Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Phosphoramide Mustards: A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Allyl CompoundsSmokeCystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Peroxiredoxin III: A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.Allylamine: Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Norleucine: An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.SemicarbazonesNociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Molluscacides: Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cyclamen: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.ButanonesLysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.MercaptoethylaminesInhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.SemicarbazidesAlkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)MaleatesSchiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Mice, Inbred C57BLEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Rats, Inbred F344Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.AcroleinDrug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Synechocystis: A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)UracilAcetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.I-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
(1/412) Acrolein causes inhibitor kappaB-independent decreases in nuclear factor kappaB activation in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde to which humans are exposed in various situations. In the present study, the effects of sublethal doses of acrolein on nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were investigated. Immediately following a 30-min exposure to 45 fmol of acrolein/cell, glutathione (GSH) and DNA synthesis and NF-kappaB binding were reduced by more than 80%. All parameters returned to normal or supranormal levels by 8 h post-treatment. Pretreatment with acrolein completely blocked 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced activation of NF-kappaB. Cells treated for 1 h with 1 mM diethyl maleate (DEM) showed a 34 and 53% decrease in GSH and DNA synthesis, respectively. DEM also reduced NF-kappaB activation by 64% at 2 h post-treatment, with recovery to within 22% of control at 8 h. Both acrolein and DEM decreased NF-kappaB function approximately 50% at 2 h after treatment with TPA, as shown by a secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter assay. GSH returned to control levels by 8 h after DEM treatment, but proliferation remained significantly depressed for 24 h. Interestingly, DEM caused a profound decrease in NF-kappaB binding, even at doses as low as 0.125 mM that had little effect on GSH. Neither acrolein nor DEM had any effect on the levels of phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated inhibitor kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). Furthermore, acrolein decreased NF-kappaB activation in cells depleted of IkappaB-alpha by TPA stimulation in the presence of cycloheximide, demonstrating that the decrease in NF-kappaB activation was not the result of increased binding by the inhibitory protein. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that acrolein modified NF-kappaB in the cytosol prior to chemical dissociation from IkappaB with detergent. Together, these data support the conclusion that the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by acrolein and DEM is IkappaB-independent. The mechanism appears to be related to direct modification of thiol groups in the NF-kappaB subunits.  (+info)

(2/412) Regulation of human airway mucins by acrolein and inflammatory mediators.

Bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, marked by inflammation and mucus hypersecretion, can be caused or exacerbated by airway pathogens or irritants including acrolein, an aldehyde present in tobacco smoke. To determine whether acrolein and inflammatory mediators alter mucin gene expression, steady-state mRNA levels of two airway mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, were measured (by RT-PCR) in human lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H292). MUC5AC mRNA levels increased after >/=0.01 nM acrolein, 10 microM prostaglandin E2 or 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 1.0 nM tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or 10 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (a protein kinase C activator). In contrast, MUC5B mRNA levels, although easily detected, were unaffected by these agonists, suggesting that irritants and associated inflammatory mediators increase mucin biosynthesis by inducing MUC5AC message levels, whereas MUC5B is constitutively expressed. When transcription was inhibited, TNF-alpha exposure increased MUC5AC message half-life compared with control level, suggesting that transcript stabilization is a major mechanism controlling increased MUC5AC message levels. Together, these findings imply that irritants like acrolein can directly and indirectly (via inflammatory mediators) increase airway mucin transcripts in epithelial cells.  (+info)

(3/412) Cigarette smoke induces direct DNA damage in the human B-lymphoid cell line Raji.

