Dictionaries, ChemicalAcrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Biological Ontologies: Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Scapegoating: Process in which the mechanisms of projection or displacement are utilized in focusing feelings of aggression, hostility, frustration, etc., upon another individual or group; the amount of blame being unwarranted.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Floors and Floorcoverings: The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Nuclear Respiratory Factors: A family of transcription factors that control expression of a variety of nuclear GENES encoding proteins that function in the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of the MITOCHONDRIA.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.LondonAnimal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animals, LaboratoryEvidence-Based Nursing: A way of providing nursing care that is guided by the integration of the best available scientific knowledge with nursing expertise. This approach requires nurses to critically assess relevant scientific data or research evidence, and to implement high-quality interventions for their nursing practice.Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
(1/348) Inhibition of myosin ATPase by metal fluoride complexes.

Magnesium (Mg2+) is the physiological divalent cation stabilizing nucleotide or nucleotide analog in the active site of myosin subfragment 1 (S1). In the presence of fluoride, Mg2+ and MgADP form a complex that traps the active site of S1 and inhibits myosin ATPase. The ATPase inactivation rate of the magnesium trapped S1 is comparable but smaller than the other known gamma-phosphate analogs at 1.2 M-1 s-1 with 1 mM MgCl2. The observed molar ratio of Mg/S1 in this complex of 1.58 suggests that magnesium occupies the gamma-phosphate position in the ATP binding site of S1 (S1-MgADP-MgFx). The stability of S1-MgADP-MgFx at 4 degrees C was studied by EDTA chase experiments but decomposition was not observed. However, removal of excess fluoride causes full recovery of the K+-EDTA ATPase activity indicating that free fluoride is necessary for maintaining a stable trap and suggesting that the magnesium fluoride complex is bonded to the bridging oxygen of beta-phosphate more loosely than the other known phosphate analogs. The structure of S1 in S1-MgADP-MgFx was studied with near ultraviolet circular dichroism, total tryptophan fluorescence, and tryptophan residue 510 quenching measurements. These data suggest that S1-MgADP-MgFx resembles the M**.ADP.Pi steady-state intermediate of myosin ATPase. Gallium fluoride was found to compete with MgFx for the gamma-phosphate site in S1-MgADP-MgFx. The ionic radius and coordination geometry of magnesium, gallium and other known gamma-phosphate analogs were compared and identified as important in determining which myosin ATPase intermediate the analog mimics.  (+info)

(2/348) Ligand-dependent conformational equilibria of serum albumin revealed by tryptophan fluorescence quenching.

Ligand-dependent structural changes in serum albumin are suggested to underlie its role in physiological solute transport and receptor-mediated cellular selection. Evidence of ligand-induced (oleic acid) structural changes in serum albumin are shown in both time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence quenching and anisotropy measurements of tryptophan 214 (Trp214). These studies were augmented with column chromatography separations. It was found that both the steady-state and time-resolved Stern-Volmer collisional quenching studies of Trp214 with acrylamide pointed to the existence of an oleate-dependent structural transformation. The bimolecular quenching rate constant of defatted human serum albumin, 1.96 x 10(9) M-1 s-1, decreased to 0.94 x 10(9) M-1 s-1 after incubation with oleic acid (9:1). Furthermore, Stern-Volmer quenching studies following fractionation of the structural forms by hydrophobic interaction chromatography were in accordance with this interpretation. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements of the Trp214 residue yielded information of motion within the protein together with the whole protein molecule. Characteristic changes in these motions were observed after the binding of oleate to albumin. The addition of oleate was accompanied by an increase in the rotational diffusion time of the albumin molecule from approximately 22 to 33.6 ns. Within the body of the protein, however, the rotational diffusion time for Trp214 exhibited a slight decrease from 191 to 182 ps and was accompanied by a decrease in the extent of the angular motion of Trp214, indicating a transition after oleate binding to a more spatially restricted but less viscous environment.  (+info)

(3/348) Resolution and characterization of tryptophyl fluorescence of hen egg-white lysozyme by quenching- and time-resolved spectroscopy.

The fluorescence spectral distributions of four tryptophan residues of hen egg-white lysozyme were analyzed using time-resolved and quenching-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Trp62 and Trp108 gave the fluorescence maxima at 352 nm and 342 nm, respectively. The fluorescence of Trp28 and Trp111 occurred only at 300-360 nm and they were observed as an unresolved emission band with a maximum and shoulder at 320 nm and 330 nm. The fluorescence quenching and decay parameters of each tryptophan residue reconfirmed that Trp62 was fully exposed to the solvent but Trp108 was sealed in the cage of the peptide chains and furthermore showed that Trp28 and Trp111 are under the influence of the larger fluctuational motion at the hydrophobic matrix box. The fluorescence responses of each tryptophan residue to the lysozyme-ligand interaction suggested that the internal fluctuation was reduced by the binding of ligand to give a distorted conformation to the hydrophobic matrix box region.  (+info)

(4/348) Molecular cloning and expression of adenosine kinase from Leishmania donovani: identification of unconventional P-loop motif.

The unique catalytic characteristics of adenosine kinase (Adk) and its stage-specific differential activity pattern have made this enzyme a prospective target for chemotherapeutic manipulation in the purine-auxotrophic parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani. However, nothing is known about the structure of the parasite Adk. We report here the cloning of its gene and the characterization of the gene product. The encoded protein, consisting of 345 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 37173 Da, shares limited but significant similarity with sugar kinases and inosine-guanosine kinase of microbial origin, supporting the notion that these enzymes might have the same ancestral origin. The identity of the parasite enzyme with the corresponding enzyme from two other sources so far described was only 40%. Furthermore, 5' RNA mapping studies indicated that the Adk gene transcript is matured post-transcriptionally with the trans-splicing of the mini-exon (spliced leader) occurring at nt -160 from the predicted translation initiation site. The biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme were similar to those of the enzyme isolated from leishmanial cells. The intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the enzyme was substrate-sensitive. On the basis of a multiple protein-alignment sequence comparison and ATP-induced fluorescence quenching in the presence or the absence of KI and acrylamide, the docking site for ATP has been provisionally identified and shown to have marked divergence from the consensus P-loop motif reported for ATP- or GTP-binding proteins from other sources.  (+info)

(5/348) Changes in thyroid gland morphology after acute acrylamide exposure.

