Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
'Allyl compounds' are organic substances that contain the allyl group (CH2=CH-CH2-) as a functional component, which can be found in various forms such as allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, and allyl esters.
'Smoke' is a complex mixture of gases, fine particles, and volatile compounds, generally produced by combustion of organic substances, which can contain harmful chemicals known to have adverse health effects.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.
"Semicarbazones are compounds formed when semicarbazide reacts with an aldehyde or ketone, creating a bond that includes a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, which can be useful in the identification and analysis of carbonyl groups in organic chemistry and medicinal research."
Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Butanones, also known as methyl ethyl ketone or MEK, are organic compounds consisting of a four-carbon chain with a ketone functional group located at the second carbon atom, classified as dimethyl ketones, and commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings as solvents and chemical intermediates.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Mercaptoethylamines are specialized chemical compounds containing a sulfhydryl (-SH) group and an amino (-NH2) group, linked to a two-carbon ethylene chain, which are used in various pharmaceutical and industrial applications due to their ability to act as reducing agents, chelating agents, or precursors for other chemical reactions.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
Semicarbazides are organic compounds containing a functional group with the structure NH2-NH-CO-NH2, which are commonly used as reagents in chemical reactions to form semicarbazones, and can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.
The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)
**Maleates** are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a hydroxyl group attached to adjacent carbon atoms, often used as intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, or as drugs themselves, such as maleic acid or its salts.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
Acrolein is an unsaturated aldehyde (C3H4O), highly reactive, toxic and naturally occurring compound that can be found in certain foods, tobacco smoke and is produced as a result of environmental pollution or industrial processes.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Uracil is a nitrogenous base, specifically a pyrimidine derivative, which constitutes one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid), pairing with adenine via hydrogen bonds during base-pairing. (25 words)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Acrolein causes inhibitor kappaB-independent decreases in nuclear factor kappaB activation in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. (1/412)

Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde to which humans are exposed in various situations. In the present study, the effects of sublethal doses of acrolein on nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were investigated. Immediately following a 30-min exposure to 45 fmol of acrolein/cell, glutathione (GSH) and DNA synthesis and NF-kappaB binding were reduced by more than 80%. All parameters returned to normal or supranormal levels by 8 h post-treatment. Pretreatment with acrolein completely blocked 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced activation of NF-kappaB. Cells treated for 1 h with 1 mM diethyl maleate (DEM) showed a 34 and 53% decrease in GSH and DNA synthesis, respectively. DEM also reduced NF-kappaB activation by 64% at 2 h post-treatment, with recovery to within 22% of control at 8 h. Both acrolein and DEM decreased NF-kappaB function approximately 50% at 2 h after treatment with TPA, as shown by a secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter assay. GSH returned to control levels by 8 h after DEM treatment, but proliferation remained significantly depressed for 24 h. Interestingly, DEM caused a profound decrease in NF-kappaB binding, even at doses as low as 0.125 mM that had little effect on GSH. Neither acrolein nor DEM had any effect on the levels of phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated inhibitor kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). Furthermore, acrolein decreased NF-kappaB activation in cells depleted of IkappaB-alpha by TPA stimulation in the presence of cycloheximide, demonstrating that the decrease in NF-kappaB activation was not the result of increased binding by the inhibitory protein. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that acrolein modified NF-kappaB in the cytosol prior to chemical dissociation from IkappaB with detergent. Together, these data support the conclusion that the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by acrolein and DEM is IkappaB-independent. The mechanism appears to be related to direct modification of thiol groups in the NF-kappaB subunits.  (+info)

Regulation of human airway mucins by acrolein and inflammatory mediators. (2/412)

Bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, marked by inflammation and mucus hypersecretion, can be caused or exacerbated by airway pathogens or irritants including acrolein, an aldehyde present in tobacco smoke. To determine whether acrolein and inflammatory mediators alter mucin gene expression, steady-state mRNA levels of two airway mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, were measured (by RT-PCR) in human lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H292). MUC5AC mRNA levels increased after >/=0.01 nM acrolein, 10 microM prostaglandin E2 or 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 1.0 nM tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or 10 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (a protein kinase C activator). In contrast, MUC5B mRNA levels, although easily detected, were unaffected by these agonists, suggesting that irritants and associated inflammatory mediators increase mucin biosynthesis by inducing MUC5AC message levels, whereas MUC5B is constitutively expressed. When transcription was inhibited, TNF-alpha exposure increased MUC5AC message half-life compared with control level, suggesting that transcript stabilization is a major mechanism controlling increased MUC5AC message levels. Together, these findings imply that irritants like acrolein can directly and indirectly (via inflammatory mediators) increase airway mucin transcripts in epithelial cells.  (+info)

Cigarette smoke induces direct DNA damage in the human B-lymphoid cell line Raji. (3/412)

Human lymphoid cells (Raji) were exposed to water-soluble compounds from cigarette smoke (CS) generated in a smoking machine. DNA damage, as detected by alkaline single-cell microelectrophoresis (COMET assay), was induced in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in the cells. Most of the rapidly induced DNA damage was attributable to direct-acting compounds since cytochrome P450-related metabolic activities (ethoxy- and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylases and coumarin-7-hydroxylase) were absent or very low. In addition, induction of DNA damage could be inhibited only slightly by beta-naphthoflavone and coumarin. Vitamin C enhanced DNA damage in Raji cells probably by redox cycling of catechol and hydroquinone present in CS implicating reactive oxygen intermediates as another source of DNA damage. N-acetylcysteine, a radical scavenger and glutathione precursor, reduced DNA damage in Raji cells when exposure to CS was followed by 2 h post-incubation in culture medium. Unrepaired DNA damage caused by CS persisted longer than gamma-irradiation-induced DNA damage. Among the CS constituents, acrolein, but not formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, induced DNA damage although less intensely than CS itself. At 50 and 100 microM concentrations, acrolein also inhibited repair of gamma- irradiation-induced DNA damage in the COMET assay. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by acrolein at 50 microM was demonstrated by an immunochemical assay for bromo-deoxyuridine incorporation; however, inhibition of a representative repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanosine hydrolase, by either CS or acrolein was not observed. The present results further confirm the presence of direct-acting genotoxic components and inhibitors of DNA repair in the gas phase of tobacco smoke, that may contribute to DNA damage and smoking-associated cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract.  (+info)

Monocyte inflammation augments acrolein-induced Muc5ac expression in mouse lung. (4/412)

Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde found in smog and tobacco smoke, can induce airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion. To determine whether changes in steady-state mucin gene expression (Muc2 and Muc5ac) are associated with inflammatory cell accumulation and neutrophil elastase activity, FVB/N mice were exposed to acrolein (3.0 parts/million; 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 3 wk). The levels of Muc2 and Muc5ac mRNA were determined by RT-PCR, and the presence of Muc5ac protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Total and differential cell counts were determined from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and neutrophil elastase activity was measured in the BAL fluid supernatant. Lung Muc5ac mRNA was increased on days 12 and 19, and Muc5ac protein was detected in mucous granules and on the surface of the epithelium on day 19. Lung Muc2 mRNA was not detected at measurable levels in either control or exposed mice. Acrolein exposure caused a significant and persistent increase in macrophages and a rapid but transient increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid. Recoverable neutrophil elastase activity was not significantly altered at any time after acrolein exposure. To further examine the role of macrophage accumulation in mucin gene expression, additional strains of mice (including a strain genetically deficient in macrophage metalloelastase) were exposed to acrolein for 3 wk, and Muc5ac mRNA levels and macrophage accumulation were measured. The magnitude of macrophage accumulation coincided with increased Muc5ac mRNA levels, indicating that excessive macrophage accumulation augments acrolein-induced Muc5ac synthesis and secretion after repeated exposure. These findings support a role for chronic monocytic inflammation in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion observed in chronic bronchitis.  (+info)

Effect of acrolein on human alveolar macrophage NF-kappaB activity. (5/412)

Acrolein is an environmental pollutant that is known to suppress respiratory host defense against infections; however, the mechanism of the decrease in host defense is not yet clear. We have previously reported that acrolein inhibited endotoxin-induced cytokine release and induced apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages, suggesting that the inhibition of cytokine release and/or cytotoxicity to alveolar macrophages may, in part, be responsible for acrolein-induced immunosuppression in the lung. Because nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is an important transcription factor for a number of cytokine genes and is also an important regulator of apoptosis, the effect of acrolein on NF-kappaB activity was examined by electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Acrolein caused a dose-dependent inhibition of endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB activation as well as an inhibition of basal level NF-kappaB activity. Because IkappaB is a principal regulator of NF-kappaB activity in the nucleus, changes in IkappaB were determined by Western blotting. Acrolein-inhibited IkappaB phosphorylation leads to an increase in cellular IkappaB levels preventing NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and is likely the mechanism of acrolein-induced inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. The role of basal level NF-kappaB in acrolein-induced apoptosis was also examined. An NF-kappaB inhibitor (MG-132) also induced apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages, suggesting that a certain basal level NF-kappaB activity may be required for macrophage cell survival. Taken together, our results suggest that the acrolein-inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB activation decreased the basal level NF-kappaB activity, which may be responsible for the inhibition of cytokine release and the induction of apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Pharmacological and molecular evidence for kinin B1 receptor expression in urinary bladder of cyclophosphamide-treated rats. (6/412)

1. In the present study, we developed an experimental model of cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). In order to characterize des-Arg9-BK-induced contraction on the urinary bladder (UB) during the development of inflammation and to quantify kinin B1 receptor gene expression using a quantitative RT - PCR technique. 2. In the presence of peptidase inhibitors captopril (10 microM), DL-thiorphan (1 microM) and DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidino-ethylthiopropanoic acid (MERGEPTA 5 microM), bradykinin (BK) (0.3 - 3,000 nM) evoked a concentration-dependent contraction of rat UB which was not different between the CYP- and vehicle-treated groups. Unlike BK, des-Arg9-BK (0.3 - 100,000 nM) did not contract UB from vehicle-treated rats but contracted vigorously bladder strips from CYP-treated rats 14, 24 and 168 h after treatment. In UB of 24 h treated rat, the pD2 value of des-Arg9-BK was 7.3+/-0.1. 3. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (3 microM) reduced by 30% the maximal response of des-Arg9-BK. Both the kinin B1 receptor antagonists des-Arg9-[Leu8]BK (10 microM) and des-Arg10-Hoe 140 (10 microM) produced a rightward shift of the concentration-response curve to des-Arg9-BK yielding pKB values of 6.8+/-0.2 and 7.2+/-0.1, respectively, whilst the kinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (1 microM) had no effect. 4. After CYP treatment, mRNA coding for the kinin B1 receptor appeared predominantly in UB. In this organ, the induction was progressive, reaching a maximum 48 h after CYP treatment. 5. In conclusion, the present study provides strong evidence for an induction of kinin B1 receptors in UB of CYP-treated rats. This was associated at a molecular level with an increase in mRNA expression of the gene coding for the kinin B1 receptor. This kinin receptor displayed the whole features of a classical rat kinin B1 receptor.  (+info)

Sensory nerve-mediated immediate nasal responses to inspired acrolein. (7/412)

To investigate the role of sensory C-fiber stimulation and tachykinin release in the immediate nasal responses to the sensory irritant acrolein, the upper respiratory tract of the urethan-anesthetized male Fischer 344 rat was isolated via insertion of an endotracheal tube, and acrolein-laden air [2, 5, 10, or 20 parts/million (ppm)] was drawn continuously through that site at a flow rate of 100 ml/min for 50 min. Uptake of the inert vapor acetone was measured throughout the exposure to assess nasal vascular function. Plasma protein extravasation into nasal tissue and nasal lavage fluid was also assessed via injection of Evans blue dye. At 20 ppm, acrolein induced 1) a twofold increase in acetone uptake, indicative of vasodilation, followed by a progressive decline toward basal levels and 2) increased plasma protein extravasation, as indicated by dye leakage into nasal tissue and nasal lavage. These responses were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment and the neurokinin type 1 antagonist N-acetyltrifluoromethyl tryptophan benzyl ester and were potentiated by the peptidase inhibitors phosphoramidon and captopril, suggesting that these responses were mediated by tachykinin. At lower exposure concentrations, acrolein was without effect on dye leakage but produced vasodilation, as indicated by increased acetone uptake. The responses at the lower concentrations were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment, implicating nasal sensory C-fiber involvement, but were not influenced by N-acetyltrifluoromethyl tryptophan benzyl ester, phosphoramidon, or captopril, suggesting the involvement of a mediator other than the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A.  (+info)

Glutathione antagonized cyclophosphamide- and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity of PC3 cells and immunosuppressive actions in mice. (8/412)

AIM: To study the antagonistic effect of glutathione (GSH) on toxicity of PC3 cell induced by cyclophosphamide (Cyc) and acrolein (Acr) and on immunosuppressive actions caused by Cyc. METHODS: Splenocyte, PC3 cell proliferation and cell protein content were measured by tetrazolium (MTT) assay and Coomassie brilliant blue assay. Serum anti-SRBC hemolysin, agglutinin, and splenocyte proliferation were measured in normal and S-180-bearing mice. Tumors were weighed. RESULTS: Pretreatment with GSH 2 mmol.L-1 reduced splenocyte proliferation inhibition from 18.64%, 49.72% to 6.78%, 18.36% (induced by Cyc 1, and 5 mmol.L-1), and PC3 cell proliferation inhibition from 27.7%, 45.3%, and 74.6% to 14.6%, 18.8%, and 49.1% (induced by Cyc 1, 3, and 5 mmol.L-1), and from 62.6%, 85.4%, and 90.6% to 41.9%, 57.7%, and 86.4% (induced by Acr 10, 25, and 50 mumol.L-1), respectively. In normal mice, s.c. GSH 75 or 150 mg.kg-1 b.i.d. x 5 d after i.p. Cyc 40 mg.kg-1, the hemolysin and the splenocyte proliferation were higher than those in normal mice i.p. Cyc 40 mg.kg-1 alone. Hemolysin, serum agglutinin, and splenocyte proliferation in S-180-bearing mice given s.c. GSH 150 mg.kg-1 b.i.d. x 10 d after i.p. Cyc 40 mg.kg-1 were also markedly higher than those in S-180-bearing mice given i.p. Cyc alone. But, according to tumor weight, GSH did not interfere the antitumor activity of Cyc in S-180-bearing mice. CONCLUSION: GSH exhibited protective effects against Cyc and Acr, but had no effect on the antitumor action of Cyc.  (+info)

Aldehydes are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and a double bonded oxygen atom, also known as a formyl or aldehyde group. The general chemical structure of an aldehyde is R-CHO, where R represents a hydrocarbon chain.