Human lymphoid cells (Raji) were exposed to water-soluble compounds from cigarette smoke (CS) generated in a smoking machine. DNA damage, as detected by alkaline single-cell microelectrophoresis (COMET assay), was induced in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in the cells. Most of the rapidly induced DNA damage was attributable to direct-acting compounds since cytochrome P450-related metabolic activities (ethoxy- and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylases and coumarin-7-hydroxylase) were absent or very low. In addition, induction of DNA damage could be inhibited only slightly by beta-naphthoflavone and coumarin. Vitamin C enhanced DNA damage in Raji cells probably by redox cycling of catechol and hydroquinone present in CS implicating reactive oxygen intermediates as another source of DNA damage. N-acetylcysteine, a radical scavenger and glutathione precursor, reduced DNA damage in Raji cells when exposure to CS was followed by 2 h post-incubation in culture medium. Unrepaired DNA damage caused by CS persisted longer than gamma-irradiation-induced DNA damage. Among the CS constituents, acrolein, but not formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, induced DNA damage although less intensely than CS itself. At 50 and 100 microM concentrations, acrolein also inhibited repair of gamma- irradiation-induced DNA damage in the COMET assay. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by acrolein at 50 microM was demonstrated by an immunochemical assay for bromo-deoxyuridine incorporation; however, inhibition of a representative repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanosine hydrolase, by either CS or acrolein was not observed. The present results further confirm the presence of direct-acting genotoxic components and inhibitors of DNA repair in the gas phase of tobacco smoke, that may contribute to DNA damage and smoking-associated cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract.  (+info)

(4/412) Monocyte inflammation augments acrolein-induced Muc5ac expression in mouse lung.

Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde found in smog and tobacco smoke, can induce airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion. To determine whether changes in steady-state mucin gene expression (Muc2 and Muc5ac) are associated with inflammatory cell accumulation and neutrophil elastase activity, FVB/N mice were exposed to acrolein (3.0 parts/million; 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 3 wk). The levels of Muc2 and Muc5ac mRNA were determined by RT-PCR, and the presence of Muc5ac protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Total and differential cell counts were determined from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and neutrophil elastase activity was measured in the BAL fluid supernatant. Lung Muc5ac mRNA was increased on days 12 and 19, and Muc5ac protein was detected in mucous granules and on the surface of the epithelium on day 19. Lung Muc2 mRNA was not detected at measurable levels in either control or exposed mice. Acrolein exposure caused a significant and persistent increase in macrophages and a rapid but transient increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid. Recoverable neutrophil elastase activity was not significantly altered at any time after acrolein exposure. To further examine the role of macrophage accumulation in mucin gene expression, additional strains of mice (including a strain genetically deficient in macrophage metalloelastase) were exposed to acrolein for 3 wk, and Muc5ac mRNA levels and macrophage accumulation were measured. The magnitude of macrophage accumulation coincided with increased Muc5ac mRNA levels, indicating that excessive macrophage accumulation augments acrolein-induced Muc5ac synthesis and secretion after repeated exposure. These findings support a role for chronic monocytic inflammation in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion observed in chronic bronchitis.  (+info)

(5/412) Effect of acrolein on human alveolar macrophage NF-kappaB activity.

Acrolein is an environmental pollutant that is known to suppress respiratory host defense against infections; however, the mechanism of the decrease in host defense is not yet clear. We have previously reported that acrolein inhibited endotoxin-induced cytokine release and induced apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages, suggesting that the inhibition of cytokine release and/or cytotoxicity to alveolar macrophages may, in part, be responsible for acrolein-induced immunosuppression in the lung. Because nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is an important transcription factor for a number of cytokine genes and is also an important regulator of apoptosis, the effect of acrolein on NF-kappaB activity was examined by electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Acrolein caused a dose-dependent inhibition of endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB activation as well as an inhibition of basal level NF-kappaB activity. Because IkappaB is a principal regulator of NF-kappaB activity in the nucleus, changes in IkappaB were determined by Western blotting. Acrolein-inhibited IkappaB phosphorylation leads to an increase in cellular IkappaB levels preventing NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and is likely the mechanism of acrolein-induced inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. The role of basal level NF-kappaB in acrolein-induced apoptosis was also examined. An NF-kappaB inhibitor (MG-132) also induced apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages, suggesting that a certain basal level NF-kappaB activity may be required for macrophage cell survival. Taken together, our results suggest that the acrolein-inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB activation decreased the basal level NF-kappaB activity, which may be responsible for the inhibition of cytokine release and the induction of apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

(6/412) Pharmacological and molecular evidence for kinin B1 receptor expression in urinary bladder of cyclophosphamide-treated rats.

