction between methacryloyl chloride and the corresponding aminoalcohol. All of these three monomers were successfully homopolymerized under RAFT conditions with 1-methyl-l-cyanoethyl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain transfer agent (CTA). For each monomer, homopolymerization using
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrolysis of starch or pullulan by glucoamylase or pullulanase immobilized on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel. AU - Ohtani, N.. AU - Ishidao, T.. AU - Iwai, Yoshio. AU - Arai, Y.. PY - 1999/6/3. Y1 - 1999/6/3. N2 - Starch or pullulan was hydrolyzed using glucoamylase or pullulanase immobilized on N-isopropylacrylamide gel. The gel used is temperature sensitive; its mesh size becomes smaller at higher temperatures (30°C) and larger at lower temperatures (20°C). The molecular weight distribution of starch is wide and it consists of high-molecular-weight amylopectin, amylose and glucose. From the change in the chromatograms for the substrate and products it was found that the hydrolysis rate at 30°C was faster than that at 20°C for amylose, though it was the reverse for amylopectin. This finding suggests that the smaller molecular sized amylose can enter the gel phase at both temperature, while the larger molecular sized amylopectin can hardly do so; only the end group,which ...
The report generally describes n-isopropylacrylamide, examines its uses, production methods, patents. N-ISOPROPYLACRYLAMIDE market situation is overviewed;
A novel thermosensitive adsorbent was developed, which adsorbs and/or desorbs heavy metals through temperature swing process. The gel-type and polymer-type adsorbents, composed of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) as a thermosensitive component and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate (MEP) as an interactive component, were prepared by free radical copolymerization. For each type of poly(NIPA-co-MEP), phase transitions and temperature dependences for the amount of Cu, a model metal ion, adsorbed was examined. The proposed mechanism associated with the temperature swing adsorption (TSA) of Cu to poly(NIPA-co-MEP) is as follows. In the case of the shrinking gel at higher temperatures, two MEP groups are positioned so as to interact with one Cu ion, while in the swelling gel at lower temperatures, Cu is desorbed from isolated MEP groups. In the case of copolymers, at temperatures lower than the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), two MEP groups interact with one Cu ion as well as those in shrunken ...
DescriptionPoly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) is one of the most popular temperature responsive hydrogel which is widely used in many research fields. However, the application of PNIPAAm is significantly limited because of lack of suitable three-dimensional (3D) fabrication method. Projection Micro-StereoLithography (PμSL) is an additive manufacturing method for fabricating 3D complex micro structures. Various photo-curable resins have been processed and fabricated into 3D micro structures by PμSL. This thesis applies PμSL technique to the PNIPAAm temperature responsive hydrogel. This method can not only realize the complex three-dimensional PNIPAAm microstructures but also help reduce responsive time of PNIPAAm structures by allowing for micro scale manufacturing. Firstly, the fundamental principle of PNIPAAm temperature responsive property is investigated by temperature dependent swelling behavior experiments. Then the effects of various PμSL process parameters on temperature dependent ...
The interest in utilizing cellulose based materials has grown rapidly in recent years, due to the growing environmental concerns about utilizing fossil based material. One potential application of cellulose is in thermoresponsive materials, which are attracting attention due to their ability of altering conformation when exposed to changes in external temperature. In this study, a variation of cellulose substrates have been utilized; both as the main component and as reinforcing fillers in thermoresponsive composites.. Photoinduced controlled radical polymerization was utilized to graft the thermoresponsive polymer poly(di(ethylene glycol) ethyl ether acrylate) (PDEGA) from the surface of filter paper. The method showed to be efficient to graft large amounts of polymer from the cellulose surface in short reaction times, while utilizing smaller amounts of catalyst than typically employed in controlled radical polymerizations.. Di-, tri, and star block copolymers of quaternized ...
OATA has joined forces with key public health officials to produce guidance to help marine aquarium hobbyists who keep corals protect themselves against palytoxin poisoning.. Health Protection Scotland approached OATA with a request to help produce the advice after a small number of incidents involving palytoxin were reported across the UK. It has also produced new clean up procedures in the event of an incident.. Palytoxin is produced by species of Palythoa and Zoanthus soft corals with Palythoa species generally considered to be more toxic than Zoanthus species. However, as many hobbyists may not be able to distinguish between them, the collective term of zoantharians is used.. The greatest risk of palytoxin poisoning comes from exposing the slime coating produced by zoantharians to air. Wherever possible, marine animals should be handled underwater and fully submerged. They should not be lifted out of the aquarium unnecessarily. If hobbyists do need to transfer them, the advice is to do so ...
The self-assembly of linear polymers containing chiral IL units generates a high-order supramacromolecular structure with a complex hierarchical architecture, which is able to exhibit thermoresponsive behavior (lower critical solution temperature: LCST) with different structural elements that can be used to fine tune this LCST. [-] ...
Opening the epoxide rings of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) with imidazole produces poly(3-imidazolyl-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PiGMA). PiGMA is soluble in room-temperature water due to protonation of the unsubstituted imidazole nitrogen atom at pH values below 5.9 but becomes insoluble at pH values
Vulcanchem offers qualified products for CAS No. 25189-55-3(Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM)), please inquire us for more detail.
Biocompatible and stimuli-responsive copolymer-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were studied at the air/water interface, below and above their lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The NP layers have been characterized in situ by compression-expansion isotherms, infrared reflection-absorption spectrome
This study demonstrated a method for toughening a highly crosslinked anhydride cured DGEBA epoxy using rubbery block copolymer grafted SiO2 nanoparticles. The particles were synthesized by a sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The inner rubbery block poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) (PHMA) had a glass transition temperature below room temperature. The outer block poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) was matrix compatible. A rubbery interlayer thickness of 100% and 200% of the particle core radius was achieved by grafting a 20 kg/mol and a 40 kg/mol PHMA at a graft density of 0.7 chains/nm2 from the SiO2 surface. The 20 kg/mol rubbery interlayer transferred load more efficiently to the SiO2 cores than the 40 kg/mol rubbery interlayer and maintained the epoxy modulus up to a loading of 10 vol% of the rubbery interlayer. Both systems enabled cavitation or plastic dilatation. Improvement of the strain-to-break and the tensile toughness was found in both systems. We
This talk focuses on the use of RAFT chemistry (Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer polymerization) under different conditions. In the first section of the talk I will present how RAFT chemistry was employed to modify cellulose and a novel route to improve and tune the physical properties of cellulose. In a second part, I will present the syntheses of a range of glycopolymeric architectures (linear, branched and hyper branched) by a combination of RAFT and click chemistry. Finally, I will show the synthesis and in situ self-assembly of diblock and triblock functional copolymers; as well as the preparation of core-shell organic/inorganic particles using these self-assembled structures.. ...
Just what are acrylamides, and why are they so dangerous to our health? Acrylamides are potent compounds that cause genetic mutations, resulting in the development of various cancers. Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that acrylamide forms as a byproduct in foods when they are fried, baked, roasted, grilled, or barbequed. Steamed or boiled foods, on the other hand, do not contain these compounds. Deep fried foods, in particular high carbohydrate foods such as fries and potato chips, have been shown to have the highest levels of acrylamides. Noted nutrition expert Joel Fuhrman, MD, states that the safest way to cook food is steaming, and expressed concern that more MDs and public health agencies are not actively informing people about this issue ...
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Mn ~40,000; CAS Number: 25189-55-3; Synonyms: Polyacrylamide,NIPAM polymer,PNIPAM,polyNIPAM; Linear Formula: CH3(C6H11NO)nCH3; find Sigma-Aldrich-535311 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
N-Isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM), N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA), and 2-acetamidoethyl acrylate (AcAMEA) were copolymerized with ethylene employing [(P^O)PdMe(DMSO)] (1-DMSO; P^O = κ2-P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O with Ar = 2-MeOC6H4) as a catalyst precursor. Inhibition studies with nonpolymerizable polar additives show that reversible κ-O-coordination of free amide retards polymerization significantly. Retardation of polymerization increases in the order ethyl acetate methyl ethyl sulfone , acetonitrile , N,N-dimethylacetamide ≈ N-methylacetamide ≈ propionic acid , dimethylsulfoxide. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for the insertion into 1-DMSO were determined to increase in the order DMAA , AcAMEA , NIPAM , methyl acrylate. Exposure of 1-DMSO to NIPAM resulted in the formation of consecutive insertion products [(P^O)Pd(C6H11NO2)nMe] (n ≤ 3), as determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The solid-state structure of the methanol adduct of the 2,1-insertion product of NIPAM into 1-DMSO, ...
The growing threat to the environment by radioactive cations in wastewater streams has initiated the search for methods that can reduce their concentrations before being disposed in an environmentally-friendly manner. The unique properties of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [PNIPA] gels, such as stimuli responsive volumetric phase transition, combined with the results obtained from previous studies that provide evidence these gels have the potential to encapsulate cations, motivated this study to investigate the adsorption properties of PNIPA gels, and attempts were made to enhance their performance characteristics--Abstract, page iii.
Silane coupling agents are commonly employed to link an organic polymer to an inorganic substrate. One of the widely utilized coupling agents is 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APTES). In this study, the authors investigated the ability of APTES to retain thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) on hydroxylated surfaces such as glass. For comparison purposes, the authors also evaluated the retention behaviors of (1) polystyrene, which likely has weaker van der Waals interactions and acid-base interactions (contributed by hydrogen-bonding) with APTES, on APTES as well as (2) pNIPAAm on two other silane coupling agents, which have similar structures to APTES, but exhibit less interaction with pNIPAAm. Under our processing conditions, the stronger interactions, particularly hydrogen bonding, between pNIPAAm and APTES were found to contribute substantially to the retention of pNIPAAm on the APTES modified surface, especially on the cured APTES layer when the interpenetration was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of chloroprene and mechanical properties of matrix-free polychloroprene nanocomposites. AU - Zheng, Yang. AU - Abbas, Zaid M.. AU - Sarkar, Amrita. AU - Marsh, Zachary. AU - Stefik, Morgan. AU - Benicewicz, Brian C.. N1 - Funding Information: We acknowledge the support from the SC SmartState program . AS and ZM acknowledge partial support of their work as Leon Shechter graduate fellows. This work made use of the South Carolina SAXS Collaborative, supported by the NSF Major Research Instrumentation program ( DMR-1428620 ). Publisher Copyright: © 2017. PY - 2018/1/17. Y1 - 2018/1/17. N2 - RAFT polymerization and surface-initiated RAFT polymerization (SI-RAFT) of chloroprene was studied. The SI-RAFT polymerization rate of chloroprene was found to be slower than free solution RAFT polymerization, and further regulated by the graft density of grafted polymers. The resulting polychloroprene-grafted ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endotoxin- and mechanical stress-induced epigenetic changes in the regulation of the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase promoter. AU - Elangovan, Venkateswaran Ramamoorthi. AU - Camp, Sara M.. AU - Kelly, Gabriel T.. AU - Desai, Ankit A.. AU - Adyshev, Djanybek. AU - Sun, Xiaoguang. AU - Black, Stephen Matthew. AU - Wang, Ting. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. N1 - Funding Information: This study is supported by National Institutes of Health grants R01HL94394, P01HL126609, and R01HL91889. Publisher Copyright: © 2016 by the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute. All rights reserved.. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Mechanical ventilation, a lifesaving intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also unfortunately contributes to excessive mechanical stress and impaired lung physiological and structural integrity. We have elsewhere established the pivotal role of increased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) transcription and secretion as ...
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Recombinant Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Maus. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN1344090 bestellen.
NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase), Authors: Vassiliki Koumaki, Maria Dalamaga. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Although the mechanical factors appear to be critical, recent studies have suggested a role for adipokines in cartilage degradation. Chondrocytes from osteoarthritic cartilage respond poorly to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and the molecular mechanism(s) involved is not clearly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT/visfatin), a newly described adipokine, in regulating IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes isolated from normal ankle cartilage were pretreated with eNAMPT (0.1 to 5.0 μg/ml) overnight followed by stimulation with IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) for 24 hours, and proteoglycan synthesis was measured by [35S]sulfate incorporation. Chondrocytes were pretreated with eNAMPT overnight followed by IGF-1 for 10 minutes, and the cell lysates were immunoblotted for various signaling proteins that are
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthesis. Both intracellular and extracellular Nampt (iNampt and eNampt) levels are increased in several human malignancies and some studies demonstrate increased iNampt in mor …
DNA-based vaccines offer significant therapeutic potential but safe, efficacious delivery systems are still needed to enable clinical applications. Well-defined nonviral vectors, including those produced via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, represent one approach for overcoming barriers to DNA delivery. Block copolymer micelles are an example of a complex architecture achievable by the RAFT process, adopting a core-shell morphology under physiological conditions. These polymeric nanoparticles consist of discrete segments capable of specific physicochemical and biological activities determined by their chemical composition. This thesis describes synthetic approaches focused on engineering the intra- and extracellular activity of this class of nanomaterials, with the goal of developing an in vivo DNA delivery platform. Chapter 1 focuses on how polymerization and carbohydrate chemistry techniques can be utilized to develop DNA-based cancer vaccines. Chapter 2 ...
A novel carboxyl-trithiocarbonate functionalized polymer with a highly selective antitumor activity was synthesized by a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of maleic anhydride (MA) with benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and S-1-dodecyl-S-(α,α-dimethyl-α-acetic ac …
2-Propenamide, n-(hydroxymethyl)- testing. Laboratory testing for CAS number 924-42-5. Acrylamide, N-(hydroxymethyl)-;Monomethylolacrylamide;N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide;N-Methanolacrylamide;N-Methylolacrylamide;Uramine T 80;Yuramin T 80;Methylolacrylamide;N-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-propenamide;NCI-C60333;N-Methyloacrylamide;NM-AMD.
N-methylolacrylamide: bifunctional monomer possessing both vinyl & hydroxymethyl groups; used in adhesives, binders, surface coatings & resins; toxicity equals that of acrylamide
Stimulus-responsive drug-loaded poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) nanogels were examined as a means of enhancing the delivery of naproxen into skin ex vivo. Following massaging into skin, the epidermis was probed (with and without base activation) for depth penetration and transdermal delivery of drug, and anti-inflammatory activity in the relative levels of COX-2 expression. Rat paw oedema testing was used to determine anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. When activated by sodium carbonate, particle size reduced by 19%. Tape stripping revealed significantly greater delivery of naproxen into the epidermis for the activated nanogel and the steady state flux was enhanced 2.8-fold. With base-activation COX-2 was 50% lower than non-activated, and this trend was confirmed by immunostaining, and by the reduction of rat paw swelling which provided ex vivo - in vivo corroboration. A mechanism of action is proposed. In conclusion, stimulus-responsive nanogels have potential for enhancing dermal drug delivery ...