Aldehydes are important in biochemistry and medicine as they are involved in various metabolic processes and are found in many biological molecules. For example, glucose is converted to pyruvate through a series of reactions that involve aldehyde intermediates. Additionally, some aldehydes have been identified as toxicants or environmental pollutants, such as formaldehyde, which is a known carcinogen and respiratory irritant.

Formaldehyde is also commonly used in medical and laboratory settings for its disinfectant properties and as a fixative for tissue samples. However, exposure to high levels of formaldehyde can be harmful to human health, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling aldehydes in medical and laboratory settings.

Phosphoramide mustards are a class of alkylating agents used in chemotherapy. They work by forming covalent bonds with DNA, causing cross-linking of the DNA strands and preventing DNA replication and transcription. This results in cytotoxicity and ultimately cell death. The most common phosphoramide mustard is mechlorethamine, which is used in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and various types of leukemia. Other examples include cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, which are used to treat a wide range of cancers including breast, ovarian, and lung cancer. These agents are known for their potent antineoplastic activity, but they also have a narrow therapeutic index and can cause significant side effects, such as myelosuppression, nausea, vomiting, and hair loss.

"Propanols" is a general term that refers to a class of alcohols containing a propanol group, which is a functional group made up of a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms and a hydroxyl group (-OH). There are two primary structures for propanols: 1-propanol (n-propyl alcohol) and 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol), which differ in the arrangement of their carbon chain.

1-Propanol, also known as n-propyl alcohol, has a linear structure with the hydroxyl group attached to one end of the carbon chain: CH3CH2CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of other chemicals.

2-Propanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol, has a branched structure with the hydroxyl group attached to a branch on the second carbon atom: (CH3)2CHOH. It is a colorless, flammable liquid that is widely used as a solvent and disinfectant.

Both 1-propanol and 2-propanol have applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and cleaning products. However, they should be handled with care due to their flammability and potential health hazards, such as irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract.

Allyl compounds are organic compounds that contain the allyl group, which is a functional group with the formula CH2=CH-CH2-. The allyl group consists of a methylene bridge (CH2-) flanked by a carbon-carbon double bond (-CH=). Allyl compounds can be derived from allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, or other allyl halides and can participate in various chemical reactions due to the reactivity of the double bond. They are used in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

'Smoke' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it can be described as a mixture of small particles and gases that are released when something burns. Smoke can be composed of various components including carbon monoxide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), benzene, toluene, styrene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to smoke can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

In the medical field, exposure to smoke is often referred to as "secondhand smoke" or "passive smoking" when someone breathes in smoke from another person's cigarette, cigar, or pipe. This type of exposure can be just as harmful as smoking itself and has been linked to a range of health problems, including respiratory infections, asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease.

Cystitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the bladder, usually caused by a bacterial infection. The infection can occur when bacteria from the digestive tract or skin enter the urinary tract through the urethra and travel up to the bladder. This condition is more common in women than men due to their shorter urethras, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder.

Symptoms of cystitis may include a strong, frequent, or urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back. In some cases, there may be blood in the urine, fever, chills, or nausea and vomiting.

Cystitis can usually be treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. Drinking plenty of water to flush out the bacteria and alleviating symptoms with over-the-counter pain medications may also help. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, wiping from front to back after using the toilet, urinating after sexual activity, and avoiding using douches or perfumes in the genital area.

Protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification of proteins, which involves the introduction of carbonyl groups (-CO) into amino acid side chains. This process can occur as a result of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, leading to the formation of protein adducts that can alter protein structure and function. Carbonylation can also be induced by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which are formed during non-enzymatic glycation reactions between reducing sugars and proteins. Protein carbonylation is often associated with aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and other pathological conditions characterized by oxidative stress and protein misfolding.

DNA adducts are chemical modifications or alterations that occur when DNA molecules become attached to or bound with certain harmful substances, such as toxic chemicals or carcinogens. These attachments can disrupt the normal structure and function of the DNA, potentially leading to mutations, genetic damage, and an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

DNA adducts are formed when a reactive molecule from a chemical agent binds covalently to a base in the DNA molecule. This process can occur either spontaneously or as a result of exposure to environmental toxins, such as those found in tobacco smoke, certain industrial chemicals, and some medications.

The formation of DNA adducts is often used as a biomarker for exposure to harmful substances, as well as an indicator of potential health risks associated with that exposure. Researchers can measure the levels of specific DNA adducts in biological samples, such as blood or urine, to assess the extent and duration of exposure to certain chemicals or toxins.

It's important to note that not all DNA adducts are necessarily harmful, and some may even play a role in normal cellular processes. However, high levels of certain DNA adducts have been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases, making them a focus of ongoing research and investigation.

Mesna is a medication used in the prevention and treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis (inflammation and bleeding of the bladder) caused by certain chemotherapy drugs, specifically ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide. Mesna works by neutralizing the toxic metabolites of these chemotherapy agents, which can cause bladder irritation and damage.

Mesna is administered intravenously (into a vein) along with ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide, and it may also be given as a separate infusion after the chemotherapy treatment. The dosage and timing of Mesna administration are determined by the healthcare provider based on the patient's weight, kidney function, and the dose of chemotherapy received.

It is important to note that Mesna does not have any direct anticancer effects and is used solely to manage the side effects of chemotherapy.

Acetylcysteine is a medication that is used for its antioxidant effects and to help loosen thick mucus in the lungs. It is commonly used to treat conditions such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. Acetylcysteine is also known by the brand names Mucomyst and Accolate. It works by thinning and breaking down mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways. Additionally, acetylcysteine is an antioxidant that helps to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. It is available as a oral tablet, liquid, or inhaled medication.

Peroxiredoxin III (PrxIII) is an antioxidant enzyme that belongs to the peroxiredoxin family. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the redox balance within cells by reducing hydrogen peroxide and other organic peroxides into water and alcohol, respectively. PrxIII is primarily located in the mitochondrial matrix, where it protects against oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). It functions as a homodimer and contains a conserved catalytic cysteine residue that gets oxidized during the reduction of peroxides. This oxidized form can be reduced back to its active state by thioredoxin or other reducing agents, allowing PrxIII to continue scavenging ROS. Mutations in the PRDX3 gene, which encodes Peroxiredoxin III, have been associated with various pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.

Allylamine is an organic compound with the formula CH2=CH-CH2-NH2. It is a colorless liquid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Allylamine is used as a building block in the synthesis of various chemical compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers.

In the medical field, allylamine derivatives are used as antifungal agents. These drugs work by inhibiting the enzyme squalene epoxidase, which is necessary for the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. By blocking the production of ergosterol, allylamine derivatives disrupt the integrity of fungal cell membranes and prevent the growth of fungi. Examples of allylamine antifungal drugs include terbinafine and naftifine.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Deoxyguanosine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), one of the nucleic acids. It is a nucleoside, which is a molecule consisting of a sugar (in this case, deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base (in this case, guanine). Deoxyguanosine plays a crucial role in the structure and function of DNA, as it pairs with deoxycytidine through hydrogen bonding to form a rung in the DNA double helix. It is involved in the storage and transmission of genetic information.

Environmental pollutants are defined as any substances or energy (such as noise, heat, or light) that are present in the environment and can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the natural ecosystems. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, agriculture, and household activities. They can be in the form of gases, liquids, solids, or radioactive materials, and can contaminate air, water, and soil. Examples include heavy metals, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases.

It is important to note that the impact of environmental pollutants on human health and the environment can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) and it depends on the type, concentration, duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of environmental pollutants include respiratory problems, cancer, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and developmental delays in children.

It is important to monitor, control and reduce the emissions of these pollutants through regulations, technology advancements, and sustainable practices to protect human health and the environment.

Norleucine is not typically defined in a medical context, but it is a chemical compound used in research and biochemistry. It is an unnatural amino acid that is sometimes used as a substitute for the naturally occurring amino acid methionine in scientific studies. Norleucine has a different side chain than methionine, which can affect the properties of proteins when it is substituted for methionine.

In terms of its chemical structure, norleucine is a straight-chain aliphatic amino acid with a four-carbon backbone and a carboxyl group at one end and an amino group at the other end. It has a branched side chain consisting of a methyl group and an ethyl group.

While norleucine is not typically used as a therapeutic agent in medicine, it may have potential applications in the development of new drugs or in understanding the functions of proteins in the body.

Semicarbazones are chemical compounds that result from the reaction between a carbonyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C=O) and semicarbazide. Semicarbazide is a compound with the formula NH2-NH-CO-NH2.

In organic chemistry, the formation of semicarbazones is one method used to protect carbonyl groups during chemical synthesis. These compounds are also important in analytical chemistry as they can be used to identify and quantify aldehydes and ketones.

It's worth noting that while semicarbazones have significant uses in chemistry, they don't have a specific medical definition. However, certain semicarbazone derivatives have been explored for their potential medicinal properties, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor activities. But these applications are still largely in the research phase and haven't yet resulted in widely used medical treatments or diagnoses.

Nociceptive pain is a type of pain that results from the activation of nociceptors, which are specialized sensory receptors located in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors detect potentially harmful stimuli such as extreme temperatures, pressure, or chemical irritants and transmit signals to the brain, which interprets them as painful sensations.

Nociceptive pain can be further classified into two categories:

1. Somatic nociceptive pain: This type of pain arises from the activation of nociceptors in the skin, muscles, bones, and joints. It is often described as sharp, aching, or throbbing and may be localized to a specific area of the body.
2. Visceral nociceptive pain: This type of pain arises from the activation of nociceptors in the internal organs, such as the lungs, heart, and digestive system. It is often described as deep, cramping, or aching and may be more diffuse and difficult to localize.

Examples of conditions that can cause nociceptive pain include injuries, arthritis, cancer, and infections. Effective management of nociceptive pain typically involves a multimodal approach that includes pharmacologic interventions, such as non-opioid analgesics, opioids, and adjuvant medications, as well as non-pharmacologic therapies, such as physical therapy, acupuncture, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

In the context of medicine and toxicology, protective agents are substances that provide protection against harmful or damaging effects of other substances. They can work in several ways, such as:

1. Binding to toxic substances: Protective agents can bind to toxic substances, rendering them inactive or less active, and preventing them from causing harm. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the emergency treatment of certain types of poisoning because it can bind to certain toxins in the stomach and intestines and prevent their absorption into the body.
2. Increasing elimination: Protective agents can increase the elimination of toxic substances from the body, for example by promoting urinary or biliary excretion.
3. Reducing oxidative stress: Antioxidants are a type of protective agent that can reduce oxidative stress caused by free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These agents can protect cells and tissues from damage caused by oxidation.
4. Supporting organ function: Protective agents can support the function of organs that have been damaged by toxic substances, for example by improving blood flow or reducing inflammation.

Examples of protective agents include chelating agents, antidotes, free radical scavengers, and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Molluscicides are a type of pesticide specifically designed to kill mollusks, which include snails and slugs. These substances work by interfering with the mollusk's nervous system, leading to paralysis and death. Molluscicides are often used in agricultural settings to protect crops from damage caused by these pests, but they can also be found in residential products designed to control nuisance snails and slugs in gardens or landscaping.

It is important to note that molluscicides can be harmful to other organisms as well, including pets and wildlife, so they should be used with caution and according to the manufacturer's instructions. Additionally, some molluscicides may pose risks to human health if not handled properly, so it is essential to follow safety guidelines when using these products.

Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. It is a vital antioxidant that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular health and function. Glutathione helps protect cells from oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to aging and diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and dementia. It also supports the immune system, detoxifies harmful substances, and regulates various cellular processes, including DNA synthesis and repair.

Glutathione is found in every cell of the body, with particularly high concentrations in the liver, lungs, and eyes. The body can produce its own glutathione, but levels may decline with age, illness, or exposure to toxins. As such, maintaining optimal glutathione levels through diet, supplementation, or other means is essential for overall health and well-being.

Cyclamen is a genus of flowering plants in the family Primulaceae, native to Europe and the Mediterranean region. It includes several species that are popular as houseplants for their attractive flowers and heart-shaped leaves. The medical definition of Cyclamen does not exist, as it is primarily used in horticulture and not known to have significant medicinal properties. However, some species of Cyclamen contain chemicals called cyclamine and triterpenoid saponins, which may have potential therapeutic benefits, but more research is needed to confirm their safety and efficacy.

Lipid peroxidation is a process in which free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), steal electrons from lipids containing carbon-carbon double bonds, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This results in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, which can decompose to form a variety of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds, aldehydes, and ketones.

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one such compound that is commonly used as a marker for lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation can cause damage to cell membranes, leading to changes in their fluidity and permeability, and can also result in the modification of proteins and DNA, contributing to cellular dysfunction and ultimately cell death. It is associated with various pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Hydralazine is an antihypertensive medication, which means it is used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing and widening the blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood through the body. This can help reduce the workload on the heart and lower blood pressure. Hydralazine is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken several times a day.

Hydralazine belongs to a class of medications called vasodilators, which work by relaxing the muscle in the walls of the blood vessels, causing them to widen. This increases the amount of blood that can flow through the blood vessels and reduces the pressure within them. Hydralazine is often used in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure.

It's important to note that hydralazine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and rapid heartbeat. It may also interact with certain other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting hydralazine.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

Butanones are a group of chemical compounds that contain a ketone functional group and have the molecular formula C4H8O. They are also known as methyl ethyl ketones or MEKs. The simplest butanone is called methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) or 2-butanone, which has a chain of four carbon atoms with a ketone group in the second position. Other butanones include diethyl ketone (3-pentanone), which has a ketone group in the third position, and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) or 4-methyl-2-pentanone, which has a branched chain with a ketone group in the second position.

Butanones are commonly used as solvents in various industrial applications, such as paint thinners, adhesives, and cleaning agents. They have a characteristic odor and can be harmful if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. Exposure to butanones can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, and nausea.

Lysine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Its chemical formula is (2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid. Lysine is necessary for the growth and maintenance of tissues in the body, and it plays a crucial role in the production of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. It is also essential for the absorption of calcium and the formation of collagen, which is an important component of bones and connective tissue. Foods that are good sources of lysine include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

Mercaptoethylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a sulfhydryl (-SH) group and an amino (-NH2) group, bonded to a carbon atom in an ethylamine structure. The general formula for mercaptoethylamines is R-CH2-CH2-SH, where R represents the organic group attached to the sulfur atom.