High exposure to the acrylamide monomer has been associated with neuropathy and neurotoxic effects. Chronic lower exposure causes endocrine disruption associated with thyroid, testicular, and mammary tumors. To investigate mechanisms of endocrine disruption, short-term, low-level oral dosing studies were conducted. Weanling female Fischer 344 rats were acclimatized for two weeks before dosing. Controls were given distilled water by gavage and rats in other groups were given acrylamide at doses of 2 mg/kg/day and 15 mg/kg/day for 2 or 7 days by gavage. Twenty-four h after the last dose, the rats were killed by decapitation. Trunk blood was collected for hormone analyses and tissues for histopathological examination. There were no toxicity-related deaths, no clinical signs of toxicity, and no significant difference in the mean body weight of animal groups. Histopathological examination of select tissues showed no lesions of pathologic significance. Plasma thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), and pituitary TSH and PRL analyses did not reveal significant changes between control vs. treated rats. In the 7-day study, however, there was a slight dose-dependent increase in plasma T4 and a slight dose-dependent decrease in plasma TSH. Thyroid gland morphometry showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the colloid area and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the follicular cell height of treated rats as compared to controls. The follicular area shrinkage was similar in both studies. These results show a very early endocrine response to very low levels of toxic insult and opens other venues to further investigate the mechanisms of endocrine disruption by acrylamide.  (+info)

(6/348) Detection of aneuploidy by multicolor FISH in mouse sperm after in vivo treatment with acrylamide, colchicine, diazepam or thiabendazole.

Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to investigate the induction of aneuploidy during meiosis in young adult male mice treated with chemicals chosen for the EU sponsored aneuploidy project (acrylamide, colchicine, diazepam and thiabendazole). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of aneuploid sperm induced by each of these chemicals by sperm FISH. Male (102/ElxC3H/El)F1 mice were treated with acrylamide (120 and 60 mg/kg single dose i.p.), colchicine (1.5 and 3 mg/kg single dose, i.p.), diazepam (300, 150 and 75 mg/kg single dose by oral intubation) or thiabendazole (100 and 300 mg/kg daily for 11 days by oral intubation). At 22 days after the last treatment, sperm were collected from the cauda epididymis. Three chromosome FISH was applied to determine hyperhaploid and diploid sperm with DNA probes specific for the chromosomes X, Y and 8. Five animals were treated per dose group and sperm aneuploidy was evaluated in 10,000 sperm per animal. We found significant increases in the frequency of total hyperhaploidy for the males treated with 3.0 mg/kg colchicine (0.092 versus 0.056%, P < 0.05) and with 1.5 mg/kg colchicine (0.082 versus 0.050%, P < 0.05), as well for the males treated with 300 mg/kg diazepam (0.081 versus 0.050%, P < 0.05), indicating that colchicine and diazepam each induced germ cell aneuploidy. We also found significant increases in the frequency of total diploidy for the males treated with 300 mg/kg diazepam (P < 0.05) and with 300 mg/kg thiabendazole (P < 0.05). No significant effects were found for 120 and 60 mg/kg acrylamide or for the other doses of diazepam and thiabendazole. These first results indicate that the multicolor FISH method is useful to determine aneuploidy induction in sperm of mice.  (+info)

(7/348) Effect of acrylamide on aldolase structure. I. Induction of intermediate states.

Acrylamide is a fluorescence quencher frequently applied for analysis of protein fluorophores exposure with the silent assumption that it does not affect the native structure of protein. In this report, it is shown that quenching of tryptophan residues in aldolase is a time-dependent process. The Stern-Volmer constant increases from 1.32 to 2.01 M-1 during the first 100 s of incubation of aldolase with acrylamide. Two tryptophan residues/subunit are accessible to quenching after 100 s of aldolase interaction with acrylamide. Up to about 1.2 M acrylamide concentration enzyme inactivation is reversible. Independent analyses of the changes of enzyme activity, 1ANS fluorescence during its displacement from aldolase active-site, UV-difference spectra and near-UV CD spectra were carried out to monitor the transition of aldolase structure. From these measurements a stepwise transformation of aldolase molecules from native state (N) through intermediates: I1, T, I2, to denatured (D) state is concluded. The maxima of I1, T, I2 and D states populations occur at 0.2, 1.0, 2.0 and above 3.0 M of acrylamide concentration, respectively. Above 3.5 M, acrylamide aldolase molecules become irreversibly inactivated.  (+info)

(8/348) Effect of acrylamide on aldolase structure. II. Characterization of aldolase unfolding intermediates.

Molecules of muscle aldolase A exposed to acrylamide change their conformation via I1, T, I2, D intermediates [1] and undergo a slow irreversible chemical modification of thiol groups. There is no direct correlation between activity loss and thiol groups modification. In the native enzyme two classes of Trp residues of 1. 8 ns and 4.9 ns fluorescence lifetime have been found. Acrylamide (0. 2-0.5 M) increases lifetime of longer-lived component, yet the transfer of aldolase molecules even from higher (1.0 M) perturbant concentration to a buffer, allows regain original Trp fluorescence lifetime. I1, detected at about 0.2 M acrylamide, represents low populated tetramers of preserved enzyme activity. T, of maximum population at about 0.7-1.0 M acrylamide, consists of meta-stable tetramers of partial enzymatic activity. These molecules are able to exchange their subunits with aldolase C in opposition to the native molecules. At transition point for I2 appearance (1.8 M acrylamide), aldolase becomes highly unstable: part of molecules dissociate into subunits which in the absence of perturbant are able to reassociate into active tetramers, the remaining part undergoes irreversible denaturation and aggregation. Some expansion of aldolase tetramers takes place prior to dissociation. D, observed above 3.0 M acrylamide, consists of irreversibly denatured enzyme molecules.  (+info)