Polymerization reactions may be carried out in a solvent at a temperature which is above its lower critical solution temperature thereby resulting in a two-phase system comprising a solvent phase containing dissolved therein monomers and low molecular weight fractions of polymer and dispersed fluid phase comprising a solution of solvent in the higher molecular weight fraction of polymer being formed. This process technique is particularly advantageous in the preparation of low molecular weight isoolefin conjugated diolefin copolymers. In particular, propane has been found to be an ideal solvent for the isoolefin conjugated diolefin polymerization processes. The use of this type of polymerization process results in a low viscosity system having excellent heat transfer and low fouling characteristics.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Depletion interactions in the protein limit. T2 - Effects of polymer density fluctuations. AU - Kulkarni, Amit M.. AU - Chatterjee, Avik P.. AU - Schweizer, Kenneth S.. AU - Zukoski, Charles F.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - We report the first observations of nonmonotonic changes in the second virial coefficients of protein solutions, B2, as the concentration of nonadsorbing polymer is increased. The observed minimum in B2 cannot be predicted from standard depletion interaction energy models and is closely associated with proximity to the lower critical solution temperature of the polymer solution. The location, depth, and molecular weight dependence of the minima are captured by the thermal polymer reference interaction site model for depletion interactions, where the polymer mesh size is a function of temperature.. AB - We report the first observations of nonmonotonic changes in the second virial ...
13. A method for preparing a cell culture substrate comprising: a composite (X) having a three-dimensional network formed of a polymer (A) of a monomer comprising a monomer (a) represented by Formula (1) below and at least one inorganic material (C) selected from a water-swellable clay mineral and silica: ##STR00008## wherein R1 is a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, R2 is a C2-C3 alkylene group, R3 is a C1-C2 alkyl group and n is an integer of 1 to 9; and a polymer (B) having a lower critical solution temperature: the method comprising: a first step of mixing the monomer (a), the inorganic material (C) and a polymerization initiator (D) in an aqueous medium (W) such that the concentration of the inorganic material (C) in the aqueous medium (W) is within the range represented by the following Formula (2) or (3), and polymerizing the monomer (a) to provide a dispersion (L) of the composite (X) comprising the polymer (A) and the inorganic material (C); a second step of applying the dispersion (L) ...
Read Concentration effect of N-isopropylacrylamide on viscoelastic properties of hydrosoluble thermo-thickening copolymers, Polymer Bulletin on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Double hydrophilic block copolymers (DHBC) self-assemble to various structures in aqueous solutions due to a strong difference in hydrophilicity. This is in contrast to amphiphilic block copolymers that self-assemble due to the insolubility of the hydrophobic block in water. In their recent contribution, Schmidt and co-workers were able to extend the principle of double hydrophilic self-assembly to novel polysaccharide-polyacrylamide block copolymers namely pullulan-b-poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (Pull-b-PDMA) and pullulan-b-poly(N-ethylacrylamide) (Pull-b-PEA). The bio-derived pullulan block was obtained via acid catalyzed depolymerisation, while the polyacrylamide homopolymer blocks were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Subsequently the blocks were conjugated via copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The presence of formed vesicular structures was investigated via cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo SEM), static light ...
Materials with the ability of dimensional changes on demand exhibit many potential applications ranging from adaptive composites that mimic biological functions under extreme conditions to microfluidics or neural implants to stimulate components of the nervous systems. These studies show the synthesis of temperature-induced reversibly expandable nanotubes that were prepared by polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) in the presence of biologically active 1,2-bis(tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC8,9PC) diacetylenic phospholipids (PL). As a result, thermally responsive poly-NIPAM-phospholipid nanotubes (PNNTs) were prepared. Polymerization reactions occur within hydrophilic regions of PL bilayers, whereas PL hydrophobic zones facilitate transport and supply of the monomer for polymerization. The unique feature of PNNTs is that, above 37 °C, the outer diameter (OD) as well as the wall thickness (WT) shrink by 20 and 55%, respectively, whereas the inner diameter (ID) increases
Carter, Julie Hawkins, The effect of external Foley catheter solution temperature on intracranial pressure in the head injured patient (1979). Scholar Archive. 2338 ...
In light of these observations, we propose the following scenario to explain the synthetic lethality between PARP and NAMPT inhibition: (i) drugs such as olaparib cause cell inhibition by causing persistent DNA lesions and/or impairing DNA repair; (ii) as olaparib is a reversible catalytic inhibitor that competes with β-NAD+ for binding to the catalytic domain of PARP1/2, cellular levels of β-NAD+ could, in principle modulate the cell inhibitory effects of olaparib; and (iii) as the major source of β-NAD+ for PARsylation reactions is via nicotinamide salvage and the activity of NAMPT, non-competitive inhibition of NAMPT (e.g. by the use of an RNAi reagent or a non-reversible catalytic inhibitor such as FK866) could limit β-NAD+ levels, reduce the extent of β-NAD+/PARP inhibitor competition for the PARP catalytic domain and thus exacerbate the deleterious effects of PARP inhibitors on cells.. To directly assess whether such deleterious effects were in fact exacerbated by FK866, we estimated ...
This drug pipelines features 9 companies, including Tianjin Hemay Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Eli Lilly and Co, AbbVie Inc, Calico LLC, Genentech USA Inc, Aqualung Therapeutics Corp
Acrylamide is a chemical compound found in carbohydrate rich foods [1]. There has been an increased interest in acrylamide as it has been shown to be a carcinogenic and neurotoxic substance [1]. Neurotoxins are toxins that target the nervous system and disrupt the signalling that allows neurons to communicate effectively [2]. An EFSA report on the exposure of acrylamide in European member states shows that main contributors of acrylamide, across Europe, are French fries, potato crisps and coffee [3].. Factors to consider when examining the formation of acrylamide are the ingredients used in the recipe of the product and how the product is produced [4].Temperature has a major effect on the formation of acrylamide in foods; it has been shown that there are high levels of acrylamide in food that are cooked at temperatures above 120°C [4].. In 2005 a set of voluntary guidelines (it was later updated in 2009), called the CIAA toolbox was developed to help producers and processors identify ways ...
The present invention relates to a process for the formation of water soluble copolymers of acrylamide and alkyl poly(etheroxy)acrylate which are excellent viscosification agents, wherein the process includes the free radical copolymerization of acrylamide monomer and alkyl poly(etheroxy)acrylate monomer in an aqueous medium under nitrogen conditions in the presence of free radical initiator at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to effect copolymerization.
Responsive polymer systems that react to thermal and light stimuli have been a focus in the biomaterials literature because they have the potential to be less i...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Natural History: The Palythoa are a colonial genus that cover large tracts of reef. They incoroporate sediments from the substrate and ocean around them and may accumulate almost half of their body weight in collected materials in their mesoglea. The polyps are round flat discs with short tentacles around the rim. The polyps can actually produce aragonite crystals, but only in small amounts. They are most common on the shoreward side of reef crests. Common colors include cream, yellow, and brown. The Palythoa can dominate a reef by growing over their competitors ...
A series of copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and the more hydrophobic comonomer N-tert-butylacrylamide (NTBAM), with increasing NTBAM content (i.e. increasing hydrophobicity) were prepared. The adhesion of human endothelial cells on polymer films prepared from copolymers of NIPAM:NTBAM was observed to increase with increasing polymer hydrophobicity. However, in the absence of serum, cell adhesion to the different surfaces was statistically indistinguishable. Thus, it appears that the copolymer films differentially support cell adhesion due to selective adsorption of proteins from the physiological environment (the serum). Using contact angle measurements, molecular simulations and Raman spectroscopy to characterize the different surfaces, we show evidence that the different behavior of the films of increasing hydrophobicity is actually due to the different chemical properties of the surfaces with increasing content of NTBAM in the copolymers. As the NTBAM content is increased, the ...
Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR) is a neurotoxic material to animals and humans.Aim: To elucidate the possible structural changes that may occur in cerebellum of male albino rat offspring after oral administration of acrylamide to their pregnant and lactating mothers.Material and Methods: After mating, 54 pregnant female rats were divided equally into three groups. Group A: did not receive any treatment and group B: received 10mgkgday of acrylamide orally from day 7 (D7) of gestation until birth. While, group C received the same dose and route of acrylamide from D7 of gestation until postnatal day (PD) 21. The male pups of each group were divided into subgroups according to the PD of sacrifice; PD7, PD14, and PD21 respectively. Cerebellum specimens were processed for light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, morphometeric and statistical studies.Results: With acrylamide treatment, the general observation revealed signals of neurological abnormalities. There were histopathological degenerative changes in the
first mention what is polyacrylamid gel, where are used (e.g used genetic lab, hydraulic fracturing as friction agent, agriculture,etc,,), then describe how industry think it is safe and not consider a hazard, then describe the factors in environment that can lead to the degradation of polyaccrylamide gel from any kind of industry after that you will mention the health concern when this polyacrylamide gel in different industry can degraded to a toxic form which is acrylamide monomer, then describe the toxicity of the monomer, add many as you can find about accidental leaking or release of the polymer or it is monomer to environment and cause adverse effect to human and animals (e.g: the grout used in tunnel building cause sever illness to the labor because it has poly acrylamid gell in Sweden), find accident happened in hydraulic fracturing area all these introduction , now you will start the hypothetic question that How can we discriminate and track the origin of contamination , is the ...
In article ,1997Jan22.123448.9875 at,, jford at says... , ,If you can the amounts of APS and TEMED, you will change the kinetics of ,gelation (great, thats what you want). Agreed. You can also control kinetics by changing the temperature. , You will also change the porosity of ,the gel - the relative amount of cross-linking. Is this really true? I was under the impression that the porosity was governed by the % acrylamide and by the ratio of acrylamide/bis (or other cross-linker). The concentration of TEMED and/or persulphate shouldnt have any effect unless they become limiting - so that the gel fails to polymerise completely no matter how long it is left. Since they only catalyse the polymerisation of the acrylamide monomer they play no real role in the eventual structure of the gel. Can someone correct or confirm my assumption? Bernard Bernard Murray, Ph.D. bernard at (National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda MD, USA ...
Chemical substances within specific nanoliter droplets of glycerol were microarrayed onto cup slides at 400 areas/cm2. centers and full compartmentalization of every reaction middle. (and = 244). Thrombin (10 products/ml) was shipped at 400 nl/s for 4s, accompanied by delivery from the fluorogenic substrate, boc-VPR-MCA (10 mM) at 400 nl/s for 4 s. ( 0.001) in the water test before aerosol deposition. We microarrayed a commercially obtainable exploratory collection of 352 different compounds provided in 2-l examples at 15 nmol/l (15 mM in DMSO). In eating 1 nanomole of every substance, we ready 100 replicate slides with each substance arrayed at 1 mM in glycerol in quadruplicate along with 32 blanks to serve as positive handles for uninhibited response. A microarray was sprayed sequentially with individual caspase 6 and its substrate VEID-MCA. The ultimate concentrations in the glycerol testing reactions had been 0.227 products/l caspase and 11.36 M peptide substrate, predicated CEP-18770 on the ...
Aim: The hypoxic condition within large or infiltrative hypovascular tumors produces intracellular acidification, that could activate many signaling pathways and augment cancer cell growth and invasion. (CAI#1), and/or the hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP). A medical center pathological analysis of 69 individuals who underwent an HCC resection was performed using a cells array. Results: Incubation of HCC cells under hypoxia (1% O2, 5% CO2, 94% N2) for 36 h significantly improved CA-IX manifestation level. CAI#1 (400 mol/L) buy 857066-90-1 or CA-IX siRNA (100 mol/L) did not influence HCC cell growth and induce apoptosis. However, CAI#1 or CA-IX siRNA at these concentrations enhanced the apoptosis induced by 3-BP (100 mol/L). This enhancement was attributed to improved ER stress and JNK activation, as compared with 3-BP only. Furthermore, a medical center pathological analysis of 69 HCC individuals exposed that tumor CA-IX intensity was inversely related to E-cadherin intensity. ...
Published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Volume 52, Issue 26, 2013, pages 6638-6642. © Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2013, Wiley-VCH Verlag. Li, T., Zan, X., Winans, R. E., Wang, Q., & Lee, B. (2013). Biomolecular assembly of thermoresponsive superlattices of the tobacco mosaic virus with large tunable interparticle distances. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 52(26), 6638-6642.. ...
The zwitterionic organopolymerization of four different acrylic monomers (N,N-dimethylacrylamide, methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and tert-butyl methacrylate) based on neutral initiators, so-called N-heterocyclic olefins (NHOs), is presented. Scope and underlying (deactivation-)mechanisms where studied in a combined experimental and computational effort. From a range of differently structured NHOs it emerged that imidazole-, in contrast to imidazoline- and benzimidazole-derivatives, readily polymerize the selected monomers. While the additive-free reactions proceed with a relatively low degree of control to yield largely atactic material, for the acrylamide the addition of LiCl as µ-type ligand has been shown to result in a rapid and quantitative monomer consumption. The thus generated poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide) was found to be highly isotactic (,90% isotactic dyads) with high molecular weight (Mn = 250 000 - 650 000 g/mol, ÐM = 1.3- 1.6). Complementing DFT calculations considered the ...
This presentation will summarize our clinical and pathological studies of the nervous system degeneration (distal dying-back axonopathy) in man and experimental animals produced by acrylamide monomer and certain hydrocarbon compounds (hexacarbons). Distal axonopathy is a term recently introduced to describe those diseases which are expressed as symmetrical, distal, axonal degeneration occurring
Exposure to acrylamide -- present in industrial by-products, cigarette smoke, and a variety of fried or baked foods -- can reduce serum levels of insulin, Taiwanese researchers report. As for the mechanism involved, the authors speculate that acrylamide may have a toxic effect on islet cells. Dr. Pau-Chung Chen
Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of solute concentration (30-70°B), solution temperature (40-60°C) and process time (15-300 min) on water loss, solid gain and water loss to solid gain ratio during osmotic dehydration of green chili. The face centered central composite design (FCCD) with three factors at three different levels was used for optimizing the process variables. The models developed for all responses were found significant at 95% confidence level. It was found that all variables at linear level have significant effect on water loss (WL), solid gain (SG) and WL/SG ratio. The optimized conditions were solute concentration of 30°B, solution temperature of 40°C and time of 299.93 min in order to obtain WL of 18.66%, SG of 5.78% and WL/SG ratio of 2.73.
BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, Cellular Stress, Cell Damage and Repair, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Stem Cell Biology, Gene Regulation, Signal Transduction, etc. BioVisions products are currently being sold in more than 60 countries worldwide.
