Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.
Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.
The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Acrolein causes inhibitor kappaB-independent decreases in nuclear factor kappaB activation in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. (1/412)

Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde to which humans are exposed in various situations. In the present study, the effects of sublethal doses of acrolein on nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were investigated. Immediately following a 30-min exposure to 45 fmol of acrolein/cell, glutathione (GSH) and DNA synthesis and NF-kappaB binding were reduced by more than 80%. All parameters returned to normal or supranormal levels by 8 h post-treatment. Pretreatment with acrolein completely blocked 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced activation of NF-kappaB. Cells treated for 1 h with 1 mM diethyl maleate (DEM) showed a 34 and 53% decrease in GSH and DNA synthesis, respectively. DEM also reduced NF-kappaB activation by 64% at 2 h post-treatment, with recovery to within 22% of control at 8 h. Both acrolein and DEM decreased NF-kappaB function approximately 50% at 2 h after treatment with TPA, as shown by a secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter assay. GSH returned to control levels by 8 h after DEM treatment, but proliferation remained significantly depressed for 24 h. Interestingly, DEM caused a profound decrease in NF-kappaB binding, even at doses as low as 0.125 mM that had little effect on GSH. Neither acrolein nor DEM had any effect on the levels of phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated inhibitor kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). Furthermore, acrolein decreased NF-kappaB activation in cells depleted of IkappaB-alpha by TPA stimulation in the presence of cycloheximide, demonstrating that the decrease in NF-kappaB activation was not the result of increased binding by the inhibitory protein. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that acrolein modified NF-kappaB in the cytosol prior to chemical dissociation from IkappaB with detergent. Together, these data support the conclusion that the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by acrolein and DEM is IkappaB-independent. The mechanism appears to be related to direct modification of thiol groups in the NF-kappaB subunits.  (+info)

Regulation of human airway mucins by acrolein and inflammatory mediators. (2/412)

Bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, marked by inflammation and mucus hypersecretion, can be caused or exacerbated by airway pathogens or irritants including acrolein, an aldehyde present in tobacco smoke. To determine whether acrolein and inflammatory mediators alter mucin gene expression, steady-state mRNA levels of two airway mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, were measured (by RT-PCR) in human lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H292). MUC5AC mRNA levels increased after >/=0.01 nM acrolein, 10 microM prostaglandin E2 or 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 1.0 nM tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or 10 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (a protein kinase C activator). In contrast, MUC5B mRNA levels, although easily detected, were unaffected by these agonists, suggesting that irritants and associated inflammatory mediators increase mucin biosynthesis by inducing MUC5AC message levels, whereas MUC5B is constitutively expressed. When transcription was inhibited, TNF-alpha exposure increased MUC5AC message half-life compared with control level, suggesting that transcript stabilization is a major mechanism controlling increased MUC5AC message levels. Together, these findings imply that irritants like acrolein can directly and indirectly (via inflammatory mediators) increase airway mucin transcripts in epithelial cells.  (+info)

Cigarette smoke induces direct DNA damage in the human B-lymphoid cell line Raji. (3/412)

Human lymphoid cells (Raji) were exposed to water-soluble compounds from cigarette smoke (CS) generated in a smoking machine. DNA damage, as detected by alkaline single-cell microelectrophoresis (COMET assay), was induced in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in the cells. Most of the rapidly induced DNA damage was attributable to direct-acting compounds since cytochrome P450-related metabolic activities (ethoxy- and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylases and coumarin-7-hydroxylase) were absent or very low. In addition, induction of DNA damage could be inhibited only slightly by beta-naphthoflavone and coumarin. Vitamin C enhanced DNA damage in Raji cells probably by redox cycling of catechol and hydroquinone present in CS implicating reactive oxygen intermediates as another source of DNA damage. N-acetylcysteine, a radical scavenger and glutathione precursor, reduced DNA damage in Raji cells when exposure to CS was followed by 2 h post-incubation in culture medium. Unrepaired DNA damage caused by CS persisted longer than gamma-irradiation-induced DNA damage. Among the CS constituents, acrolein, but not formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, induced DNA damage although less intensely than CS itself. At 50 and 100 microM concentrations, acrolein also inhibited repair of gamma- irradiation-induced DNA damage in the COMET assay. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by acrolein at 50 microM was demonstrated by an immunochemical assay for bromo-deoxyuridine incorporation; however, inhibition of a representative repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanosine hydrolase, by either CS or acrolein was not observed. The present results further confirm the presence of direct-acting genotoxic components and inhibitors of DNA repair in the gas phase of tobacco smoke, that may contribute to DNA damage and smoking-associated cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract.  (+info)

Monocyte inflammation augments acrolein-induced Muc5ac expression in mouse lung. (4/412)

Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde found in smog and tobacco smoke, can induce airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion. To determine whether changes in steady-state mucin gene expression (Muc2 and Muc5ac) are associated with inflammatory cell accumulation and neutrophil elastase activity, FVB/N mice were exposed to acrolein (3.0 parts/million; 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 3 wk). The levels of Muc2 and Muc5ac mRNA were determined by RT-PCR, and the presence of Muc5ac protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Total and differential cell counts were determined from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and neutrophil elastase activity was measured in the BAL fluid supernatant. Lung Muc5ac mRNA was increased on days 12 and 19, and Muc5ac protein was detected in mucous granules and on the surface of the epithelium on day 19. Lung Muc2 mRNA was not detected at measurable levels in either control or exposed mice. Acrolein exposure caused a significant and persistent increase in macrophages and a rapid but transient increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid. Recoverable neutrophil elastase activity was not significantly altered at any time after acrolein exposure. To further examine the role of macrophage accumulation in mucin gene expression, additional strains of mice (including a strain genetically deficient in macrophage metalloelastase) were exposed to acrolein for 3 wk, and Muc5ac mRNA levels and macrophage accumulation were measured. The magnitude of macrophage accumulation coincided with increased Muc5ac mRNA levels, indicating that excessive macrophage accumulation augments acrolein-induced Muc5ac synthesis and secretion after repeated exposure. These findings support a role for chronic monocytic inflammation in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion observed in chronic bronchitis.  (+info)

Effect of acrolein on human alveolar macrophage NF-kappaB activity. (5/412)

Acrolein is an environmental pollutant that is known to suppress respiratory host defense against infections; however, the mechanism of the decrease in host defense is not yet clear. We have previously reported that acrolein inhibited endotoxin-induced cytokine release and induced apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages, suggesting that the inhibition of cytokine release and/or cytotoxicity to alveolar macrophages may, in part, be responsible for acrolein-induced immunosuppression in the lung. Because nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is an important transcription factor for a number of cytokine genes and is also an important regulator of apoptosis, the effect of acrolein on NF-kappaB activity was examined by electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Acrolein caused a dose-dependent inhibition of endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB activation as well as an inhibition of basal level NF-kappaB activity. Because IkappaB is a principal regulator of NF-kappaB activity in the nucleus, changes in IkappaB were determined by Western blotting. Acrolein-inhibited IkappaB phosphorylation leads to an increase in cellular IkappaB levels preventing NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and is likely the mechanism of acrolein-induced inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. The role of basal level NF-kappaB in acrolein-induced apoptosis was also examined. An NF-kappaB inhibitor (MG-132) also induced apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages, suggesting that a certain basal level NF-kappaB activity may be required for macrophage cell survival. Taken together, our results suggest that the acrolein-inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB activation decreased the basal level NF-kappaB activity, which may be responsible for the inhibition of cytokine release and the induction of apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Pharmacological and molecular evidence for kinin B1 receptor expression in urinary bladder of cyclophosphamide-treated rats. (6/412)

1. In the present study, we developed an experimental model of cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). In order to characterize des-Arg9-BK-induced contraction on the urinary bladder (UB) during the development of inflammation and to quantify kinin B1 receptor gene expression using a quantitative RT - PCR technique. 2. In the presence of peptidase inhibitors captopril (10 microM), DL-thiorphan (1 microM) and DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidino-ethylthiopropanoic acid (MERGEPTA 5 microM), bradykinin (BK) (0.3 - 3,000 nM) evoked a concentration-dependent contraction of rat UB which was not different between the CYP- and vehicle-treated groups. Unlike BK, des-Arg9-BK (0.3 - 100,000 nM) did not contract UB from vehicle-treated rats but contracted vigorously bladder strips from CYP-treated rats 14, 24 and 168 h after treatment. In UB of 24 h treated rat, the pD2 value of des-Arg9-BK was 7.3+/-0.1. 3. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (3 microM) reduced by 30% the maximal response of des-Arg9-BK. Both the kinin B1 receptor antagonists des-Arg9-[Leu8]BK (10 microM) and des-Arg10-Hoe 140 (10 microM) produced a rightward shift of the concentration-response curve to des-Arg9-BK yielding pKB values of 6.8+/-0.2 and 7.2+/-0.1, respectively, whilst the kinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (1 microM) had no effect. 4. After CYP treatment, mRNA coding for the kinin B1 receptor appeared predominantly in UB. In this organ, the induction was progressive, reaching a maximum 48 h after CYP treatment. 5. In conclusion, the present study provides strong evidence for an induction of kinin B1 receptors in UB of CYP-treated rats. This was associated at a molecular level with an increase in mRNA expression of the gene coding for the kinin B1 receptor. This kinin receptor displayed the whole features of a classical rat kinin B1 receptor.  (+info)