*  Acrylamide
Some acrylamide is used in the manufacture of dyes and the manufacture of other monomers. The discovery of acrylamide in some ... Acrylamide can be prepared by the hydrolysis of acrylonitrile by nitrile hydratase. In industry, most acrylamide is used to ... Acrylamide Archived August 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., WHO Health Canada: Acrylamide. Hc-sc.gc.ca. Retrieved on 2012-06- ... Acrylamide is easily absorbed by the skin and distributed throughout the organism; the highest levels of acrylamide post- ...
*  Carcinogen
Acrylamide Asian Dust History of cancer Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute International Agency for ... "Acrylamide". Villeneuve PJ, Mao Y (1994). "Lifetime probability of developing lung cancer, by smoking status, Canada". Canadian ... Reports from the Food Standards Agency have found that the known animal carcinogen acrylamide is generated in fried or ...
*  Raw foodism
"Acrylamide". American Cancer Society. 1 October 2013. Retrieved September 2014. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Link ... According to the American Cancer Society it is not clear, as of 2013[update], whether acrylamide consumption affects people's ... acrylamide produced by frying, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. While it is true ...
*  Cooking
"Food Controversies-Acrylamide". Cancer Research UK. 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2017. Corpet DE, Yin Y, Zhang XM, et al. (1995 ... until a toasted crust is formed generates significant concentrations of acrylamide, a known carcinogen from animal studies; its ...
*  Roasted grain drink
Acrylamide is found at high levels in dark-colored baked, roasted and fried high-carbohydrate foods, as well as in roasted ... The dark-roasted grains used in roasted grain drinks would also, presumably, have high levels of acrylamide. The substance has ... "Acrylamide and Cancer Risk". cancer.org. American Cancer Society. 10 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2017. ... raised health concerns but it is not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of getting cancer. Coffee ...
*  Glycidamide
There are many studies that combine acrylamide and glycidamide, but the focus is still mainly on acrylamide. Glycidamide is a ... Glycidamide is formed from acrylamide. Acrylamide is an industrial chemical which is used in several ways, such as production ... "Acrylamide" in IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogen risk to humans, International Agency for Research on Cancer, ... Most of the studies focus on the effects of acrylamide, whereas less studies focus specifically on the effects of glycidamide. ...
*  Glycation
October 2002). "Acrylamide from Maillard reaction products". Nature. 419 (6906): 449-50. Bibcode:2002Natur.419..449S. doi: ... acrylamide and other side-products are released), peripheral neuropathy (the myelin is attacked), and other sensory losses such ... Glycation may also contribute to the formation of acrylamide, a potential carcinogen, during cooking. Until recently, it was ...
*  Immobilized pH gradient
During polymerization, the acrylamide portion of the buffers co polymerize with the acrylamide and bisacrylamide monomers to ... Immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels are the acrylamide gel matrix co-polymerized with the pH gradient, which result in ... Immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are made by mixing two kinds of acrylamide mixure, one with Immobiline having acidic buffering ... Both solutions contain acrylamide monomers and catalysts. ...
*  Chromatolysis
Acrylamide intoxication has been shown to be an agent for the induction of chromatolysis. In one study groups of rats were ... Acrylamide intoxication resembles neural axotomy histologically and mechanically. In each case the neuron undergoes ... Tandrup, T. (2002). "Chromatolysis of A- cells of dorsal root ganglia is a primary structural event in acute acrylamide ... injected with acrylamide for 3, 6, and 12 days and the A- and B-cell perikarya of their L5 dorsal root ganglion were examined. ...
*  Rhoca-Gil
One of the fluids contains acrylamide and methylolacrylamide. The mixed solution becomes a viscous fluid that penetrates cracks ... contaminating it with acrylamide, a known carcinogen and mutagen. Furthermore, the contamination of the area led to a ban on ...
*  QPNC-PAGE
... acrylamide/aqueous solution) to 10 (acrylamide/buffer solution) for acrylamide gels with total monomer concentrations in the ... Thereby, acrylamide chains are created and cross-linked at a time. Due to the properties of the electrophoresis buffer the gel ... As acrylamide starts to hydrolyze at pH around 10 the hydrolysis rate of aqueous solutions of polyacrylamide is at a maximum at ... This preparative technique is based on a new principle and a new constant of acrylamide gel electrophoresis implying the ...
*  Asparaginase
Acrylamide is often formed in the cooking of starchy foods. During heating the amino acid asparagine, naturally present in ... Complete acrylamide removal is probably not possible due to other, minor asparagine-independent formation pathways. As a food ... Gökmen, Vural (2015). Acrylamide in Food: Analysis, Content and Potential Health Effects. Academic Press. p. 415. ISBN ... Kornbrust, B.A., Stringer, M.A., Lange, N.K. and Hendriksen, H.V. (2010) Asparaginase - an enzyme for acrylamide reduction in ...
*  Acorus americanus
Specifically, it has a protective effect against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity. NRCS: USDA Plants Profile: Acorus americanus ... "Protective effect of acorus calamus against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity" Phytother Res. (May 2002) 16(3):256-60. PMID ...
*  Reducing sugar
One example of a toxic product of the Mailard reaction is acrylamide, a neurotoxin and possible carcinogen that is formed from ... Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, María Salomé; Granby, Kit (August 2013). "Current issues in dietary acrylamide: formation, ...
*  Gel electrophoresis
Pore size is controlled by modulating the concentrations of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide powder used in creating a gel. Care ... Acrylamide, in contrast to polyacrylamide, is a neurotoxin and must be handled using appropriate safety precautions to avoid ... The gels are slightly more opaque than acrylamide or agarose. Non-denatured proteins can be separated according to charge and ... introduction of acrylamide gels; disc electrophoresis (Ornstein and Davis); accurate control of parameters such as pore size ...
*  Quenching (fluorescence)
Molecular oxygen, iodide ions and acrylamide are common chemical quenchers. The chloride ion is a well known quencher for ... Förster resonance energy transfer, a phenomenon on which some quenching techniques rely Acrylamide and iodide fluorescence ...
*  Polyacrylamide
Apr 23, 2008). "Acrylamide Release Resulting from Sunlight Irradiation of Aqueous Polyacrylamide/Iron Mixtures". Journal of ... Even though these products are often called 'polyacrylamide', many are actually copolymers of acrylamide and one or more other ... Ahn JS; Castle L. (5 November 2003). "Tests for the Depolymerization of Polyacrylamides as a Potential Source of Acrylamide in ... Concerns have been raised that polyacrylamide used in agriculture may contaminate food with acrylamide, a known neurotoxin. ...