1. In the present study, we developed an experimental model of cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). In order to characterize des-Arg9-BK-induced contraction on the urinary bladder (UB) during the development of inflammation and to quantify kinin B1 receptor gene expression using a quantitative RT - PCR technique. 2. In the presence of peptidase inhibitors captopril (10 microM), DL-thiorphan (1 microM) and DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidino-ethylthiopropanoic acid (MERGEPTA 5 microM), bradykinin (BK) (0.3 - 3,000 nM) evoked a concentration-dependent contraction of rat UB which was not different between the CYP- and vehicle-treated groups. Unlike BK, des-Arg9-BK (0.3 - 100,000 nM) did not contract UB from vehicle-treated rats but contracted vigorously bladder strips from CYP-treated rats 14, 24 and 168 h after treatment. In UB of 24 h treated rat, the pD2 value of des-Arg9-BK was 7.3+/-0.1. 3. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (3 microM) reduced by 30% the maximal response of des-Arg9-BK. Both the kinin B1 receptor antagonists des-Arg9-[Leu8]BK (10 microM) and des-Arg10-Hoe 140 (10 microM) produced a rightward shift of the concentration-response curve to des-Arg9-BK yielding pKB values of 6.8+/-0.2 and 7.2+/-0.1, respectively, whilst the kinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (1 microM) had no effect. 4. After CYP treatment, mRNA coding for the kinin B1 receptor appeared predominantly in UB. In this organ, the induction was progressive, reaching a maximum 48 h after CYP treatment. 5. In conclusion, the present study provides strong evidence for an induction of kinin B1 receptors in UB of CYP-treated rats. This was associated at a molecular level with an increase in mRNA expression of the gene coding for the kinin B1 receptor. This kinin receptor displayed the whole features of a classical rat kinin B1 receptor.  (+info)

(7/412) Sensory nerve-mediated immediate nasal responses to inspired acrolein.

To investigate the role of sensory C-fiber stimulation and tachykinin release in the immediate nasal responses to the sensory irritant acrolein, the upper respiratory tract of the urethan-anesthetized male Fischer 344 rat was isolated via insertion of an endotracheal tube, and acrolein-laden air [2, 5, 10, or 20 parts/million (ppm)] was drawn continuously through that site at a flow rate of 100 ml/min for 50 min. Uptake of the inert vapor acetone was measured throughout the exposure to assess nasal vascular function. Plasma protein extravasation into nasal tissue and nasal lavage fluid was also assessed via injection of Evans blue dye. At 20 ppm, acrolein induced 1) a twofold increase in acetone uptake, indicative of vasodilation, followed by a progressive decline toward basal levels and 2) increased plasma protein extravasation, as indicated by dye leakage into nasal tissue and nasal lavage. These responses were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment and the neurokinin type 1 antagonist N-acetyltrifluoromethyl tryptophan benzyl ester and were potentiated by the peptidase inhibitors phosphoramidon and captopril, suggesting that these responses were mediated by tachykinin. At lower exposure concentrations, acrolein was without effect on dye leakage but produced vasodilation, as indicated by increased acetone uptake. The responses at the lower concentrations were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment, implicating nasal sensory C-fiber involvement, but were not influenced by N-acetyltrifluoromethyl tryptophan benzyl ester, phosphoramidon, or captopril, suggesting the involvement of a mediator other than the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A.  (+info)

(8/412) Glutathione antagonized cyclophosphamide- and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity of PC3 cells and immunosuppressive actions in mice.

AIM: To study the antagonistic effect of glutathione (GSH) on toxicity of PC3 cell induced by cyclophosphamide (Cyc) and acrolein (Acr) and on immunosuppressive actions caused by Cyc. METHODS: Splenocyte, PC3 cell proliferation and cell protein content were measured by tetrazolium (MTT) assay and Coomassie brilliant blue assay. Serum anti-SRBC hemolysin, agglutinin, and splenocyte proliferation were measured in normal and S-180-bearing mice. Tumors were weighed. RESULTS: Pretreatment with GSH 2 mmol.L-1 reduced splenocyte proliferation inhibition from 18.64%, 49.72% to 6.78%, 18.36% (induced by Cyc 1, and 5 mmol.L-1), and PC3 cell proliferation inhibition from 27.7%, 45.3%, and 74.6% to 14.6%, 18.8%, and 49.1% (induced by Cyc 1, 3, and 5 mmol.L-1), and from 62.6%, 85.4%, and 90.6% to 41.9%, 57.7%, and 86.4% (induced by Acr 10, 25, and 50 mumol.L-1), respectively. In normal mice, s.c. GSH 75 or 150 b.i.d. x 5 d after i.p. Cyc 40, the hemolysin and the splenocyte proliferation were higher than those in normal mice i.p. Cyc 40 alone. Hemolysin, serum agglutinin, and splenocyte proliferation in S-180-bearing mice given s.c. GSH 150 b.i.d. x 10 d after i.p. Cyc 40 were also markedly higher than those in S-180-bearing mice given i.p. Cyc alone. But, according to tumor weight, GSH did not interfere the antitumor activity of Cyc in S-180-bearing mice. CONCLUSION: GSH exhibited protective effects against Cyc and Acr, but had no effect on the antitumor action of Cyc.  (+info)