Sensory nerve-mediated immediate nasal responses to inspired acrolein. (7/412)

To investigate the role of sensory C-fiber stimulation and tachykinin release in the immediate nasal responses to the sensory irritant acrolein, the upper respiratory tract of the urethan-anesthetized male Fischer 344 rat was isolated via insertion of an endotracheal tube, and acrolein-laden air [2, 5, 10, or 20 parts/million (ppm)] was drawn continuously through that site at a flow rate of 100 ml/min for 50 min. Uptake of the inert vapor acetone was measured throughout the exposure to assess nasal vascular function. Plasma protein extravasation into nasal tissue and nasal lavage fluid was also assessed via injection of Evans blue dye. At 20 ppm, acrolein induced 1) a twofold increase in acetone uptake, indicative of vasodilation, followed by a progressive decline toward basal levels and 2) increased plasma protein extravasation, as indicated by dye leakage into nasal tissue and nasal lavage. These responses were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment and the neurokinin type 1 antagonist N-acetyltrifluoromethyl tryptophan benzyl ester and were potentiated by the peptidase inhibitors phosphoramidon and captopril, suggesting that these responses were mediated by tachykinin. At lower exposure concentrations, acrolein was without effect on dye leakage but produced vasodilation, as indicated by increased acetone uptake. The responses at the lower concentrations were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment, implicating nasal sensory C-fiber involvement, but were not influenced by N-acetyltrifluoromethyl tryptophan benzyl ester, phosphoramidon, or captopril, suggesting the involvement of a mediator other than the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A.  (+info)

Glutathione antagonized cyclophosphamide- and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity of PC3 cells and immunosuppressive actions in mice. (8/412)

AIM: To study the antagonistic effect of glutathione (GSH) on toxicity of PC3 cell induced by cyclophosphamide (Cyc) and acrolein (Acr) and on immunosuppressive actions caused by Cyc. METHODS: Splenocyte, PC3 cell proliferation and cell protein content were measured by tetrazolium (MTT) assay and Coomassie brilliant blue assay. Serum anti-SRBC hemolysin, agglutinin, and splenocyte proliferation were measured in normal and S-180-bearing mice. Tumors were weighed. RESULTS: Pretreatment with GSH 2 mmol.L-1 reduced splenocyte proliferation inhibition from 18.64%, 49.72% to 6.78%, 18.36% (induced by Cyc 1, and 5 mmol.L-1), and PC3 cell proliferation inhibition from 27.7%, 45.3%, and 74.6% to 14.6%, 18.8%, and 49.1% (induced by Cyc 1, 3, and 5 mmol.L-1), and from 62.6%, 85.4%, and 90.6% to 41.9%, 57.7%, and 86.4% (induced by Acr 10, 25, and 50 mumol.L-1), respectively. In normal mice, s.c. GSH 75 or 150 mg.kg-1 b.i.d. x 5 d after i.p. Cyc 40 mg.kg-1, the hemolysin and the splenocyte proliferation were higher than those in normal mice i.p. Cyc 40 mg.kg-1 alone. Hemolysin, serum agglutinin, and splenocyte proliferation in S-180-bearing mice given s.c. GSH 150 mg.kg-1 b.i.d. x 10 d after i.p. Cyc 40 mg.kg-1 were also markedly higher than those in S-180-bearing mice given i.p. Cyc alone. But, according to tumor weight, GSH did not interfere the antitumor activity of Cyc in S-180-bearing mice. CONCLUSION: GSH exhibited protective effects against Cyc and Acr, but had no effect on the antitumor action of Cyc.  (+info)