In medical terms, mercaptoethylamines are not commonly used as a term. However, one compound that falls under this category is 2-Mercaptoethylamine (MEA), which has been studied in the context of medicine and biochemistry. MEA is a reducing agent and a nucleophile, and it has been used in research to investigate its potential as an antioxidant or a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions.

It's worth noting that mercaptans (compounds containing a sulfhydryl group) can have a strong odor, which may be why some people associate the term "mercapto" with unpleasant smells. However, in the context of medicine and biochemistry, mercaptoethylamines are primarily studied for their chemical properties and potential therapeutic uses.

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

Acetaldehyde is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid with a pungent odor. It is the simplest aldehyde, with the formula CH3CHO. Acetaldehyde is an important intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol and is produced by the oxidation of ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase. It is also a naturally occurring compound that is found in small amounts in various foods and beverages, such as fruits, vegetables, and coffee.

Acetaldehyde is a toxic substance that can cause a range of adverse health effects, including irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, nausea, vomiting, and headaches. It has been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Long-term exposure to acetaldehyde has been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, and liver.

Semicarbazides are organic compounds that contain the functional group -NH-CO-NH-NH2. They are derivatives of hydrazine and carbamic acid, with the general structure (CH3)NHCSNH2. Semicarbazides are widely used in the synthesis of various chemical compounds, including heterocyclic compounds, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

In a medical context, semicarbazides themselves do not have any therapeutic use. However, they can be used in the preparation of certain drugs or drug intermediates. For example, semicarbazones, which are derivatives of semicarbazides, can be used to synthesize some antituberculosis drugs.

It is worth noting that semicarbazides and their derivatives have been found to have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties in some studies. Therefore, they should be handled with care in laboratory settings, and exposure should be minimized to reduce potential health risks.

Alkylation, in the context of medical chemistry and toxicology, refers to the process of introducing an alkyl group (a chemical moiety made up of a carbon atom bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms) into a molecule, typically a biomolecule such as a protein or DNA. This process can occur through various mechanisms, including chemical reactions with alkylating agents.

In the context of cancer therapy, alkylation is used to describe a class of chemotherapeutic drugs known as alkylating agents, which work by introducing alkyl groups onto DNA molecules in rapidly dividing cells. This can lead to cross-linking of DNA strands and other forms of DNA damage, ultimately inhibiting cell division and leading to the death of cancer cells. However, these agents can also affect normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and increased risk of infection.

It's worth noting that alkylation can also occur through non-chemical means, such as in certain types of radiation therapy where high-energy particles can transfer energy to electrons in biological molecules, leading to the formation of reactive radicals that can react with and alkylate DNA.

Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify chemical species in a sample based on the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. In ESI-MS, analytes are ionized through the use of an electrospray, where a liquid sample is introduced through a metal capillary needle at high voltage, creating an aerosol of charged droplets. As the solvent evaporates, the analyte molecules become charged and can be directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

ESI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids, due to its ability to gently ionize these species without fragmentation. The technique provides information about the molecular weight and charge state of the analytes, which can be used to infer their identity and structure. Additionally, ESI-MS can be interfaced with separation techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) for further purification and characterization of complex samples.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Th1-Th2 balance refers to the regulation of the immune response by two subsets of T helper cells, Th1 and Th2. These cell types produce different cytokines that mediate distinct types of immune responses. A balanced Th1-Th2 response is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis and protecting the body against various pathogens.

Th1 cells primarily mediate cell-mediated immunity, which involves activating macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to eliminate intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. Th1 cells produce cytokines like interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2).

Th2 cells, on the other hand, mediate humoral immunity, which involves activating B cells to produce antibodies against extracellular pathogens like parasites and toxins. Th2 cells produce cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interleukin-13 (IL-13).

An imbalance in the Th1-Th2 response can lead to various immune-related disorders. For example, an overactive Th1 response can result in autoimmune diseases, while an overactive Th2 response can contribute to allergic and atopic conditions like asthma and eczema. Therefore, maintaining a balanced Th1-Th2 response is crucial for optimal immune function and overall health.

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

Rose Bengal is not a medical term per se, but a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. It's a dye that is primarily used as a diagnostic stain to test for damaged or denatured cells, particularly in the eye and mouth. In ophthalmology, a Rose Bengal stain is used to identify damage to the cornea's surface, while in dentistry, it can help detect injured oral mucosa or lesions.

The dye works by staining dead or damaged cells more intensely than healthy ones, allowing healthcare professionals to visualize and assess any abnormalities or injuries. However, it is important to note that Rose Bengal itself is not a treatment for these conditions; rather, it is a diagnostic tool used to inform appropriate medical interventions.

Aldehyde reductase is an enzyme that belongs to the family of alcohol dehydrogenases. Its primary function is to catalyze the reduction of a wide variety of aldehydes into their corresponding alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. It is widely distributed in different tissues, including the liver, kidney, and brain. In addition to its detoxifying function, aldehyde reductase has been implicated in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as neuroprotection, cancer, and diabetes.

Sulfhydryl compounds, also known as thiol compounds, are organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH). This functional group is also called a sulfhydryl group. Sulfhydryl compounds can be found in various biological systems and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of proteins, enzymes, and other biomolecules. They can also act as antioxidants and help protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Examples of sulfhydryl compounds include cysteine, glutathione, and coenzyme A.

I'm not able to find a medical definition for the acronym "FANFT." It is possible that it could be a specialized or obscure term, or perhaps it is used in a specific context within medical research or literature. In general, when searching for medical definitions, it is best to use established and well-known terminology. If "FANFT" is a term you have encountered in your studies or research, I would recommend checking the source material for additional context or reaching out to the author for clarification.

The hematopoietic system is the group of tissues and organs in the body that are responsible for the production and maturation of blood cells. These include:

1. Bone marrow: The spongy tissue inside some bones, like the hips and thighs, where most blood cells are produced.
2. Spleen: An organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen that filters the blood, stores red and white blood cells, and removes waste products.
3. Liver: A large organ in the upper right part of the abdomen that filters blood, detoxifies harmful substances, produces bile to aid in digestion, and stores some nutrients like glucose and iron.
4. Lymph nodes: Small glands found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, and groin, that filter lymph fluid and help fight infection.
5. Thymus: A small organ located in the chest, between the lungs, that helps develop T-cells, a type of white blood cell that fights infection.

The hematopoietic system produces three main types of cells:

1. Red blood cells (erythrocytes): Carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
2. White blood cells (leukocytes): Help fight infection and are part of the body's immune system.
3. Platelets (thrombocytes): Small cell fragments that help form blood clots to stop bleeding.

Disorders of the hematopoietic system can lead to conditions such as anemia, leukemia, and lymphoma.

Thioredoxins are a group of small proteins that contain a redox-active disulfide bond and play a crucial role in the redox regulation of cellular processes. They function as electron donors and help to maintain the intracellular reducing environment by reducing disulfide bonds in other proteins, thereby regulating their activity. Thioredoxins also have antioxidant properties and protect cells from oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and repairing oxidatively damaged proteins. They are widely distributed in various organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, and are involved in many physiological processes such as DNA synthesis, protein folding, and apoptosis.

Buthionine Sulfoximine (BSO) is a chemical compound that is known to inhibit the enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, which plays a crucial role in the production of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, BSO can deplete glutathione levels in cells, making it a useful tool in research to study the effects of glutathione depletion on various biological processes. It is often used in laboratory experiments and clinical trials for its potential therapeutic benefits in cancer treatment and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is still being investigated and has not yet been approved by regulatory agencies for widespread clinical use.

"Maleate" is not a medical term in and of itself, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in some medications. Maleic acid or its salts (maleates) are used as a keratolytic agent in topical medications, which means they help to break down and remove dead skin cells. They can also be used as a preservative or a buffering agent in various pharmaceutical preparations.

Maleic acid is a type of organic compound known as a dicarboxylic acid, which contains two carboxyl groups. In the case of maleic acid, these carboxyl groups are located on a single carbon atom, which makes it a cis-conjugated diacid. This structural feature gives maleic acid unique chemical properties that can be useful in various pharmaceutical and industrial applications.

It's worth noting that maleic acid and its salts should not be confused with "maleate" as a gender-specific term, which refers to something related to or characteristic of males.

A Schiff base is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical concept that can be relevant in various scientific and medical fields. A Schiff base is a chemical compound that contains a carbon-nitrogen double bond with the nitrogen atom connected to an aryl or alkyl group, excluding hydrogen. This structure is also known as an azomethine.

The general formula for a Schiff base is R1R2C=NR3, where R1 and R2 are organic groups (aryl or alkyl), and R3 is a hydrogen atom or an organic group. These compounds can be synthesized by the condensation of a primary amine with a carbonyl compound, such as an aldehyde or ketone.

Schiff bases have been studied in various medical and biological contexts due to their potential bioactivities. Some Schiff bases exhibit antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. They can also serve as ligands for metal ions, forming complexes with potential applications in medicinal chemistry, such as in the development of new drugs or diagnostic agents.

Residual Volume (RV) is the amount of air that remains in the lungs after a forced exhale, also known as the "expiratory reserve volume." It is the lowest lung volume that can be reached during a forced exhalation and cannot be completely emptied due to the presence of alveoli that are too small or too far from the airways. This volume is important for maintaining the structural integrity of the lungs and preventing their collapse. Any additional air that enters the lungs after this point will increase the total lung capacity. The normal residual volume for an average adult human is typically around 1 to 1.5 liters.

Thioctic acid is also known as alpha-lipoic acid. It is a vitamin-like chemical compound that is made naturally in the body and is found in small amounts in some foods like spinach, broccoli, and potatoes. Thioctic acid is an antioxidant that helps to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. It also plays a role in energy production in the cells and has been studied for its potential benefits in the treatment of diabetes and nerve-related symptoms of diabetes such as pain, burning, itching, and numbness. Thioctic acid is available as a dietary supplement.

Medical Definition: Thioctic acid (also known as alpha-lipoic acid) is a vitamin-like antioxidant that is made naturally in the body and is found in small amounts in some foods. It plays a role in energy production in the cells, and has been studied for its potential benefits in the treatment of diabetes and nerve-related symptoms of diabetes such as pain, burning, itching, and numbness. Thioctic acid is also available as a dietary supplement.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Liquid chromatography (LC) is a type of chromatography technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components in a mixture. In this method, the sample mixture is dissolved in a liquid solvent (the mobile phase) and then passed through a stationary phase, which can be a solid or a liquid that is held in place by a solid support.

The components of the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase and the mobile phase, causing them to separate as they move through the system. The separated components are then detected and measured using various detection techniques, such as ultraviolet (UV) absorbance or mass spectrometry.

Liquid chromatography is widely used in many areas of science and medicine, including drug development, environmental analysis, food safety testing, and clinical diagnostics. It can be used to separate and analyze a wide range of compounds, from small molecules like drugs and metabolites to large biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a type of ion channel proteins that are widely expressed in various tissues and cells, including the sensory neurons, epithelial cells, and immune cells. They are named after the transient receptor potential mutant flies, which have defects in light-induced electrical responses due to mutations in TRP channels.

TRP channels are polymodal signal integrators that can be activated by a diverse range of physical and chemical stimuli, such as temperature, pressure, touch, osmolarity, pH, and various endogenous and exogenous ligands. Once activated, TRP channels allow the flow of cations, including calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), and magnesium (Mg2+) ions, across the cell membrane.

TRP channels play critical roles in various physiological processes, such as sensory perception, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Dysfunction of TRP channels has been implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including pain, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer.

There are six subfamilies of TRP channels, based on their sequence homology and functional properties: TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPA (ankyrin), TRPP (polycystin), and TRPML (mucolipin). Each subfamily contains several members with distinct activation mechanisms, ion selectivity, and tissue distribution.

In summary, Transient Receptor Potential Channels are a group of polymodal cation channels that play critical roles in various physiological processes and are implicated in many pathological conditions.

Tobacco smoke pollution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it refers to the presence of tobacco smoke in indoor or outdoor environments, which can have negative effects on air quality and human health. It is also known as secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This type of smoke is a mixture of sidestream smoke (the smoke given off by a burning cigarette) and mainstream smoke (the smoke exhaled by a smoker).

The medical community recognizes tobacco smoke pollution as a serious health hazard. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, hundreds of which are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke pollution can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In children, it can also lead to ear infections, asthma attacks, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Therefore, many laws and regulations have been implemented worldwide to protect people from tobacco smoke pollution, such as smoking bans in public places and workplaces.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress refers to a cellular condition characterized by the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins within the ER lumen, leading to disruption of its normal functions. The ER is a membrane-bound organelle responsible for protein folding, modification, and transport, as well as lipid synthesis and calcium homeostasis. Various physiological and pathological conditions can cause an imbalance between the rate of protein entry into the ER and its folding capacity, resulting in ER stress.

To cope with this stress, cells have evolved a set of signaling pathways called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR aims to restore ER homeostasis by reducing global protein synthesis, enhancing ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins, and upregulating the expression of genes involved in protein folding, modification, and quality control.

The UPR is mediated by three major signaling branches:

1. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α): IRE1α is an ER transmembrane protein with endoribonuclease activity that catalyzes the splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA, leading to the expression of a potent transcription factor, spliced XBP1 (sXBP1). sXBP1 upregulates genes involved in ERAD and protein folding.
2. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6): ATF6 is an ER transmembrane protein that, upon ER stress, undergoes proteolytic cleavage to release its cytoplasmic domain, which acts as a potent transcription factor. ATF6 upregulates genes involved in protein folding and degradation.
3. Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK): PERK is an ER transmembrane protein that phosphorylates the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) upon ER stress, leading to a global reduction in protein synthesis and preferential translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). ATF4 upregulates genes involved in amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and apoptosis.

These three branches of the UPR work together to restore ER homeostasis by increasing protein folding capacity, reducing global protein synthesis, and promoting degradation of misfolded proteins. However, if the stress persists or becomes too severe, the UPR can trigger cell death through apoptosis.