*  Acrolein
... is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. The main metabolic pathway for acrolein is ... The acrolein content in cigarette smoke depends on the type of cigarette and added glycerin making up up to 220 µg acrolein per ... The "acrolein test" is for the presence of glycerin or fats. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is ... The WHO suggests a "tolerable oral acrolein intake" of 7.5 μg per day per kg of body weight. Although acrolein occurs in French ...
*  Dehydration reaction
Hydration reaction H. Adkins; W. H. Hartung (1926). "Acrolein". Organic Syntheses. 6: 1. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.006.0001. ; ...
*  Lewis acid catalysis
The Butadiene + Acrolein Paradigm". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 120 (10): 2415-2420. doi:10.1021/ja9722279. Carey ...
*  Formyl cyanide
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ...
*  Acrylonitrile
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ... The glycerol route begins with pyrolysis to acrolein, which undergoes ammoxidation to give acrylonitrile. The glutamic route ...
*  Indoor air quality
A meta-analysis of 77 surveys of VOCs in homes in the US found the top ten riskiest indoor air VOCs were acrolein, formaldehyde ... Overheated cooking oils emit acrolein and formaldehyde. ...
*  Fish acute toxicity syndrome
The respiratory irritants were Acrolein and Benzaldehyde. In part three of the experiment series, polar narcotics phenol, 2,4- ... Acrolein and Benzaldehyde". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 6 (4): 313-328. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060408. Bradbury SP, ...
*  Tobacco smoking
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ...
*  Pentosan polysulfate
Evidence for this mechanism was found by irritating the lining of the bladders of female rats with acrolein. If the rats were ... Kalota SJ, Stein PC, Parsons CL (1992). "Prevention of acrolein-induced bladder injury by pentosanpolysulfate". J Urol. 148 (1 ...
*  Safety of electronic cigarettes
Acrolein may induce irritation to the upper respiratory tract. Acrolein levels were reduced by 60% in dual users and 80% for ... Some e-cigarette products had acrolein identified in the aerosol. It may be generated when glycerin is heated to higher ... acrolein, and glyoxal by the chemical reaction of the e-liquid when the nichrome wire (heating element) is heated, to high ...
*  Methacrylonitrile
Acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide and acrolein are known by-products. It is used in the preparation of homo- and copolymers, ...
*  Health effects of tobacco
Acrolein has been shown to be a mutagen and carcinogen in human cells. The carcinogenicity of acrolein has been difficult to ... However, acrolein is 1000 times more abundant than PAHs in cigarette smoke and is able to react as is, without metabolic ... Like PAH metabolites, acrolein is also an electrophilic alkylating agent and permanently binds to the DNA base guanine, by a ... Acrolein is only one of them present in cigarette smoke; for example, crotonaldehyde has been found in cigarette smoke. Michael ...
*  Glycerol dehydratase
SMILEY KL, SOBOLOV M (1962). "A cobamide-requiring glycerol dehydrase from an acrolein-forming Lactobacillus". Arch. Biochem. ...
*  DNA polymerase eta
"Mammalian translesion DNA synthesis across an acrolein-derived deoxyguanosine adduct. Participation of DNA polymerase eta in ...
*  Modes of toxic action
... acrolein, zinc sulphate and chlorine. Central nervous system (CNS) seizure agents. CNS seizure agents inhibit cellular ...
*  Surface chemistry of cooking
The smoke, which contains acrolein, is an eye irritant and asphixiant. The smoke point of oils vary widely. Depending on origin ...
*  Josef Redtenbacher (chemist)
Discovery of Acrolein and Acrylic acid Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. Lauenburg (1888), "Redtenbacher, Joseph", ... He is credited with the discoveries of acrolein and acrylic acid. He also performed important research involving the ...
*  Reuterin
Engels C, Schwab C, Zhang J, Stevens MJ, Bieri C, Ebert MO, McNeill K, Sturla SJ, and Lacroix C (2016). "Acrolein contributes ... A. "13C and 1H NMR study of formaldehyde reactions with acetaldehyde and acrolein. Synthesis of 2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3- ... Reuterin consists of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, its hydrate, its dehydration product (acrolein), and its dimer in dynamic ...
*  Silent stroke
Acrolein: elevated levels of acrolein, a toxic metabolite produced from the polyamines spermine, spermidine and by amine ... 2009). "Acrolein, IL-6 and CRP as markers of silent brain infarction". Atherosclerosis. 203 (2): 557-62. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Polyamine oxidase and acrolein as novel biochemical markers for diagnosis of cerebral stroke". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral ...