Synnonyms of ACRYLAMIDE, Antonyms of ACRYLAMIDE, Defintion of ACRYLAMIDE, Sentence with ACRYLAMIDE, Alternative of ACRYLAMIDE and Opposite of ACRYLAMIDE
Current WSU research shows stimuli-responsive nanoparticles can specifically target infections to simultaneously prevent the spread of bacteria and reduce the inflammation it causes.
Acrylamide[edit]. Shaddack, I would be very grateful if you could please give an intelligent, rational and mature justification ... Please put your rely on the Talk:Acrylamide Talk page. Thanks very much. Droid. ...
High acrylamide levels can also be found in other heated carbohydrate-rich foods. The darker the surface colour of the toast, ... 2002). "Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs". J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (17): 4998-5006. doi:10.1021 ... "Acrylamide". Food Standards Agency. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. " ... "Acrylamide and Cancer Risk". Retrieved 5 October 2019. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Toast" . Encyclopædia ...
"Acrylamide". Villeneuve PJ, Mao Y (1994). "Lifetime probability of developing lung cancer, by smoking status, Canada". Canadian ... Reports from the Food Standards Agency have found that the known animal carcinogen acrylamide is generated in fried or ...
"Acrylamide". "Atty. Gen. Brown Settles Potato Chip Lawsuit With Heinz, Frito-Lay & Kettle Foods". Press Release. State ... For Frito Lay, this is about a 20% reduction, while for Kettle Chips, which contain far more acrylamide, this is an 87% ... Another possible health concern related to potato chips is acrylamide, which is produced when potatoes are fried or baked at ... These companies paid fines and agreed to reduce acrylamide levels to be under 275 parts per billion. Many potato chip ...
"Acrylamide". American Cancer Society. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2014. "Food Controversies-Acrylamide". Cancer ... According to the American Cancer Society, it is not clear as of 2019[update] whether acrylamide consumption affects the risk of ... acrylamide produced by frying, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. While a healthy ...
Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 mg/l (or equivalent); Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 mg/l (or equivalent).[11] ...
For example, acrylamide. During the degradation of α-hydroxy-substituted carbonic acid amides, the carbon chain shortens about ...
"Food Controversies-Acrylamide". Cancer Research UK. 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2017. Corpet DE, Yin Y, Zhang XM, et al. (1995 ... until a toasted crust is formed generates significant concentrations of acrylamide, a known carcinogen from animal studies; its ...
See text: acrylamides, esp introduction; acrylamide was accidentally discovered in foods in April 2002 by scientists in Sweden ... 2002). "Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs". J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (17): 4998-5006. doi:10.1021 ... The discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in 2002 has led to international health concerns. They are believed to be ... which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep- ...
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Some research shows shallow frying and deep frying highly increased the acrylamide content in foods like potatoes and grains to ... Roasting the same potatoes kept acrylamide production comparatively low in spite of being cooked at a higher temperature ... Murniece, Irisa; Karklina, Daina; Galoburda, Ruta (24 March 2013). "The Content of Acrylamide in Deep-fat Fried, Shallow Fried ... It is controversial whether dietary acrylamide poses a substantial danger but since the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization ...
"Acrylamide and Cancer Risk". American Cancer Society. 11 February 2019. Leotério, Dilmo M.S.; Silva, Paulo; Souza, Gustavo; ... One example of a toxic product of the Mailard reaction is acrylamide, a neurotoxin and possible carcinogen that is formed from ... Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, María Salomé; Granby, Kit (August 2013). "Current issues in dietary acrylamide: formation, ... But evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that dietary acrylamide is unlikely to raise the risk of people developing ...
Acrylamide is carcinogenic, a neurotoxin, and a reproductive toxin. It is also essential to store acrylamide in a cool dark and ... Acrylamide monomer is in a powder state before addition of water. Acrylamide is toxic to the human nervous system, therefore ... Acrylamide (C 3H 5NO; mW: 71.08) when dissolved in water, slow, spontaneous autopolymerization of acrylamide takes place, ... which can form cross-links between two acrylamide molecules. The ratio of bisacrylamide to acrylamide can be varied for special ...
The majority of acrylamide is used to manufacture various polymers. In the 1970s and 1980s, the proportionately largest use of ... Acrylamide has many other uses in molecular biology laboratories, including the use of linear polyacrylamide (LPA) as a carrier ... Apr 23, 2008). "Acrylamide Release Resulting from Sunlight Irradiation of Aqueous Polyacrylamide/Iron Mixtures". Journal of ... Even though these products are often called 'polyacrylamide', many are actually copolymers of acrylamide and one or more other ...
There are many studies that combine acrylamide and glycidamide, but the focus is still mainly on acrylamide. Glycidamide is a ... Glycidamide is formed from acrylamide. Acrylamide is an industrial chemical which is used in several ways, such as production ... "Acrylamide" in IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogen risk to humans, International Agency for Research on Cancer, ... Most of the studies focus on the effects of acrylamide, whereas less studies focus specifically on the effects of glycidamide. ...
... acrylamides, and acrylonitrile. ATRP is successful at leading to polymers of high number average molecular weight and low ...
... s include polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), acrylates, acrylamides, and copolymers. They are commonly found as ...
... is a category of polymers whose monomers are acrylamides. Some important examples are: Polyacrylamide, the ...
During polymerization, the acrylamide portion of the buffers co polymerize with the acrylamide and bisacrylamide monomers to ... Immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels are the acrylamide gel matrix co-polymerized with the pH gradient, which result in ... Immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are made by mixing two kinds of acrylamide mixture, one with Immobiline having acidic buffering ... Both solutions contain acrylamide monomers and catalysts. ...
Acrylamide. Retrieved on 2016-07-24. Virk-Baker, Mandeep K.; Nagy, Tim R.; Barnes, Stephen; Groopman, John (29 May ... Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, can be generated as a byproduct of Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino ... At high temperatures, a probable carcinogen called acrylamide can form. This can be discouraged by heating at a lower ... Mottram, Donald S.; Wedzicha, Bronislaw L.; Dodson, Andrew T. (October 2002). "Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction". ...
"Poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution 409081". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 2017-03-01. "CAS No.26590-05-6 ... It is the copolymer of acrylamide and the quaternary ammonium salt diallyldimethylammonium chloride. Its molecular formula is ... Dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride acrylamide copolymer, Cationic surfactant Manufacturers". Retrieved 2017-03-01. ...
Acrylamide is carcinogenic,[23] a neurotoxin, and a reproductive toxin.[24] It is also essential to store acrylamide in a cool ... Preparing acrylamide gels[edit]. The gels typically consist of acrylamide, bisacrylamide, the optional denaturant (SDS or urea ... Hydration of acrylonitrile results in formation of acrylamide molecules (C3H5NO) by nitrile hydratase.[2] Acrylamide monomer is ... Acrylamide (C3H5NO; mW: 71.08) when dissolved in water, slow, spontaneous autopolymerization of acrylamide takes place, joining ...
Acrylamide intoxication has been shown to be an agent for the induction of chromatolysis. In one study groups of rats were ... Acrylamide intoxication resembles neural axotomy histologically and mechanically. In each case the neuron undergoes ... Tandrup, T. (2002). "Chromatolysis of A- cells of dorsal root ganglia is a primary structural event in acute acrylamide ... injected with acrylamide for 3, 6, and 12 days and the A- and B-cell perikarya of their L5 dorsal root ganglion were examined. ...
Acrylamide is formed from asparagine and reducing sugars in potatoes, so choosing potato varieties with lower levels of these ... A threat from consuming fried potatoes is consuming a potential carcinogen, acrylamide which is produced when starchy foods are ... Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied (3 February 2020). "Acrylamide and Diet, Food Storage, and Food Preparation". FDA ... Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Mestdagh, Frédéric; De Meulenaer, Bruno (August 2012). "Acrylamide formation in fried potato products ...
Dibaba, Kumela; Tilahun, Lelise; Satheesh, Neela; Geremu, Melkayo (1 April 2018). "Acrylamide occurrence in Keribo: Ethiopian ...
"FDA: Survey Data on Acrylamide in Food: Individual Food Products". Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Heller, ... which requires labeling for food containing acrylamide, a potential carcinogen created when starch is baked, roasted, fried or ... Lorraine (July 31, 2006). "Cereal maker sued for acrylamide under Californian law". Food Navigator USA. Archived from the ... ". "Nutrition Facts" required by California's Proposition 65: Acrylamide - 1057 (ppb) "Nutrition facts" as they appear on a ...
One of the fluids contains acrylamide and methylolacrylamide. The mixed solution becomes a viscous fluid that penetrates cracks ... contaminating it with acrylamide, a known carcinogen and mutagen. Furthermore, the contamination of the area led to a ban on ...
Specifically, it has a protective effect against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity. NRCS: USDA Plants Profile: Acorus americanus ... "Protective effect of acorus calamus against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity". Phytother Res. 16 (3): 256-60. doi:10.1002/ptr. ...
"Survey Data on Acrylamide in Food: Individual Food Products". Table 3: Acrylamide values in food product samples (data ... Per an FDA survey, brewed instant coffee has acrylamide levels of 3-7 ppb which is less than brewed regular coffee, i.e. 6-13 ... Andrzejewski D, Roach JA, Gay ML, Musser SM (2004). "Analysis of coffee for the presence of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS". Journal of ...
Tareke E, Rydberg P, Karlsson P, Eriksson S, Törnqvist M (August 2002). "Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated ... biscuits and potatoes can generate acrylamide, a chemical shown to cause cancer in animal studies. Excessive alcohol ...
Acrylamide (ICSC) Acrylamide (WHO Food Additives Series 55) ACRYLAMIDE (JECFA Evaluation) Acrylamide (PIM 652) Acrylamide (IARC ... 49: Acrylamide, Geneva, World Health Organization. See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Acrylamide (EHC 49, 1985) ... Milled solid acrylamide could possibly form an explosive dust cloud. 4.4.2 Fire hazards Acrylamide is combustible in the solid ... a) Solid acrylamide. Shovel spilled material into sealable containers. (b) Acrylamide solution. Minimize spread, dilute with an ...
... is a chemical widely used during the manufacturing of paper, dye, and other industrial products. It can also be ... Acrylamide is also found in cigarette smoke.. How do people get exposed to acrylamide?. Food and cigarette smoke are the major ... Where can I find out more about acrylamide?. *NTP acrylamide and glycidamide data and reports ... Why did the National Toxicology Program (NTP) study acrylamide?. The nomination to study acrylamide came from the FDA. The FDA ...
Workers may be harmed from exposure to acrylamide. The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. ... Acrylamide (CH2=CHCONH2) is a white, crystalline solid. It can be harmful to the eyes, skin, and nervous and reproductive ... EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants: Acrylamideexternal icon. *EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS): Acrylamideexternal icon ... OSHA Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acrylamideexternal icon. *New Jersey Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet: Acrylamideexternal ...
... is a N-acylammonia (CHEBI:83628) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) is a acrylamides (CHEBI:22216) ... acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has functional parent acrylic acid (CHEBI:18308) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role alkylating agent ( ... acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role Maillard reaction product (CHEBI:77523) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role mutagen (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:28619 - acrylamide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ...
How likely is acrylamide to cause cancer?. Acrylamide has caused several types of cancer in animals. Adequate human data are ... What is acrylamide?. Acrylamide is a colorless, odorless, crystalline solid that can react violently when melted. When it is ... How can acrylamide affect my health?. The main targets of acrylamide toxicity are the nervous system and reproductive system. ... How can acrylamide affect children?. Acrylamide is expected to affect children in the same manner as adults. ...
Acrylamide. CAS No: 79-06-1. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references include ... Acrylamide. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Acrylamide (en-ca); Akrylamid (cs); Acrilammide (it); Acrylamide (fr); อะคริลาไมด์ (th); Acrylamide (vi); アクリルアミド (ja); ... acrylamide (nl); Akrilamid (sh); Akrilamid (uz); akrylamid (pl); Акриламід (uk); acrylamide (en); أكريلاميد (ar); acrilamida ( ... Media in category "Acrylamide". The following 37 files are in this category, out of 37 total. ... Acrilamida (es); Akrilamid (hu); Акриламид (ru); Acrylamid (de); acrylamide (en-gb); آکریل آمید (fa); 丙烯酰胺 (zh); akrylamid (da ...
Acrylamide is produced as a result of industrial processes and is generated in certain foods as a result of cooking at high ... Acrylamide, a white, odourless, crystalline substance belonging to the family of organic compounds; its molecular formula is ... Acrylamide toxicity and food safety. In the 1950s and 60s, acrylamide was identified as a potential source of occupational ... Manufacture and applications of acrylamide. On an industrial scale, acrylamide historically was manufactured mainly through the ...
Learn what we know about acrylamide and cancer risk here. ... Acrylamide forms in some starchy foods during high-temperature ... Acrylamide and Cancer Risk. What is acrylamide? Acrylamide is a chemical used in industries such as the paper and pulp, ... Are acrylamide levels regulated? In the United States, the FDA regulates the amount of residual acrylamide in a variety of ... The EPA regulates acrylamide in drinking water. The EPA has set an acceptable level of acrylamide exposure, which is low enough ...
Toxicological profile for Acrylamide. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ... Toxicological Profile for Acrylamide. CAS#: 79-06-1. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile ...
Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and existing data and research on acrylamide ... Health implications of acrylamide in food. Report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation. ... The FAO/WHO Consultation on Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and ...
Acrylamide in Foods. May 3, 2009. by Sofia Layarda Leave a Comment ... Topic: Health Related: acrylamides, cancer diet, deep fried, healthy dine-out, prostate ... First detected in some foods in 2002, acrylamide is a substance formed in high-carbohydrate, low-protein foods that have been ...
The only thing I can think of that might : ,, ,be causing a problem is the acrylamide. I read that acrylamide can last up : ... why is acrylamide quality only important for non-SDS applications? : : Because it is clearly not important for SDS-PAGE :-) : : ... Acrylamide. dbell dbell at Thu Jan 17 13:23:06 EST 2002 *Previous message: NC od PVDF? ... Could be many things but dont blame it on acrylamide. Here we use : ,, some terrible junk given in large quantity for free ...
Acrylamide is a chemical created when some foods, particularly starchy foods like potatoes and bread, are cooked for long ... FSAs work on acrylamide. The FSA has been working to understand more about acrylamide, reduce the risk that it presents and ... What is acrylamide. Acrylamide is a chemical substance formed by a reaction between amino acids and sugars. It typically occurs ... Foods high in acrylamide. Acrylamide is found in wide range of foods including roasted potatoes and root vegetables, chips, ...