Background: Adverse health effects of tobacco smoke arise partly from its influence on innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to impaired innate immunity and host defense. The impact of smoking on allergic asthma remains unclear, with various reports demonstrating that cigarette smoke enhances asthma development but can also suppress allergic airway inflammation. Based on our previous findings that immunosuppressive effects of smoking may be largely attributed to one of its main reactive electrophiles, acrolein, we explored the impact of acrolein exposure in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by intraperitoneal injection with the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide on days 0 and 7, and challenged with aerosolized OVA on days 14-16. In some cases, mice were also exposed to 5 ppm acrolein vapor for 6 hrs/day on days 14-17. Lung tissues or brochoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were collected either 6 hrs after a single ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemistry and biology of DNA containing 1,N2-deoxyguanosine adducts of the α,β-unsaturated aldehydes acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and 4-hydroxynonenal. AU - Minko, Irina G.. AU - Kozekov, Ivan D.. AU - Harris, Thomas M.. AU - Rizzo, Carmelo J.. AU - Lloyd, R. Stephen. AU - Stone, Michael P.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/5/18. Y1 - 2009/5/18. N2 - The α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (enals) acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) are products of endogenous lipid peroxidation, arising as a consequence of oxidative stress. The addition of enals to dG involves Michael addition of the N2-amine to give N 2-(3-oxopropyl)-dG adducts, followed by reversible cyclization of N1 with the aldehyde, yielding 1,N2-dG exocyclic products. The 1,N 2-dG exocyclic adducts from acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and 4-HNE exist in human and rodent DNA. The enal-induced 1,N2-dG lesions are repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway in both ...
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of cinnamaldehyde on feed intake, gain, feed efficiency, ruminal fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, carcass yield, and meat quality of lambs fed barley-based diets. Forty-eight ewe lambs were stratified by live weight (LW) and randomized among treatments (n= 4) at weaning (LW = 20.4 ± 1.12 kg). Animals had ad libitum access to pelleted diets (140 g CP/kg of DM; 309 g NDF/kg of DM) and water over 18-week period. There were four treatments with 12 animals each: 1) Control (no cinnamaldehyde); 2) cinnamaldehyde at 100 mg/kg of dry matter (DM); 3) cinnamaldehyde at 200 mg/kg of DM; 4) cinnamaldehyde at 400 mg/kg of DM. Dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion (DMI/ADG) were not affected by cinnamaldehyde supplementation. Ruminal pH, total VFA concentrations, molar proportions of individual VFA (acetate, propionate and valerate) and ammonia concentration were similar between lambs fed ...
Cinnamaldehyde is also known as a corrosion inhibitor for steel and other ferrous alloys in corrosive fluids such as hydrochloric acid. It is believed that this is achieved by polymerization to form a protective film on the metal surface.[20][21] It can be used in combination with additional components such as dispersing agents, solvents and other surfactants. Cinnamaldehyde is also a potent inducer of apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.[22] Some early evidence shows that cinnamaldehyde blocks formation of Tau protein aggregation into neurofibrillary tangles, a major pathology in Alzheimers Disease. [23] Cinnamaldehyde also has antimicrobial properties.[24] Cinnamaldehyde is also a TRPA1 activator, and can excite a subset of sensory neurons that are mainly cold-sensitive neurons, to cause nociceptive behavior in mice.[25] Cinnamaldehyde has been found to improve metabolic health by acting directly on adipocytes and ...
Background and Objective: Parkinsons disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimers disease that affects 3% of the population. PD involves a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and subsequent loss of dopamine. Dopamine depletion leads to movement dysfunction and is accompanied with tremor, rigid muscles and impaired balance. Mechanisms of the pathogenesis of PD include oxidative stress and inflammation. Cinnamaldehyde acts as a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. This research is focused on the effects of cinnamaldehyde on neurons of SNc of mouse model of PD. Materials and Methods: Adult male mice with an average weight of 25-35 g were divided into 4 groups of 5 each: group 1: control PBS, group2: MPTP, group 3: MPTP + cinnamaldehyde pretreatment (30 mg/kg), and group 4: MPTP + cinnamaldehyde treatment (30 mg/kg). Rotarod test was used to assess motor and balance of the mice. After behavioral
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4-(Dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde 6203-18-5 safety info, 4-(Dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde chemical safety search, Chemical 4-(Dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde safety technical specifications ect.
In fresh years, critical argument has surrounded the position of acrolein adducts in smoking-related lung cancer, with conflicting findings reported as regards the mutagenic properties of acrolein-derived DNA adducts. Factors that lengthen the danger for developing visual reduction comprehend prematurity, developmental halt, genetic syndrome, people relation of eyesight malady, African American birthright, above no laughing matter view injury, diabetes, HIV, and chronic corticosteroid use. Robinson KA, Baughman W, Rothrock G, et al generic cialis soft 20mg mastercard diabetic erectile dysfunction icd 9 code. Rank all of the auscultatory areas, listening in the beginning one more time the two shakes of a lambs tail above-board interspace (aortic valve) and then over the assistant left interspace (pulmonic valve); next ploy to the left-hand put down sternal border (tricuspid neighbourhood); and conclusively auscultate over and above the fifth interspace, midclavicular train (mitral size). AD is ...
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of tCIN self-included in β-CD complexes (CIs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of β-CD, tCIN, or CIs for different times. β-CD alone did not affect the production of nitric oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, both tCIN and CI significantly reduced NO and ROS production. Thus, CIs may have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, similar to those of tCIN when used alone.
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of tCIN self-included in β-CD complexes (CIs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of β-CD, tCIN, or CIs for different times. β-CD alone did not affect the production of nitric oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, both tCIN and CI significantly reduced NO and ROS production. Thus, CIs may have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, similar to those of tCIN when used alone.
Scientists have revealed how environmental irritants such as air pollution and cigarette smoke cause people to cough, in research published November 23 in the
An aldehyde of general formula R(1)R(2)C=CR(3)-CH=O or RC#C-CH=O in which the aldehydic C=O function is conjugated to an unsaturated C-C bond at the alpha,beta position ...
Cinnamaldehyde in e-cigarette liquids temporarily suppresses bronchial epithelial cell ciliary motility by dysregulation of mitochondrial function.
Cinnamaldehyde A53 specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer Suppling large quantity of Artichoke extract with the extract ratio 4: 1, 5: 1 powder form. More question or information you required pls feel free to contact usThe specification, 5: 1 10: 1 The min order, 1kgWe are the lead manufacture of Plant extr
Cinnamaldehyde is also known as a corrosion inhibitor for steel and other ferrous alloys in corrosive fluids such as hydrochloric acid
increases membrane permeability to help organic acids and cinnamaldehyde to get into the bacterial cell. Cinnamaldehyde works synergistically with organic acids to maintain a balanced gut microbial population. Cinnamaldehyde plays an essential role in reducing the bacterial cell division. Organic acids in their undissociated form are able to enter the bacterial cell and exert antimicrobial effects. A wise and deliberate combination of organic acids provides greater efficacy in reducing growth of pathogenic bacteria. Sequential Release Medium (SRM) is a special inorganic carrier that ensures gradual release of active ingredients in the gastrointestinal tract.. ...
Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant whose contribution to the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases has long been recognized, albeit not completely understood (NRC, 1993). Surprisingly,...
1LAS: Structure of an oligodeoxynucleotide containing a 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct positioned in a palindrome derived from the Salmonella typhimurium hisD3052 gene: Hoogsteen pairing at pH 5.2.
1LAE: Structure of the 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct in a three-base DNA hairpin loop derived from a palindrome in the Salmonella typhimurium hisD3052 gene.
Millions of Americans suffer from sinus pain, pressure, and reoccurring infections each year. Unfortunately, time and time again those suffering from sinus problems turn to western medicine and prescription drugs to relieve their pain. A simple little device, known as a neti pot could save pain, suffering, infections, and unnecessary antibiotics every year.. The neti pot is a ceramic or plastic container that looks like a tea pot or genie lamp. When filled with a saline solution, the neti pot is highly effective at flushing the nasal passages and helping the bodys natural cleansing methods function better. Surgeries, allergies, and environmental irritants can clog the nasal passages and prevent the sinus cilia cells from clearing mucus and irritants naturally.. Many people that suffer from sinus pressure, pain, and infections are turning to neti pots to relieve their symptoms more often. Most use the neti pot on a regular basis, some even as frequently as daily to relieve their pain, ...
COPD is generally caused by long-term exposure from environmental irritants such as smoke (including second-hand smoke), air pollution, fumes, and wood smoke. A rare cause can be from a deficiency in alpha-1 antitrypsin; without the enzyme, the body is not able to break down mucus, which leads to thick mucus building up in patients with COPD from smoking. Causes of Emphysema
The mini size formula of Stress Solution calms and soothes skin, protects against visible irritation from over-exfoliation, sensitivities or aggressive topical products and boosts skins resistance to environmental irritants.
Allergies: The most common cause of dog ear problems is an allergic reaction of some sort. Allergies can be caused by food ingredients or environmental irritants such as pollen or dust. Itchy, inflamed ears and paws are symptoms of an allergy. Switch to a low-allergen food that does not contain wheat, soy or corn. Often, switching to a higher quality dog food reduces allergic reaction ear problems. Keep the environment as dust free and clean as possible ...
Cats dermatitis can have allergic reactions to grooming products, food, and environmental irritants, such as pollen or flea bites.