In summary, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a complex signaling network that helps maintain ER homeostasis by detecting and responding to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. The UPR involves three main branches: IRE1α, ATF6, and PERK, which work together to restore ER homeostasis through increased protein folding capacity, reduced global protein synthesis, and enhanced degradation of misfolded proteins. Persistent or severe ER stress can lead to the activation of cell death pathways by the UPR.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase (Txnrd, TrxR) is an enzyme that belongs to the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the intracellular redox balance by reducing disulfide bonds in proteins and keeping them in their reduced state. This enzyme utilizes NADPH as an electron donor to reduce thioredoxin (Trx), which then transfers its electrons to various target proteins, thereby regulating their activity, protein folding, and antioxidant defense mechanisms.

Txnrd is essential for several cellular processes, including DNA synthesis, gene expression, signal transduction, and protection against oxidative stress. Dysregulation of Txnrd has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of this enzyme is of great interest for developing novel therapeutic strategies.

Mucin 5AC, also known as MUC5AC, is a type of mucin protein that is heavily glycosylated and secreted by the goblet cells in the mucous membranes of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It plays an essential role in the protection and lubrication of these surfaces, as well as in the clearance of inhaled particles and microorganisms from the lungs.

MUC5AC is a high molecular weight mucin that forms a gel-like substance when secreted, which traps foreign particles and pathogens, facilitating their removal from the body. Abnormalities in MUC5AC production or function have been implicated in various respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

In summary, Mucin 5AC is a crucial component of the mucosal defense system in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, contributing to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and protection against infection and injury.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of peroxidases that play a crucial role in cellular defense against oxidative stress. They catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite, thereby protecting cells from potentially harmful effects of these reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitously expressed in various cellular compartments, including the cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus. They contain a conserved catalytic cysteine residue that gets oxidized during the reduction of peroxides, which is then reduced back to its active form by thioredoxins or other reducing agents.

Dysregulation of peroxiredoxin function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, understanding the role of peroxiredoxins in cellular redox homeostasis is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat oxidative stress-related diseases.

Caspase inhibitors are substances or molecules that block the activity of caspases, which are a family of enzymes involved in programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. Caspases play a crucial role in the execution phase of apoptosis by cleaving various proteins and thereby bringing about characteristic changes in the cell, such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and DNA fragmentation.

Caspase inhibitors can be synthetic or natural compounds that bind to caspases and prevent them from carrying out their function. These inhibitors have been used in research to study the role of caspases in various biological processes and have also been explored as potential therapeutic agents for conditions associated with excessive apoptosis, such as neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

It's important to note that while caspase inhibitors can prevent apoptotic cell death, they may also have unintended consequences, such as promoting the survival of damaged or cancerous cells. Therefore, their use as therapeutic agents must be carefully evaluated and balanced against potential risks.

Acrolein is an unsaturated aldehyde with the chemical formula CH2CHCHO. It is a colorless liquid that has a distinct unpleasant odor and is highly reactive. Acrolein is produced by the partial oxidation of certain organic compounds, such as glycerol and fatty acids, and it is also found in small amounts in some foods, such as coffee and bread.

Acrolein is a potent irritant to the eyes, nose, and throat, and exposure to high levels can cause coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. It has been shown to have toxic effects on the lungs, heart, and nervous system, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

In the medical field, acrolein is sometimes used as a laboratory reagent or as a preservative for biological specimens. However, due to its potential health hazards, it must be handled with care and appropriate safety precautions should be taken when working with this compound.

Drug administration routes refer to the different paths through which medications or drugs are introduced into the body to exert their therapeutic effects. Understanding these routes is crucial in ensuring appropriate drug delivery, optimizing drug effectiveness, and minimizing potential adverse effects. Here are some common drug administration routes with their definitions:

1. Oral (PO): Medications are given through the mouth, allowing for easy self-administration. The drug is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and then undergoes first-pass metabolism in the liver before reaching systemic circulation.
2. Parenteral: This route bypasses the gastrointestinal tract and involves direct administration into the body's tissues or bloodstream. Examples include intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and intradermal (ID) injections.
3. Intravenous (IV): Medications are administered directly into a vein, ensuring rapid absorption and onset of action. This route is often used for emergency situations or when immediate therapeutic effects are required.
4. Intramuscular (IM): Medications are injected deep into a muscle, allowing for slow absorption and prolonged release. Common sites include the deltoid, vastus lateralis, or ventrogluteal muscles.
5. Subcutaneous (SC): Medications are administered just under the skin, providing slower absorption compared to IM injections. Common sites include the abdomen, upper arm, or thigh.
6. Intradermal (ID): Medications are introduced into the superficial layer of the skin, often used for diagnostic tests like tuberculin skin tests or vaccine administration.
7. Topical: Medications are applied directly to the skin surface, mucous membranes, or other body surfaces. This route is commonly used for local treatment of infections, inflammation, or pain. Examples include creams, ointments, gels, patches, and sprays.
8. Inhalational: Medications are administered through inhalation, allowing for rapid absorption into the lungs and quick onset of action. Commonly used for respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Examples include metered-dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizers.
9. Rectal: Medications are administered through the rectum, often used when oral administration is not possible or desirable. Commonly used for systemic treatment of pain, fever, or seizures. Examples include suppositories, enemas, or foams.
10. Oral: Medications are taken by mouth, allowing for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and systemic distribution. This is the most common route of medication administration. Examples include tablets, capsules, liquids, or chewable forms.

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a class of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of alcohol and other aldehydes in the body. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids, using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a cofactor.

There are several isoforms of ALDH found in different tissues throughout the body, with varying substrate specificities and kinetic properties. The most well-known function of ALDH is its role in alcohol metabolism, where it converts the toxic aldehyde intermediate acetaldehyde to acetate, which can then be further metabolized or excreted.

Deficiencies in ALDH activity have been linked to a number of clinical conditions, including alcohol flush reaction, alcohol-induced liver disease, and certain types of cancer. Additionally, increased ALDH activity has been associated with chemotherapy resistance in some cancer cells.

Cytoprotection refers to the protection of cells, particularly from harmful agents or damaging conditions. This can be achieved through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Activation of cellular defense pathways that help cells resist damage.
2. Inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation, which can cause cellular damage.
3. Enhancement of cell repair processes, enabling cells to recover from damage more effectively.
4. Prevention of apoptosis (programmed cell death) or promotion of cell survival signals.

In the medical context, cytoprotective agents are often used to protect tissues and organs from injury due to various factors like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, ischemia-reperfusion injury, or inflammation. These agents can include antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs, growth factors, and other compounds that help maintain cellular integrity and function.

Lipid peroxides are chemical compounds that form when lipids (fats or fat-like substances) oxidize. This process, known as lipid peroxidation, involves the reaction of lipids with oxygen in a way that leads to the formation of hydroperoxides and various aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde.

Lipid peroxidation is a naturally occurring process that can also be accelerated by factors such as exposure to radiation, certain chemicals, or enzymatic reactions. It plays a role in many biological processes, including cell signaling and regulation of gene expression, but it can also contribute to the development of various diseases when it becomes excessive.

Examples of lipid peroxides include phospholipid hydroperoxides, cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides, and triglyceride hydroperoxides. These compounds are often used as markers of oxidative stress in biological systems and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other conditions associated with oxidative damage.

Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Ifosfamide is used to treat various types of cancers, such as testicular cancer, small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and certain types of sarcomas.

The medical definition of Ifosfamide is:

Ifosfamide is a synthetic antineoplastic agent, an oxazaphosphorine derivative, with the chemical formula C6H15Cl2N2O2P. It is used in the treatment of various malignancies, including germ cell tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, and testicular cancer. The drug is administered intravenously and exerts its cytotoxic effects through the alkylation and cross-linking of DNA, leading to the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. Ifosfamide can cause significant myelosuppression and has been associated with urotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and secondary malignancies. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Free radical scavengers, also known as antioxidants, are substances that neutralize or stabilize free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons, capable of causing damage to cells and tissues in the body through a process called oxidative stress. Antioxidants donate an electron to the free radical, thereby neutralizing it and preventing it from causing further damage. They can be found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, or they can be synthesized and used as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Annexin A2 is a protein found in various types of cells, including those that line the inside of blood vessels. It is a member of the annexin family of proteins, which are characterized by their ability to bind to calcium ions and membranes. Annexin A2 is involved in several cellular processes, including the regulation of ion channels, the modulation of enzyme activity, and the promotion of cell adhesion and migration. It also plays a role in the coagulation of blood, and has been implicated in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technique used to identify and quantify specific molecules, such as proteins or metabolites, within complex mixtures. This method uses two or more sequential mass analyzers to first separate ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio and then further fragment the selected ions into smaller pieces for additional analysis. The fragmentation patterns generated in MS/MS experiments can be used to determine the structure and identity of the original molecule, making it a powerful tool in various fields such as proteomics, metabolomics, and forensic science.

Xenobiotics are substances that are foreign to a living organism and usually originate outside of the body. This term is often used in the context of pharmacology and toxicology to refer to drugs, chemicals, or other agents that are not naturally produced by or expected to be found within the body.

When xenobiotics enter the body, they undergo a series of biotransformation processes, which involve metabolic reactions that convert them into forms that can be more easily excreted from the body. These processes are primarily carried out by enzymes in the liver and other organs.

It's worth noting that some xenobiotics can have beneficial effects on the body when used as medications or therapeutic agents, while others can be harmful or toxic. Therefore, understanding how the body metabolizes and eliminates xenobiotics is important for developing safe and effective drugs, as well as for assessing the potential health risks associated with exposure to environmental chemicals and pollutants.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Spermine is a polyamine compound that is involved in various biological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, DNA packaging, and gene expression. It is synthesized from the amino acid ornithine through a series of enzymatic reactions and is found in high concentrations in tissues such as the prostate gland, liver, and brain. Spermine has been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. In addition, spermine has been implicated in the regulation of ion channels and receptors, and may be involved in the modulation of neuronal excitability.

Antineoplastic agents, alkylating, are a class of chemotherapeutic drugs that work by alkylating (adding alkyl groups) to DNA, which can lead to the death or dysfunction of cancer cells. These agents can form cross-links between strands of DNA, preventing DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Examples of alkylating agents include cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and cisplatin. While these drugs are designed to target rapidly dividing cancer cells, they can also affect normal cells that divide quickly, such as those in the bone marrow and digestive tract, leading to side effects like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting.

Spermidine is a polycationic polyamine that is found in various tissues and fluids, including semen, from which it derives its name. It is synthesized in the body from putrescine, another polyamine, through the action of the enzyme spermidine synthase.

In addition to its role as a metabolic intermediate, spermidine has been shown to have various cellular functions, including regulation of gene expression, DNA packaging and protection, and modulation of enzymatic activities. It also plays a role in the process of cell division and differentiation.

Spermidine has been studied for its potential anti-aging effects, as it has been shown to extend the lifespan of various organisms, including yeast, flies, and worms, by activating autophagy, a process by which cells break down and recycle their own damaged or unnecessary components. However, more research is needed to determine whether spermidine has similar effects in humans.

Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (also known as ALOX5 or 5-LO) is a type of enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, which are important inflammatory mediators. It catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, to 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), which is then converted to leukotriene A4 (LTA4). LTA4 is a precursor for the synthesis of other leukotrienes, such as LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These lipid mediators play key roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and allergic reactions.

The gene encoding arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is located on human chromosome 10 (10q11.2). Mutations in this gene have been associated with several diseases, such as severe congenital neutropenia, recurrent infections, and increased risk of developing asthma and other allergic disorders. Inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, including asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.

Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctions in the mitochondria, which are the energy-producing structures in cells. These diseases can affect people of any age and can manifest in various ways, depending on which organs or systems are affected. Common symptoms include muscle weakness, neurological problems, cardiac disease, diabetes, and vision/hearing loss. Mitochondrial diseases can be inherited from either the mother's or father's side, or they can occur spontaneously due to genetic mutations. They can range from mild to severe and can even be life-threatening in some cases.

Toxicity tests, also known as toxicity assays, are a set of procedures used to determine the harmful effects of various substances on living organisms, typically on cells, tissues, or whole animals. These tests measure the degree to which a substance can cause damage, inhibit normal functioning, or lead to death in exposed organisms.

Toxicity tests can be conducted in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures or in vivo (in living organisms) using animals such as rats, mice, or rabbits. The results of these tests help researchers and regulators assess the potential risks associated with exposure to various chemicals, drugs, or environmental pollutants.

There are several types of toxicity tests, including:

1. Acute toxicity tests: These tests measure the immediate effects of a single exposure to a substance over a short period (usually 24 hours or less).
2. Chronic toxicity tests: These tests evaluate the long-term effects of repeated exposures to a substance over an extended period (weeks, months, or even years).
3. Genotoxicity tests: These tests determine whether a substance can damage DNA or cause mutations in genetic material.
4. Developmental and reproductive toxicity tests: These tests assess the impact of a substance on fertility, embryonic development, and offspring health.
5. Carcinogenicity tests: These tests evaluate the potential of a substance to cause cancer.
6. Ecotoxicity tests: These tests determine the effects of a substance on entire ecosystems, including plants, animals, and microorganisms.

Toxicity tests play a crucial role in protecting public health by helping to identify potentially harmful substances and establish safe exposure levels. They also contribute to the development of new drugs, chemicals, and consumer products by providing critical data for risk assessment and safety evaluation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Synechocystis" is not a medical term. It is actually a genus of cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae), which are gram-negative bacteria capable of photosynthesis. The most studied species, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, is often used as a model organism in research related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, and bioenergy.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please let me know!

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are involved in the process of cellular respiration, through which the majority of energy is generated for the cell. The ETC complex proteins are a group of transmembrane protein complexes that facilitate the transfer of electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions. This transfer of electrons drives the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is then used by ATP synthase to generate ATP, the primary energy currency of the cell.

The ETC complex proteins consist of four main complexes: Complex I (NADH-Q oxidoreductase), Complex II (succinate-Q oxidoreductase), Complex III (cytochrome bc1 complex or CoQ:cytochrome c oxidoreductase), and Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase). Each complex contains a number of subunits, many of which are encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes.

In summary, Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins are a group of transmembrane protein complexes located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that facilitate the transfer of electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors, driving the generation of a proton gradient and ultimately ATP synthesis during cellular respiration.

Threonine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3. Threonine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, immune function, and fat metabolism. It is particularly important for maintaining the structural integrity of proteins, as it is often found in their hydroxyl-containing regions. Foods rich in threonine include animal proteins such as meat, dairy products, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like lentils and soybeans.

Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into simpler units by hydrolysis. They are the most basic unit of carbohydrates and are often referred to as "simple sugars." Monosaccharides typically contain three to seven atoms of carbon, but the most common monosaccharides contain five or six carbon atoms.

The general formula for a monosaccharide is (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The majority of monosaccharides have a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) and multiple hydroxyl groups. These functional groups give monosaccharides their characteristic sweet taste and chemical properties.

The most common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose, all of which contain six carbon atoms and are known as hexoses. Other important monosaccharides include pentoses (five-carbon sugars) such as ribose and deoxyribose, which play crucial roles in the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Monosaccharides can exist in various forms, including linear and cyclic structures. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides often form cyclic structures through a reaction between the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, creating a hemiacetal or hemiketal linkage. These cyclic structures can adopt different conformations, known as anomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group attached to the anomeric carbon atom.

Monosaccharides serve as essential building blocks for complex carbohydrates, such as disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) and polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose, and glycogen). They also participate in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell recognition, and protein glycosylation.

Leukotrienes are a type of lipid mediator derived from arachidonic acid, which is a fatty acid found in the cell membranes of various cells in the body. They are produced by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway and play an essential role in the inflammatory response. Leukotrienes are involved in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of immune cells to sites of injury or infection.

There are four main types of leukotrienes: LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These molecules differ from each other based on the presence or absence of specific chemical groups attached to their core structure. Leukotrienes exert their effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of various cells.

LTB4 is primarily involved in neutrophil chemotaxis and activation, while LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 are collectively known as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). CysLTs cause bronchoconstriction, increased mucus production, and vascular permeability in the airways, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma and other respiratory diseases.

In summary, leukotrienes are potent lipid mediators that play a crucial role in inflammation and immune responses. Their dysregulation has been implicated in several disease states, making them an important target for therapeutic intervention.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Mucins are high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major components of mucus. They are produced and secreted by specialized epithelial cells in various organs, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the eyes and ears.

Mucins have a characteristic structure consisting of a protein backbone with numerous attached oligosaccharide side chains, which give them their gel-forming properties and provide a protective barrier against pathogens, environmental insults, and digestive enzymes. They also play important roles in lubrication, hydration, and cell signaling.

Mucins can be classified into two main groups based on their structure and function: secreted mucins and membrane-bound mucins. Secreted mucins are released from cells and form a physical barrier on the surface of mucosal tissues, while membrane-bound mucins are integrated into the cell membrane and participate in cell adhesion and signaling processes.

Abnormalities in mucin production or function have been implicated in various diseases, including chronic inflammation, cancer, and cystic fibrosis.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent, and volatile chemical compound with the formula CH2O. It is a naturally occurring substance that is found in certain fruits like apples and vegetables, as well as in animals. However, the majority of formaldehyde used in industry is synthetically produced.

In the medical field, formaldehyde is commonly used as a preservative for biological specimens such as organs, tissues, and cells. It works by killing bacteria and inhibiting the decaying process. Formaldehyde is also used in the production of various industrial products, including adhesives, resins, textiles, and paper products.

However, formaldehyde can be harmful to human health if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and prolonged exposure has been linked to respiratory problems and cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle formaldehyde with care and use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical compound.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

A buffer in the context of physiology and medicine refers to a substance or system that helps to maintain stable or neutral conditions, particularly in relation to pH levels, within the body or biological fluids.

Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to minimize changes in the pH level. They do this by taking up excess hydrogen ions (H+) when acidity increases or releasing hydrogen ions when alkalinity increases, thereby maintaining a relatively constant pH.

In the human body, some of the key buffer systems include:

1. Bicarbonate buffer system: This is the major buffer in blood and extracellular fluids. It consists of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). When there is an increase in acidity, the bicarbonate ion accepts a hydrogen ion to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into water and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide can be exhaled, helping to remove excess acid from the body.
2. Phosphate buffer system: This is primarily found within cells. It consists of dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-) and monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42-) ions. When there is an increase in alkalinity, the dihydrogen phosphate ion donates a hydrogen ion to form monohydrogen phosphate, helping to neutralize the excess base.
3. Protein buffer system: Proteins, particularly histidine-rich proteins, can also act as buffers due to the presence of ionizable groups on their surfaces. These groups can bind or release hydrogen ions in response to changes in pH, thus maintaining a stable environment within cells and organelles.

Maintaining appropriate pH levels is crucial for various biological processes, including enzyme function, cell membrane stability, and overall homeostasis. Buffers play a vital role in preserving these balanced conditions despite internal or external challenges that might disrupt them.

Lipoxygenase inhibitors are a class of compounds that block the activity of lipoxygenase enzymes. These enzymes are involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids, leading to the production of leukotrienes and other inflammatory mediators. By inhibiting lipoxygenase, these compounds can help reduce inflammation and may have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various diseases, including asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Some examples of lipoxygenase inhibitors include nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), zileuton, and baicalein.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Platelet Factor 4 (PF4), also known as CXCL4, is a chemokine that is primarily secreted by activated platelets and involved in hemostasis and inflammation. It is a small protein with a molecular weight of approximately 8 kDa and is stored in the alpha granules of resting platelets. Upon activation, platelets release PF4 into the bloodstream, where it plays a role in attracting immune cells to sites of injury or infection.

PF4 can bind to various negatively charged molecules, including heparin, DNA, and RNA, which can lead to the formation of immune complexes. In some cases, these immune complexes can trigger an abnormal immune response, resulting in conditions such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) or vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT).

In summary, Platelet Factor 4 is a chemokine released by activated platelets that plays a role in hemostasis and inflammation but can also contribute to the development of certain immune-related disorders.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Histidine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C6H9N3O2. Histidine plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: As an essential amino acid, histidine is required for the production of proteins, which are vital components of various tissues and organs in the body.

2. Hemoglobin synthesis: Histidine is a key component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. The imidazole side chain of histidine acts as a proton acceptor/donor, facilitating the release and uptake of oxygen by hemoglobin.

3. Acid-base balance: Histidine is involved in maintaining acid-base homeostasis through its role in the biosynthesis of histamine, which is a critical mediator of inflammatory responses and allergies. The decarboxylation of histidine results in the formation of histamine, which can increase vascular permeability and modulate immune responses.

4. Metal ion binding: Histidine has a high affinity for metal ions such as zinc, copper, and iron. This property allows histidine to participate in various enzymatic reactions and maintain the structural integrity of proteins.

5. Antioxidant defense: Histidine-containing dipeptides, like carnosine and anserine, have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chelating metal ions. These compounds may contribute to the protection of proteins and DNA from oxidative damage.

Dietary sources of histidine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, and wheat germ. Histidine deficiency is rare but can lead to growth retardation, anemia, and impaired immune function.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Cross-linking reagents are chemical agents that are used to create covalent bonds between two or more molecules, creating a network of interconnected molecules known as a cross-linked structure. In the context of medical and biological research, cross-linking reagents are often used to stabilize protein structures, study protein-protein interactions, and develop therapeutic agents.

Cross-linking reagents work by reacting with functional groups on adjacent molecules, such as amino groups (-NH2) or sulfhydryl groups (-SH), to form a covalent bond between them. This can help to stabilize protein structures and prevent them from unfolding or aggregating.

There are many different types of cross-linking reagents, each with its own specificity and reactivity. Some common examples include glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3). The choice of cross-linking reagent depends on the specific application and the properties of the molecules being cross-linked.

It is important to note that cross-linking reagents can also have unintended effects, such as modifying or disrupting the function of the proteins they are intended to stabilize. Therefore, it is essential to use them carefully and with appropriate controls to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular responses to oxidative stress and electrophilic substances. It is a transcription factor that binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of various genes, inducing their expression and promoting cellular defense against harmful stimuli.

Under normal conditions, NRF2 is bound to its inhibitor, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), in the cytoplasm, where it is targeted for degradation by the proteasome. However, upon exposure to oxidative stress or electrophilic substances, KEAP1 undergoes conformational changes, leading to the release and stabilization of NRF2. Subsequently, NRF2 translocates to the nucleus, forms a complex with small Maf proteins, and binds to AREs, inducing the expression of genes involved in antioxidant response, detoxification, and cellular protection.

Genetic variations or dysregulation of the NFE2L2/KEAP1 pathway have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and pulmonary fibrosis, highlighting its importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis and preventing disease progression.

Respiratory mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract, including the nose, throat, bronchi, and lungs. It is a specialized type of tissue that is composed of epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands that produce mucus, which helps to trap inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens.

The respiratory mucosa also contains cilia, tiny hair-like structures that move rhythmically to help propel the mucus and trapped particles out of the airways and into the upper part of the throat, where they can be swallowed or coughed up. This defense mechanism is known as the mucociliary clearance system.

In addition to its role in protecting the respiratory tract from harmful substances, the respiratory mucosa also plays a crucial role in immune function by containing various types of immune cells that help to detect and respond to pathogens and other threats.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Hemorrhage is defined in the medical context as an excessive loss of blood from the circulatory system, which can occur due to various reasons such as injury, surgery, or underlying health conditions that affect blood clotting or the integrity of blood vessels. The bleeding may be internal, external, visible, or concealed, and it can vary in severity from minor to life-threatening, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment to prevent further blood loss, organ damage, and potential death.

DNA damage refers to any alteration in the structure or composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the genetic material present in cells. DNA damage can result from various internal and external factors, including environmental exposures such as ultraviolet radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals, as well as normal cellular processes such as replication and oxidative metabolism.

Examples of DNA damage include base modifications, base deletions or insertions, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA helix. These types of damage can lead to mutations, genomic instability, and chromosomal aberrations, which can contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related conditions.

The body has several mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and double-strand break repair. However, if the damage is too extensive or the repair mechanisms are impaired, the cell may undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death) to prevent the propagation of potentially harmful mutations.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Ascorbic acid is the chemical name for Vitamin C. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. Ascorbic acid is required for the synthesis of collagen, a protein that plays a role in the structure of bones, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. It also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

Ascorbic acid cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Good food sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli, and spinach.

In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to treat or prevent vitamin C deficiency and related conditions, such as scurvy. It may also be used in the treatment of various other health conditions, including common cold, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, although its effectiveness for these uses is still a matter of scientific debate.

The mesentery is a continuous fold of the peritoneum, the double-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity, which attaches the stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and rectum to the posterior wall of the abdomen. It provides blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels to these organs.

Traditionally, the mesentery was thought to consist of separate and distinct sections along the length of the intestines. However, recent research has shown that the mesentery is a continuous organ, with a single continuous tethering point to the posterior abdominal wall. This new understanding of the anatomy of the mesentery has implications for the study of various gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

A "Blood Cell Count" is a medical laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets in a sample of blood. This test is often used as a part of a routine check-up or to help diagnose various medical conditions, such as anemia, infection, inflammation, and many others.

The RBC count measures the number of oxygen-carrying cells in the blood, while the WBC count measures the number of immune cells that help fight infections. The platelet count measures the number of cells involved in clotting. Abnormal results in any of these counts may indicate an underlying medical condition and further testing may be required for diagnosis and treatment.

Unsaturated fatty acids are a type of fatty acid that contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain. These double bonds can be either cis or trans configurations, although the cis configuration is more common in nature. The presence of these double bonds makes unsaturated fatty acids more liquid at room temperature and less prone to spoilage than saturated fatty acids, which do not have any double bonds.

Unsaturated fatty acids can be further classified into two main categories: monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs contain one double bond in their carbon chain, while PUFAs contain two or more.

Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (a MUFA found in olive oil), linoleic acid (a PUFA found in vegetable oils), and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 PUFA found in flaxseed and fish). Unsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the human body, as they play important roles in various physiological processes such as membrane structure, inflammation, and blood clotting. It is recommended to consume a balanced diet that includes both MUFAs and PUFAs to maintain good health.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body under normal circumstances, but may need to be obtained from external sources in certain conditions such as illness or stress. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH, and it contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which allows it to act as a powerful antioxidant and participate in various cellular processes.

Cysteine plays important roles in protein structure and function, detoxification, and the synthesis of other molecules such as glutathione, taurine, and coenzyme A. It is also involved in wound healing, immune response, and the maintenance of healthy skin, hair, and nails.

Cysteine can be found in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and some grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement and can be used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as liver disease, bronchitis, and heavy metal toxicity. However, excessive intake of cysteine may have adverse effects on health, including gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, and headaches.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of plaques, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood, on the inner walls of the arteries. This process gradually narrows and hardens the arteries, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to various parts of the body. Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including those that supply blood to the heart (coronary arteries), brain, limbs, and other organs. The progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries can lead to serious complications such as coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and aneurysms, which can result in heart attacks, strokes, or even death if left untreated.

The exact cause of atherosclerosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with several risk factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Atherosclerosis can often progress without any symptoms for many years, but as the disease advances, it can lead to various signs and symptoms depending on which arteries are affected. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, medications, and, in some cases, surgical procedures to restore blood flow.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

Uracil is not a medical term, but it is a biological molecule. Medically or biologically, uracil can be defined as one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is linked to a ribose sugar by an N-glycosidic bond. It forms base pairs with adenine in double-stranded RNA and DNA. Uracil is a pyrimidine derivative, similar to thymine found in DNA, but it lacks the methyl group (-CH3) that thymine has at the 5 position of its ring.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that is used to analyze large biomolecules such as proteins and peptides. In this technique, the sample is mixed with a matrix compound, which absorbs laser energy and helps to vaporize and ionize the analyte molecules.

The matrix-analyte mixture is then placed on a target plate and hit with a laser beam, causing the matrix and analyte molecules to desorb from the plate and become ionized. The ions are then accelerated through an electric field and into a mass analyzer, which separates them based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

The separated ions are then detected and recorded as a mass spectrum, which can be used to identify and quantify the analyte molecules present in the sample. MALDI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of complex biological samples, such as tissue extracts or biological fluids, because it allows for the detection and identification of individual components within those mixtures.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

In the context of medicine, "chemistry" often refers to the field of study concerned with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as their reactions with one another. It is a fundamental science that underlies much of modern medicine, including pharmacology (the study of drugs), toxicology (the study of poisons), and biochemistry (the study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms).

In addition to its role as a basic science, chemistry is also used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, clinical chemistry involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine to detect and measure various substances, such as glucose, cholesterol, and electrolytes, that can provide important information about a person's health status.