Acrylamide is classified as a "probable" human carcinogen but only based on earlier animal studies in which the animals were ... "The data are accumulating, and it appears that acrylamide in the diet does not appear to be an important breast cancer risk ... The result: The incidence of breast cancer among women with a high acrylamide intake was about the same as women with low ... "The food industry has been spending a lot of time and research on how to avoid acrylamide formation in food, and toxicologists ...
... of 100,000 nurses suggests that their risk of developing breast cancer was the same regardless of the amount of acrylamide in ... Acrylamide cleared of causing breast cancer. Health 22 August 2007 It was responsible for one of the biggest food scares in ... Now acrylamide, which is found in coffee, French fries and many other foods, has been cleared of causing breast cancer. ... The alarm was raised in 2002 when researchers discovered that acrylamide, which had been shown to cause cancers in animals, can ...
Acrylamide is easily absorbed by the skin and distributed throughout the organism; the highest levels of acrylamide post- ... "Scientific Opinion on acrylamide in food". EFSA Journal. 13 (6): 4104. June 4, 2015. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4104. "Acrylamide ... Cigarette smoking is a major acrylamide source. It has been shown in one study to cause an increase in blood acrylamide levels ... On the other hand, acrylamide and glycidamide can be detoxified via conjugation with glutathione to form acrylamide- and ...
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Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during high-temperature cooking, including frying, ... 1. What is acrylamide?. Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during everyday high-temperature ... Food Contaminants: Acrylamide - European Commission. *Commission Recommendation of 3 May 2007 on the monitoring of acrylamide ... 5. What happens to acrylamide in the body?. Acrylamide consumed orally is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, distributed ...
... Eric Kofoid kofoid at BIOLOGY.UTAH.EDU Mon Jun 24 11:35:11 EST 1996 *Previous message: [Q] ... like to cut my acrylamide gel in thin slices of about 2mm, because in this -way I can identify the molecular weights of ...
acrylamide synonyms, acrylamide pronunciation, acrylamide translation, English dictionary definition of acrylamide. n. A ... Environmental Protection Agency all say that acrylamide is likely to be a human carcinogen.. Acrylamide: avoiding a likely ... Acrylamide - definition of acrylamide by The Free Dictionary ... acrylamide. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. a·cryl·a·mide. (ə-krĭl′ə-mīd′). n.. A readily ...
... acrylamide containing, polymeric material are disclosed. They are prepared using inverse microemulsion polymerization ... acrylamide monomer comprises acrylamide; methacrylamide; an N-alkyl acrylamide, an N-alkyl methacrylamide or mixtures thereof. ... acrylamide monomer comprises acrylamide; methacrylamide; an N-alkyl acrylamide, an N-alkyl methacrylamide or mixtures thereof. ... acrylamide monomers as acrylamide; per se, methacrylamide; N-alkylacrylamides such as N-methyl acrylamide; N-butylacrylamide ...
... as well as other areas of science relevant for acrylamide, the expert panel will determine if exposure to acrylamide is a ... Acrylamide is known to be a health hazard. It has been shown to induce neurotoxicity in highly exposed occupational groups. In ... Acrylamide was selected for evaluation because of the recent discovery that many people are exposed to small amounts of ... Acrylamide is also used in the production of polyacrylamide -- used in water treatment, pulp and paper production, mineral ...
This includes assessing exposure levels, conducting toxicology research, and finding ways to mitigate acrylamide levels in food ... The FDA is currently conducting research studies to determine whether acrylamide in food is a potential risk to human health. ... acrylamide levels in food are much lower. The FDA intends to issue draft guidance for industry concerning acrylamide in food. ... While some studies have shown that acrylamide in very high doses caused cancer in animals and nerve damage in people exposed to ...
... By Jess Halliday 07-Jun-2010. - Last updated on 08-Jun-2010 at 11: ... Related tags: Acrylamide levels, European union The European Commission has published precise recommendations for the ... Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and genotoxic substance that forms during high temperature cooking by a heat-induced reaction ... Since it first became apparent in 2002 that there are high levels of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, the CIAA ( ...
Antioxidant Capacity of Potato Chips and Snapshot Trends in Acrylamide Content in Potato Chips and Cereals ... Antioxidant Capacity and Acrylamides August 11/Ottawa, Ontario/Chemical & Chemistry -- A report, ... Home » Potato Chips: Antioxidant Capacity and Acrylamides. Breaking News Potato Chips: Antioxidant Capacity and Acrylamides. ... According to recent research from Ottawa, Canada, "The concentration of acrylamide was measured in selected varieties of five ...
Acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity are potential human health risks ... Reports that heat processing of foods induces the formation of acrylamide heightened interest in the chemistry, biochemistry, ... Controlling Acrylamide in French Fry and Potato Chip Models and a Mathematical Model of Acrylamide Formation ... Acrylamide in Japanese Processed Foods and Factors Affecting Acrylamide Level in Potato Chips and Tea ...
Thus, it is a public health concern to evaluate whether intake of acrylamide at levels found in the food supply is an important ... Acrylamide intake through diet and human cancer risk.. Mucci LA1, Wilson KM. ... More than one-third of the calories consumed by U.S. and European populations contain acrylamide, a substance classified as a " ... Mean dietary intake of acrylamide in adults averages 0.5 microg/kg of body weight per day, whereas intake is higher among ...
Peer Reviewers Comments: Acrylamide Summary Reportpdf icon [PDF - 54 KB]. CDC/ATSDRs Response to Reviewers Comments: ... Title: Toxicological Profile for Acrylamide. Subject of planned Report: The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly ...
  • Because acrylamide is neurotoxic and is listed as a probable carcinogen ( cancer -causing agent) in humans, its presence in many processed foods has been a source of public health concern. (
  • In 1994, based on information from rodent studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) listed acrylamide as a probable carcinogen in humans. (
  • Acrylamide is considered a potential occupational carcinogen by U.S. government agencies and classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the IARC. (
  • The American Cancer Society says that laboratory studies have shown that acrylamide is likely to be a carcinogen, but that as of 2019[update] evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that dietary acrylamide is unlikely to raise the risk of people developing cancer. (
  • Subsequent assessment by organisations including the World Health Organisation, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and UK scientific advisory committees also suggests that acrylamide is a human carcinogen which has the potential to cause cancer by interacting with the genetic material (DNA) in cells. (
  • Acrylamide is classified as a "probable" human carcinogen but only based on earlier animal studies in which the animals were exposed to levels of acrylamide up to 100,000 times higher than that normally consumed through foods. (
  • Environmental Protection Agency all say that acrylamide is likely to be a human carcinogen. (
  • More than one-third of the calories consumed by U.S. and European populations contain acrylamide, a substance classified as a "probable human carcinogen" based on laboratory data. (
  • Acrylamide is a known carcinogen found in a variety of industrial and homemade foods, such as bread, coffee and fried potatoes. (
  • Acrylamide has been classified as " probable carcinogen to humans " by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). (
  • Explain to interested patients that animal studies raised fears that acrylamide, a compound that arises in some cooked foods, might be a carcinogen. (
  • TORONTO, April 28 -- Acrylamide, the suspected carcinogen found in potato chips and french fries, is not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, Dutch researchers found. (
  • Acrylamide is found in commonly consumed carbohydrate-rich heated foods, such as french fries and potato chips, and is classified as a probable human carcinogen based on results from animal studies. (
  • Acrylamide was confirmed as a carcinogen by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2015 and is present in fries, crisps, bread, biscuits or coffee. (
  • Acrylamide (AA) is a human neurotoxin and is currently classified by IARC as a Group 2A probable carcinogen. (
  • FAO's comments came in the wake of an NFA announcement this week that a scientific group at the University of Stockholm found that acrylamide 'probable human carcinogen' is formed during heating of starch-rich foods to high temperatures. (
  • Acrylamide is an industrial carcinogen which, in recent years, has unfortunately been recognized as a substantial constituent of many foods we eat. (
  • The highest levels of the carcinogen were found in french fries and potato chips, but high levels of acrylamide have also been found in cereals, breads, and coffee. (
  • The Metzger Law Group is concerned that this carcinogen is in so many foods that we eat and is seriously undertaking efforts to require food companies to reduce the acrylamide content of their food products or, if they cannot do so, to warn California consumers that this carcinogen is present in the foods that they sell. (
  • Acrylamide is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a potential carcinogen to humans 1 . (
  • Functional Technologies Corp. has developed, tested and filed patent applications for yeast technology that reduces the formation of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in baked, toasted and fried foods. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) categorizes acrylamide as a Group 2A carcinogen. (
  • Additionally, California health officials recently proposed that acrylamide be listed as a known reproductive toxicant, under Proposition 65, in addition to its inclusion as a carcinogen since 1990. (
  • 3, 7 In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified acrylamide as a probable human carcinogen based largely on these animal studies. (
  • It has been just over a decade since Swedish scientists first raised concerns about acrylamide in the food supply after they detected this suspected carcinogen in starchy foods that had been heated to high temperatures. (
  • The World Health Organization, the U.S. National Toxicology Program and the International Agency for Research on Cancer have all deemed acrylamide a likely or probable human carcinogen, based on animal studies. (
  • French fries are also high in acrylamide , a possible carcinogen that is found in starchy foods that have been fried or baked at high temperatures. (
  • Acrylamide is a carcinogen that forms when starches are heated above 250 ºF , particularly when "browning" occurs . (
  • Acrylamide is a carcinogen that is created when starchy foods are baked, roasted, fried or toasted. (
  • Acrylamide is a big concern for the food industry, due to the growing body of evidence of its role as a potential carcinogen. (
  • Acrylamide is an odorless, colorless chemical agent used to manufacture certain chemicals, plastics and dyes, and is considered a mutagen and possibly a human carcinogen, based mainly on animal studies, studies in laboratory animals, according to the National Cancer Institute. (
  • In 2002, during the course of these investigations, scientists working at Stockholm University in Sweden discovered acrylamide in cooked carbohydrate-rich foods. (
  • Since the discovery of acrylamide in foods in 2002, the American Cancer Society, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and many other organizations have recognized the need for further research on this topic. (
  • The discovery in 2002 that some cooked foods contain acrylamide attracted significant attention to its possible biological effects. (
  • In 2002, Swedish studies revealed that high levels of acrylamide formed during the frying or baking of potato and cereal products. (
  • The alarm was raised in 2002 when researchers discovered that acrylamide, which had been shown to cause cancers in animals, can form in a range of foods while they are being cooked. (
  • First identified in 2002, acrylamide is created when sugars and an amino acid that naturally occurs in starchy foods interact at high temperatures. (
  • Since it first became apparent in 2002 that there are high levels of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, the CIAA (Confederation of Food and Drink Industries of the EU) has put together a 'toolbox' of tactics for food manufacturers to reduce acrylamide levels in products. (
  • The results were published in April 2002 (Tareke et al 2002) and the occurrence of acrylamide in foods rapidly became a global issue. (
  • The results announced in Sweden were soon confirmed in other countries, and it became evident that acrylamide has, unsuspected until 2002, been part of human diets ever since foods were first prepared by cooking. (
  • Following the 2002 announcement, attention became focused on the Maillard Reaction when it was discovered, that acrylamide was formed from the reaction of reducing sugars and the amino acid asparagine during heating. (
  • While people have been exposing themselves to acrylamide for as long as they have been using heat to cook, scientists first found the chemical in food back in 2002. (
  • In 2002, a study by the Swedish National Food Authorities discovered considerable levels of acrylamide in food products such as French fries, biscuits, snacks and crackers. (
  • ROME , 26 April 2002 -- It is too early to reach any firm conclusions on the unexpected finding of the toxic chemical acrylamide in fried and baked food by Sweden's National Food Administration, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said today. (
  • In 2002, Swedish researchers published an important study showing that potatoes and certain other foods heated at high temperatures contain very high levels of acrylamide. (
  • In 2002, the Metzger Law Group filed the first Proposition 65 case regarding acrylamide on behalf of the Council for Education and Research on Toxics to require fast food companies such as McDonald's and Burger King to warn consumers of the acrylamide hazard in french fries. (
  • Acrylamide was accidentally discovered in foods in April 2002 by scientists in Sweden when they found the chemical in starchy foods, such as potato chips , French fries and bread that had been heated (production of acrylamide in the heating process was shown to be temperature-dependent). (
  • Since 2002, acrylamide has emerged as a critical issue for producers of bread, cookies, crackers, breakfast cereal, French fries, potato chips and other food and beverages. (
  • In 2002, the Swedish government announced that acrylamides form when foods are cooked at high temperatures, thrusting the chemical compound into the spotlight. (
  • INTRODUCTION In April 2002 the Swedish National Food Administration (NFA) and researchers from Stockholm University announced their findings that acrylamide, a toxic and potentially cancer-causing chemical, is formed in many types of food prepared/cooked at high temperatures. (
  • The first report on the presence of acrylamide in processed foods was published in April 2002 by the Swedish National Food Administration and Stockholm University. (
  • The World Health Organization first began to look at the dangers of acrylamide in 2002 after the publication of a study in Sweden that linked acrylamide consumption with cancer. (
  • It first hit the headlines in 2002, when scientists at the Swedish Food Administration first reported unexpectedly high levels of acrylamide, found to cause cancer in laboratory rats, in carbohydrate-rich foods. (
  • PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES 1.1 Identity Common name: acrylamide Chemical formula: C 3 H 5 N0 Chemical Structure: H H 0 H ' ' " ' C = C - C - N ' ' H H Relative molecular mass: 71.08 Common synonyms: 2-propenamide, acrylamide monomer, acrylic acid amide, acrylic amide, ethylene carboxamide, propenamide, propeneamide, propenoic acid amide. (
  • Useful search terms for acrylamide include "acrylamide monomer," "acrylic amide," "propenamide," and "2-propenamide. (
  • 6. A process as defined in claim 1 wherein said polymeric material is a copolymer of a (meth)acrylamide and a cationic monomer copolymerizable therewith. (
  • Global Acrylamide Monomer Market Size 2017 Industry Trend and. (
  • The Global And China Acrylamide Monomer Industry 2017 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Acrylamide Monomer industry. (
  • The Acrylamide Monomer market analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regions' development status. (
  • What's more, the Acrylamide Monomer industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (
  • Acrylamide is a reactive, water soluble vinyl monomer. (
  • A 40% solution containing 38.96% (w/v) Acrylamide and 1.04% (w/v) bis-Acrylamide for a monomer to crosslinker ratio of 37.5:1. (
  • Acrylamide is a crystalline solid material used as an intermediate and monomer in the production of polyacrylamides. (
  • 15 In these facilities acrylamide monomer was produced since 1955 and polymer since 1965. (
  • There was also potential for exposure to acrylonitrile in the monomer production area, as acrylonitrile is the raw material for acrylamide production. (
  • Acrylamide is used as a monomer in the synthesis of polyacrylamides, which finds application as water-soluble thickeners in waste water treatment, gel electrophoresis, ore processing and dyes production. (