*  Organolithium reagent
1997). "Reaction Pathway of the Conjugate Addition of Lithium Organocuprate Clusters to Acrolein". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119: 4900- ...
*  Water
An example is the production of acrylic acid from acrolein, propylene and propane. The possible effect of water in these ...
*  Pyridine
First, acrolein is formed in a Knoevenagel condensation from the acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. It is then condensed with ...
*  Carbonyl group
Examples of unsaturated carbonyls are acrolein (propenal), mesityl oxide, acrylic acid, and maleic acid. Unsaturated carbonyls ...
*  Phenanthroline
Dehydration of glycerol gives acrolein which condenses with the amine followed by a cyclization. In terms of its coordination ...
*  Baylis-Hillman reaction
Acroleins are prone to oligomerization, and allenoates easily undergo cycloaddition reactions. It is extremely hard to develop ...
Ifosfamide/mesna Side Effects in Detail -  Ifosfamide/mesna Side Effects in Detail -
Genitourinary epithelial cells within the bladder wall are sensitive to 4-OH-ifosfamide and acrolein, urotoxic metabolites that ...
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Side effects of cyclophopsphamide | Cyclophosphamide  Side effects of cyclophopsphamide | Cyclophosphamide
After intake of cyclophosphamide, it is broken down into the phosphoramide mustard and acrolein. The byproduct acrolein causes ...
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NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 00098750 - Acrolein.  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00098750 - Acrolein.
This information profile on acrolein (107028) is part of a group of 46 such profiles that provide information about chemicals ... This information profile on acrolein (107028) is part of a group of 46 such profiles that provide information about chemicals ...
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See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Acrolein (EHC 127, 1991) Acrolein (HSG 67, 1991) Acrolein (CICADS 43, 2002) Acrolein ( ...
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Acrolein - Wikipedia  Acrolein - Wikipedia
Acrolein is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages.[4] The main metabolic pathway for acrolein ... The "acrolein test" is for the presence of glycerin or fats. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is ... The WHO suggests a "tolerable oral acrolein intake" of 7.5 μg per day per kg of body weight. Although acrolein occurs in French ... Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide treatment results in the production of acrolein.[21] Acrolein produced during cyclophosphamide ...
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Acrolein dimethyl acetal 98% | Sigma-Aldrich  Acrolein dimethyl acetal 98% | Sigma-Aldrich
Acrolein dimethyl acetal for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and ... Acrolein dimethyl acetal was used in the facile one step synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal and its dimethyl acetal via a cross- ... Acrolein dimethyl acetal undergoes cationic α-diimine palladium chelate catalyzed copolymerization with ethene to yield ...
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Chemical Database: Acrolein, stabilized (  Chemical Database: Acrolein, stabilized (
This page contains information on the chemical Acrolein, stabilized including: 1 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal ... Acrolein, stabilized. Identifications. *Synonyms/Related:*Acrolein, stabilized. 49 CFR 172.101 - Hazardous Materials Table. ... Acrolein, stabilized. Yes. No. Isolation and Protective Action Distances Table. SMALL SPILLS. LARGE SPILLS. UN#. Name of ... Acrolein, stabilized (,/a,- This page contains information on the chemical Acrolein, stabilized ...
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Acrolein contains hydroquinone as stabilizer, 90% | Sigma-Aldrich  Acrolein contains hydroquinone as stabilizer, 90% | Sigma-Aldrich
Acrolein for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references. ... Acrolein has been used in the preparation of monomeric and dimeric β-hydroxypropionaldehyde in a hydration reaction. ... Acrolein causes transient urothelial loss and exposes local afferent terminals to a toxic environment. ... Acrolein is a metabolite that is generated by catabolic pathaways via many oxidases. ...
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DailyTech - Environmental Toxin Acrolein May Help Cause Multiple Sclerosis  DailyTech - Environmental Toxin "Acrolein" May Help Cause Multiple Sclerosis
... researchers concluded that a connection existed between acrolein and MS because the elevated acrolein levels within the mice ... The toxin, acrolein, is found in air pollutants like auto exhaust and tobacco smoke. It is also created inside the body when ... To neutralize acrolein and temporarily halt the onset of MS, Shi used the drug hydralazine, which is an FDA-approved medication ... Researchers believe acrolein is responsible for the dismantling of the myelin as well as inducing the creation of free radicals ...