And Roufogalispyrazine-1 (2H)-carboxamide (BCTC) plus a thio-derivative of BCTC, (2R)-4-(3-chloro-2 pyridinyl)-2-methyl-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1 piperazonecarboxamide (CTPC) and SB-452533 [14, 231]. Surprisingly, 2-APB, an activator of TRPV1, two and three is an antagonist of TRPM8 [80]. 2-APB may be beneficial in characterizing TRPM8 mechanisms selectively. Agonists of TRPA1 like cinnamaldehyde and URB597 are shown to antagonize TRPM8 [124, 150]. […]. Continue reading ...
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TY - THES. T1 - Physiologically based in silico modelling to examine DNA adduct formation by different food-borne a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes at realistic low dietary exposure levels. AU - Kiwamoto, R.. N1 - WU thesis, no. 6025. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Abstract (R.Kiwamoto ISBN 978-94-6257-284-3) Various α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in fruits, vegetables, spices, or processed products containing these items as natural constituents or as added food flavouring agents. Because of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety the β carbon in the molecule becomes electron deficient and the aldehydes react with electron rich molecules including DNA via Michael addition. The formation of DNA adducts raises a concern for genotoxicity, although formation of DNA adducts may not be significant at low doses relevant for dietary exposure in vivo because of adequate detoxification. This thesis therefore aimed at determining dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of food-borne ...
natural cinnamic aldehyde for sale - 122 - natural cinnamic aldehyde wholesalers & natural cinnamic aldehyde manufacturers from China manufacturers.
Thymol, carvacrol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde are essential oil (EO) compounds with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7. However, little is known regarding direct resistance and cross-resistance development in E. coli O157:H7 after adaptation to sublethal levels of these compounds, and information is scarce on microbial adaptive responses at a molecular level. The present study demonstrated that E. coli O157:H7 was able to grow in the presence of sublethal thymol (1/2T), carvacrol (1/2C), or trans-cinnamaldehyde (1/2TC), displaying an extended lag phase duration and a lower maximum growth rate. EO-adapted cells developed direct resistance against lethal EO treatments and cross-resistance against heat (58°C) and oxidative (50 mM H2O2) stresses. However, no induction of acid resistance (simulated gastric fluid, pH 1.5) was observed. RNA sequencing revealed a large number (310 to 338) of differentially expressed (adjusted P value ...
The global market size of Natural Cinnamic Aldehyde is $XX million in 2019 with 7% CAGR from 2015 to 2019, and it is expected to reach $XX million by the end of 2025 with a CAGR of 7% from 2020 to 2025.. Global Natural Cinnamic Aldehyde Market Report 2020 - Market Size, Share, Price, Trend and Forecast is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Natural Cinnamic Aldehyde industry.. ...
Application of a capillary microreactor for selective hydrogenation of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in aqueous multiphase catalysis ...
Cinnamic aldehyde is a yellow colored oily liquid organic compound with flour and odor of cinnamon spice. Cinnamon is globally recognized spice and been used from quite ancient times. Cinnamic aldehyde is a viscous liquid occurring in the bark of cinnamon trees and can also be made synthetically.
The mono (alpha-hydroxy) phosphines R2PCH(OH)R (R = Ph, R = H, Et, CH2Ph, Ph, p-X-C6H4; R = cyclohexyl, R = Ph) are prepared under solvent-free conditions by a 1:1 reaction of Ph2PH with the appropriate aldehyde, and their stabilities (with respect to reversible dissociation into reactants), studied in DMSO, Et2O, and MeOH, increase with decreased basicity of the hydroxyphosphine; for example, for the Ph2PCH (OH) C6H4-p-X phosphines, stability decreases in the order:X = CN , Cl , F , H , Me , OMe. A 1:1 room-temperature reaction of the (alpha-hydroxy) phosphines (except for R = H) with cinnamaldehyde in DMSO slowly yields the known mono-and di-phosphines Ph2PCH(Ph)CH2CHO (4a) and Ph2PCH(Ph)CH2CH(PPh2)OH (10a), and the corresponding RCHO aldehyde. In MeOH, the sequentially formed intermediates. ...
Aurochemicals. Note: Additional companies can be profiled in the report.. Frequently asked questions (FAQs) about the report. 1) Does the report cover COVID-19 impact and future market projections?. Yes. The market research report covers the detailed analysis of COVID-19 impact on the market. Our research team has been monitoring the market closely while it has been conducting interviews with the industry experts to get better insights on the present and future implications of the COVID-19 virus on the market.. The market report provides vital information on the strategies deployed by industry players during the COVID-19 crisis to maintain their position in the market. Along with this, it also shares crucial data on product developments due to the inevitable pandemic across the globe.. 2) Can the report be customized according to the requirements?. Yes. The Cinnamic Aldehyde market report can be customized according to your needs. For instance, the company can be profiled you ask for while ...
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The main goal of this study is to prepare antibacterial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) containing cinnamaldehyde and geraniol and to evaluate the antibacterial activity and assess the changes of physical properties of the PLA films. Cinnamaldehyde- and geraniol-incorporated (10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% v/w) PLA films were prepared via solution-casting. While preparing these films, plasticizers were not added to the matrix. Antibacterial activities of these films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated by the disk diffusion method. Thermal degradation characteristics were analyzed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), glass transition, crystallization, and melting temperatures, and enthalpies of the films were determined from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) scans. Tensile strength and elongationat-break values of neat PLA and antibacterial-compound-containing films were evaluated and compared after the mechanical tests. Moreover, the changes in the polymer morphology were ...
Wang H,Shu YY,Zheng MY,et al. Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Hydrocinnamaldehyde over SiO2 Supported Nickel Phosphide Catalysts[J]. Catalysis Letters,2008,124:219-225 ...
You posted poorly-researched questions in the wrong folder, and the second a mod sees this thread its going to get canned anyway. Anyway, you need to drop the idea of using cinnamaldehyde, since there are much easier, cheaper precursors out there. Styrene, for example, can be purchased at boat supply stores as resin thinner. Or better yet, you can get it by destructively distilling polystyrene! Doesnt that sound fun? ...
The benefits of using the oxidized oils from rendering and recycling as an economic source of lipids and energy in animal feed always coexist with the concerns that diverse degradation products in these oxidized oils can negatively affect animal health and performance. Therefore, the quality markers that predict growth performance could be useful when feeding oxidized oils to non-ruminants. However, the correlations between growth performance and chemical profiles of oxidized oils have not been well examined. In this study, six thermally oxidized soybean oils (OSOs) with a wide range of quality measures were prepared under different processing temperatures and processing durations, including 45 °C-336 h; 67.5 °C-168 h; 90 °C-84 h; 135 °C-42 h; 180 °C-21 h; and 225 °C-10.5 h. Broilers and nursery pigs were randomly assigned to diets containing either unheated control soybean oil or one of six OSOs. Animal performance was determined by measuring body weight gain, feed intake, and gain to feed ratio.
Alarie, Y. Dose-response analysis in animal studies: prediction of human responses. Environ Health Perspect 42, 9-13 (1981).. Baraldi, P. G., Preti, D., Materazzi, S. & Geppetti, P. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel as emerging target for novel analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents. J Med Chem 53, 5085-5107, doi:10.1021/jm100062h (2010).. Bautista, D. M. et al. TRPA1 mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents. Cell 124, 1269-1282, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.023 (2006).. Belvisi, M. G., Dubuis, E. & Birrell, M. A. Transient receptor potential A1 channels: insights into cough and airway inflammatory disease. Chest 140, 1040-1047, doi:10.1378/chest.10-3327 (2011).. Bandell, M. et al. Noxious Cold Ion Channel TRPA1 Is Activated by Pungent Compounds and Bradykinin. Neuron 41, 849-857, doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(04)00150-3 (2004).. Bessac, B. F. & Jordt, S. E. Breathtaking TRP channels: TRPA1 and TRPV1 in airway chemosensation and reflex ...
Yingcheng Wuhan Organic Material Co., Ltd. have more than 50 years history of production and R&D benzaldehyde derivates. We supply cinnamon series, ester series, nitrile series and electronic-grade ammonium series, more than 50 kinds of products..
Yingcheng Wuhan Organic Material Co., Ltd. have more than 50 years history of production and R&D benzaldehyde derivates. We supply cinnamon series, ester series, nitrile series and electronic-grade ammonium series, more than 50 kinds of products..
Sewald, N., Wilking, S. D., Eckel, R., Ros, A., Ros, R., and Anselmetti, D. (2004). PROBING DNA-PEPTIDE INTERACTION FORCES ON THE SINGLE MOLECULE LEVEL. JOURNAL OF PEPTIDE SCIENCE 10, 261-261 ...
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
A redox-neutral, [3+3]-type condensation of O-acetyl ketoximes and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, that is synergistically catalyzed by a copper(I) salt and a secondary ammonium salt (or amine), allows modular synthesis of a variety of substituted pyridines under mild conditions with tolerance of a broad range of functional groups. The reaction is driven by a merger of iminium catalysis and redox activity of the copper catalyst ...
Free Shipping on most orders over $60. Great Low Price. HistAll H helps maintain normal histamine levels in horses. All-natural support for seasonal allergies, respiratory health, and a healthy immune system in horses. Also aids your horse in combating environmental irritants and pollutants. Histall H contains a blend of natural ingredients, including turmeric, bromelain, choline chloride, vitamin D, and vitamin C. Feed 1 oz. twice daily for 10 days, then 1 oz. daily. Powder.HistAll H for Horses
HistALL H - All-natural, economical blend, containing turmeric powder and bromelain, for use in horses suffering from seasonal allergies; to support normal histamine levels and a healthy immune system. HistALL H aids horses in combating environmental irritants and pollutants, and in the suppre
Doctors give trusted, helpful answers on causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and more: Dr. Seres on feels like i need to pee all the time but no fever and no actual pain: As suggested in your question, your symptom can still represent a uti. Other several possibilities includes-1. Diabetes (though other symptoms would be present) 2. Environmental irritant (soap is too alkali or irritating) 3. Anatomical issues (retention of urine) or 4. Physiologic problem (overactive bladder).