  • The present invention relates to a silicone acrylamide copolymer of high acrylamide monomer content which has transparency and low modulus, employing the following configuration. (
  • A copolymer comprising (A) a multi-functional (meth)acrylamide monomer having at least one siloxane bond and at least two (meth)acrylamide groups within a molecule and (B) a mono-functional linear silicone (meth)acrylamide monomer. (
  • 2. The copolymer according to claim 1, wherein the multi-functional (meth)acrylamide monomer has two (meth)acrylamide groups. (
  • Diacetone acrylamide (DAAM), also known as Diacetoneacrylamide, N,N-diacetonyl, Acrylamide, is a kind of new-type vinyl functional monomer with the molecular formula C9H15NO2 and molecular weight 169.22. (
  • In 2016, the FDA issued guidance to help the food industry reduce the amount of acrylamide in certain foods, but these are recommendations, not regulations. (
  • The duration and temperature of cooking determines the amount of acrylamide produced: long durations and higher temperatures form more acrylamide than short durations and lower temperatures. (
  • The current process to determine the amount of acrylamide in food requires sophisticated analytical techniques, such as gas or liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry. (
  • On Friday, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) posted an online draft document containing practical strategies for growers, manufacturers and food service operators on how to lower the amount of acrylamide in foods they work with. (
  • The amount of acrylamide in a large order of fast-food French fries is at least 300 times more than what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency allows in a glass of water. (
  • Put another way, the amount of acrylamide found in a large order of French fries at a fast food restaurant is at least three hundred times higher than what the Environmental Protection Agency allows in a glass of drinking water. (
  • In April 2018, the new European Union legislation around Acrylamide came into effect, providing manufacturers with 'benchmarking levels' to limit the amount of acrylamide in packaged foods, including potato chips, French fries, cereal, bread and bakery goods like biscuits and cereal bars, as well as baby food. (
  • The general population is exposed to acrylamide by eating contaminated food. (
  • The Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry reports that for the general population, exposure to acrylamide occurs mainly through eating contaminated food, but it can also occur by breathing secondhand smoke. (
  • HEATOX sought also to provide consumers with advice on how to lower their intake of acrylamide, specifically pointing out that home-cooked food tends to contribute far less to overall acrylamide levels than food that was industrially prepared, and that avoiding overcooking is one of the best ways to minimize exposure at home. (
  • This information was used to estimate daily acrylamide intake, which was then correlated with breast cancer incidence. (
  • The result: The incidence of breast cancer among women with a high acrylamide intake was about the same as women with low intakes. (
  • Acrylamide intake through diet and human cancer risk. (
  • Thus, it is a public health concern to evaluate whether intake of acrylamide at levels found in the food supply is an important cancer risk factor. (
  • Mean dietary intake of acrylamide in adults averages 0.5 microg/kg of body weight per day, whereas intake is higher among children. (
  • Several epidemiological studies examining the relationship between dietary intake of acrylamide and cancers of the colon, rectum, kidney, bladder, and breast have been undertaken. (
  • These studies found no association between intake of specific foods containing acrylamide and risk of these cancers. (
  • Moreover, there was no relationship between estimated acrylamide intake in the diet and cancer risk. (
  • The authority acknowledged evidence from human studies remained "limited and inconclusive", ​although due to its carcinogenic and genotoxic nature did not set a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for acrylamide in foods. (
  • Estimates of the total intake of acrylamide through the diet are about 100 micrograms per day , which is approximately 1.7 micrograms per kg. (
  • While some people may be cutting French fries out of their diet to avoid excess carbohydrates, the decision has another major health benefit - lowering the intake of cancer-causing acrylamide . (
  • Those data were combined with acrylamide levels in relevant Dutch foods to assess the total dietary acrylamide intake. (
  • For each 10-microgram per day increment of acrylamide intake, the lung cancer hazard ratio for men was 1.03,with a 95% confidence interval from 0.96 to 1.11. (
  • There was also no trend when male participants were divided into quintiles based on acrylamide intake. (
  • Perhaps the safer conclusion we can make from the Netherlands study is that the findings do not support a positive association between acrylamide intake from diet and risk of lung cancer," they concluded. (
  • Acrylaway can be applied to a wide range of products opening up for an overall reduction of average daily intake of acrylamide for consumers worldwide. (
  • An important aim of the EPIC Acrylamide Working Group is therefore to evaluate the foods that contribute to dietary AA intake, and to determine risks of developing cancer (endometrial, ovarian, pancreatic, breast, oesophageal, and other sites) in individuals with higher dietary consumption of AA. (
  • Senior author Dr. Lian-Yu Lin pointed out that, "Since the decrease of HOMA index is a result of decreasing insulin level, it is possible that acrylamide intake might be toxic to islet cells. (
  • Hiroshi Sato, head of the food safety commission, says, "It is impossible to reduce acrylamide intake to zero. (
  • According to the Food Safety Commission of Japan, the average acrylamide intake of Japanese people is 0.24 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day, less than the averages for countries in the European Union, which ranged from 0.4 to 1.9 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day. (
  • The Food Safety Commission of Japan has put together a draft evaluation of acrylamides with the tentative conclusion that "we cannot say there is nothing to be concerned about," because the average Japanese acrylamide intake was relatively close to that of mice that, in an experiment, had a 10 percent increase in cancer. (
  • The average Hb adduct level measured in Swedish adults is preliminarily estimated to correspond to a daily intake approaching 100 microg of acrylamide. (
  • Consumption habits indicate that the acrylamide levels in the studied heated foods could lead to a daily intake of a few tens of micrograms. (
  • In fact, because of frequent intake of breakfast cereals, a diet that follows government recommendations for healthy eating can end up having higher levels of acrylamide than an unhealthier diet that includes French fries and chips, according to a 2012 study from the University of California, Davis. (
  • In one, higher dietary acrylamide intake in pregnant women, which correlated with blood acrylamide levels, was linked to a reduction in fetal growth. (
  • The researchers concluded that "reducing dietary acrylamide intake among pregnant women might be beneficial for fetal growth. (
  • In any case, since acrylamide is so prevalent in the food supply, there's not much difference between low-intake and high-intake groups in observational studies (perhaps if there were, any potential risks would be easier to detect). (
  • The website of the American Cancer Society reports that "there are currently no cancer types for which there is clearly an increased risk related to acrylamide intake. (
  • If you are worried about whether your lifestyle increases your risk of cancer, I would suggest the five greatest choices you can make to reduce that risk and live longer: stop smoking (cigarette smoke contains acrylamide), limit alcohol intake, maintain a healthy weight and diet, and exercise. (
  • Includes access to the "Initial Statement of Reasons," "Clear and Reasonable Warning regulations," and "Characterization of Acrylamide Intake from Certain Foods, March 2005. (
  • She noted that while acrylamide reduction efforts by the food industry have decreased intake, consumers can help mitigate exposure. (
  • Acrylamide can form naturally from chemical reactions in certain types of starchy foods, after cooking at high temperatures. (
  • Acrylamide is a chemical created when some foods, particularly starchy foods like potatoes and bread, are cooked for long periods at high temperatures, such as when baking, frying, grilling, toasting and roasting. (
  • Novozymes launches Acrylaway to reduce acrylamide which is formed when starchy foods are baked, fried or toasted at high temperatures. (
  • Acrylamide also occurs in many cooked starchy foods. (
  • Acrylamide forms when starchy foods are baked or fried at high temperatures with little moisture, in a process called the Maillard reaction. (
  • A few months after the original report out of Sweden, The Center for Science in the Public Interest in Washington, DC did its own study on the acrylamide content of the most common starchy foods in the North American diet. (
  • Acrylamide is formed in substantial quantities when starchy foods are fried or baked at high temperatures. (
  • 50(17):4,998-5,006) was the first to report that frying or baking at high temperatures (at more than 248 degrees F) for prolonged periods of time could create acrylamide in many types of food, particularly starchy foods, such as French fries, potato chips, crackers, certain types of fried or baked bread, and some cereals. (
  • its molecular formula is C 3 H 5 NO. Acrylamide is produced as a result of industrial processes and is generated in certain foods as a result of cooking at high temperatures. (
  • In general, acrylamide levels rise when cooking is done for longer periods or at higher temperatures, and when certain types of cooking methods are used (such as frying or roasting). (
  • Acrylamide can not be formed at low temperatures, therefore it is not present in boiled, steamed or papillote foods. (
  • Generally speaking, acrylamide is more likely to accumulate when cooking is done for longer periods or at higher temperatures," said Lauren Robin , a chemist at the FDA. (
  • In April, Swedish scientists found high levels of acrylamide in several kinds of carbohydrate foods that are fried or baked at high temperatures. (
  • Acrylamide (AA) formation in starch-based processed foods at elevated temperatures is a serious health issue as it is a toxic and carcinogenic substance. (
  • Subsequent research established that acrylamide was formed by a chemical process known as the Maillard reaction in which asparagine, a common constituent of many foods, when being heated at high temperatures, produces acrylamide. (
  • Meanwhile, the temperatures of boiling and steaming usually don't reach 120 degrees Celsius, so hardly any acrylamides form through these cooking methods. (
  • Additionally, washing potatoes and other vegetables in water before cooking them at high temperatures results in lower acrylamide levels. (
  • Another way of keeping down acrylamides is cutting down the amount of time that foods are subjected to high temperatures. (
  • It was hypothesized that acrylamide was formed at elevated temperatures in cooking, which was indicated in earlier studies of rats fed fried animal feed. (
  • Acrylamide is created almost anytime we cook starches at temperatures above 250 degrees Fahrenheit, whether it is toasted bread, French fries, breakfast cereals, snack foods like potato chips, cookies, pretzels, and crackers, or roasted coffee beans. (
  • Those are hot spots for a chemical called acrylamide, which forms when the sugars and amino acids found naturally in foods like potatoes and cereal grains are cooked at temperatures above 150 degrees. (
  • Acrylamide (C3H3ONH2) is a chemical that is produced naturally in certain foods when they are cooked at high temperatures. (
  • Formation and fate of acrylamide in food Acrylamide has been found in certain foods that have been cooked and processed at high temperatures, and the levels of acrylamide increase with the time of heating. (
  • When foods containing this amino acid and carbohydrates are exposed to heat, especially at temperatures above 100 C, acrylamide is formed. (
  • Acrylamide is a carcinogenic chemical which resides in starchy products like potatoes and forms when they are cooked at temperatures higher than 120 degrees Celsius. (
  • Acrylamide reduces the ability of male animals to produce offspring and could cause similar effects in humans, but not likely at exposure levels experienced by most people. (
  • Because of the incident, Swedish researchers initiated a new series of investigations to determine the extent to which acrylamide is toxic in humans. (
  • Furthermore, while the relation between consumption of acrylamide and cancer in rats and mice has been shown, it is still unclear whether acrylamide consumption has an effect on the risk of developing cancer in humans, and existing epidemiological studies in humans are very limited and do not show any relation between acrylamide and cancer in humans. (
  • It found that "the evidence of acrylamide posing a cancer risk for humans has been strengthened," and that "compared with many regulated food carcinogens, the exposure to acrylamide poses a higher estimated risk to European consumers. (
  • Acrylamide has also been found to have neurotoxic effects in humans who have been exposed. (
  • While evidence from human studies on the impact of acrylamide in the diet is inconclusive, scientists agree that acrylamide in food has the potential to cause cancer in humans as well and it would be prudent to reduce exposure. (
  • This raised worldwide public concern because studies in laboratory animals suggested acrylamide had the potential to cause cancer in humans. (
  • Because exposure of humans to acrylamide can come from both external sources and the diet, there exists a need to develop a better understanding of its formation and distribution in food and its role in human health. (
  • Exposure of humans to acrylamide cannot only come from external sources … but also from the diet. (
  • Carcinogencity has been demonstrated in animal studies at high doses, but is unproven in humans at the acrylamide concentrations found in the diet. (
  • In both animals and humans, acrylamide is converted to glycylamide, a substance that damages the DNA of cells and can induce tumors. (
  • The World Health Organization has said, "Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in animals and, in high doses, can cause nerve damage in humans. (
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified acrylamide as a 'probably carcinogenic to humans. (
  • The metabolism of acrylamide in humans was investigated in a controlled study with IRB approval, in which sterile male volunteers were administered 3 mg/kg 1,2,3-13C3 acrylamide orally. (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have all concluded that acrylamide is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. (
  • In particular, we have further clarified our evaluation of studies on the effects of acrylamide in humans and our description of the main food sources of acrylamide for consumers. (
  • Webinar participant and environmental toxicologist James R. Coughlin, Ph.D., president and founder of Coughlin & Associates, Aliso Viejo, Calif., said that laboratory tests on rodents in the 1980s and 1990s showed increased cancer risks among those given doses of acrylamide thousands of times greater than levels consumed by humans. (
  • Coughlin pointed out that numerous studies of low levels of dietary acrylamide in humans haven't drawn such conclusions. (
  • The EPA has set an acceptable level of acrylamide exposure, which is low enough to account for any uncertainty in the data relating acrylamide to cancer and other health effects. (
  • Food industry workers exposed to twice the average level of acrylamide do not exhibit higher cancer rates. (
  • Researchers from Novozymes have found a solution to reduce the level of acrylamide in food products such as cookies, crackers and snacks. (
  • For the GC-MS method the achieved detection level of acrylamide was 5 microg/kg and for the LC-MS/MS method, 10 microg/kg. (
  • In the United States, the FDA regulates the amount of residual acrylamide in a variety of materials that come in contact with food, but there are currently no regulations on the presence of acrylamide in food itself. (
  • The discovery of the presence of acrylamide in food first occurred when environmental contamination from a Swedish construction project caused widespread death of livestock. (
  • The new Commission Regulation establishing mitigation measures and benchmark levels for the reduction of the presence of acrylamide in food has been published on 21 November 2017. (
  • Once the new rules become applicable, food business operators will be required to adopt mitigation measures to reduce the presence of acrylamide in food. (
  • ProFri en NFC welcomes the stakeholder consultation on the draft Commission Regulation establishing mitigation measures and benchmark levels for the reduction of the presence of acrylamide in food. (
  • The benchmark levels will be reviewed every three years by the European Commission, reflecting the ongoing reductions in the presence of acrylamide in food. (
  • On the other hand, acrylamide and glycidamide can be detoxified via conjugation with glutathione to form acrylamide- and isomeric glycidamide-glutathione conjugates, subsequently metabolized to mercapturic acids and excreted in urine. (
  • Hi, I am new to proteomics and I would like to ask whether in your lab you use (1) powdered form acrylamide or (2) Bio-rad or GE liquid form acrylamide solution to cast gel? (
  • It seems that the powdered form acrylamide as well as bis are far too dangerous to use, although it is much cheaper. (
  • Boiling and steaming do not reach 250 degrees and thus do not form acrylamide. (