Overall, chemistry plays a critical role in understanding the mechanisms of diseases, developing new treatments, and improving diagnostic tests and techniques.

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

Chemical phenomena refer to the changes and interactions that occur at the molecular or atomic level when chemicals are involved. These phenomena can include chemical reactions, in which one or more substances (reactants) are converted into different substances (products), as well as physical properties that change as a result of chemical interactions, such as color, state of matter, and solubility. Chemical phenomena can be studied through various scientific disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, and physics.

Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a type of electrophoretic technique used in the separation and analysis of complex protein mixtures. This method combines two types of electrophoresis – isoelectric focusing (IEF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) – to separate proteins based on their unique physical and chemical properties in two dimensions.

In the first dimension, IEF separates proteins according to their isoelectric points (pI), which is the pH at which a protein carries no net electrical charge. The proteins are focused into narrow zones along a pH gradient established within a gel strip. In the second dimension, SDS-PAGE separates the proteins based on their molecular weights by applying an electric field perpendicular to the first dimension.

The separated proteins form distinct spots on the 2D gel, which can be visualized using various staining techniques. The resulting protein pattern provides valuable information about the composition and modifications of the protein mixture, enabling researchers to identify and compare different proteins in various samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is widely used in proteomics research, biomarker discovery, and quality control in protein production.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids, particularly cholesterol. It is produced primarily by the liver and is a component of several types of lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

ApoE plays a crucial role in the transport and uptake of lipids in the body. It binds to specific receptors on cell surfaces, facilitating the delivery of lipids to cells for energy metabolism or storage. ApoE also helps to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream and is involved in the repair and maintenance of tissues.

There are three major isoforms of ApoE, designated ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, which differ from each other by only a few amino acids. These genetic variations can have significant effects on an individual's risk for developing certain diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. For example, individuals who inherit the ApoE4 allele have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, while those with the ApoE2 allele may have a reduced risk.

In summary, Apolipoprotein E is a protein involved in lipid metabolism and transport, and genetic variations in this protein can influence an individual's risk for certain diseases.

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules containing oxygen, including peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen. They are naturally produced as byproducts of normal cellular metabolism in the mitochondria, and can also be generated by external sources such as ionizing radiation, tobacco smoke, and air pollutants. At low or moderate concentrations, ROS play important roles in cell signaling and homeostasis, but at high concentrations, they can cause significant damage to cell structures, including lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to oxidative stress and potential cell death.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Peroxidase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is broken down into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This enzymatic reaction also involves the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds, which can serve as electron donors.

Peroxidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as defense against oxidative stress, breakdown of toxic substances, and participation in metabolic pathways.

The peroxidase-catalyzed reaction can be represented by the following chemical equation:

H2O2 + 2e- + 2H+ → 2H2O

In this reaction, hydrogen peroxide is reduced to water, and the electron donor is oxidized. The peroxidase enzyme facilitates the transfer of electrons between the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) and the electron donor, making the reaction more efficient and specific.

Peroxidases have various applications in medicine, industry, and research. For example, they can be used for diagnostic purposes, as biosensors, and in the treatment of wastewater and medical wastes. Additionally, peroxidases are involved in several pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, making them potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Benzoquinones are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring (a cyclic arrangement of six carbon atoms) with two ketone functional groups (-C=O) in the 1,4-positions. They exist in two stable forms, namely ortho-benzoquinone and para-benzoquinone, depending on the orientation of the ketone groups relative to each other.

Benzoquinones are important intermediates in various biological processes and are also used in industrial applications such as dyes, pigments, and pharmaceuticals. They can be produced synthetically or obtained naturally from certain plants and microorganisms.

In the medical field, benzoquinones have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects, particularly in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. However, they are also known to exhibit toxicity and may cause adverse reactions in some individuals. Therefore, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential risks before they can be safely used as drugs or therapies.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation, as well as in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. It is composed of several subunits, including p50, p52, p65 (RelA), c-Rel, and RelB, which can form homodimers or heterodimers that bind to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes.

Under normal conditions, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins known as IκBs (inhibitors of κB). However, upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, bacterial or viral products, and stress, IκBs are phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded, leading to the release and activation of NF-κB. Activated NF-κB then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to κB sites and regulates the expression of target genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation.

Dysregulation of NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, targeting NF-κB signaling has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by progressive and persistent loss of neuronal structure and function, often leading to cognitive decline, functional impairment, and ultimately death. These conditions are associated with the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and genetic mutations in the brain. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). The underlying causes and mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood, and there is currently no cure for most neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

Endothelial cells are the type of cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. They play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by controlling vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, and inflammation. Endothelial cells also regulate the transport of molecules between the blood and surrounding tissues, and contribute to the maintenance of the structural integrity of the vasculature. They are flat, elongated cells with a unique morphology that allows them to form a continuous, nonthrombogenic lining inside the vessels. Endothelial cells can be isolated from various tissues and cultured in vitro for research purposes.

Protein array analysis is a high-throughput technology used to detect and measure the presence and activity of specific proteins in biological samples. This technique utilizes arrays or chips containing various capture agents, such as antibodies or aptamers, that are designed to bind to specific target proteins. The sample is then added to the array, allowing the target proteins to bind to their corresponding capture agents. After washing away unbound materials, a detection system is used to identify and quantify the bound proteins. This method can be used for various applications, including protein-protein interaction studies, biomarker discovery, and drug development. The results of protein array analysis provide valuable information about the expression levels, post-translational modifications, and functional states of proteins in complex biological systems.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the body. They form a network of tubes that carry blood to and from the heart, lungs, and other organs. The main types of blood vessels are arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body, while veins return deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Capillaries connect arteries and veins and facilitate the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials between the blood and the body's tissues.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Cell death is the process by which cells cease to function and eventually die. There are several ways that cells can die, but the two most well-known and well-studied forms of cell death are apoptosis and necrosis.

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death that occurs as a normal and necessary process in the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. During apoptosis, the cell's DNA is broken down into small fragments, the cell shrinks, and the membrane around the cell becomes fragmented, allowing the cell to be easily removed by phagocytic cells without causing an inflammatory response.

Necrosis, on the other hand, is a form of cell death that occurs as a result of acute tissue injury or overwhelming stress. During necrosis, the cell's membrane becomes damaged and the contents of the cell are released into the surrounding tissue, causing an inflammatory response.

There are also other forms of cell death, such as autophagy, which is a process by which cells break down their own organelles and proteins to recycle nutrients and maintain energy homeostasis, and pyroptosis, which is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in response to infection and involves the activation of inflammatory caspases.

Cell death is an important process in many physiological and pathological processes, including development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Dysregulation of cell death can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

Proteomics is the large-scale study and analysis of proteins, including their structures, functions, interactions, modifications, and abundance, in a given cell, tissue, or organism. It involves the identification and quantification of all expressed proteins in a biological sample, as well as the characterization of post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and functional pathways. Proteomics can provide valuable insights into various biological processes, diseases, and drug responses, and has applications in basic research, biomedicine, and clinical diagnostics. The field combines various techniques from molecular biology, chemistry, physics, and bioinformatics to study proteins at a systems level.

L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme found in various tissues within the body, including the heart, liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. It plays a crucial role in the process of energy production, particularly during anaerobic conditions when oxygen levels are low.

In the presence of the coenzyme NADH, LDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, generating NAD+ as a byproduct. Conversely, in the presence of NAD+, LDH can convert lactate back to pyruvate using NADH. This reversible reaction is essential for maintaining the balance between lactate and pyruvate levels within cells.

Elevated blood levels of LDH may indicate tissue damage or injury, as this enzyme can be released into the circulation following cellular breakdown. As a result, LDH is often used as a nonspecific biomarker for various medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, muscle damage, and certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that an isolated increase in LDH does not necessarily pinpoint the exact location or cause of tissue damage, and further diagnostic tests are usually required for confirmation.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

MAP Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP2K4 or MKK4) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways, particularly the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. These cascades are involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis in response to extracellular stimuli like cytokines, growth factors, and stress signals.

MAP2K4 specifically activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway by phosphorylating and activating JNK proteins. The activation of JNK leads to the phosphorylation and regulation of various transcription factors, ultimately influencing gene expression and cellular responses. Dysregulation of MAP2K4 has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Cytosol refers to the liquid portion of the cytoplasm found within a eukaryotic cell, excluding the organelles and structures suspended in it. It is the site of various metabolic activities and contains a variety of ions, small molecules, and enzymes. The cytosol is where many biochemical reactions take place, including glycolysis, protein synthesis, and the regulation of cellular pH. It is also where some organelles, such as ribosomes and vesicles, are located. In contrast to the cytosol, the term "cytoplasm" refers to the entire contents of a cell, including both the cytosol and the organelles suspended within it.

JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases are a subgroup of the Ser/Thr protein kinases that are activated by stress stimuli and play important roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, apoptosis, and differentiation. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression through phosphorylation of transcription factors such as c-Jun. JNKs are activated by a variety of upstream kinases, including MAP2Ks (MKK4/SEK1 and MKK7), which are in turn activated by MAP3Ks (such as ASK1, MEKK1, MLKs, and TAK1). JNK signaling pathways have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is a family of enzymes with peroxidase activity whose main function is to protect the organism from oxidative damage. They catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides, and organic hydroperoxides to water or corresponding alcohols, using glutathione (GSH) as a reducing agent, which is converted to its oxidized form (GSSG). There are several isoforms of GPx found in different tissues, including GPx1 (also known as cellular GPx), GPx2 (gastrointestinal GPx), GPx3 (plasma GPx), GPx4 (also known as phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx), and GPx5-GPx8. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as antioxidant defense, cell signaling, and apoptosis regulation.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Lymphoid tissue is a specialized type of connective tissue that is involved in the immune function of the body. It is composed of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying infected or cancerous cells. Lymphoid tissue can be found throughout the body, but it is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches in the small intestine.

Lymphoid tissue provides a site for the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes, which are critical components of the adaptive immune response. It also serves as a filter for foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, that may enter the body through various routes. The lymphatic system, which includes lymphoid tissue, helps to maintain the health and integrity of the body by protecting it from infection and disease.

I-kappa B (IκB) proteins are a family of inhibitory proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a key transcription factor involved in inflammation, immune response, and cell survival. In resting cells, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by binding to IκB proteins, which prevents NF-κB from translocating into the nucleus and activating its target genes.

Upon stimulation of various signaling pathways, such as those triggered by proinflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral components, and stress signals, IκB proteins become phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. This process allows NF-κB to dissociate from IκB, translocate into the nucleus, and bind to specific DNA sequences, leading to the expression of various genes involved in immune response, inflammation, cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

There are several members of the IκB protein family, including IκBα, IκBβ, IκBε, IκBγ, and Bcl-3. Each member has distinct functions and regulatory mechanisms in controlling NF-κB activity. Dysregulation of IκB proteins and NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (p38 MAPKs) are a family of conserved serine-threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, immune response, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress responses. They are activated by diverse stimuli such as cytokines, ultraviolet radiation, heat shock, osmotic stress, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Once activated, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate and regulate several downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases. This regulation leads to the expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of p38 MAPK signaling has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, p38 MAPKs are considered promising targets for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Phosphotransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This reaction is essential for various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, signal transduction, and biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is phosphotransferase, which is derived from the general reaction they catalyze: D-donor + A-acceptor = D-donor minus phosphate + A-phosphate. The donor molecule can be a variety of compounds, such as ATP or a phosphorylated protein, while the acceptor molecule is typically a compound that becomes phosphorylated during the reaction.

Phosphotransferases are classified into several subgroups based on the type of donor and acceptor molecules they act upon. For example, kinases are a subgroup of phosphotransferases that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein or other organic compound. Phosphatases, another subgroup, remove phosphate groups from molecules by transferring them to water.

Overall, phosphotransferases play a critical role in regulating many cellular functions and are important targets for drug development in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

DNA repair is the process by which cells identify and correct damage to the DNA molecules that encode their genome. DNA can be damaged by a variety of internal and external factors, such as radiation, chemicals, and metabolic byproducts. If left unrepaired, this damage can lead to mutations, which may in turn lead to cancer and other diseases.

There are several different mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including:

1. Base excision repair (BER): This process repairs damage to a single base in the DNA molecule. An enzyme called a glycosylase removes the damaged base, leaving a gap that is then filled in by other enzymes.
2. Nucleotide excision repair (NER): This process repairs more severe damage, such as bulky adducts or crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA molecule. An enzyme cuts out a section of the damaged DNA, and the gap is then filled in by other enzymes.
3. Mismatch repair (MMR): This process repairs errors that occur during DNA replication, such as mismatched bases or small insertions or deletions. Specialized enzymes recognize the error and remove a section of the newly synthesized strand, which is then replaced by new nucleotides.
4. Double-strand break repair (DSBR): This process repairs breaks in both strands of the DNA molecule. There are two main pathways for DSBR: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ directly rejoins the broken ends, while HR uses a template from a sister chromatid to repair the break.

Overall, DNA repair is a crucial process that helps maintain genome stability and prevent the development of diseases caused by genetic mutations.

Medical Definition:

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide radicals (O2-) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This essential antioxidant defense mechanism helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced during normal metabolic processes and can lead to oxidative stress when their levels become too high.

There are three main types of superoxide dismutase found in different cellular locations:
1. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD or SOD1) - Present mainly in the cytoplasm of cells.
2. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) - Located within the mitochondrial matrix.
3. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD or SOD3) - Found in the extracellular spaces, such as blood vessels and connective tissues.

Imbalances in SOD levels or activity have been linked to various pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and aging-related disorders.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of all complex living organisms, including humans, while the liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen. They don't have a medical definition together. I can certainly provide you with separate definitions for each:

1. Mitochondria: These are double-membrane-bound cellular organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Commonly known as the "powerhouse of the cell," mitochondria convert organic substrates, such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are dynamic structures that can change their shape, size, and number through fission (division) and fusion (merging) processes. They play essential roles in various cellular functions, including calcium signaling, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and the regulation of cellular metabolism.