*  CLARITY
... is a method of making brain tissue transparent using acrylamide-based hydrogels built from within, and linked to, the ... This 'scaffolding' is made up of hydrogel monomers such as acrylamide. The addition of molecules like formaldehyde can ... Subsequent published papers using the CLARITY method of building acrylamide-based tissue-gel hybrids within tissue for improved ... thanks to the acrylamide gel and chemical properties of the molecules involved. As reported in the initial paper, the tissue ...
*  Acrydite
The idea of acrylamide modified DNA was developed by T. Christian Boles, while working at Mosaic Technologies, a now-defunct ... 2002 Apr;32(4):808-10, 812, 814-5. Acrylamide capture of DNA-bound complexes: electrophoretic purification of transcription ... where the double bond in the Acrydite group reacts with other activated double bond containing compounds such as acrylamide. ... and also aptamers containing internal acrylamide modifications) have been used to make AptaMIPs, molecularly imprinted polymers ...
*  Hydrogel agriculture
A polymer/clay superabsorbent composite material made by attaching acrylamide to finely powdered attapulgite (a fuller's earth ... they are effectively insoluble but slowly break down releasing toxic acrylamide. Hydrogels of different kinds could be useful ...
*  List of cooking appliances
"Reduction of Acrylamide Formation in Potato Chips by Low-temperature Vacuum Frying". Journal of Food Science. Institute of Food ...
*  Vacuum fryer
130 °C (266 °F)), the formation of suspected carcinogen acrylamide is significantly lower than in standard atmospheric fryers, ... "Reduction of Acrylamide Formation in Potato Chips by Low-temperature Vacuum Frying". Journal of Food Science. 69 (8): E405-E411 ...
*  Furan
Anese, M.; Manzocco, L.; Calligaris, S.; Nicoli, M. C. (2013). "Industrially Applicable Strategies for Mitigating Acrylamide, ...
*  Illumina dye sequencing
This process takes place inside of an acrylamide-coated glass flow cell. The flow cell has oligonucleotides (short nucleotide ...
*  2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine
2005) A comparison of genotoxicity between three common heterocyclic amines and acrylamide. Mutat. Res. 580:103-110. Benford, D ...
Acrylamide (HSG 45, 1991)  Acrylamide (HSG 45, 1991)
Acrylamide (ICSC) Acrylamide (WHO Food Additives Series 55) ACRYLAMIDE (JECFA Evaluation) Acrylamide (PIM 652) Acrylamide (IARC ... 49: Acrylamide, Geneva, World Health Organization. See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Acrylamide (EHC 49, 1985) ... Milled solid acrylamide could possibly form an explosive dust cloud. 4.4.2 Fire hazards Acrylamide is combustible in the solid ... a) Solid acrylamide. Shovel spilled material into sealable containers. (b) Acrylamide solution. Minimize spread, dilute with an ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/hsg/hsg/hsg045.htm
Acrylamide - Wikipedia  Acrylamide - Wikipedia
Some acrylamide is used in the manufacture of dyes and the manufacture of other monomers. The discovery of acrylamide in some ... Acrylamide can be prepared by the hydrolysis of acrylonitrile by nitrile hydratase. In industry, most acrylamide is used to ... Acrylamide Archived August 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., WHO Health Canada: Acrylamide. Hc-sc.gc.ca. Retrieved on 2012-06- ... Acrylamide is easily absorbed by the skin and distributed throughout the organism; the highest levels of acrylamide post- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrylamide
Acrylamide  Acrylamide
... is a chemical widely used during the manufacturing of paper, dye, and other industrial products. It can also be ... Acrylamide is also found in cigarette smoke.. How do people get exposed to acrylamide?. Food and cigarette smoke are the major ... Where can I find out more about acrylamide?. *NTP acrylamide and glycidamide data and reports ... Why did the National Toxicology Program (NTP) study acrylamide?. The nomination to study acrylamide came from the FDA. The FDA ...
more infohttps://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/acrylamide/index.cfm
acrylamide (CHEBI:28619)  acrylamide (CHEBI:28619)
... is a N-acylammonia (CHEBI:83628) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) is a acrylamides (CHEBI:22216) ... acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has functional parent acrylic acid (CHEBI:18308) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role alkylating agent ( ... acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role Maillard reaction product (CHEBI:77523) acrylamide (CHEBI:28619) has role mutagen (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:28619 - acrylamide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:28619
Acrylamide  Acrylamide
The only thing I can think of that might : ,, ,be causing a problem is the acrylamide. I read that acrylamide can last up : ... why is acrylamide quality only important for non-SDS applications? : : Because it is clearly not important for SDS-PAGE :-) : : ... Acrylamide. dbell dbell at qnis.net Thu Jan 17 13:23:06 EST 2002 *Previous message: NC od PVDF? ... Could be many things but don't blame it on acrylamide. Here we use : ,, some terrible junk given in large quantity for free ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2002-January/091928.html
Acrylamide and Cancer Risk  Acrylamide and Cancer Risk
Learn what we know about acrylamide and cancer risk here. ... Acrylamide forms in some starchy foods during high-temperature ... Acrylamide and Cancer Risk. What is acrylamide? Acrylamide is a chemical used in industries such as the paper and pulp, ... Are acrylamide levels regulated? In the United States, the FDA regulates the amount of residual acrylamide in a variety of ... The EPA regulates acrylamide in drinking water. The EPA has set an acceptable level of acrylamide exposure, which is low enough ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/acrylamide.html
slicing acrylamide gels  slicing acrylamide gels
... Eric Kofoid kofoid at BIOLOGY.UTAH.EDU Mon Jun 24 11:35:11 EST 1996 *Previous message: [Q] ... like to cut my acrylamide gel in thin slices of about 2mm, because in this -way I can identify the molecular weights of ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1996-June/046104.html
Acrylamide | Food Standards Agency  Acrylamide | Food Standards Agency
Acrylamide is a chemical created when some foods, particularly starchy foods like potatoes and bread, are cooked for long ... FSA's work on acrylamide. The FSA has been working to understand more about acrylamide, reduce the risk that it presents and ... What is acrylamide. Acrylamide is a chemical substance formed by a reaction between amino acids and sugars. It typically occurs ... Foods high in acrylamide. Acrylamide is found in wide range of foods including roasted potatoes and root vegetables, chips, ...
more infohttps://www.food.gov.uk/science/acrylamide-0
Acrylamide  Acrylamide