PUR CONFORT SPF 15 CREAMSPF 15 Protective and Soothing CreamProtects the skin against environmental irritants.Reinforces the skin from the inside out. EXTERNAL PROTECTION:UV Filters - SPF 15: protect the skin from UVB rays.Phospholipids: act as a protective shield and soothe the skin.INTERNAL PROTECTION:Dermaline: limits the reactions that cause hypersensitive skin.Phospholipids: help reinforce cell adhesion by rebuilding the intercellular cement substance.Vitamin E and Alpha Bisabolol: soothe discomfort and redness. Apply daily to the face and neck after cleansing thoroughly. Do not forget to apply Pure Comfort Cream on the neck where the skin is often thinner and less protected.
60 CapsulesÊÊ The health bringing properties of the Oregano Leaf have been known in traditional medicine for many years and are supported by modern science. Oregano supports: áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊSignificant warming qualities; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊStrong antioxidant áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊSupports a healthy immune system; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊCan help the regulation of the menstrual cycle; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊReduces sensitivities to environmental irritants; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊStimulates bile flow and supports the entire digestive process; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊHelps relieve respiratory congestion. Ê Ê All products at True Botanica are made in a GMP compliant facility.Ê Attention:ÊPlease read carefully the Alert/Disclaimer passageÊat the bottom of every page of this website! Ê Ê
Safe, natural products soothing to dogs suffering from stress, travel upsets, insects and environmental irritants. Products are made in the USA, recommended by dog lovers and professionals.
Your dogs cough may be nothing more than a reaction to inhaling an environmental irritant, but there are other less common culprits. If your vet cant find the root of your dogs coughing, here are eight surprising causes to consider.
Your dogs cough may be nothing more than a reaction to inhaling an environmental irritant, but there are other less common culprits. If your vet cant find the root of your dogs coughing, here are eight surprising causes to consider.
AluSpray is a aerosol wound dressing for dogs, cats, horses, and livestock. When applied, it forms a protective barrier over minor wounds, abrasions, and cuts. AluSpray has a water-resistant formula that seals the wound from bacteria, dirt, and environmental irritants while still allowing the skin to breathe. It also a
Many things can cause that unpleasant, scratchy, and sometimes painful condition known as a sore throat. Viruses, bacteria, allergens, environmental irritants
2008 (English)In: 6:e Svensk-norskt miljökemiskt möte: SNMM 2008 22-24 September, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) ...
Pharmco-Aaaper 12338B55200BK01 Specially Denatured Alcohol, SDA 38B-55, 200 Proof with Cinnamic Aldehyde and Spearmint Oil, Bulk Delivery
Lignin - a cross-linked racemic macromolecule with molecular masses in excess of 10,000 u. It is relatively hydrophobic and aromatic in nature. There are three monolignol monomers, methoxylated to various degrees: p-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol. Lignin is an integral part of the secondary cell walls of plants and constitutes from a quarter to a third of the dry mass of wood ...
Chew Stop - Stops horses from wood chewing. Spray on fences, corrals, stalls, mangers, gates, posts and trees. Will not stain when applied to white fences. Contains aromatic hydrocarbons and cinnamaldehyde.
H. Adkins; W. H. Hartung (1926). "Acrolein". Organic Syntheses. 6: 1. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.006.0001.; Collective Volume, 1, p. ...
Acrolein taint is a common wine fault that undesirable species of Pediococcus can introduce to wine. Acrolein can interact with ... "acrolein taint" that comes from degradation of glycerol into acrolein which then reacts with phenolic compounds in the wine to ... Acrolein and mannitol taintEdit. Wine grapes infected with Botrytis bunch rot tend to have higher levels of glycerol which can ... Acrolein taint has also shown to be more common in wines that have been fermented at high temperatures and/or made from grapes ...
... and acrolein. This last molecule, acrolein, was recently included in reuterin definition. 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde is formed by ... Engels C, Schwab C, Zhang J, Stevens MJ, Bieri C, Ebert MO, McNeill K, Sturla SJ, Lacroix C (November 2016). "Acrolein ... This reaction, when conducted in the gas-phase, was the basis for a now obsolete industrial route acrolein: CH3CHO + CH2O → ... and the resulting molecule is called acrolein. In fact, the term reuterin is the name given to the dynamic system formed by 3- ...
acrolein - respiratory effects. *chlorine - respiratory effects. *hexamethylene diisocyanate - pulmonary and respiratory ...
The Butadiene + Acrolein Paradigm". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 120 (10): 2415-2420. doi:10.1021/ja9722279. Carey ...
Acrolein[66]. アクロレイン. - CH2CCHCN. Cyanoallene[88][66]. シアノアレン. - C7H. Heptatrienyl radical[91]. ヘプタトリエニルラジカル. - ...
Acrolein Methacrylic acid Montzka, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Fehsenfeld, F. C. (1993). "Isoprene and ...
Acrolein Propiolic acid P. Perlmutter (2001). "Propargyl Aldehyde". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi:10.1002 ...
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ...
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ... The glycerol route begins with pyrolysis to acrolein, which undergoes ammoxidation to give acrylonitrile. The glutamic acid ...
A meta-analysis of 77 surveys of VOCs in homes in the US found the top ten riskiest indoor air VOCs were acrolein, formaldehyde ... Overheated cooking oils emit acrolein and formaldehyde. ...
The respiratory irritants were Acrolein and Benzaldehyde. In part three of the experiment series, polar narcotics phenol, 2,4- ... Acrolein and Benzaldehyde". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 6 (4): 313-328. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060408. Bradbury SP, ...
Parent α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyls Methyl vinyl ketone, the simplest α,β-unsaturated ketone Acrolein, the simplest α,β- ... The simplest enal is acrolein (CH2=CHCHO). Other examples include cis-3-hexenal (essence of mowed lawns) and cinnamaldehyde ( ... Examples of unsaturated carbonyls are acrolein (propenal), mesityl oxide, acrylic acid, and maleic acid. Unsaturated carbonyls ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ... acrolein, formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, and isoprene. Cigarette smoking has also ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ... Cigarettes produce an aerosol containing over 4,000 chemical compounds, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, and ... acrolein, and other poisonous substances. Over 70 of these are carcinogenic. Cigarette use by pregnant women has also been ...
Acrolein may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Acrolein levels were reduced by 60% in dual users and 80% for those ... Acrolein may induce irritation to the upper respiratory tract, and harm the lining of the lungs. Acrolein induces oxidative ... Repeated exposure to acrolein, which is produced by heating the propylene glycol and glycerin in e-liquids, causes chronic ... There is strong evidence that some substances found in e-cigarette vapors such as formaldehyde and acrolein can induce DNA ...
Chlorine-free processes from propylene include the synthesis of glycerol from acrolein and propylene oxide. Because of the ... Owing to oversupply, efforts are being made to convert glycerol to synthetic precursors, such as acrolein and epichlorohydrin ... Watanabe, Masaru; Iida, Toru; Aizawa, Yuichi; Aida, Taku M.; Inomata, Hiroshi (2007). "Acrolein synthesis from glycerol in hot- ... Conversion to propylene glycol Conversion to acrolein Conversion to ethanol Conversion to epichlorohydrin, a raw material for ...
Acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide and acrolein are known by-products. It is used in the preparation of homo- and copolymers, ...
Glycerin may generate acrolein when heated at hotter temperatures. Some e-cigarette products had acrolein identified in the e- ... Acrolein and other carbonyls have been found by in e-cigarette vapors that were created by unmodified e-cigarettes, indicating ... Many chemicals including carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal can inadvertently be ... with acrolein emission increasing tenfold." A 2014 study stated that "increasing the voltage from 3.2-4.8 V resulted in a 4 to ...
Asatryan, Rubik; da Silva, Gabriel; Bozzelli, Joseph W. (2010). "Quantum Chemical Study of the Acrolein (CH2CHCHO) + OH + O2 ... and the oxidation of acrolein in the environment. Wang, Tianfang; Bowie, John H. (2010). "Radical routes to interstellar ...
As the humectants burn, they unleash chemicals such as acrolein. Humectants are found in most cigarettes and are considered one ... and acrolein in the smoke of a waterpipe, discovering that the value of formaldehyde detected in one smoking session was five ...
SMILEY KL, SOBOLOV M (1962). "A cobamide-requiring glycerol dehydrase from an acrolein-forming Lactobacillus". Arch. Biochem. ...
"Mammalian translesion DNA synthesis across an acrolein-derived deoxyguanosine adduct. Participation of DNA polymerase eta in ...
... acrolein, zinc sulphate and chlorine. Central nervous system (CNS) seizure agents. CNS seizure agents inhibit cellular ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ... Acrolein 122.4 Reacts with deoxyguanine and forms DNA crosslinks, DNA-protein crosslinks and DNA adducts [191]. ... acrolein, and other poisonous substances.[15] Over 70 of these are carcinogenic.[16] Cigarette use by pregnant women has also ... acrolein, and oxidant substances.[15] Over 70 of these are carcinogens.[16] ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ... Acrolein 122.4 Reacts with deoxyguanine and forms DNA crosslinks, DNA-protein crosslinks and DNA adducts [74]. ...
During ageing this is further dehydrated to acrolein which reacts with the anthocyanins and other phenols present within the ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ... Acrolein 122.4 Reacts with deoxyguanine and forms DNA crosslinks, DNA-protein crosslinks and DNA adducts [150]. ... acrolein, and other poisonous substances.[16] Over 70 of these are carcinogenic.[17] Additionally, cigarettes are a frequent ... acrolein, and oxidant substances.[16] Over 70 of these are carcinogens.[17] ...
Acrolein has been shown to be a mutagen and carcinogen in human cells. The carcinogenicity of acrolein has been difficult to ... Acrolein is only one of them present in cigarette smoke; for example, crotonaldehyde has been found in cigarette smoke.[168] ... Acrolein is a pyrolysis product that is abundant in cigarette smoke. It gives smoke an acrid smell and an irritating, tear ... Like PAH metabolites, acrolein is also an electrophilic alkylating agent and permanently binds to the DNA base guanine, by a ...
Cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust contain acrolein. Acrolein causes burning of the nose and throat and can damage the ... Exposure to acrolein occurs mostly from breathing it in the air. ... How can acrolein affect my health?. *How likely is acrolein to ... Exposure to acrolein occurs mostly from breathing it in air. Cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust contain acrolein. Acrolein ... What is acrolein?. Acrolein is a colorless or yellow liquid with a disagreeable odor. It dissolves in water very easily and ...
Acrolein. CAS No: 107-02-8. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references include ... Acrolein. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
This information profile on acrolein (107028) is part of a group of 46 such profiles that provide information about chemicals ... This information profile on acrolein (107028) is part of a group of 46 such profiles that provide information about chemicals ...
Acrolein is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. The main metabolic pathway for acrolein is ... The acrolein content in cigarette smoke depends on the type of cigarette and added glycerin, making up to 220 µg acrolein per ... The "acrolein test" is for the presence of glycerin or fats. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is ... The WHO suggests a "tolerable oral acrolein intake" of 7.5 μg per day per kg of body weight. Although acrolein occurs in French ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Acrolein (EHC 127, 1991) Acrolein (HSG 67, 1991) Acrolein (CICADS 43, 2002) Acrolein ( ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Acrolein (EHC 127, 1991) Acrolein (HSG 67, 1991) Acrolein (ICSC) Acrolein (IARC Summary ... Table 6: Benchmark concentrations for acrolein using a multistage model.. Lesiona. Incidence (at 0, 0.58, 1.56 mg/m3). BMC05. ( ... Acrolein was not detected in the tissues of fish and shellfish sampled 1 day after a second exposure to [14C]acrolein in water ... The toxicity of acrolein to aquatic organisms has been extensively studied, while the data set on the toxicity of acrolein to ...
Acrolein is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages.[4] The main metabolic pathway for acrolein ... The "acrolein test" is for the presence of glycerin or fats. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is ... The WHO suggests a "tolerable oral acrolein intake" of 7.5 μg per day per kg of body weight. Although acrolein occurs in French ... Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide treatment results in the production of acrolein.[21] Acrolein produced during cyclophosphamide ...
Acrolein dimethyl acetal for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and ... Acrolein dimethyl acetal was used in the facile one step synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal and its dimethyl acetal via a cross- ... Acrolein dimethyl acetal undergoes cationic α-diimine palladium chelate catalyzed copolymerization with ethene to yield ...
Acrolein analytical standard; CAS Number: 107-02-8; EC Number: 203-453-4; Synonyms: 2-Propenal; Linear Formula: CH2=CHCHO; find ... The relationship between acrolein (CH(2) =CH-CHO) and brain infarction is the focus of this review. It has been found that ... Acrolein (ACR) is a toxic and highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde widely distributed in the environment as a common ... Acrolein is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde formed by thermal treatment of animal and vegetable fats, carbohydrates and amino acids ...
Hydralazine in particular can reduce acrolein concentrations and inhibit acrolein-mediated pathologies in vivo. Acrolein ... Acrolein-mediated injury in nervous system trauma and diseases.. Shi R1, Rickett T, Sun W. ... Exposure to acrolein results in damage to myelin, the myelin-axon junction, and the axonal membranes (B). Influx of calcium ... Acrolein originates from multiple exogenous and endogenous sources and is known to attack protein, lipids, and DNA. Such ...
... researchers concluded that a connection existed between acrolein and MS because the elevated acrolein levels within the mice ... The toxin, acrolein, is found in air pollutants like auto exhaust and tobacco smoke. It is also created inside the body when ... To neutralize acrolein and temporarily halt the onset of MS, Shi used the drug hydralazine, which is an FDA-approved medication ... Researchers believe acrolein is responsible for the dismantling of the myelin as well as inducing the creation of free radicals ...
Reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein (ACR) are major components of environmental pollutants and have been ... Protective Effect of Silymarin against Acrolein-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice. Elahe Taghiabadi,1 Mohsen Imenshahidi,2 Khalil ...
This page contains information on the chemical Acrolein, stabilized including: 1 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal ... Acrolein, stabilized. Identifications. *Synonyms/Related:*Acrolein, stabilized. 49 CFR 172.101 - Hazardous Materials Table. ... Acrolein, stabilized. Yes. No. Isolation and Protective Action Distances Table. SMALL SPILLS. LARGE SPILLS. UN#. Name of ... Acrolein, stabilized (EnvironmentalChemistry.com),/a,- This page contains information on the chemical Acrolein, stabilized ...
The processes for oxidation of propylene to acrolein and the oxidation of propylene to acrylic acid in two stages with acrolein ... The acrolein produced in this reaction stage can be recovered or can be directed without separation of the acrolein to a second ... Thus, a portion of the product stream from the first-stage propylene-acrolein reactor can be sent to an acrolein recovery ... As the flowing heat capacity of the reaction feed gas mixture is increased, yield to acrolein, and acrolein plus acrylic acid ...
C-FERST Issue Profile: Acrolein. Acrolein is a clear or yellow liquid with a burned, pungent odor that is commonly used as a ... Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Acrolein *CalEPA OEHHA Acrolein Noncancer Reference Exposure Levels (RELs) (PDF) ( ... Acrolein also can be formed from the breakdown of certain pollutants in outdoor air or from burning organic matter like tobacco ... Small amounts of acrolein may be found in some foods, such as fried foods, cooking oils, and roasted coffee. ...
Acrolein  Gomes, R; Meek, M. E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety (‎World Health ... Acrolein : health and safety guide  World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety (‎World Health ... Acrolein / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour ... Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to acrolein, a chemical produced in large quantities ...
... and related documents for the pesticide acrolein, and opens a public comment period on these documents. The public is ... Acrolein is primarily used in irrigation canals and reservoirs to treat aquatic weeds, such as pondweed. Acroleins secondary ... Acrolein Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability, and Risk Reduction Options. A Notice by the Environmental ... Risks of concern associated with the use of acrolein are: acute and chronic risk to freshwater fish and estuarine/marine fish ...
... acrolein, we explored the impact of acrolein exposure in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Methods: ... In some cases, mice were also exposed to 5 ppm acrolein vapor for 6 hrs/day on days 14-17. Lung tissues or brochoalveolar ... Results: Exposure to acrolein following OVA challenge of OVA-sensitized mice resulted in markedly attenuated allergic airway ... Acrolein exposure rapidly depleted lung tissue glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced activation of the Nrf2 pathway, indicated ...
The present invention relates to a process for the production of acrolein, comprising the following steps: ,ul id=ul0001 list ... b) depleting the acrolein from the acrolein reaction phase to obtain an acrolein phase and a depleted acrolein reaction phase; ... b) depleting the acrolein from the acrolein reaction phase to obtain an acrolein phase and a depleted acrolein reaction phase; ... B) depleting the acrolein from the acrolein reaction phase to obtain an acrolein phase and a depleted acrolein reaction phase; ...
The shcon/LLCs and shGADD34/LLCs were plated in 12-well dishes and treated with 25 μM acrolein alone for 8 h, or 25 μM acrolein ... The shcon/LLCs and shGADD34/LLCs were plated in 12-well dishes and treated with 25 μM acrolein alone for 8 h, or 25 μM acrolein ... The 25 μM acrolein-treated shcon/LLCs and shGADD34/LLCs were analyzed. (a) Cell survival after 25 μM acrolein treatment was ... GADD34 Mediates Acrolein-Caused Lung Injury. Acrolein has been shown to induce ER stress [14]. We examined the expression of ER ...
Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, has been shown to play a major role in the secondary injury by contributing ... and will also discuss the therapeutic benefits of using acrolein scavengers to attenuate acrolein-mediated neuronal damage ... Acrolein as a novel therapeutic target for motor and sensory deficits in spinal cord injury. Neural Regen Res. Contact: Meng ... Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, has been shown to play a major role in the secondary injury by contributing ...
Read chapter 1 Acrolein: This book is the eighth volume in the series Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne ... 1993). Acrolein was aerosolized by passing 100% N2 (5 mL/min) over a solution of 0.25 mL of acrolein dissolved in 9.75 mL of ... 1964). Concentrated acrolein vapors were produced by passing a stream of air over liquid acrolein held in a diffusion cell in ... Acrolein has also been used in military poison gas mixtures. The largest sources of human exposure to acrolein are from ...
Acrolein preferentially damages nucleolus eliciting ribosomal stress and apoptosis in human cancer cells. Download Prime PubMed ... A549 CellsAcroleinAntineoplastic AgentsApoptosisBinding SitesCell NucleolusDNA AdductsDNA, RibosomalDose-Response Relationship ... Acrolein (Acr) is a potent cytotoxic and DNA damaging agent which is ubiquitous in the environment and abundant in tobacco ... Acrolein Preferentially Damages Nucleolus Eliciting Ribosomal Stress and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells. Oncotarget. 2016 Dec ...
acrolein;. Acr-dG,. 6- or 8-hydroxy-1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine;. BP,. benzo[a]pyrene;. BPDE,. BP diol epoxide;. 4-HNE,. trans-4 ... Acrolein (Acr) is one of the most abundant, reactive, and mutagenic aldehydes in CS; it is found in amounts up to 1,000-fold ... Acrolein (Acr) is abundant in CS, and it can directly adduct DNA. Acr-DNA adducts, similar to PAH-DNA adducts, induce ... Acrolein is a major cigarette-related lung cancer agent: Preferential binding at p53 mutational hotspots and inhibition of DNA ...
Methods and Results Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to ... In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis ... The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular ... Conclusions Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating ...
9 - Acrolein, a component of photochemical smog, has a...Ch. 9 - The organic compound below is a member of a class...Ch. 9 - ... Acrolein, a component of photochemical smog, has a pungent odor and irritates eyes and mucous membranes. (a) What are the ... Acrolein, a component of photochemical smog, has a pungent odor and irritates eyes and mucous membranes. ... ChemistryChemistry & Chemical ReactivityAcrolein, a component of photochemical smog, has a pungent odor and irritates eyes and ...