2. Liver: The liver is a large, lobulated organ that lies mainly in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in various physiological functions, such as detoxification, protein synthesis, metabolism, and nutrient storage. The liver is responsible for removing toxins from the bloodstream, producing bile to aid in digestion, regulating glucose levels, synthesizing plasma proteins, and storing glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. It also contributes to the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, helping maintain energy homeostasis in the body.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any further questions or need more information, please don't hesitate to ask.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III (NOS-III), also known as endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), is an enzyme responsible for the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the endothelium, the lining of blood vessels. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline, producing NO as a byproduct. The release of NO from eNOS plays an important role in regulating vascular tone and homeostasis, including the relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the blood vessel walls, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and modulation of immune function. Mutations or dysfunction in NOS-III can contribute to various cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and erectile dysfunction.

Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II (NOS2), also known as Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. Unlike other isoforms of NOS, NOS2 is not constitutively expressed and its expression can be induced by various stimuli such as cytokines, lipopolysaccharides, and bacterial products. Once induced, NOS2 produces large amounts of NO, which plays a crucial role in the immune response against invading pathogens. However, excessive or prolonged production of NO by NOS2 has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as inflammation, septic shock, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Intracellular membranes refer to the membrane structures that exist within a eukaryotic cell (excluding bacteria and archaea, which are prokaryotic and do not have intracellular membranes). These membranes compartmentalize the cell, creating distinct organelles or functional regions with specific roles in various cellular processes.

Major types of intracellular membranes include:

1. Nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope): A double-membraned structure that surrounds and protects the genetic material within the nucleus. It consists of an outer and inner membrane, perforated by nuclear pores that regulate the transport of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
2. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): An extensive network of interconnected tubules and sacs that serve as a major site for protein folding, modification, and lipid synthesis. The ER has two types: rough ER (with ribosomes on its surface) and smooth ER (without ribosomes).
3. Golgi apparatus/Golgi complex: A series of stacked membrane-bound compartments that process, sort, and modify proteins and lipids before they are transported to their final destinations within the cell or secreted out of the cell.
4. Lysosomes: Membrane-bound organelles containing hydrolytic enzymes for breaking down various biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids) in the process called autophagy or from outside the cell via endocytosis.
5. Peroxisomes: Single-membrane organelles involved in various metabolic processes, such as fatty acid oxidation and detoxification of harmful substances like hydrogen peroxide.
6. Vacuoles: Membrane-bound compartments that store and transport various molecules, including nutrients, waste products, and enzymes. Plant cells have a large central vacuole for maintaining turgor pressure and storing metabolites.
7. Mitochondria: Double-membraned organelles responsible for generating energy (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes, such as the citric acid cycle and fatty acid synthesis.
8. Chloroplasts: Double-membraned organelles found in plant cells that convert light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis, producing oxygen and organic compounds (glucose) from carbon dioxide and water.
9. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): A network of interconnected membrane-bound tubules involved in protein folding, modification, and transport; it is divided into two types: rough ER (with ribosomes on the surface) and smooth ER (without ribosomes).
10. Nucleus: Double-membraned organelle containing genetic material (DNA) and associated proteins involved in replication, transcription, RNA processing, and DNA repair. The nuclear membrane separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm and contains nuclear pores for transporting molecules between the two compartments.

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Arginine is an α-amino acid that is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. The adult human body can normally synthesize sufficient amounts of arginine to meet its needs, but there are certain circumstances, such as periods of rapid growth or injury, where the dietary intake of arginine may become necessary.

The chemical formula for arginine is C6H14N4O2. It has a molecular weight of 174.20 g/mol and a pKa value of 12.48. Arginine is a basic amino acid, which means that it contains a side chain with a positive charge at physiological pH levels. The side chain of arginine is composed of a guanidino group, which is a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to three methyl groups.

In the body, arginine plays several important roles. It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps regulate blood flow and immune function. Arginine is also involved in the detoxification of ammonia, a waste product produced by the breakdown of proteins. Additionally, arginine can be converted into other amino acids, such as ornithine and citrulline, which are involved in various metabolic processes.

Foods that are good sources of arginine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Arginine supplements are available and may be used for a variety of purposes, such as improving exercise performance, enhancing wound healing, and boosting immune function. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking arginine supplements, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

Caspase-3 is a type of protease enzyme that plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis, or programmed cell death. It's also known as CPP32 (CPP for ced-3 protease precursor) or apopain. Caspase-3 is produced as an inactive protein that is activated when cleaved by other caspases during the early stages of apoptosis. Once activated, it cleaves a variety of cellular proteins, including structural proteins, enzymes, and signal transduction proteins, leading to the characteristic morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptotic cell death. Caspase-3 is often referred to as the "death protease" because of its crucial role in executing the cell death program.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