  • Heating asparagine, a naturally occurring amino acid in the presence of certain sugars, can form acrylamide. (
  • According to the study authors, about 30 percent of calories consumed among U.S. and European populations contain acrylamide. (
  • Show all 2 recent products that contain ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMER. (
  • Governments all over the world are starting to pay attention to acrylamide and are implementing new regulations, which include setting benchmark levels and requiring warning signs on foods and beverages that contain acrylamide, such as the California Prop 65 warning. (
  • Another speaker in the panel, Julie Jones, Ph.D., a food science and nutrition professor emeritus at the University of Minnesota, said there are thousands of different food products that contain acrylamide, and no single food contributes a majority of acrylamide to the average diet. (
  • If frying potatoes or toasting bread, cook them to a lighter color (as opposed to dark brown), which produces less acrylamide. (
  • Avoid storing potatoes in the refrigerator, which can result in increased acrylamide levels during cooking. (
  • Storing raw potatoes in the fridge may lead to the formation of more free sugars in the potatoes (a process sometimes referred to as 'cold sweetening') and can increase overall acrylamide levels especially if the potatoes are then fried, roasted or baked. (
  • They first examined raw potatoes that arrived at the factory and were able to identify potatoes susceptible to acrylamide formation before these enter production. (
  • This led to investigation of food as a possible source, and the discovery that acrylamide was formed when potatoes were heated above 120̊C. (
  • It has been shown that the reducing sugars are the limiting factors in acrylamide formation in potatoes, while asparagine appears to be the limiting factor in cereal products (Stadler 2006). (
  • Plant-based foods like potatoes, cereals, coffee, crackers or breads and dried fruits are thought to contain the highest levels of acrylamide. (
  • The government agency also recommends keeping potatoes out of the refrigerator, as refrigeration can raise acrylamide formation during cooking. (
  • It found that a bag of potato chips contained five-hundred times more acrylamide than is considered safe by the W-H-O. Researchers also tested French fried potatoes from an American fast-food eating place. (
  • The new data claim that acrylamide is formed spontaneously in foods while frying potatoes, for example, or baking bread or cookies. (
  • Cooking methods like boiling and steaming are among measures that help in curbing the formation of cancer-causing acrylamides in a wide range of foods from potatoes to rice, research shows. (
  • In an experiment, when potatoes that had been stored at room temperature and ones that had been refrigerated were stir-fried at 200 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes, the potatoes that had been refrigerated produced about twice the amount of acrylamides as the ones stored at room temperature. (
  • Acrylamide forms during frying, grilling, baking, roasting and toasting, when the amino acid asparagine (for example, in potatoes and grains) reacts with naturally occurring sugars-in something you may remember from high school chemistry class called the Maillard reaction, which gives the foods their brown color, crusty texture and distinctive taste. (
  • Despite all the unknowns, if you want to reduce your potential risk by cutting out the chemical from your diet, the ACS recommends boiling potatoes, which results in less acrylamide formation than roasting or frying. (
  • Reducing exposure to acrylamide can be as easy as soaking your potatoes before cooking them and cutting the crusts off your bread. (
  • There are a few simple tips that can be helpful, if you're going to cook potatoes, soaking them in water just putting them in a bowl of water for a half an hour before you cook can reduce your acrylamide by 38% soaking them longer reduces it even more but even just for a couple of minutes you can make the difference. (
  • Also when you store potatoes don't store them in a refrigerator, acrylamide levels is going to be higher after they've been stored in a fridge, another simple thing that you can do is if you're making a sandwich cut the crust off the bread, the crust is the part where most of the Acrylamide is, kids everywhere like that, and they're up to something here. (
  • Please remember that raw or boiled potatoes test negative or very low for acrylamide. (
  • Acrylamide more commonly forms when the potatoes are fried, cooked or roasted than when they are steamed or boiled. (
  • This means it can fry products with a higher sugar content, like potatoes, without over Potato Pro_Acrylamide_2019 Page 3 of 6 browning. (
  • In the case of potatoes and other root vegetables, this process allows sugars and amino acids to be released from the potato prior to cooking, which in turn lessens the occurrence of acrylamide. (
  • Asparagine appears to be the primary amino acid involved in the generation of acrylamide via the Maillard reaction. (
  • Acrylamide arises in some cooked foods via a series of steps initiated by the condensation of the amino acid asparagine and glucose. (
  • This condensation, one of the Maillard reactions followed by dehydrogenation produces N-(D-glucos-1-yl)-L-asparagine, which upon pyrolysis generates some acrylamide. (
  • Acrylamide forms from sugars and amino acids (mainly one called asparagine) that are naturally present in many foods. (
  • Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and genotoxic substance that forms during high temperature cooking by a heat-induced reaction between sugar and an amino acid called asparagine. (
  • The new enzyme technology reduces acrylamide formation by converting free asparagine into another naturally occurring amino acid, aspartic acid that cannot contribute to acrylamide formation. (
  • A study by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a mechanism that involves asparagine , which, when heated in the presence of glucose , forms acrylamide. (
  • This means the asparagine can't be converted into acrylamide. (
  • The formation of acrylamide in fried, roasted or baked foods has been hypothesized as a product of the Maillard reaction of asparagine and glucose 2 . (
  • Acrylamide is formed in processed foods by the reaction of the amino acid asparagine and sugar (the major component of carbohydrates). (
  • However, most people are not exposed to acrylamide levels high enough to cause these effects. (
  • In animals exposed to acrylamide during pregnancy, offspring had decreased body weight, decreased startle responses, and decreased levels of some chemicals involved in transmission of brain signals. (
  • Some foods with higher levels of acrylamide include French fries, potato chips, foods made from grains (such as breakfast cereals, cookies, and toast), and coffee. (
  • But ongoing studies will continue to provide new information on whether acrylamide levels in foods are linked to increased cancer risk. (
  • Are acrylamide levels regulated? (
  • It's not yet clear if the levels of acrylamide in foods raise cancer risk, but if you're concerned, there are some things you can do to lower your exposure. (
  • Most recently, in 2015, the EFSA published its first full risk assessment of acrylamide in food , which confirms that acrylamide levels found in food potentially increases the risk of cancer for all age groups. (
  • The food industry has undertaken a lot of work to identify and implement measures to reduce acrylamide levels in food. (
  • We probably couldn't rule out that eating very high levels of acrylamide is associated with a very, very small increase in risk, but in terms of it being an important public health risk factor for breast cancer I don't think acrylamide is a major risk factor," she said. (
  • The association found in animal studies could be explained by the high levels of acrylamide they consumed, or by differences in how acrylamide is metabolized in the body, the experts said. (
  • There's also a new animal study with rats and mice looking at very high levels of acrylamide and cancer risk. (
  • There's been concern whether acrylamide could have some impact on hormonal levels, so we would want to look at endometrial and ovarian cancer, because they are hormone-driven. (
  • Tardiff added, "One of the issues that we are working on, and that we think is particularly promising, is that there is significant detoxification of acrylamide quickly [in the human body], so it is no longer available at the levels we found in food. (
  • As part of its full risk assessment, EFSA also updated its European exposure assessment (last carried out in 2011) based on more recent data on acrylamide levels in food. (
  • 2013 - EFSA launched a call to food business operators and other stakeholders to submit additional analytical data on acrylamide levels in foods and beverages collected from 2010 onwards. (
  • 2009-2012 - EFSA published four consecutive reports on acrylamide levels in food, comparing data from 2007 to 2010 over the series. (
  • The reports generally did not reveal any considerable differences from previous years in the levels of acrylamide in most food categories assessed. (
  • This includes assessing exposure levels, conducting toxicology research, and finding ways to mitigate acrylamide levels in food. (
  • While some studies have shown that acrylamide in very high doses caused cancer in animals and nerve damage in people exposed to very high levels at work, acrylamide levels in food are much lower. (
  • The European Commission has published precise recommendations for the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food products, as the reduction of levels is patchy across categories. (
  • The new EU recommendations say levels should be measured using procedures laid out in the 2007 acrylamide regulation 333/2007. (
  • EU guidance levels for acrylamide do not protect consumers enough, according to the Danish minister for environment and food, as it sets lower indicative levels for Danish manufacturers. (
  • While not legally binding, the levels act as a guide for how much acrylamide should be in different products and are intended to be achievable with food manufacturing practices. (
  • The higher the temperature during cooking, and the longer the frying, roasting or baking process takes, the higher the levels of acrylamide. (
  • In Germany, food manufacturers aim for 'ALARA' levels of acrylamide - or 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' - within a maximum limit of 1000 µg/kg for food products ​ ​ determined by the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL). (
  • Workers were tested for the content of acrylamide-haemoglobin adduct in blood samples, and low levels were unexpectedly found in the non-smoking control group of non-exposed workers. (
  • Much research has focused on the human health risks of the levels of acrylamide found in foods and on ways of reducing those levels. (
  • Food manufacturers risk falling well short of meeting new EU rules aimed at limiting levels of cancer-causing acrylamide, according to a series of new tests released on Thursday (11 January). (
  • The European Parliament's environment committee objected to the Commission's proposed criteria for endocrine disruptors on Thursday (28 September), and threw out another objection to the executive's proposal to regulate levels of cancer-causing acrylamide in food. (
  • Since the detection of acrylamide in certain foods our sector has achieved a decline in mean acrylamide levels over the last 14 years of roughly 50%," he added. (
  • The European Parliament's environment committee will vote on Thursday (28 September) on a resolution which seeks to stop a Commission proposal to regulate levels of carcinogenic acrylamide in food, amid continuing pleas from food safety advocates to endorse the original proposal. (
  • The Commission has indicated that it was planning to "initiate discussions" on setting maximum levels of acrylamide in certain foods after the new regulation comes into force. (
  • They urged the food industry to reduce levels of acrylamide in their products. (
  • Independent tests show that Acrylaway effectively reduces acrylamide levels by 50% to 90% in a broad range of foods such as biscuits, crackers, crisp bread and snacks. (
  • The lawsuit also prompted potato chip manufacturers such as Frito Lay to improve their production process to reduce the acrylamide content of their potato chips to safe levels. (
  • In 2010, the Metzger Law Group filed suit against ready-to-drink coffee companies to require them to give consumers cancer hazard warnings regarding acrylamide in coffee or to reduce the acrylamide content of their coffee products to safe levels. (
  • Acrylamide levels appear to rise as food is heated for longer periods of time. (
  • The result is products with much lower levels of acrylamide. (
  • Exposure to acrylamide - present in industrial by-products, cigarette smoke, and a variety of fried or baked foods - can reduce serum levels of insulin, Taiwanese researchers report. (
  • The USEPA and the EU have set regulatory limits on acrylamide levels in drinking water at 0.5 μg/L and 0.1 μg/L, respectively. (
  • Deep fried foods, in particular high carbohydrate foods such as fries and potato chips, have been shown to have the highest levels of acrylamides. (
  • Importantly, national food safety regulatory bodies and the food industry have been cooperating closely on approaches aimed at reducing acrylamide levels in processed foods. (
  • Maximum binding levels of acrylamide will be, however, considered at a later stage. (
  • Acrylamide levels in foodstuffs were analyzed by an improved gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method after bromination of acrylamide and by a new method for measurement of the underivatized acrylamide by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using the MS/MS mode. (
  • Moderate levels of acrylamide (5-50 microg/kg) were measured in heated protein-rich foods and higher contents (150-4000 microg/kg) in carbohydrate-rich foods, such as potato, beetroot, and also certain heated commercial potato products and crispbread. (
  • Popular American brands of snack chips and French fries contain disturbingly high levels of acrylamide, according to new laboratory tests commissioned by the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI). (
  • CSPI's tests included several popular brands of snack chips, taco shells, French fries, and breakfast cereals-the kinds of foods that were initially shown to have some of the highest acrylamide levels. (
  • Fast-food French fries showed the highest levels of acrylamide among the foods CSPI had tested, with large orders containing 39 to 82 micrograms. (
  • Hattis, an expert in risk analysis, based his estimate on standard EPA projections of risks from animal studies and limited sampling of acrylamide levels in Swedish and American foods. (
  • Among other industrial uses, acrylamide is added to drinking water as a clarifying agent-some may remain as a contaminant, though levels are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (
  • Plus, acrylamide levels vary tremendously within the same types of foods, not only from brand to brand, but even from batch to batch, so it's not possible to determine the exact amounts people consume. (
  • That was through inhalation and skin exposure to high levels of acrylamide at the work place, not food consumption," stresses Marco Binaglia, a scientist who helped draft the EFSA report. (
  • And as for acrylamide in coffee, says Luisa Ramos, another researcher who helped draft the report: "It's usually found at higher levels in light roasts because it forms during the first minutes of roasting and then degrades as the roasting process continues. (
  • Includes access to the "No Significant Risk Level document for Acrylamide," "Initial Statement of Reasons for the Amendments to Section 12705b and c, Specific Regulatory Levels Posing No Significant Risk," and the changes to Section 12705b and c. (
  • Fedima, the Federation of European Union Manufacturers and Suppliers of Ingredients to the Bakery, Confectionary and Patisserie Industries, welcomes the opportunity to provide input to the draft Commission Regulation and is committed to mitigate acrylamide levels in bakery goods. (
  • Ever since Swedish scientists discovered acrylamide in food in the early 2000s, there has been growing concerns over the potential negative impact it could have on people's health, and some regulatory bodies have been looking at ways to restrict acrylamide levels in consumer products. (
  • One of the challenges for food producers is keeping up with the ever-changing regulations for acrylamide levels. (
  • Food manufacturers now need to ensure their products are below the benchmark levels, by introducing 'mitigation measures' to result in lower levels of acrylamide. (
  • While the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) does not enforce benchmark levels like the EU, they do provide a range of 'possible approaches' to acrylamide reduction with a guidance document. (
  • While consumer awareness of acrylamide and its related health implications are still relatively low, the increasing levels of regulation and research into its affects are seeing many potato manufacturers taking proactive steps to reduce acrylamide levels. (
  • The use of vacuum frying has become a great way to reduce acrylamide levels, as they have the ability to keep the frying oil temperature below 120 degrees Celsius, the point at which acrylamide forms. (
  • One of the most popular methods of reducing acrylamide levels by over 50 per cent is through a process called electroporation. (
  • Acrylamide was added to the Prop 65 list in 1990 but the growing concern is around the levels in coffee and other processed items such as paper, dyes, and plastics. (
  • 07 May 2019 --- A year after EU legislation came into force concerning the amount of potentially carcinogenic acrylamide in foods - with "benchmark" levels being set for various products - Kerry announced that the early response to its alternative ingredient has been extremely positive. (