... -BIS-ACRYL 37,5:1 fr Acrylamide/Bis-acrylamide 37, 5:1 is convenient ready-to-use solutions of 4X crystalized high ... ACRYLAMIDE-BIS-ACRYL 19:1 (fr) Acrylamide/Bis-acrylamide 19:1 is convenient ready-to-use solutions of 4X crystalized high ... ACRYLAMIDE-BIS-ACRYL 29:1 (fr) Acrylamide/Bis-acrylamide 29:1 is convenient ready-to-use solutions of 4X crystalized high ... Premixed 19:1 liquid solution eliminates the need to weigh toxic acrylamide and bis-acrylamide. The concentration is based on ...
more infohttps://www.mpbio.com/life-sciences/biochemicals/gel-forming-reagents/acrylamide
WHO | Health implications of acrylamide in food  WHO | Health implications of acrylamide in food
Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and existing data and research on acrylamide ... Health implications of acrylamide in food. Report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation. ... The FAO/WHO Consultation on Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and ...
more infohttp://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/acrylamide-food/en/
Acrylamide | European Food Safety Authority  Acrylamide | European Food Safety Authority
Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during high-temperature cooking, including frying, ... 1. What is acrylamide?. Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during everyday high-temperature ... Food Contaminants: Acrylamide - European Commission. *Commission Recommendation of 3 May 2007 on the monitoring of acrylamide ... 5. What happens to acrylamide in the body?. Acrylamide consumed orally is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, distributed ...
more infohttp://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/topics/topic/acrylamide?qt-quicktabs_field_collection=3
CDC - Acrylamide - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic  CDC - Acrylamide - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic
Acrylamide NIOH and NIOSH Basis for an Occupational Health Standard: Acrylamide: A Review of the Literature DHHS (NIOSH) ... Acrylamide Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) The IDLH documents the criteria and ... Acrylamide CAS No. 79-06-1. International Chemical Safety Cards An ICSC summarizes essential health and safety information on ... Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Acrylamide [PDF - 410.7 KB]. Related Resources. OSHA (Safety and Health Topics): ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/acrylamide/
ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMER || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG  ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMER || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
more infohttp://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/700116/ACRYLAMIDE_COPOLYMER/
Acrylamide  Acrylamide
EPIC publications on acrylamide]. * Vesper HW, Slimani N, Hallmans G et al. Cross-sectional study on acrylamide hemoglobin ... The Acrylamide Working Group. Acrylamide (AA) is a human neurotoxin and is currently classified by IARC as a Group 2A probable ... Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. J Agric Food Chem 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4998-5006. PMID: ... Dietary intake of acrylamide and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort. Ann Oncol. 2013 Oct; 24(10):2645-51. PMID: 23857962 ...
more infohttp://epic.iarc.fr/research/acrylamide.php
Commission publishes acrylamide monitoring recommendations  Commission publishes acrylamide monitoring recommendations
... By Jess Halliday 07-Jun-2010. - Last updated on 08-Jun-2010 at 11: ... Related tags: Acrylamide levels, European union The European Commission has published precise recommendations for the ... Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and genotoxic substance that forms during high temperature cooking by a heat-induced reaction ... Since it first became apparent in 2002 that there are high levels of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, the CIAA ( ...
more infohttps://www.foodnavigator.com/Article/2010/06/08/Commission-publishes-acrylamide-monitoring-recommendations
Acrylamide in foods | IFST  Acrylamide in foods | IFST
This IFST information statement provides information on acrylamide including regulations, recommendations, analysis, occurrence ... Acrylamide intake was not associated with breast cancer.. *No positive associations were found between acrylamide intake and ... Petersen, B J. and Tran N, 2005, Chapter 3: Exposure to Acrylamide In "Chemistry and Safety of Acrylamide in Food," Advances in ... Schieberle, P et al (2005) New Aspects on the Formation and Analysis of Acrylamide, In "Chemistry and Safety of Acrylamide in ...
more infohttps://www.ifst.org/resources/information-statements/acrylamide-foods
Acrylamide cleared of causing breast cancer | New Scientist  Acrylamide cleared of causing breast cancer | New Scientist
... of 100,000 nurses suggests that their risk of developing breast cancer was the same regardless of the amount of acrylamide in ... Acrylamide cleared of causing breast cancer. Health 22 August 2007 It was responsible for one of the biggest food scares in ... Now acrylamide, which is found in coffee, French fries and many other foods, has been cleared of causing breast cancer. ... The alarm was raised in 2002 when researchers discovered that acrylamide, which had been shown to cause cancers in animals, can ...
more infohttps://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19526186-000-acrylamide-cleared-of-causing-breast-cancer/
Acrylamide: Industry Statement | The Dr. Oz Show  Acrylamide: Industry Statement | The Dr. Oz Show
This includes assessing exposure levels, conducting toxicology research, and finding ways to mitigate acrylamide levels in food ... The FDA is currently conducting research studies to determine whether acrylamide in food is a potential risk to human health. ... acrylamide levels in food are much lower. The FDA intends to issue draft guidance for industry concerning acrylamide in food. ... While some studies have shown that acrylamide in very high doses caused cancer in animals and nerve damage in people exposed to ...
more infohttp://www.doctoroz.com/acrylamide-industry-statement
ACRYLAMIDE TESTING  ACRYLAMIDE TESTING
... and Determination of Acrylamide in Water, Paperboard and Foodstuff by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography ... Acrylamide Testing. Determination of Acrylamide in Water, Paperboard and Foodstuff by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography ... of 0.1 μg/L in water and 1 μg/kg for acrylamide in paperboard and foodstuff.. Acrylamide is classified by the International ... Acrylamide has been measured in bread and candy at low μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations, and in coffee, biscuits and potato chips at ...
more infohttp://www.caslab.com/Acrylamide-Testing/
Acrylamide - definition of acrylamide by The Free Dictionary  Acrylamide - definition of acrylamide by The Free Dictionary
acrylamide synonyms, acrylamide pronunciation, acrylamide translation, English dictionary definition of acrylamide. n. A ... Environmental Protection Agency all say that acrylamide is likely to be a human carcinogen.. Acrylamide: avoiding a likely ... Acrylamide - definition of acrylamide by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/acrylamide ... acrylamide. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. a·cryl·a·mide. (ə-krĭl′ə-mīd′). n.. A readily ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/acrylamide