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Acrolein-mediated injury in nervous system trauma and diseases.  - PubMed - NCBI  Acrolein-mediated injury in nervous system trauma and diseases. - PubMed - NCBI
Hydralazine in particular can reduce acrolein concentrations and inhibit acrolein-mediated pathologies in vivo. Acrolein ... Acrolein-mediated injury in nervous system trauma and diseases.. Shi R1, Rickett T, Sun W. ... Exposure to acrolein results in damage to myelin, the myelin-axon junction, and the axonal membranes (B). Influx of calcium ... Acrolein originates from multiple exogenous and endogenous sources and is known to attack protein, lipids, and DNA. Such ...
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Protective Effect of Silymarin against Acrolein-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice  Protective Effect of Silymarin against Acrolein-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice
Reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein (ACR) are major components of environmental pollutants and have been ... Protective Effect of Silymarin against Acrolein-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice. Elahe Taghiabadi,1 Mohsen Imenshahidi,2 Khalil ...
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CDC - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH):  Acrolein -  NIOSH Publications and Products  CDC - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH): Acrolein - NIOSH Publications and Products
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for acrolein is 2 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Darley et al ... ACGIH [1971]. Acrolein. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH ... In: Acrolein, Smith CW, ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 234-239. ... Catilina P, Thieblot L, Champeix J [1966]. Experimental respiratory lesions by inhalation of acrolein in the rat. Arch Mal Prof ...
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Federal Register
      Acrolein Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability, and Risk Reduction Options  Federal Register :: Acrolein Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability, and Risk Reduction Options
... and related documents for the pesticide acrolein, and opens a public comment period on these documents. The public is ... Acrolein is primarily used in irrigation canals and reservoirs to treat aquatic weeds, such as pondweed. Acrolein's secondary ... Acrolein Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability, and Risk Reduction Options. A Notice by the Environmental ... Risks of concern associated with the use of acrolein are: acute and chronic risk to freshwater fish and estuarine/marine fish ...
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C-FERST Issue Profile: Acrolein | Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool                 (C-FERST) | US EPA  C-FERST Issue Profile: Acrolein | Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) | US EPA
C-FERST Issue Profile: Acrolein. Acrolein is a clear or yellow liquid with a burned, pungent odor that is commonly used as a ... Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Acrolein *CalEPA OEHHA Acrolein Noncancer Reference Exposure Levels (RELs) (PDF) ( ... Acrolein also can be formed from the breakdown of certain pollutants in outdoor air or from burning organic matter like tobacco ... Small amounts of acrolein may be found in some foods, such as fried foods, cooking oils, and roasted coffee. ...
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Patent US5198578 - Anhydrous diluents for the propylene oxidation reaction to acrolein and ... - Google Patents  Patent US5198578 - Anhydrous diluents for the propylene oxidation reaction to acrolein and ... - Google Patents
The processes for oxidation of propylene to acrolein and the oxidation of propylene to acrylic acid in two stages with acrolein ... The acrolein produced in this reaction stage can be recovered or can be directed without separation of the acrolein to a second ... Thus, a portion of the product stream from the first-stage propylene-acrolein reactor can be sent to an acrolein recovery ... As the flowing heat capacity of the reaction feed gas mixture is increased, yield to acrolein, and acrolein plus acrylic acid ...
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Acrolein - Wikipedia  Acrolein - Wikipedia
Acrolein is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. The main metabolic pathway for acrolein is ... The acrolein content in cigarette smoke depends on the type of cigarette and added glycerin making up up to 220 µg acrolein per ... The "acrolein test" is for the presence of glycerin or fats. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is ... The WHO suggests a "tolerable oral acrolein intake" of 7.5 μg per day per kg of body weight. Although acrolein occurs in French ...