... is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. The main metabolic pathway for acrolein is ... The acrolein content in cigarette smoke depends on the type of cigarette and added glycerin, making up to 220 µg acrolein per ... Connections exist between acrolein gas in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer. Acrolein is one of ... The "acrolein test" is for the presence of glycerin or fats. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is ...
Double dehydration is illustrated by the conversion of glycerol to acrolein: The formation of the pyrophosphate bond is an ... H. Adkins; W. H. Hartung (1926). "Acrolein". Organic Syntheses. 6: 1. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.006.0001. Katryniok, Benjamin; Paul, ... Sébastien; Bellière-Baca, Virginie; Rey, Patrick; Dumeignil, Franck (2010). "Glycerol dehydration to acrolein in the context of ...
... and acrolein. This last molecule, acrolein, was recently included in reuterin definition. 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde is formed by ... Engels C, Schwab C, Zhang J, Stevens MJ, Bieri C, Ebert MO, McNeill K, Sturla SJ, Lacroix C (November 2016). "Acrolein ... This reaction, when conducted in the gas-phase, was the basis for a now obsolete industrial route acrolein: CH3CHO + CH2O → ... and the resulting molecule is called acrolein. In fact, the term reuterin is the name given to the dynamic system formed by 3- ...
The Butadiene + Acrolein Paradigm". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 120 (10): 2415-2420. doi:10.1021/ja9722279. Carey ...
Acrolein is a probable carcirogen. Acrolein may induce irritation to the upper respiratory tract, and harm the lining of the ... Acrolein may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Acrolein levels were reduced by 60% in dual users and 80% for those ... Acrolein induces oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to a disruption in the function of the endothelial cell barrier in ... Repeated exposure to acrolein, which is produced by heating the propylene glycol and glycerin in e-liquids, causes chronic ...
Its acetal can be prepared from acrolein. Propynal has been observed in the interstellar medium. It is hypothesized to be ... Acrolein Propiolic acid P. Perlmutter (2001). "Propargyl Aldehyde". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi:10.1002 ...
Acrolein Methacrylic acid Montzka, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Fehsenfeld, F. C. (1993). "Isoprene and ...
Parent α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyls Methyl vinyl ketone, the simplest α,β-unsaturated ketone Acrolein, the simplest α,β- ... Examples of unsaturated carbonyls are acrolein (propenal), mesityl oxide, acrylic acid, and maleic acid. Unsaturated carbonyls ... The simplest enal is acrolein (CH2=CHCHO). Other examples include cis-3-hexenal (essence of mowed lawns) and cinnamaldehyde ( ...
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ...
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ... The glycerol route begins with its dehydration to acrolein, which undergoes ammoxidation to give acrylonitrile. The glutamic ...
A meta-analysis of 77 surveys of VOCs in homes in the US found the top ten riskiest indoor air VOCs were acrolein, formaldehyde ... Overheated cooking oils emit acrolein and formaldehyde. ...
The respiratory irritants were Acrolein and Benzaldehyde. In part three of the experiment series, polar narcotics phenol, 2,4- ... Acrolein and Benzaldehyde". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 6 (4): 313-328. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060408. Bradbury SP, ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ... such as acrolein), and acids, in addition to nitrogenous carcinogens, alcohols, and heavy metals, all of which are dangerous to ... acrolein, formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, and isoprene. In addition to the ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ... Cigarettes produce an aerosol containing over 4,000 chemical compounds, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, and ... acrolein, and other poisonous substances. Over 70 of these are carcinogenic. Most modern cigarettes are filtered, although this ...
Chlorine-free processes from propylene include the synthesis of glycerol from acrolein and propylene oxide. Because of the ... Owing to oversupply, efforts are being made to convert glycerol to synthetic precursors, such as acrolein and epichlorohydrin. ... Watanabe, Masaru; Iida, Toru; Aizawa, Yuichi; Aida, Taku M.; Inomata, Hiroshi (2007). "Acrolein synthesis from glycerol in hot- ... Conversion to various other chemicals: Propylene glycol Acrolein Ethanol Epichlorohydrin, a raw material for epoxy resins ...
Acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide and acrolein are known by-products. It is used in the preparation of homo- and copolymers, ...
Glycerin may generate acrolein when heated at hotter temperatures. Some e-cigarette products had acrolein identified in the e- ... Acrolein and other carbonyls have been found by in e-cigarette vapors that were created by unmodified e-cigarettes, indicating ... Many chemicals including carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal can inadvertently be ... with acrolein emission increasing tenfold." A 2014 study stated that "increasing the voltage from 3.2-4.8 V resulted in a 4 to ...
Asatryan, Rubik; da Silva, Gabriel; Bozzelli, Joseph W. (2010). "Quantum Chemical Study of the Acrolein (CH2CHCHO) + OH + O2 ... and the oxidation of acrolein in the environment. Wang, Tianfang; Bowie, John H. (2010). "Radical routes to interstellar ...
As the humectants burn, they release chemicals such as acrolein. Humectants are found in most cigarettes and are considered one ... and acrolein in the smoke of a waterpipe, discovering that the value of formaldehyde detected in one smoking session was five ...
Acrolein has been shown to be a mutagen and carcinogen in human cells. The carcinogenicity of acrolein has been difficult to ... However, acrolein is 1000 times more abundant than PAHs in cigarette smoke and is able to react as is, without metabolic ... Like PAH metabolites, acrolein is also an electrophilic alkylating agent and permanently binds to the DNA base guanine, by a ... Acrolein is only one of them present in cigarette smoke; for example, crotonaldehyde has been found in cigarette smoke. Michael ...
SMILEY KL, SOBOLOV M (1962). "A cobamide-requiring glycerol dehydrase from an acrolein-forming Lactobacillus". Arch. Biochem. ...
"Mammalian translesion DNA synthesis across an acrolein-derived deoxyguanosine adduct. Participation of DNA polymerase eta in ...
... acrolein, zinc sulphate and chlorine. Central nervous system (CNS) seizure agents. CNS seizure agents inhibit cellular ...
3-Methylpyridine and pyridine are produced from acrolein and ammonia. Acrolein and propionaldehyde react with ammonia affords ...
The smoke, which contains acrolein, is an eye irritant and asphixiant. The smoke point of oils vary widely. Depending on origin ...
... is mainly produced by the hydration of acrolein. An alternative route involves the hydroformylation of ethylene ...
Discovery of Acrolein and Acrylic acid Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine Lauenburg (1888), "Redtenbacher, Joseph", ... He is credited with the discoveries of acrolein and acrylic acid. He also performed important research involving the ...
It is produced by the Diels-Alder reaction of acrolein to butadiene. It is of interest as a precursor to 3,4- ...
Acrolein has shown to be a particularly potent third-hand smoke gas. Third-hand smoke and its components have been detected in ... "Cytotoxicity of Thirdhand Smoke and Identification of Acrolein as a Volatile Thirdhand Smoke Chemical That Inhibits Cell ...
Acrolein is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. The main metabolic pathway for acrolein is ... The acrolein content in cigarette smoke depends on the type of cigarette and added glycerin, making up to 220 µg acrolein per ... Connections exist between acrolein gas in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer. Acrolein is one of ... The "acrolein test" is for the presence of glycerin or fats. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is ...
Cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust contain acrolein. Acrolein causes burning of the nose and throat and can damage the ... Exposure to acrolein occurs mostly from breathing it in the air. ... How can acrolein affect my health?. *Can acrolein cause cancer? ... What is acrolein?. Acrolein is colorless or yellow liquid with a strong disagreeable odor. Small amounts of acrolein can be ... What happens to acrolein in the environment?. Acrolein can get into the environment from automobile exhaust, smoke from a fire ...
Acrolein modified protein Antibody, Acrolein conjugated protein Antibody, 2-Propen-1-one Antibody, 2-propenal Antibody, ...
... www.iarc.fr/news-events/iarc-monographs-evaluation-of-the-carcinogenicity-of-acrolein-crotonaldehyde-and-arecoline/ ... IARC classified Acrolein as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A), while crotonaldehyde was classified as possibly ... Acrolein is also formed during combustion of fuels, wood, and plastics, and is present in ambient air pollution and vapor from ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer evaluates carcinogenicity of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline ...
1961). Control of Australorbis glabratus by acrolein in Puerto Rico. 76(6). Ferguson, Frederick F. and Richards, Charles S. and ... "Control of Australorbis glabratus by acrolein in Puerto Rico" vol. 76, no. 6, 1961. Export RIS Citation Information.. ... Title : Control of Australorbis glabratus by acrolein in Puerto Rico Personal Author(s) : Ferguson, Frederick F.;Richards, ... Palmer, Juan R. "Control of Australorbis glabratus by acrolein in Puerto Rico" 76, no. 6 (1961). Ferguson, Frederick F. et al ...
Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are chemicals with a high production volume. Exposure to these chemicals may occur variously in ... The IARC Monographs Working Group concluded that acrolein is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A), and crotonaldehyde and ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that Volume 128 of the IARC Monographs, Acrolein ... Tobacco smoke is a major source of exposure to crotonaldehyde and acrolein in the general population. Both chemicals are also ...
Miller, J & Bhan, A 2017, Reaction network and mechanistic assessment of acrolein oxidation on an industrial oxide catalyst. in ... Miller, J., & Bhan, A. (2017). Reaction network and mechanistic assessment of acrolein oxidation on an industrial oxide ... Reaction network and mechanistic assessment of acrolein oxidation on an industrial oxide catalyst. / Miller, Jacob; Bhan, ... Reaction network and mechanistic assessment of acrolein oxidation on an industrial oxide catalyst. In Catalysis and Reaction ...
Acrolein. 107-02-8. 1992 (rev). Acrylamide. 79-06-1. 1992 (rev). ...
Acrolein / administration & dosage * Acrolein / analogs & derivatives* * Acrolein / pharmacology * Adipose Tissue, Brown / ...
Toxicological Profiles (Tox Profiles) are a unique compilation of toxicological information on a given hazardous substance. Each peer-reviewed Tox Profile reflects a comprehensive and extensive evaluation, summary, and interpretation of available toxicological and epidemiological information on a substance.. ...
Acrolein--Physiological effect ; Acrolein--Toxicology ; Acrolein--adverse effects ; Acrolein--toxicity ; Environmental Exposure ... This book evaluates the risk to human health and the environment posed by exposures to Acrolein. Acrolein is a clear, colorless ... In Canada, acrolein is used mainly as an aquatic herbicide in irrigation canals and as a microbiocide in produced water during ... Based upon studies conducted primarily in laboratory animals, adverse health effects associated with exposure to acrolein are ...
Yang C, Yang R, Gu M, Hao J, Wang S, Li C. Chitooligosaccharides Derivatives Protect ARPE-19 Cells against Acrolein-Induced ... Yang, C.; Yang, R.; Gu, M.; Hao, J.; Wang, S.; Li, C. Chitooligosaccharides Derivatives Protect ARPE-19 Cells against Acrolein- ... "Chitooligosaccharides Derivatives Protect ARPE-19 Cells against Acrolein-Induced Oxidative Injury" Marine Drugs 21, no. 3: 137 ...
Global Acrolein Assessment, With Major Companies Analysis,Regional Analysis, Breakdown Data by Application/Type - Reports N ... Acrolein is a clear to yellowish, pungent liquid. Acrolein is used primarily as an intermediate component in the manufacture of ... 10.1 Global Acrolein Sales (K Pcs) and Market Share by Players 2014-2020 10.2 Global Acrolein Revenue (M USD) and Market Share ... 12.3.3 Europe Acrolein Average Price by Countries/Regions 2014-2020 12.4 South America 12.4.1 South America Acrolein Sales by ...
Its acetal can be prepared from acrolein. Propynal has been observed in the interstellar medium. It is hypothesized to be ... Acrolein Propiolic acid P. Perlmutter (2001). "Propargyl Aldehyde". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi:10.1002 ...
Toxicological Profiles (Tox Profiles) are a unique compilation of toxicological information on a given hazardous substance. Each peer-reviewed Tox Profile reflects a comprehensive and extensive evaluation, summary, and interpretation of available toxicological and epidemiological information on a substance.. ...
Other names: Acrolein; Acrylaldehyde; Acrylic Aldehyde; Allyl aldehyde; Aqualin; NSC 8819; Prop-2-En-1-al; Propenal; 2-Propen-1 ...
Acrolein impairs ATP binding cassette transporter A1-dependent cholesterol export from cells through site-specific modification ... Acrolein impairs ATP binding cassette transporter A1-dependent cholesterol export from cells through site-specific modification ...
acrolein (commonly found in weedkiller). *heavy metals like nickel, tin, and lead. ...
603: Acrolein and Acrylonitrile (pdf) (257 KB, Promulgated 1984) * 604: Phenols (pdf) (255.2 KB, Promulgated 1984) ...
Acrolein 203-453-4 107-02-8 1 Details Acrylonitrile 203-466-5 107-13-1 1 Details ...
Carcinogenicity of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline. Lancet Oncol. 2021, 22, 19-20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ...
Acrolein - formerly used as a chemical weapon. *Hydrogen cyanide - used as an industrial pesticide ...
18, 19] Continuous bladder irrigation is sometimes recommended to hasten acrolein clearance from the bladder. [20] ... Cyclophosphamide itself is not toxic; the drugs toxicity is due to its hepatic conversion to the metabolite acrolein, which is ... The adverse effects of cyclophosphamide are more likely due to increased bladder exposure to acrolein. [17] ... The urotoxicity observed with cyclophosphamide is due to its liver metabolite acrolein, which is excreted in the urine. ...
Acrolein_TOGA. ppt. Acrolein gas dry volume mixing ratio. MAC_TOGA. ppt. Methacrolein gas dry volume mixing ratio. ...
Although AKR1B1 can play a protective role by detoxifying acrolein or HNE, it can also play a positive/amplifying role in ... Kolb, N. S., Hunsaker, L. A., and Vander Jagt, D. L. (1994). Aldosereductase-catalyzed reduction of acrolein: implications in ... and GS-acrolein (Kolb et al., 1994; Srivastava et al., 1998; Vander Jagt et al., 2001). For instance, AKR1B1 activation played ... acrolein, and methylglyoxal, as well as GSH-conjugates of these aldehydes such as glutathionyl-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (GS-HNE) ...
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that Volume 128 of the IARC Monographs , Acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline, is now available online. (who.int)
  • The IARC Monographs Working Group concluded that acrolein is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) , and crotonaldehyde and arecoline are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) . (who.int)
  • 10 December 2020 - Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are reactive aldehydes that are produced in high volumes and used in the manufacture of numerous chemical products such as herbicides in recirculating water systems, pharmaceuticals, rubber, chemicals, leather, and food and agriculture. (who.int)
  • Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are chemicals with a high production volume. (who.int)
  • Exposure to these chemicals may occur variously in industrial settings including chemical synthesis, in recirculating water systems (in which acrolein is used as a herbicide), and in food production and agriculture (crotonaldehyde). (who.int)
  • Tobacco smoke is a major source of exposure to crotonaldehyde and acrolein in the general population. (who.int)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified acrolein as probably carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, all acrylic acid is produced via the transient formation of acrolein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein (systematic name: propenal) is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein was first named and characterized as an aldehyde by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1839. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to occupational exposures to acrolein, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit at 0.1 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) at an eight-hour time-weighted average. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book evaluates the risk to human health and the environment posed by exposures to Acrolein. (epa.gov)
  • Acrolein is colorless or yellow liquid with a strong disagreeable odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein is a clear, colorless liquid with an intensively acrid odor. (epa.gov)
  • The original industrial route to acrolein, developed by Degussa, involves condensation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: HCHO + CH3CHO → CH2=CHCHO + H2O Acrolein may also be produced on lab scale by the action of potassium bisulfate on glycerol (glycerine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein condenses with acetaldehyde and amines to give methylpyridines. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are several other chemicals that also have the same breakdown products, so these tests are not specific for acrolein exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Firefighters are at risk of exposure to acrolein from house fires and wild fires. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein in air is rapidly removed by inhalation exposure (15-364 days). (cdc.gov)
  • No chronic-duration inhalation MRL was exposure to acrolein. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein UE in naive animals was dependent on the concentration of inspired acrolein, airflow rate, and duration of exposure, with increased UE occurring with lower acrolein ex- posure concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to acrolein vapor resulted in reduced respiratory epithelial GSH concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • In acrolein-preexposed animals, URT acrolein UE was also dependent on the acrolein concentra- tion used prior to the uptake exposure, with preexposed rats having higher UE than their naive counterparts. (cdc.gov)
  • Nasal lesions following acrolein exposure have been replicated thank Drs. Mel Andersen and Teresa Leavens for their critical review in multiple species. (cdc.gov)
  • Based upon studies conducted primarily in laboratory animals, adverse health effects associated with exposure to acrolein are mostly confined to the tissue of first contact (i.e., the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts after inhalation and ingestion, respectively) and are concentration related. (epa.gov)
  • Urine samples (27 workers) were collected after 8 h exposure and analyzed for PAH metabolites and effect biomarkers (8-oxodG for DNA oxidative damage, 4-HNE-MA for lipid peroxidation, 3-HPMA for acrolein). (lu.se)
  • The urotoxicity observed with cyclophosphamide is due to its liver metabolite acrolein, which is excreted in the urine. (medscape.com)
  • Acrolein was used in warfare due to its irritant and blistering properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main metabolic pathway for acrolein is the alkylation of glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory and respi- ratory glutathione (GSH) concentrations were also evaluated in naive and acrolein-preexposed rats. (cdc.gov)
  • 2004). Ambient air with glutathione (GSH) and other cellular nucleophiles (Kehrer measurements in the United States have detected acrolein at & Biswal, 2000), depletes rat nasal and lung GSH (Arumugam concentrations ranging from 2 to 7 ppb. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein also impairs normal tracheal cilia of this article. (cdc.gov)
  • There are tests to measure the breakdown products of acrolein in urine. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has not classified acrolein as to its carcinogenicity (ability to cause cancer). (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein is prepared industrially by oxidation of propene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein can be divided into two categories?Glycerol Dehydration Method type and Propylene Oxidation Method type. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • Acrolein may affect the entire respiratory found in certain foods (fried foods, intermediate in chemical manufacturing tract, from the nasal epithelium to the cooking oils, and roasted coffee), but the and as a biocide. (cdc.gov)
  • An improved understanding of the relationship between inspired concentration of the potent nasal toxicant acrolein and delivered dose is needed to support quantitative risk assessments. (cdc.gov)
  • An additional group of animals was exposed to 0.6 or 1.8 ppm acrolein, 6 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 14 days prior to performing nasal uptake studies (with 1.8 or 3.6 ppm acrolein) at a 100 ml/min airflow rate. (cdc.gov)
  • Nasal lesions induced by acrolein in rodents have been used is College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to Raleigh, NC 27606, USA. (cdc.gov)
  • Connections exist between acrolein gas in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein is one of seven toxicants in cigarette smoke that are most associated with respiratory tract carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein can be found in cigarette smoke and car exhaust. (cdc.gov)
  • 1985). Inspired acrolein reacts rapidly fires can exceed 3 ppm (Slaughter et al. (cdc.gov)
  • In the air, acrolein breaks down fairly rapidly (about half will disappear within 1 day) by reacting with other chemicals and sunlight. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite having increased acrolein UE, GSH concentrations in the respiratory epithelium of acrolein preexposed rats were higher at the end of the 80 min acrolein uptake experiment than their in naive rat counterparts, suggesting that an adaptive response in GSH metabolism occurred following acrolein preexposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The uptake efficiency (UE) of 0.6, 1.8, or 3.6 ppm acrolein was measured in the isolated upper respiratory tract (URT) of anesthetized naive rats under constant-velocity unidirectional inspi- ratory flow rates of 100 or 300 ml/min for up to 80 min. (cdc.gov)
  • In the 20th century, acrolein became an important intermediate for the industrial production of acrylic acid and acrylic plastics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein is also formed during combustion of fuels, wood, and plastics, and is present in ambient air pollution and vapor from electronic cigarettes. (who.int)
  • Breathing air that contains acrolein may cause eye irritation and watering. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein was identified as one of the chemicals involved in the 2019 Kim Kim River toxic pollution incident. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein is used to make other chemicals such as acrylic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein is a relatively electrophilic compound and a reactive one, hence its high toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein is chemically reactive, highly water soluble, and and diesel engine exhausts, partially combusted animal fats and produces cytotoxicity at the site of initial contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein is mainly used as a contact herbicide to control submersed and floating weeds, as well as algae, in irrigation canals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Canada, acrolein is used mainly as an aquatic herbicide in irrigation canals and as a microbiocide in produced water during oil exploration. (epa.gov)
  • Propane represents a promising but challenging feedstock for the synthesis of acrolein (and acrylic acid).The main challenge is in fact the overoxidation to this acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein evaporates quickly from soil and water. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein is also present in certain foods measurements of acrolein in soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein is used primarily as an intermediate component in the manufacture of chemical substances. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • Acrolein is a useful intermediate in the production of various compounds including methionine, methionine hydroxy analog, 1, 3 propanediol and glutaraldehyde. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • The consumption market share of global Acrolein in Methionine use, Pesticides use, Glutaraldehyde use, Water Treatment Agent use and other applications have been stable year by year, at 61.22%, 17.38%, 7.32%, 8.99% and 5.09% respectively in 2017, and for several consecutive years, the amplitude was within one percent. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • Among them, the Acrolein market has the most promising sales prospects in Methionine use. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • Tumors in the nose were seen in rats and mice that breathed in acrolein for a long period of time. (cdc.gov)
  • Cooking fats and oils at high temperatures can also release acrolein. (cdc.gov)
  • Although acrolein occurs in French fries (and other fried foods), the levels are only a few μg per kg. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquor, fried potatoes and onions, raw and Acrolein has not been found as a Human Services cooked turkey, heated animal fats and contaminant of drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein is also found naturally in the An MRL of 0.00004 ppm has been acrolein. (cdc.gov)
  • When glycerol (also called glycerin) is heated to 280 °C, it decomposes into acrolein: (CH2OH)2CHOH → CH2=CHCHO + 2 H2O This route is attractive when glycerol is co-generated in the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils or animal fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein levels in outdoor air averaged of fats. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein can get into the environment from automobile exhaust, smoke from a fire or a cigarette, or manufacturing facilities that make or use this chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • In surface water, half of acrolein will disappear in 1-3 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Eating certain foods or beverages or drinking contaminated water may expose you to acrolein. (cdc.gov)
  • You can also be exposed if you enter water soon after it was treated with products that contain acrolein. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein does not build up in plants or animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies in animals show that breathing in acrolein for a short amount of time irritated the nose and throat and decreased breathing rate. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposing animals to air that contained acrolein caused some animals to blink or close their eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • When acrolein was eaten, the lining of the stomach become irritated and inflamed and caused some animals to throw up. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed to acrolein if you breath in smoke from cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or marijuana, or are in an area where people are smoking and breath in their exhaled smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • The WHO suggests a "tolerable oral acrolein intake" of 7.5 μg per day per kg of body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • What happens to acrolein in the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • Keep children away from waterways that are treated with acrolein products to control weeds, algae, and bacterial growth. (cdc.gov)
  • Title : Control of Australorbis glabratus by acrolein in Puerto Rico Personal Author(s) : Ferguson, Frederick F.;Richards, Charles S.;Palmer, Juan R. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein acts in an immunosuppressive manner and may promote regulatory cells, thereby preventing the generation of allergies on the one hand, but also increasing the risk of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the entire urothelium is at risk of urotoxicity, the bladder, which serves as a reservoir, is most frequently affected, because the contact time between acrolein and the urothelium is greatest at this site. (medscape.com)
  • How can acrolein affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • The Acrolein industry is not concentrated, these manufacturers range from large multinational corporations to small privately owned companies compete in this industry. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • XYZ research center data shows that Europe is the biggest contributor to the Acrolein revenue market, accounted for 39.29% of the total global market with a revenue of 582.40 million USD in 2017, followed by USA, 32.19%% with a revenue of 477.22 million USD. (reportsnmarkets.com)
  • Acrolein : health and safety guide. (who.int)
  • Can acrolein cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • The ability of acrolein to cause cancer in people has not been well studied. (cdc.gov)
  • Can I get a medical test to check for acrolein? (cdc.gov)