  • Evidence from animal studies shows that acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide are genotoxic and carcinogenic: they damage DNA and cause cancer. (europa.eu)
  • Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and genotoxic substance that forms during high temperature cooking by a heat-induced reaction between sugar and an amino acid called asparagine. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The European Parliament's environment committee will vote on Thursday (28 September) on a resolution which seeks to stop a Commission proposal to regulate levels of carcinogenic acrylamide in food, amid continuing pleas from food safety advocates to endorse the original proposal. (euractiv.com)
  • Representatives of the EU's 28 member states voted yesterday (19 July) in favour of a European Commission proposal to reduce the presence in food of acrylamide, a known carcinogenic substance present in fries, crisps, bread, biscuits, or coffee. (euractiv.com)
  • Rhoca-Gil contains acrylamide, a toxic chemical that is mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • FoodDrinkEurope (which represents the food and drink industry's interests at the European and international level) has produced a document known as the 'toolkit' that outlines ways of reducing acrylamide in food manufacture for a variety of foods and processes. (food.gov.uk)
  • Symptoms of acrylamide exposure include dermatitis in the exposed area and peripheral neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's important to note that these determinations are based mainly on studies in lab animals, and not on studies of people's exposure to acrylamide from foods. (cancer.org)
  • In the workplace, exposure to acrylamide is regulated by the EPA and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (cancer.org)
  • Some people working in certain industries that are regulated for acrylamide need to take precautions to limit their exposure. (cancer.org)
  • For most people, the major potential sources of acrylamide exposure are in certain foods and in cigarette smoke. (cancer.org)
  • It's not yet clear if the levels of acrylamide in foods raise cancer risk, but if you're concerned, there are some things you can do to lower your exposure. (cancer.org)
  • While evidence from human studies on the impact of acrylamide in the diet is inconclusive, scientists agree that acrylamide in food has the potential to cause cancer in humans as well and it would be prudent to reduce exposure. (food.gov.uk)
  • Evidence from human studies that dietary exposure to acrylamide causes cancer is currently limited and inconclusive. (europa.eu)
  • The most important food groups contributing to acrylamide exposure are fried potato products, coffee, biscuits, crackers, crisp bread and soft bread. (europa.eu)
  • EFSA's scientific advice will inform EU and national decision-makers when weighing up possible measures for further reducing consumer exposure to acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • The infographic explains how acrylamide forms and in which foods, and includes basic tips provided by national authorities on reducing acrylamide exposure in the diet. (europa.eu)
  • As part of its full risk assessment, EFSA also updated its European exposure assessment (last carried out in 2011) based on more recent data on acrylamide levels in food. (europa.eu)
  • This document was prepared by NIOSH and Criteria Group of Occupational Standard Setting, Research Dept., National Insitute of Occupational Health (NIOH) to provide the scientific basic for establishing recommended exposure levels to acrylamide. (cdc.gov)
  • Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to Acrylamide over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • This includes assessing exposure levels, conducting toxicology research, and finding ways to mitigate acrylamide levels in food. (doctoroz.com)
  • [ 11 ] There is a margin of 900-fold between the dose that gave cancer to 10% of rats and human exposure to acrylamide in the diet. (thefullwiki.org)
  • 2013 - EFSA launched a call to food business operators and other stakeholders to submit additional analytical data on acrylamide levels in foods and beverages collected from 2010 onwards. (europa.eu)
  • Large databases of occurrence data are maintained by the European Commission (European Union Acrylamide Monitoring Database) (European Commission 2006) and the US Food and Drug Administration (Survey Data on Acrylamide in Food: Individual Food Products) (US FDA 2006). (ifst.org)
  • In 2016, the FDA issued guidance to help the food industry reduce the amount of acrylamide in certain foods, but these are recommendations, not regulations. (cancer.org)
  • The duration and temperature of cooking determines the amount of acrylamide produced: long durations and higher temperatures form more acrylamide than short durations and lower temperatures. (food.gov.uk)
  • The current process to determine the amount of acrylamide in food requires sophisticated analytical techniques, such as gas or liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acrylamide has many other uses in molecular biology laboratories, including the use of linear polyacrylamide (LPA) as a carrier, which aids in the precipitation of small amounts of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another use of polyacrylamide is as a chemical intermediate in the production of N-methylol acrylamide and N-butoxyacrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide is a well-known industrial chemical whose primary use is the synthesis of polyacrylamide. (ifst.org)
  • When separating proteins or small nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, or oligonucleotides) the gel is usually composed of different concentrations of acrylamide and a cross-linker, producing different sized mesh networks of polyacrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyacrylamide (IUPAC poly(2-propenamide) or poly(1-carbamoylethylene), abbreviated as PAM) is a polymer (-CH2CHCONH2-) formed from acrylamide subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though these products are often called 'polyacrylamide', many are actually copolymers of acrylamide and one or more other chemical species, such as an acrylic acid or a salt thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, Acrydite modified oligonucleotides can be incorporated, stoichiometrically, into hydrogels such as polyacrylamide, using standard free radical polymerization chemistry, where the double bond in the Acrydite group reacts with other activated double bond containing compounds such as acrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • A polymer/clay superabsorbent composite material made by attaching acrylamide to finely powdered attapulgite (a fuller's earth clay) shows promise for its excellent water retention and low cost compared to polyacrylamide hydrogel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide can form naturally from chemical reactions in certain types of starchy foods, after cooking at high temperatures. (cancer.org)
  • Some foods with higher levels of acrylamide include French fries, potato chips, foods made from grains (such as breakfast cereals, cookies, and toast), and coffee. (cancer.org)