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Global Acrolein Market Data Survey Report 2025 : ReportsnReports  Global Acrolein Market Data Survey Report 2025 : ReportsnReports
Summary Acrolein is a clear to yellowish, pungent liquid. Acrolein... ... 76 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Acrolein Market Data Survey Report 2025 report by HeyReport. ... Fig Global Acrolein Market Size and CAGR 2011-2017 (Value). Fig Global Acrolein Market Size and CAGR 2011-2017 (Volume). Fig ... Acrolein is a clear to yellowish, pungent liquid. Acrolein is used primarily as an intermediate component in the manufacture of ...
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Enhancement of the Acrolein-Induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Lung Injury by GADD34  Enhancement of the Acrolein-Induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Lung Injury by GADD34
The shcon/LLCs and shGADD34/LLCs were plated in 12-well dishes and treated with 25 μM acrolein alone for 8 h, or 25 μM acrolein ... The shcon/LLCs and shGADD34/LLCs were plated in 12-well dishes and treated with 25 μM acrolein alone for 8 h, or 25 μM acrolein ... The 25 μM acrolein-treated shcon/LLCs and shGADD34/LLCs were analyzed. (a) Cell survival after 25 μM acrolein treatment was ... GADD34 Mediates Acrolein-Caused Lung Injury. Acrolein has been shown to induce ER stress [14]. We examined the expression of ER ...
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1 Acrolein | Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 8 | The National Academies Press  1 Acrolein | Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 8 | The National Academies Press
Read chapter 1 Acrolein: This book is the eighth volume in the series Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne ... 1993). Acrolein was aerosolized by passing 100% N2 (5 mL/min) over a solution of 0.25 mL of acrolein dissolved in 9.75 mL of ... 1964). Concentrated acrolein vapors were produced by passing a stream of air over liquid acrolein held in a diffusion cell in ... Acrolein has also been used in military poison gas mixtures. The largest sources of human exposure to acrolein are from ...
more info • View topic - Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system • View topic - Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system
Acrolein is present in significant quantities in wood smoke.. Up to 100 mg of acrolein is released by the combustion of one ... "If the acrolein level is high, it needs to be reduced, and we already have effective acrolein removers to do so," said Riyi Shi ... "If the acrolein level is high it needs to be reduced, and we already have effective acrolein removers to do so," Shi said. " ... "Acrolein is very volatile, so it doesn't remain stable long enough to monitor, but one molecule of acrolein will make one ...
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  • The processes for oxidation of propylene to acrolein and the oxidation of propylene to acrylic acid in two stages with acrolein as an intermediate are improved by use of essentially inert essentially anhydrous diluent gases to replace steam in the reaction streams. (
  • More specifically, it describes an improved process for producing acrolein or producing acrylic acid by the catalytic vapor phase oxidation of propylene in the presence of essentially inert essentially anhydrous diluents having specified composite heat capacity values. (
  • Another method to produce acrolein was discovered through has-phase oxidation of propylene. (
  • Ultimately, acrolein damages both axonal membranes and myelin structures (C). Myelin decompaction and retraction prevent saltatory conduction and allow K + channels to spread into the node of Ranvier, furthering disrupting neuronal function. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. (
  • These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health. (
  • Researchers believe acrolein is responsible for the dismantling of the myelin as well as inducing the creation of free radicals, which are compounds that cause further injury to tissues that are already damaged due to trauma or disease. (
  • On the cellular level, acrolein exposure can cause membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and myelin disruption. (
  • Molecular mechanisms of acrolein-mediated myelin destruction in CNS trauma and disease. (
  • Generally, propylene in its gaseous phase is oxidized to acrolein in the presence of molecular oxygen-containing gases and steam, whose concentration is often as high as about 35 volume percent of the total feed stream, by contact at elevated temperatures with solid metal oxide catalysts. (
  • The process uses air as the source of oxygen and requires metal oxides as heterogeneous catalysts: CH2CHCH3 + O2 → CH2CHCHO + H2O About 500,000 tons of acrolein are produced in this way annually in North America, Europe, and Japan. (