  • The clean-label, non-GMO yeast, is rich in asparaginase enzyme and has the ability to reduce acrylamide levels by up to 90 percent across a broad range of food and beverage products, including biscuits, crackers, French fries, potato crisps, coffee and infant food. (
  • It is not possible to entirely eliminate acrylamide from foods, but actions can be taken to try and ensure that acrylamide levels are as low as what is reasonably achievable. (
  • Many food manufacturers have already taken steps to reduce acrylamide levels in their products. (
  • Applied since April 11, 2018, the EU regulation requires food manufacturers, fast-food chains and restaurants to apply measures to ensure acrylamide levels in their products remain below benchmarks set in the law. (
  • This also forces manufacturers to closely examine and reduce acrylamide levels in their products. (
  • The very purpose of the acrylamide regulation is to achieve levels that are below benchmark levels set out in Annex IV to the regulation, which is defined as reasonably achievable. (
  • What's more, a survey of food by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) indicated a drop in acrylamide levels in foods because of efforts to encourage food makers to voluntarily reduce acrylamide levels in processed foods. (
  • Coughlin said approximately 40 human epidemiological studies have reviewed levels in food, none of which conclusively associated acrylamide with any increased heath risks. (
  • Soak raw potato slices in water for 15 to 30 minutes before frying or roasting to reduce acrylamide formation during cooking. (
  • The food industry has been spending a lot of time and research on how to avoid acrylamide formation in food, and toxicologists are still very interested in looking at acrylamide," Mucci said. (
  • Reports that heat processing of foods induces the formation of acrylamide heightened interest in the chemistry, biochemistry, and safety of this compound. (
  • Meat products are very low in acrylamide content, lacking the precursors required for its formation. (
  • Overcooking or burning the fries increases acrylamide formation, the FDA says. (
  • The method of this invention involves the formation of a continuous process stream of water and adding to the continuous process stream a lower alkyl secondary amine containing 2- 4 carbon atoms, formaldehyde, a water-in-oil emulsion of a finely divided acrylamide polymer and a hydrophilic surfactant capable of inverting the water-in-oil emulsion of the finely divided acrylamide polymer. (
  • Dry strength resins are prepared by reacting acrylamide polymers with amino/aldehyde resin acid colloids during the formation of the colloid. (
  • Studies with laboratory-heated foods revealed a temperature dependence of acrylamide formation. (
  • Hajslova, J. Prediction of acrylamide formation in biscuits based on fingerprint data generated by ambient ionization mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source. (
  • CSPI today urged the FDA to inform the public of the risks from acrylamide in different foods, and to work with industry and academia to understand how acrylamide is formed and how to prevent its formation. (
  • Taking the issue seriously, the food industry has been devising strategies to reduce acrylamide-for example, by altering cooking times, temperature and methods and by using ingredients such as citric acid salts, ascorbic acid, lactic acid bacteria, calcium, enzymes and antioxidants to help block the formation of acrylamide. (
  • Scientists are also looking at ways to alter plants to reduce the compounds that lead to greater acrylamide formation. (
  • Moreover, international initiatives to commence multidisciplinary research were viewed as urgently needed as the formation of acrylamide during the cooking process may be a widespread phenomenon. (
  • and formation, fate and bioavailability of acrylamide in cooked food. (
  • Their report indicated a relationship between the formation of acrylamide, high temperature cooking processes and some high carbohydrate foods. (
  • The formation of acrylamide in food products raised researchers' concern due to the possible carcinogenic potential associated with the chemical. (
  • Since the discovery of acrylamide in food products, many government institutions, food industry associations, food industry members, and researchers have been involved in efforts to understand the process of formation and possible prevention of accumulation of this chemical in food products. (
  • A joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives report, published in February 2005, reviewed the various studies on acrylamide toxicity, the process of its formation in food products and possible ways to reduce its presence in such foods. (
  • For example, the European Food Industry reported a possible 30 to 49 per cent reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips by introducing adjustments to chip processing. (
  • Agencies like the Confederation of Food and Drink Industries of the EU have intensified their research efforts in order to provide guidelines to processors meant to reduce acrylamide formation by modifying the processing parameters. (
  • However, through this research, it was discovered that an intricate relationship exists between the formation of acrylamide during the Maillard reaction and flavour development. (
  • Recent developments in the analysis of of acrylamide, acrylamide formation, mitigation and related topics will be covered by a poster session and flash presentations. (
  • Braising should be better than baking, roasting, or frying, but there's still the chance for some acrylamide formation. (
  • Certain "dietary plant materials," like clove extract and grape polyphenols, are actually able to inhibit acrylamide formation during the cooking of starches . (
  • Common food additives like calcium chloride and l-cysteine could reduce the formation of acrylamide in potato chips by about 85 per cent, according to a new study. (
  • The researchers, from Jinan University and supported by a grant from Guangdong Province government, tested the food additives ferulic acid, catechin, calcium chloride, sodium bisulfite, and l-cysteine on inhibition of acrylamide formation. (
  • By maintaining the calcium chloride at five grams per litre, the researchers report that acrylamide formation was reduced by over 85 per cent. (
  • "I ​ t can be concluded that CaCl2 is a potential agent in decreasing acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps and can be applied on industrial scale ​ ," ​ stated the Ou and co-workers. (
  • Turkish researchers have also proposed that calcium chloride may have the potential to be used as an additive to prevent acrylamide formation. (
  • Indeed, a study published in the journal Food Chemistry ​ (doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.011) reported that the additive could reduce acrylamide formation in potato chips and French fries by about 95 per cent. (
  • Using Pulse Electric Field Processing (PEF) the patent protected E-FLO Electroporation System provides significant product improvement in chip crunch, taste and texture as well as reduction in acrylamide formation and oil content. (
  • Frying systems are an important part in acrylamide management, as the fryer will need to maintain a consistently low oil temperature to prevent the release of sugars and amino acids which cause the formation of acrylamide. (
  • FoodDrinkEurope (which represents the food and drink industry's interests at the European and international level) has produced a document known as the 'toolkit' that outlines ways of reducing acrylamide in food manufacture for a variety of foods and processes. (
  • On 4 June 2015, EFSA published its first full risk assessment of acrylamide in food. (
  • 2015 - EFSA publishes its first full risk assessment of acrylamide in food, which experts conclude potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (
  • EFSA's experts identified hundreds of scientific studies to consider for the Authority's first full risk assessment of acrylamide. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to acrylamide. (
  • The authors examined the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to acrylamide among production and polymerisation workers. (
  • This study provides little evidence for a cancer risk from occupational exposure to acrylamide at production facilities. (
  • Recently the results of a comprehensive epidemiological follow up study of cancer mortality in cohorts with occupational exposure to acrylamide was published. (
  • Limit foods that might be high in acrylamide, such as potato products (especially French fries and potato chips), coffee, and foods made from grains (such as breakfast cereals, cookies, and toast). (
  • August 11/Ottawa, Ontario/ Chemical & Chemistry -- A report, "Antioxidant Capacity of Potato Chips and Snapshot Trends in Acrylamide Content in Potato Chips and Cereals on the Canadian Market," is newly published data in Food Additives & Contaminants Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment . (
  • According to recent research from Ottawa, Canada, "The concentration of acrylamide was measured in selected varieties of five brands of potato chips and breakfast cereals over a five-year period. (
  • They were extracted with water, partitioned with dichloromethane, filtered through a 5kDa centrifuge filter, cleaned-up on HLB Oasis polymeric and Accucat mixed mode anion and cation exchange SPE columns, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The acrylamide concentration in potato chips varied from 106 to 4,630ng g(-1), while values in cereals varied from 50 to 347ng g(-1). (
  • The researchers concluded, "No relationship was found between antioxidative capacity of potato chips and their acrylamide content. (
  • While EU's value guide for acrylamide in potato chips (crisps) allows 1000 micrograms (µg) per kilo of food, the new Danish values bring the Nordic country's recommended value down to 750 µg/kg. (
  • In February 2009, Health Canada announced that they were assessing whether acrylamide, which occurs naturally during the cooking of French fries, potato chips and other processed foods, is a hazard to human health and whether any regulatory action needs to be taken. (
  • Acrylamide has been measured in bread and candy at low μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations, and in coffee, biscuits and potato chips at high μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations 3 . (
  • Determination of acrylamide in potato chips by a reversed-phase LC-MS method based on a stable isotope dilution assay. (
  • Studies, including one last year in Food and Chemical Toxicology , have consistently found that potato chips, French fries and other fried potato products have the most acrylamide. (
  • "The approach suggested that cysteine and calcium chloride significantly decreased the content of acrylamide in fried potato chips and their concentrations could be kept constant by using a conductor as a detector," ​ they added. (
  • But they said more study is needed to find out the risk from foods containing acrylamide. (
  • The scientists said they did not have enough information to warn people not to eat foods containing acrylamide. (
  • The main targets of acrylamide toxicity are the nervous system and reproductive system. (
  • Although the body is capable of metabolizing acrylamide, leading to its excretion in the urine, acute toxicity can cause confusion, muscle weakness, loss of coordination, and hallucination . (
  • Acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity are potential human health risks based on animal studies. (
  • The majority of acrylamide is used to manufacture various polymers, especially polyacrylamide used as a thickening agent[clarification needed] and in water treatment. (
  • This method of preparing cationically modified acrylamide polymers is old in the art and due to problems associated with forming a secondary amine--formaldehyde adduct, it has not been widely adopted. (
  • It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide an improved method for the preparation of dilute solutions of water soluble cationically modified acrylamide polymers. (
  • The preparation of reaction products of acrylamide polymers and amino-aldehyde resins is taught in U.S. Pat. (
  • Among water-soluble polymers, acrylamide based copolymers and homopolymers provide a wide range of functionalities and benefits to a variety of applications [ 1 ]. (
  • Acrylamide-based polymers suffer from some deficiencies such as their rapid hydrolysis, facile thermal degradation, and undesirable properties. (
  • In 1997 an investigation of cattle and fish that died from paralysis in southwestern Sweden linked the use of copious amounts of acrylamide in a tunnel-construction project in the region to the contamination of local groundwater and surface water. (
  • Potato and cereal food products tend to have the highest amounts of acrylamide among commonly consumed foods. (
  • Research findings indicate that trace amounts of acrylamide are formed during boiling (100 C) but the majority of the compound is formed when the food temperature reaches 120 C or higher. (
  • Since its discovery, the FDA has been looking into the effects of acrylamide and potential measures to reduce our exposure to it. (
  • According to FAO, the toxicological effects of acrylamide are well known. (
  • The NFA also announced that it has developed a new, rapid method for the analysis of acrylamide in foods. (
  • ALS Environmental has developed special prep procedures for water, paperboard and complex food matrices, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of acrylamide . (
  • This paper reports the analysis of acrylamide formed during heating of different human foodstuffs. (
  • 9. A process as defined in claim 6 wherein said (meth)acrylamide polymer comprises a copolymer of acrylamide and a diallydialkylammonium chloride. (
  • Acrylamide/Sodium Acryloyldimethyltaurate Copolymer is a copolymer of acrylamide andsodium acryloyldimethyltaurate monomers. (
  • The copolymer of acrylamide (AM) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) was synthesized through radical solution polymerization by potassium persulfate as initiator. (
  • To our knowledge, however, it has not been determined whether acrylamide and other monomers cause apoptosis in renal tissue. (
  • Some acrylamide is used in the manufacture of dyes and the manufacture of other monomers . (
  • Toast may contain carcinogens (acrylamide) caused by the browning process. (
  • Class 6.1 Conversion factors: 1 ppm = 2.91 mg/m 3 air, or 1 mg/m 3 = 0.34 ppm at 25 C and 101.4 kPa (760 mm Hg) 1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties Acrylamide is a colourless to white odourless solid that are melts at 84-85 C. On crystallization from benzene, leaf- or flake-like crystals are formed. (
  • If you work in an industry that uses acrylamide, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (
  • Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH2=CHC(O)NH2. (
  • Acrylamide is a chemical substance formed by a reaction between amino acids and sugars. (
  • Mucci will also be presenting data at the American Chemical Society meeting on prostate cancer and acrylamide (again, her team found no link). (
  • Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during high-temperature cooking, including frying, baking, roasting and also industrial processing, at +120°C and low moisture. (
  • Acrylamide is a well-known industrial chemical whose primary use is the synthesis of polyacrylamide. (
  • According to FDA officials, acrylamide is a chemical that can form in some foods via cooking processes like frying and baking. (
  • The W-H-O and the Food and Agriculture Organization called the meeting to examine the results of earlier studies of the chemical, acrylamide (a-KRILL-a-mide). (
  • Acrylamide (or acrylic amide ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C 3 H 5 N O . Its IUPAC name is 2-propenamide . (
  • Acrylamides form from a chemical reaction between sugars -- such as glucose and fructose -- and asparagins, a kind of amino acid, when they are heated to 120 degrees Celsius or higher. (
  • Acrylamide forms as a result of unknown chemical reactions during high-temperature baking or frying. (
  • One such chemical is acrylamide, which causes cancer in rats given high doses not comparable to anything we ingest. (
  • Since the last Technical Talk on acrylamide in 2005 many developments have taken place to reduce this chemical in food processing. (
  • And acrylamide is listed by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a chemical known to cause cancer. (
  • Acrylamide is used as a chemical intermediate in production of polyacrylamides, for use in protein electrophoresis (PAGE), synthesis of dyes and copolymers for contact lenses. (
  • So recently I was in Starbucks and it seems a law has been passed in San Diego where mandatory posted warnings against the detriments of Acrylamide, a chemical that is created when a food is baked or roasted that is highly toxic and carcinogenic, must be presented. (
  • This chemical reaction is caused by the Maillard Process, when sugars and amino acids are released from the food and create the chemical known as acrylamide. (
  • In the 1950s and '60s, acrylamide was identified as a potential source of occupational neurotoxicity in persons involved in its industrial manufacture. (
  • Acrylamide Neurotoxicity: Neurological, Morphological And Molecular Endpoints In Animal Models. (
  • With that in mind, a group of scientists set out in 2011 to identify potato varieties that form less acrylamide , and recently published their research in Crop Science. (
  • One reason for the high acrylamide content of potato crisps is that a crisp is essentially two surfaces with very little matter between them. (
  • These forms of heating initiate the Maillard reaction , in which reducing sugars (simple monosaccharides capable of carrying out reduction reactions) present in carbohydrate-rich foods react with amino acids to produce acrylamide. (