  • But ongoing studies will continue to provide new information on whether acrylamide levels in foods are linked to increased cancer risk. (cancer.org)
  • Limit foods that might be high in acrylamide, such as potato products (especially French fries and potato chips), coffee, and foods made from grains (such as breakfast cereals, cookies, and toast). (cancer.org)
  • Acrylamide is a chemical created when some foods, particularly starchy foods like potatoes and bread, are cooked for long periods at high temperatures, such as when baking, frying, grilling, toasting and roasting. (food.gov.uk)
  • Acrylamide is not deliberately added to foods, it is a natural by-product of the cooking process and has always been present in our food. (food.gov.uk)
  • Acrylamide forms from sugars and amino acids (mainly one called asparagine) that are naturally present in many foods. (europa.eu)
  • Since acrylamide is present in a wide range of everyday foods, this health concern applies to all consumers but children are the most exposed age group on a body weight basis. (europa.eu)
  • An important aim of the EPIC Acrylamide Working Group is therefore to evaluate the foods that contribute to dietary AA intake, and to determine risks of developing cancer (endometrial, ovarian, pancreatic, breast, oesophageal, and other sites) in individuals with higher dietary consumption of AA. (iarc.fr)
  • Samples of commercially available foods in Sweden were then analysed and acrylamide was found in a number of foods commonly consumed, particularly carbohydrate rich foods prepared by heating at high temperature. (ifst.org)
  • Much research has focused on the human health risks of the levels of acrylamide found in foods and on ways of reducing those levels. (ifst.org)
  • Acrylamide occurs in carbohydrate (reducing sugar)-containing foods prepared by heating above 120°C, e.g. frying, grilling, baking, broiling. (ifst.org)
  • Potato and cereal food products tend to have the highest amounts of acrylamide among commonly consumed foods. (ifst.org)
  • Now acrylamide, which is found in coffee, French fries and many other foods, has been cleared of causing breast cancer. (newscientist.com)
  • The FDA's best advice for consumers regarding acrylamide is eating a balanced diet, avoiding too much fried food, and following a few simple steps for storing and/or preparing certain foods. (doctoroz.com)
  • Occurrence and analytical methods of acrylamide in heat-treated foods - review and recent developments. (caslab.com)
  • An improved LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of acrylamide in processed foods. (caslab.com)
  • Acrylamide also occurs in many cooked starchy foods. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In February 2009, Health Canada announced that they were assessing whether acrylamide, which occurs naturally during the cooking of French fries, potato chips and other processed foods, is a hazard to human health and whether any regulatory action needs to be taken. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Since the detection of acrylamide in certain foods our sector has achieved a decline in mean acrylamide levels over the last 14 years of roughly 50%," he added. (euractiv.com)
  • The Commission has indicated that it was planning to "initiate discussions" on setting maximum levels of acrylamide in certain foods after the new regulation comes into force. (euractiv.com)
  • These studies found no association between intake of specific foods containing acrylamide and risk of these cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Acrylamide is found at high levels in dark-colored baked, roasted and fried high-carbohydrate foods, as well as in roasted coffee and barbecued meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide is often formed in the cooking of starchy foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • If frying potatoes or toasting bread, cook them to a lighter color (as opposed to dark brown), which produces less acrylamide. (cancer.org)
  • Avoid storing potatoes in the refrigerator, which can result in increased acrylamide levels during cooking. (cancer.org)
  • Storing raw potatoes in the fridge may lead to the formation of more free sugars in the potatoes (a process sometimes referred to as 'cold sweetening') and can increase overall acrylamide levels especially if the potatoes are then fried, roasted or baked. (food.gov.uk)
  • This led to investigation of food as a possible source, and the discovery that acrylamide was formed when potatoes were heated above 120̊C. (ifst.org)
  • It has been shown that the reducing sugars are the limiting factors in acrylamide formation in potatoes, while asparagine appears to be the limiting factor in cereal products (Stadler 2006). (ifst.org)
  • They first examined raw potatoes that arrived at the factory and were able to identify potatoes susceptible to acrylamide formation before these enter production. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2012 - EFSA received a proposal from organisations belonging to four EU Member States (Denmark, France, Germany and Sweden) to consider new scientific findings on the possible carcinogenicity of acrylamide. (europa.eu)
  • Acrylamide can be found in small amounts in consumer products including caulk, food packaging, and some adhesives. (cancer.org)
  • While we can't completely avoid risks like acrylamide in food, eating a healthy, balanced diet that includes basing meals on starchy carbohydrates and getting your 5 A Day will help reduce your risk of cancer. (food.gov.uk)
  • New legislation will require food businesses operators to put in place simple practical steps to manage acrylamide within their food safety management systems. (food.gov.uk)
  • The FAO/WHO Consultation on Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and existing data and research on acrylamide. (who.int)
  • Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during high-temperature cooking, including frying, baking, roasting and also industrial processing, at +120°C and low moisture. (europa.eu)
  • Acrylamide also has many non-food industrial uses and is present in tobacco smoke. (europa.eu)
  • Experts from EFSA's Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) reconfirmed previous evaluations that acrylamide in food potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups. (europa.eu)
  • 2014 - Together with national partners in the Member States, EFSA published an infographic on acrylamide in food to help increase awareness about this issue. (europa.eu)
  • 2013 - EFSA accepted a request from the European Commission to provide a scientific opinion on the potential risks for human health of acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • The Authority has also consulted consumer organisations, NGOs and the food industry through its Stakeholder Consultative Platform to find out about on-going and recent research related to acrylamide in food. (europa.eu)
  • 2009-2012 - EFSA published four consecutive reports on acrylamide levels in food, comparing data from 2007 to 2010 over the series. (europa.eu)
  • The reports generally did not reveal any considerable differences from previous years in the levels of acrylamide in most food categories assessed. (europa.eu)