  • Acrolein acts in an immunosuppressive manner and may promote regulatory cells , thereby preventing the generation of allergy on the one hand, but also increasing the risk of cancer. (
  • The potency and volatility of acrolein could also account for the apparent immunosuppressive effects of passive smoke. (
  • At a respiration rate of 2 to 4 L/min, a child could theoretically receive an immunosuppressive dose of acrolein (~10-30 mg) from a 1-hour exposure to the levels of second-hand smoke typically found in restaurants. (
  • It has been shown that acrolein induces these three UPRs [ 11 - 14 ]. (
  • Because acrolein is a DNA damaging agent and induces ER stresses [ 14 ] and induces myeloid infiltration to lung [ 19 ], here we investigated whether GADD34 might affects pathogenesis of acrolein-induced lung injury. (
  • The first industrial acrolein synthesis in the early 1930s by Degussa, and began production in 1942. (
  • The original industrial route to acrolein, developed by Degussa, involves condensation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: HCHO + CH3CHO → CH2=CHCHO + H2O Acrolein may also be produced on lab scale by the reaction of potassium bisulfate on glycerol (glycerine). (
  • Degussa Developed Te First Industrial Acrolein Syn. (
  • Reactive α , β -unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein (ACR) are major components of environmental pollutants and have been implicated in the neurodegenerative and cardiac diseases. (
  • Acrolein, the smallest member in α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, is the model system for studying selective hydrogenation of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes. (
  • Acrolein originates from multiple exogenous and endogenous sources and is known to attack protein, lipids, and DNA. (
  • We found that hypertensive, but not normal rats, had significant increases in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing frequency, and minute volume during acrolein exposure. (
  • Concurrent with injury-induced increases in acrolein concentration is an increased expression of TRPA1 in the lumbar (L3-L6) sensory ganglia. (
  • A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. (
  • Acrolein is a powerful solution to these problems since it not only is oil-permeable and biofilm permeable allowing easy mitigation of bacterial colonies at the site, but it also acts as a H 2 S scavenger and an iron-sulfide dissolver. (
  • In response to occupational exposures to acrolein, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit at 0.1 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) at an eight-hour time-weighted average. (
  • Acrolein is a relatively electrophilic compound and a reactive one, hence its high toxicity. (
  • The intranasal exposure of acrolein induced the expression of GADD34, developing the pulmonary damage with inflammation and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (
  • showed that acrolein produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mast cells [ 7 ]. (
  • Acrolein also can be formed from the breakdown of certain pollutants in outdoor air or from burning organic matter like tobacco, or fuels like gasoline and oil. (
  • Small amounts of acrolein may be found in some foods, such as fried foods, cooking oils, and roasted coffee. (
  • So far most theoretical work is about adsorption and reactions of acrolein and its related species on surfaces. (
  • Kinetic Resolution of the Acrolein Dimer by Asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Reactions. (
  • According to MCA , the irritation properties of acrolein are clearly evident at 1 ppm. (
  • Several chemical species are capable of binding and inactivating acrolein. (
  • Chemical safety data sheet SD-85: properties and essential information for safe handling and use of acrolein. (
  • Acrolein is used primarily as an intermediate component in the manufacture of chemical substances. (
  • Despite the dangerous nature of this chemical, the benefits outweigh the risks of using acrolein in industrial settings so preventative measures have to be implemented to reduce employee exposure. (
  • The WHO suggests a "tolerable oral acrolein intake" of 7.5 μg per day per kg of body weight. (
  • Taken together, these data suggests that acrolein directly modulates SCI-associated pain behavior, making it a novel therapeutic target for preclinical and clinical SCI as an analgesic. (
  • Importantly, while the concentration of the constituents in mainstream smoke can be reduced by filters, this has no significant effect on the composition of the side-stream smoke where acrolein usually resides, and which is inhaled by passive smoking. (
  • Connections exist between acrolein gas in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer. (
  • Here we investigated the effects of GADD34 on acrolein-induced lung injury. (