  • Boiling and steaming do not produce acrylamide. (
  • This process can also produce acrylamide. (
  • 11. Dry- and/or wet-strength paper as defined in claim 10 wherein the glyoxalated (meth)acrylamide containing polymer of said composition comprises a terpolymer of acrylamide, N,N-dimethylacrylamide and diallyl dialkylammonium chloride. (
  • A process for preparing a dilute aqueous solution of a cationically modified polyacrylamide from a water-in-oil emulsion of a finely divided water soluble acrylamide polymer, a secondary amine containing 2 - 4 carbon atoms and formaldehyde is disclosed. (
  • C. recovering continuously a 1.0 - 15% aqueous solution of a cationically modified acrylamide polymer. (
  • No. 2,328,901 teaches the reaction of a secondary amine with formaldehyde and then the reacting of the adduct so formed with a water-soluble polymer acrylamide. (
  • It would, therefore, be an advantage to the art if water soluble cationically modified acrylamide polymer solutions could be prepared without first preparing a premix. (
  • 3. A method according to claim 1 wherein the acrylamide polymer is polyacrylamide. (
  • 4. A method according to claim 1 wherein the amino-aldehyde resin is melamine-formaldehyde and the acrylamide polymer is polyacrylamide. (
  • 5. A method according to claim 1 wherein the molecular weight of the acrylamide polymer ranges from about 40,000 to about 500,000. (
  • 8. Paper according to claim 6 wherein the acrylamide polymer is polyacrylamide. (
  • It has now been discovered that the difficulties of prior dry strength agents based on cationic amino-formaldehyde resins can be overcome and the desired properties discussed above imparted to paper if the amino-formaldehyde resin is reacted with the acrylamide polymer in the form of an acid colloid while the acid colloid is being prepared. (
  • This patent teaches the preferred preparation of the product by forming an aqueous solution of the acid colloid of the amino-aldehyde resin beforehand and then reacting it with an aqueous solution of the acrylamide polymer. (
  • The typical golden color of the food may indicate the presence of this substance, because it means that the Maillard reaction, acrylamide precursor, has been produced. (
  • Though researchers are still unsure of the precise mechanisms by which acrylamide forms in foods, many believe it is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction . (
  • Acrylamide is also associated with the Maillard reaction, the reaction responsible for the browning of foods. (
  • 2014 - Together with national partners in the Member States, EFSA published an infographic on acrylamide in food to help increase awareness about this issue. (
  • 2013 - EFSA accepted a request from the European Commission to provide a scientific opinion on the potential risks for human health of acrylamide in food. (
  • 2012 - EFSA received a proposal from organisations belonging to four EU Member States (Denmark, France, Germany and Sweden) to consider new scientific findings on the possible carcinogenicity of acrylamide. (
  • It found that acrylamide concentrations in main food categories did not differ to EFSA's 2015 study with three exceptions - the category 'potato crisps and snacks' had higher acrylamide concentrations in Norwegian samples than in those reported by EFSA, while the categories 'Baby foods, other than cereal-based' and 'Processed cereal-based baby food', such as infant porridge, had lower concentrations than EFSA's samples. (
  • In June last year the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published an opinion on acrylamide ​ ​ in food, reconfirming previous evaluations that found it increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (
  • But studies involving people have produced "limited and inconsistent evidence" when it comes to the ties between acrylamide and cancer, the EFSA says. (
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published its final opinion on acrylamide in food, reconfirming previous evaluations that it increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (
  • The final outcome was a science based commented ranking which can enrich the acrylamide Toolbox supporting individual manufacturer in taking the best actions to reduce the acrylamide content in their specific production context. (
  • Evidence from human studies that dietary exposure to acrylamide causes cancer is currently limited and inconclusive. (
  • So far, reviews of studies done in groups of people (epidemiologic studies) suggest that dietary acrylamide isn't likely to be related to risk for most common types of cancer. (
  • Although epidemiological studies (as of 2019) suggest that dietary acrylamide consumption does not significantly increase people's risk of developing cancer, genomic analysis has revealed widespread contribution of acrylamide exposure to human carcinogenesis. (
  • The FAO/WHO Consultation on Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and existing data and research on acrylamide. (
  • Here is an example of a situation which caused a great deal of concern based on laboratory studies, and now we have a reasonably definitive study showing that there's no link between acrylamide consumption and breast cancer. (
  • Since then, independent studies in the United States, Germany, Norway, Switzerland, and England have confirmed the link between acrylamide consumption and risk of developing cancer. (
  • Regardless of how this most recent legal battle goes, we are already well aware of the strong link between acrylamide consumption and risk of developing cancer. (
  • The most important food groups contributing to acrylamide exposure are fried potato products, coffee, biscuits, crackers, crisp bread and soft bread. (
  • FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. (
  • Reducing acrylamide by controlling processing parameters means a reduction in flavour development. (
  • Dear Sir or Madam, Please find enclosed a Letter to Frans Verstraete concerning the mitigation measures and benchmark level for the reduction of acrylamide in the food. (
  • While we can't completely avoid risks like acrylamide in food, eating a healthy, balanced diet that includes basing meals on starchy carbohydrates and getting your 5 A Day will help reduce your risk of cancer. (
  • It said the risks associated with acrylamide in foods are not new, but added that emerging knowledge may make it possible to reduce the risks that we have so far accepted without discussion. (
  • Recently, a joint committee of the World Health Organization released a global risk assessment on acrylamide in foods that offers no new evidence of any significant health risks associated with dietary acrylamide exposure. (
  • The European Snacks Association welcomes the establishment of benchmark values that go along with the legal obligation to implement so-far voluntary acrylamide mitigation measures," said Sebastian Emig, Director General of the European Snacks Association. (
  • This consideration prompted us to provide a qualitative science-based ranking of the mitigation strategies proposed in the acrylamide Toolbox, focusing on bakery and fried potato products. (
  • On the basis of their own experience and considering selected literature of the last ten years, the authors scored for each key parameter the acrylamide mitigation strategies proposed in the Toolbox. (
  • A potent oxidizer that promotes polymerization of acrylamide gels by scavenging dissolved oxygen in the gel solution, thereby accelerating the acrylamide/ bisacrylamide reaction. (
  • A new principle for determining the oxygen content of 0.1-milliliter blood samples has been developed, based on measurement of the delay in gelation during copolymerization of acrylamide and bisacrylamide initiated by free radicals. (
  • A member of the class of acrylamides that results from the formal condensation of acrylic acid with ammonia. (
  • The obtained block copolymer was subjected to an amidation reaction to obtain an all-acrylic copolymer, consisting of an acrylate, a thioacrylate and an acrylamide. (
  • N -[2-(dimethylaminoethyl)acrylamide] (DMAEAAm), N,N -dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm), acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulphonic acid (AMPS), have been synthesized. (
  • In fact, many foods that children regularly consume contain high amounts of acrylamides-for example, processed breakfast cereals, both sweetened and unsweetened types. (
  • The sugar reacts with the amino acid when the food is heated and forms acrylamide. (
  • Working in the production or use of acrylamide and acrylamide containing products (exposure may occur through skin contact). (
  • Acrylamide and its breakdown products can be measured in blood and urine. (
  • Manufactured acrylamide is incorporated into grout and soil-stabilizer products that are used to prevent or plug leaks in dams, tunnels, and other structures. (
  • Acrylamide can be found in small amounts in consumer products including caulk, food packaging, and some adhesives. (
  • Acrylamide is found in products such as potato crisps, French fries, bread, biscuits and coffee. (
  • Researchers found that 65 per cent infant products contained arsenic, 58 per cent contained cadmium, 36 per cent contained lead and 10 per cent contained acrylamide out of the products analysed. (
  • It noted in particular that the toolbox does not currently contain any methods for reducing acrylamide in coffee and coffee products. (
  • Large databases of occurrence data are maintained by the European Commission (European Union Acrylamide Monitoring Database) (European Commission 2006) and the US Food and Drug Administration (Survey Data on Acrylamide in Food: Individual Food Products) (US FDA 2006). (
  • in fact, they are based on the 85th centile of the reported distribution of acrylamide in each product type, so the inference is that 15% of products will exceed them. (
  • Likewise, through the official regulatory bodies, manufacturers of products susceptible to containing acrylamide are informed about good technological practices to reduce their content . (
  • With the enzyme solution from Novozymes, food manufacturers can now offer end-consumers food products with reduced worries regarding acrylamide" says Peder Holk Nielsen, Executive Vice president, Sales & Marketing at Novozymes. (
  • Acrylamides are used as an industrial ingredient in products such as glues used in dam and tunnel construction. (
  • Reaction products (adducts) of acrylamide with N termini of hemoglobin (Hb) are regularly observed in persons without known exposure. (
  • As the European regulatory structure governing the acrylamide content of many food products and coffee comes into force within a few months, Orkla is pleased to expand its agreement with Renaissance to include Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, in order to make Acrylow ™ available to food manufacturers in those countries. (
  • But these methods can affect long-term costs and have negative effects on the taste on your products, and will only reduce acrylamide by a small amount. (
  • As of late, there has been a growing concern in acrylamide content in some products. (
  • Acrylamide forms naturally during high-temperature cooking and processing, such as frying, roasting and baking, particularly in potato-based and cereal-based products. (
  • Acrylamide is used to make polyacrylamide, which is mainly used in treating waste water discharge from water treatment plants and industrial processes. (
  • Research has suggested that various treatment processes, as well as the release of acrylamide from the breakdown of polyacrylamide-containing herbicides , may be reasons for the contamination of raw plant-based foods. (
  • Acrylamide is used for preparing slab gel gradients for PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis). (
  • Acrylamide has many other uses in molecular biology laboratories, including the use of linear polyacrylamide (LPA) as a carrier which aids in the precipitation of small amounts of DNA . (
  • Acrylamide and bis-acrylamide are major ingredients in polyacrylamide gels, a commonly used matrix for electrophoretic separation of nucleic acids and proteins. (
  • Polyacrylamide gels are commonly used in electrophoresis applications, formed by free radical polymerization of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide (crosslinker). (
  • Acrylamide (AM), used in the manufacture of polyacrylamide and grouting agents, is produced during the cooking of foods. (
  • The following main conclusions were reached: Methods of analysis for acrylamide By current standards of analytical science, the recent findings of acrylamide in foodstuffs are reliable. (
  • None of the methods used to measure acrylamide in foodstuffs has yet been fully validated by inter-laboratory collaborative trials. (
  • I highly appreciate that the Commission is finally going to issue a regulation with the aim to reduce acrylamide contents in foodstuffs. (
  • In autumn 2018, ten consumer organizations across Europe sampled foodstuffs known to be at risk of containing acrylamide and sent them to an accredited laboratory for analysis. (
  • How likely is acrylamide to cause cancer? (
  • Acrylamide has caused several types of cancer in animals. (
  • In rodents, chronic low-level exposure to acrylamide is associated with adverse affects on reproductive health and with the development of cancer. (
  • Does acrylamide cause cancer? (
  • Laboratory tests show that acrylamide in the diet causes cancer in animals. (
  • TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- There seems to be little or no link between breast cancer and acrylamide, a substance found in many baked and fried foods, according to the largest epidemiological study on the subject conducted to date. (
  • The data are accumulating, and it appears that acrylamide in the diet does not appear to be an important breast cancer risk factor," said study author Lorelei Mucci, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and an assistant professor of epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health in Boston. (
  • The paper is one of 40 exploring various facets of a possible association between acrylamide and cancer. (
  • That corresponds with findings from a previous study (also by Mucci) of Swedish women that also showed no association between dietary acrylamide and risk of breast cancer. (
  • At the moment, I don't think there is any clear connection between acrylamide and breast cancer," said Shiuan Chen, director and professor of surgical research at City of Hope Cancer Center in Duarte, Calif. (
  • Now acrylamide, which is found in coffee, French fries and many other foods, has been cleared of causing breast cancer. (
  • Experts from EFSA's Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) reconfirmed previous evaluations that acrylamide in food potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (
  • Evidence from animal studies shows that acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide are genotoxic and carcinogenic: they damage DNA and cause cancer. (
  • Studies in animals have shown that prolonged administration of acrylamide can cause cancer and decrease male fertility . (
  • The researchers said it might be that acrylamide has a hormonal effect on cancer risk, which might explain the contrast between this study and earlier ones showing an increase in postmenopausal endometrial and ovarian cancer. (
  • Mucci LA, Adami, HO "The plight of the potato: Is dietary acrylamide a risk factor for human cancer? (
  • Acrylamide causes cancer in laboratory animals. (
  • Acrylamide is under suspicion of causing cancer. (
  • After 6 years of litigation and several months of expert depositions, the case settled in 2008 when McDonald's and Burger King agreed to provide cancer hazard warnings regarding acrylamide in their french fries, agreed to pay civil penalties to CERT and the Attorney General, and paid attorney's fees to the Metzger Law Group for protecting public health. (
  • As a result of this lawsuit, fast food companies in California now give consumers such cancer hazard warnings regarding acrylamide in french fries. (
  • [ 11 ] There is a margin of 900-fold between the dose that gave cancer to 10% of rats and human exposure to acrylamide in the diet. (
  • In the wake of a wave of recent studies about acrylamides and their possible link to cancer, people are talking a lot about these dangerous substances. (
  • Acrylamides are some of the most potent known cancer-causing agents. (
  • Although vegetables can contain acrylamides, they are an important source of vitamins and minerals, and can also help prevent cancer and lifestyle diseases. (
  • However, the increased rates of pancreatic cancer in this study and another larger study of acrylamide production workers indicate that caution is needed to rule out a cancer risk. (
  • The authors concluded that the study did not support a cause effect relation between exposure to acrylamide and overall mortality, all cancer mortality or any specific cancers. (
  • La Vecchia, C. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: An updated meta-analysis. (
  • But studies on acrylamide and cancer in people have had mixed results, with some showing no increased risk in people with the highest dietary intakes, and others even suggesting reduced risk of colon cancer. (
  • Some studies have linked acrylamide to endometrial, ovarian and kidney cancer, for example, but not to bladder, breast or prostate cancer. (
  • Can Acrylamide In Fried Foods Cause Cancer? (
  • Here's what scientists know now: Lab studies involving animals have shown that diets loaded with acrylamide can cause DNA mutations that increase the risk of tumor growth and the spread of cancer cells. (
  • We've identified a possible model of action that explains how acrylamide could damage DNA in a way that leads to cancer-producing cells. (
  • Similarly, the American Cancer Society (ACS) says that, based on available research, "It is not yet clear if acrylamide affects cancer risk in people. (
  • Most human studies have failed to find a connection between dietary acrylamide and rates of cancer ( except for kidney cancer and multiple myeloma ). (