  • Acrolein (systematic name: propenal) is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein was first named and characterized as an aldehyde by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1839. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde formed by thermal treatment of animal and vegetable fats, carbohydrates and amino acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Protein modification by acrolein: relevance to pathological conditions and inhibition by aldehyde sequestering agents. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Acrolein (ACR) is a toxic and highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde widely distributed in the environment as a common pollutant and generated endogenously mainly by lipoxidation reactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous pollutant that is also produced endogenously through lipid peroxidation. (nih.gov)
  • Acrolein is a reactive α , β -unsaturated aldehyde, which is abundant in organic combustion such as cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and manufacturing and cooking emission [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, has been shown to play a major role in the secondary injury by contributing significantly to both motor and sensory deficits. (eurekalert.org)
  • Background Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. (issuelab.org)
  • [ http://www.answers.com/topic/acrolein-test acrolein test: Definition and Much More from Answers.com ] ] When a fat is heated strongly in the presence of a dehydrating agent such as KHSO 4 , the glycerol portion of the molecule is dehydrated to form the unsaturated aldehyde , acrolein (CH 2 =CH-CHO), which has the peculiar odor of burnt grease. (academic.ru)
  • Acrolein (AC) is an α,ß-unsaturated aldehyde, classified by the IARC in group 3B (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acrolein, or propenal (CAS# 1107-02-8: C 3 H 4 O), is an unsaturated aldehyde produced by burning of oils and fats. (blockeng.com)
  • Acrolein (ACR, CH_2=CH-CHO) is a toxic aldehyde generated from exhaust gas, smoke of cigarette or heated frying oil. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The production of the endogenous aldehyde acrolein, following lipid peroxidation during the inflammatory response, may contribute to peripheral sensitization and hyperreflexia following SCI via the TRPA1-dependent mechanism. (iupui.edu)
  • Here we report that there are enhanced levels of acrolein and increased neuronal sensitivity to the aldehyde for at least 14 days after SCI. (iupui.edu)
  • Acrolein is highly reactive unsaturated three carbon aldehyde. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Partial hydrogenation of acrolein, the simplest alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde, is not only a model system to understand the selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis, but also technologically an important reaction. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Acrolein (Acr), an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is abundant in tobacco smoke and cooking and exhaust fumes. (ovid.com)
  • Aldehyde compound Acrolein is a kind of irritant aldehyde compound. (chemicalbook.com)
  • [0002] Acrolein is the usual name given to the unsaturated aldehyde of formula CH 2 ═CH--CHO called propenal. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is by far the strongest electrophile present in cigarette smoke which is involved in several lung pathophysiological conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • Acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, is a product of incomplete combustion reactions. (uthscsa.edu)
  • aldehyde: Nomenclature of aldehydes: …IUPAC name is 2-propenal, is acrolein, a name derived from that of acrylic acid, the parent carboxylic acid. (britannica.com)
  • Exposure to acrolein occurs mostly from breathing it in air. (cdc.gov)
  • There is very little information about how exposure to acrolein affects people's health. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risks of exposure to acrolein? (cdc.gov)
  • You can reduce your family's exposure to acrolein by reducing their exposure to tobacco smoke, smoke from burning wood products or cooking oils and grease, and exhaust from diesel or gasoline vehicles. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to acrolein results in damage to myelin, the myelin-axon junction, and the axonal membranes (B). Influx of calcium activates proteases, which may cause further damage to the paranodal axoglial junction. (nih.gov)
  • Short-term inhalation exposure to acrolein can cause upper respiratory tract irritation and congestion. (epa.gov)
  • Results: Exposure to acrolein following OVA challenge of OVA-sensitized mice resulted in markedly attenuated allergic airway inflammation, demonstrated by decreased inflammatory cell infiltrates, mucus hyperplasia and Th2 cytokines. (harvard.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular effects of exposure to acrolein, a potent irritant and component of cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust and determine if acrolein exposure causes decreased blood oxygen levels. (epa.gov)
  • In a separate cohort of rats, arterial blood samples were drawn before, during, and after exposure to acrolein to monitor blood oxygen saturation. (epa.gov)
  • It has been used as a chemical weapon during World War I . It is, however, not outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention .Acrolein is also a metabolite of the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide , and is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis .Skin exposure to acrolein causes serious damage. (academic.ru)
  • Exposure to acrolein vapors can irritate the mucus membranes. (blogspot.com)
  • Exposure to acrolein vapor resulted in reduced respiratory epithelial GSH concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Variation of inflammatory and oxidative stress responses among inbred mouse strain following sub-chronic inhalation exposure to acrolein. (ki.se)
  • In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to acrolein. (uthscsa.edu)
  • No information is available on the reproductive, developmental or carcinogenic effects of acrolein. (epa.gov)
  • We hypothesized that hypertensive rats would be more sensitive to the adverse cardiovascular effects of acrolein and that the cardiovascular effects of acrolein would be coupled with decreased arterial blood oxygen levels during exposure. (epa.gov)
  • no studies have been conducted on the carcinogenic effects of acrolein on humans, but studies on rats have shown an increase in cancerous tumors from ingestion, but not from inhalation. (academic.ru)
  • These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health. (deepdyve.com)
  • The inflammatory and toxic effects of acrolein (0-0.5 ppm), crotonaldehyde (0-5 ppm) and hexanal (0-50 ppm) were further studied in a newly developed exposure system allowing for airborne exposure of differentiated human pulmonary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) co- cultured with fibroblasts at an air- liquid interface (Paper IV). (ki.se)
  • Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure. (ki.se)
  • Inflammatory effects of acrolein, crotonaldehyde and hexanal vapors on human bronchial epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface. (ki.se)
  • Our hypotheses will be tested by examining the effects of acrolein on early IFN1-mediated signaling (including components of the Jak/STAT pathway) and antiviral gene expression using well established in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, as well as an HCV replicon that directly reports on HCV viral replication. (grantome.com)
  • Acrolein-induced phosphorylation of eIF2 α in GADD34-knockout epithelial cells by shRNA protected cell death by reducing misfolded protein-caused oxidative stress. (hindawi.com)
  • Beyond that, acrolein can cause oxidative stress and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Acrolein induces oxidative stress because of loss of glutathione activity (GSH) due to alkyaltion reactions at various nucleophilic sites in a cell particularly in the nucleus when exist in higher concentration. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Alcohol consumption and metabolism increases oxidative stress and LPO of PUFA s, and generates aldehydes, among which acrolein is the most reactive and toxic. (louisville.edu)
  • New research finds that acrolein, a byproduct of oxidative stress, is key in the progression of Parkinson's disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We compared pulmonary pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in seven inbred strains of mice after 11 weeks of whole body exposure to 1 ppm acrolein with filtered air as the control (Paper III). (ki.se)
  • Notably, acrolein is also formed endogenously as a byproduct of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and is, itself, known to cause oxidative stress. (grantome.com)
  • Acrolein is also generated endogenously due to cellular metabolism, and this may constitute a significant source of intracellular acrolein in situations of oxidative stress and inflammation. (grantome.com)
  • We hypothesized that acrolein would induce oxidative stress and degranulation in airway mast cells. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Reactive α , β -unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein (ACR) are major components of environmental pollutants and have been implicated in the neurodegenerative and cardiac diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Acrolein, the smallest member in α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, is the model system for studying selective hydrogenation of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes. (springer.com)
  • 10 December 2020 - Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are reactive aldehydes that are produced in high volumes and used in the manufacture of numerous chemical products such as herbicides in recirculating water systems, pharmaceuticals, rubber, chemicals, leather, and food and agriculture. (who.int)
  • Of these, unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein, are likely to be particularly important because of their high reactivity and high cardiovascular toxicity ( 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • In most tissues, unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein and crotonaldehyde, are metabolized via conjugation by glutathione, a reaction that is catalyzed by glutathione- S -transferases (GSTs). (physiology.org)
  • Public Health Relevance: Acrolein is one of the major reactive aldehydes ubiquitously present in foods, water and in the environment. (grantome.com)
  • The original industrial route to acrolein, developed by Degussa, involves condensation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: HCHO + CH3CHO → CH2=CHCHO + H2O Acrolein may also be produced on lab scale by the reaction of potassium bisulfate on glycerol (glycerine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein condenses with acetaldehyde and amines to give methylpyridines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are among the most recognized, but some of the carbonyl compounds that are formed during the combustion process, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, are also considered to be carcinogenic ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present invention relates to a process for synthesizing acrolein, coupling the dehydration of glycerol into acrolein with a reaction for aldol condensation of acetaldehyde, produced in the form of an impurity during the dehydration, by means of formaldehyde. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In the present paper we systematically studied the geometries, electronic structures, stability and transformation of various species derived from stepwise hydrogenation of acrolein in the gas phases. (springer.com)