  • The European Commission has published precise recommendations for the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food products, as the reduction of levels is patchy across categories. (foodnavigator.com)
  • It may be appropriate to assume that the application of the acrylamide toolbox was effective only in a limited number of food groups. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The acrylamide content of food(s) varies widely within the same food product, within the same manufacturing facility at different times, and between manufacturers (using different formulations and processing conditions). (ifst.org)
  • The FDA is currently conducting research studies to determine whether acrylamide in food is a potential risk to human health. (doctoroz.com)
  • While some studies have shown that acrylamide in very high doses caused cancer in animals and nerve damage in people exposed to very high levels at work, acrylamide levels in food are much lower. (doctoroz.com)
  • The FDA intends to issue draft guidance for industry concerning acrylamide in food. (doctoroz.com)
  • Ways to reduce acrylamide through food storage and preparation can be found at fda.gov . (doctoroz.com)
  • ALS Environmental has developed special prep procedures for water, paperboard and complex food matrices, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of acrylamide . (caslab.com)
  • Coffee is not the only food item that acrylamide can be found in. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acrylamide levels appear to rise as food is heated for longer periods of time. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A study by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a mechanism that involves asparagine , which, when heated in the presence of glucose , forms acrylamide. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Food manufacturers risk falling well short of meeting new EU rules aimed at limiting levels of cancer-causing acrylamide, according to a series of new tests released on Thursday (11 January). (euractiv.com)
  • The European Parliament's environment committee objected to the Commission's proposed criteria for endocrine disruptors on Thursday (28 September), and threw out another objection to the executive's proposal to regulate levels of cancer-causing acrylamide in food. (euractiv.com)
  • Thus, it is a public health concern to evaluate whether intake of acrylamide at levels found in the food supply is an important cancer risk factor. (nih.gov)
  • The importance of epidemiological studies to establish the public health risk associated with acrylamide in food is discussed, as are the limitations and future directions of such studies. (nih.gov)
  • Acrylamide is a chemical that naturally forms in starchy food products during every-day high-temperature cooking (frying, baking, roasting and also industrial processing at +120°C and low moisture). (europa.eu)
  • In food manufacturing it is used to decrease acrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRODUCT IDENTITY AND USES 1.1 Identity Common name: acrylamide Chemical formula: C 3 H 5 N0 Chemical Structure: H H 0 H ' ' " ' C = C - C - N ' ' H H Relative molecular mass: 71.08 Common synonyms: 2-propenamide, acrylamide monomer, acrylic acid amide, acrylic amide, ethylene carboxamide, propenamide, propeneamide, propenoic acid amide. (inchem.org)
  • Class 6.1 Conversion factors: 1 ppm = 2.91 mg/m 3 air, or 1 mg/m 3 = 0.34 ppm at 25 C and 101.4 kPa (760 mm Hg) 1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties Acrylamide is a colourless to white odourless solid that are melts at 84-85 C. On crystallization from benzene, leaf- or flake-like crystals are formed. (inchem.org)
  • Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide is a chemical substance formed by a reaction between amino acids and sugars. (food.gov.uk)
  • Acrylamide (or acrylic amide ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C 3 H 5 N O . Its IUPAC name is 2-propenamide . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Acrylamide is an industrial chemical which is used in several ways, such as production of polyacrylamides for (waste)water treatment, textile, paper processing and cosmetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular oxygen, iodide ions and acrylamide are common chemical quenchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large majority of non-lipid molecules, such as proteins and DNA, remain unaffected by this procedure, thanks to the acrylamide gel and chemical properties of the molecules involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substance has raised health concerns but it is not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of getting cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. A process as defined in claim 1 wherein said polymeric material is a copolymer of a (meth)acrylamide and a cationic monomer copolymerizable therewith. (google.com)
  • Acrylamide has been measured in bread and candy at low μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations, and in coffee, biscuits and potato chips at high μg/Kg (ppb) concentrations 3 . (caslab.com)
  • Determination of acrylamide in potato chips by a reversed-phase LC-MS method based on a stable isotope dilution assay. (caslab.com)
  • As of 2014[update] it is still not clear whether dietary acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, reviews of studies done in groups of people (epidemiologic studies) suggest that dietary acrylamide isn't likely to be related to risk for most common types of cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Mean dietary intake of acrylamide in adults averages 0.5 microg/kg of body weight per day, whereas intake is higher among children. (nih.gov)
  • Several epidemiological studies examining the relationship between dietary intake of acrylamide and cancers of the colon, rectum, kidney, bladder, and breast have been undertaken. (nih.gov)
  • 9. A process as defined in claim 6 wherein said (meth)acrylamide polymer comprises a copolymer of acrylamide and a diallydialkylammonium chloride. (google.com)
  • As of 2016[update] it is still not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this prep and analytical approach, ALS Environmental is able to achieve method reporting limits (MRL) of 0.1 μg/L in water and 1 μg/kg for acrylamide in paperboard and foodstuff. (caslab.com)
  • Carcinogencity has been demonstrated in animal studies at high doses, but is unproven in humans at the acrylamide concentrations found in the diet. (ifst.org)
  • A member of the class of acrylamides that results from the formal condensation of acrylic acid with ammonia. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 11. Dry- and/or wet-strength paper as defined in claim 10 wherein the glyoxalated (meth)acrylamide containing polymer of said composition comprises a terpolymer of acrylamide, N,N-dimethylacrylamide and diallyl dialkylammonium chloride. (google.com)
  • Experimental results that are based on feeding acrylamide to animals might not be applicable to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • One reason for the high acrylamide content of potato crisps is that a crisp is essentially two surfaces with very little matter between them. (ifst.org)
  • it is primarily a surface reaction, i.e . acrylamide in bread is primarily located in the crust with very low or no amounts in the crumb. (ifst.org)