  • The smell of burnt fat (as when cooking oil is heated to its smoke point) is caused by glycerol in the burning fat breaking down into acrolein. (wikipedia.org)
  • When glycerol (also called glycerin) is heated to 280 °C, it decomposes into acrolein: (CH2OH)2CHOH → CH2=CHCHO + 2 H2O This route is attractive when glycerol is co-generated in the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils or animal fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein may also be produced on lab scale by the reaction of potassium bisulfate on glycerol (glycerine). (wikipedia.org)
  • http://membership.acs.org/c/ccs/pubs/CLIPS/JCE20030025.pdf http://membership.acs.org/c/ccs/pubs/CLIPS/JCE20030025.pdf ] ] Acrolein may also be produced on lab scale by the reaction of potassium bisulfate on glycerol (glycerine). (academic.ru)
  • Acrolein is used in the preparation of polyester resin , polyurethane , propylene glycol , acrylic acid , acrylonitrile , and glycerol .Acrolein tends to polymerize when left at room temperature, leaving a gummy yellowish residue with a putrid odor. (academic.ru)
  • Recently, acrolein production via dehydration of glycerol has attracted new attention due to the increase in glycerol availability as a consequence of growing biodiesel production. (scribd.com)
  • Concern has been raised about the presence of toxicants in electronic cigarette (EC) aerosol, particularly carbonyl compounds (e.g., acrolein) that can be produced by heating glycerol and glycols used in e-liquids. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Heating glycerol to 280 °C makes it decompose into Acrolein. (chemistrylearner.com)
  • 1. A process for synthesizing acrolein consisting in a first step, in subjecting a glycerol charge resulting from the methanolysis of plant oils or of animal fats to a dehydration reaction resulting in acrolein according to the reaction CH/OH--CHOH--CH 2 OH→CH.sub. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • As a tar component, acrolein toxicity is also thousands of times higher than formaldehyde, and the boiling point is of only 50 degrees Celsius. (chemicalbook.com)
  • With their mild activity, the partially oxidised products are the main products such as acrolein and formaldehyde when oxygen ions react with the allyl intermediate while more complete combustion products such as carbon oxides and organic acids become the side products.Investigation into the kinetics and reaction mechanisms has revealed the aforementioned evidence to support the role of the mobile lattice oxygen ions in the partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein. (edu.au)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that the monograph on acrolein, the first monograph in IARC Monographs Volume 128: Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Arecoline, is now available online. (who.int)
  • The results of the recent IARC Monographs evaluation of the carcinogenicity of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline have now been published in The Lancet Oncology . (who.int)
  • Acrolein and crotonaldehyde were previously evaluated by the Working Group in 1995. (who.int)
  • acrolein, crotonaldehyde and hexanal. (ki.se)
  • The median OTs was similar to or lower than previously reported: 17 ppb (acrolein), 0.8 ppb (crotonaldehyde) and 97 ppb (hexanal). (ki.se)
  • The findings herein provide new insights in the acute effects of environmentally realistic exposure-concentrations of acrolein, crotonaldehyde and hexanal. (ki.se)
  • Measures of odor and lateralization threshold of acrolein, crotonaldehyde and hexanal using a novel vapor delivery technique. (ki.se)
  • As an electrophile, acrolein forms adducts with gluthathione and other cellular components and is therefore cytotoxic. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Acrolein has been shown to induce G to T and G to A mutations forming mutagenic a- and c-hydroxy-1, N (2)-cyclic propano-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts, which enhance oxidative DNA damage-induced mutagenesis [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Slot blot analysis of Acr-dG adducts, an indicator of acrolein-induced DNA damage in buccal DNA, and LC/MS-MS analysis of 3-HPMA levels, urinary Acr metabolites, were performed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Elevated acrolein-induced DNA damage (Acr-dG adducts) detected in buccal swabs may serve as an early indicator to identify patients at risk of developing OSCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acrolein can exert potent cellular toxicity by forming irreversible covalent adducts with proteins thereby interfering with their function. (louisville.edu)
  • Elevated acrolein adducts have been detected in several disease conditions that are also known to be associated with failure of IFN therapy. (grantome.com)
  • Such pathologies can be exacerbated by increased concentrations or duration of exposure, and can occur in normal tissue incubated with injured spinal cord, showing that acrolein can act as a diffusive agent, spreading secondary injury. (nih.gov)
  • Hydralazine in particular can reduce acrolein concentrations and inhibit acrolein-mediated pathologies in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, considering the effectiveness of hydralazine at binding acrolein at such low concentrations, we expect that our study will lead to the development of new neuroprotective therapies for MS that could be rapidly translated into the clinic. (dailytech.com)
  • As shown in this Application Note, LaserWarn can detect acrolein leaks at concentrations of around 1 ppm. (blockeng.com)
  • Olfactory and respi- ratory glutathione (GSH) concentrations were also evaluated in naive and acrolein-preexposed rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein UE in naive animals was dependent on the concentration of inspired acrolein, airflow rate, and duration of exposure, with increased UE occurring with lower acrolein ex- posure concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite having increased acrolein UE, GSH concentrations in the respiratory epithelium of acrolein preexposed rats were higher at the end of the 80 min acrolein uptake experiment than their in naive rat counterparts, suggesting that an adaptive response in GSH metabolism occurred following acrolein preexposure. (cdc.gov)
  • 2004). Ambient air with glutathione (GSH) and other cellular nucleophiles (Kehrer measurements in the United States have detected acrolein at & Biswal, 2000), depletes rat nasal and lung GSH (Arumugam concentrations ranging from 2 to 7 ppb. (cdc.gov)
  • We have convincing preliminary data showing that non-toxic concentrations of acrolein significantly down-regulate IFN1 signaling and antiviral gene expression in vitro (cultured human hepatic cells) and in vivo (mice). (grantome.com)
  • The investigators have preliminary evidence to demonstrate that acrolein, at nontoxic concentrations, significantly down-regulates IFN1 signaling and antiviral/anti-HCV gene expression. (grantome.com)
  • We have preliminary evidence to demonstrate that acrolein, at nontoxic concentrations, significantly down-regulates IFN? (grantome.com)
  • To neutralize acrolein and temporarily halt the onset of MS, Shi used the drug hydralazine, which is an FDA-approved medication normally used to treat hypertension. (dailytech.com)
  • Previous studies conducted by Shi and his team have shown that hydralazine prevents acrolein from causing neuronal death . (dailytech.com)
  • For this particular study, researchers concluded that a connection existed between acrolein and MS because the elevated acrolein levels within the mice were reduced by 50 percent when given hydralazine. (dailytech.com)
  • Attenuation of mouse somatic and emotional inflammatory pain by hydralazine through scavenging acrolein and inhibiting neuronal activation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Treatment of SCI animals with the acrolein scavenger hydralazine produced moderate improvement in tactile responses as well as robust changes in thermal sensitivity for up to 49 days. (iupui.edu)
  • In the 20th century, acrolein became an important intermediate for the industrial production of acrylic acid and acrylic plastics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, all acrylic acid is produced via the transient formation of acrolein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propane represents a promising but challenging feedstock for the synthesis of acrolein (and acrylic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • The processes for oxidation of propylene to acrolein and the oxidation of propylene to acrylic acid in two stages with acrolein as an intermediate are improved by use of essentially inert essentially anhydrous diluent gases to replace steam in the reaction streams. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to a process for the manufacture of acrolein or acrylic acid from propylene. (google.com)
  • More specifically, it describes an improved process for producing acrolein or producing acrylic acid by the catalytic vapor phase oxidation of propylene in the presence of essentially inert essentially anhydrous diluents having specified composite heat capacity values. (google.com)
  • The acrolein produced in this reaction stage can be recovered or can be directed without separation of the acrolein to a second reactor operating in series with the first reactor to oxidize the acrolein to acrylic acid. (google.com)
  • and (D) oxidizing the acrolein from the acrolein phase to acrylic acid in the gas phase at a gas phase catalyst. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Acrolein is largely produced to synthesize acrylic acid and DL-methionine: an important amino acid used as an industrial feed supplement. (blockeng.com)
  • Acrolein is mostly used to make acrylic acid. (blogspot.com)
  • The main metabolic pathway for acrolein is the alkylation of glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein may overwhelm the anti-oxidative systems of any cell by depleting glutathione reserves, preventing glutathione regeneration, and inactivating protective enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Acrolein exposure rapidly depleted lung tissue glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced activation of the Nrf2 pathway, indicated by accumulation of Nrf2, increased alkylation of Keap1, and induction of Nrf2-target genes such as HO-1. (harvard.edu)
  • The main pathway for elimination of acrolein is conjugation with glutathione (GSH) in the liver, followed by enzymatic cleavage of the γ-glutamic acid and glycine residues, respectively, in the liver and in the kidney and N-acetylation of the resultant cysteine conjugate to form S-(3-oxopropyl)-N-acetylcysteine (OPMA) in the kidney. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acrolein depletes glutathione and creates thiol imbalance. (elsevier.com)
  • Exposure of human type II lung epithelial (A549) cells to non-lethal dose of acrolein (150 fmol/cell for 1 h) depletes 80% of intracellular glutathione and increases the transcription of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) at 6-12 h post-treatment, which helps in replenishing the glutathione to normal level. (elsevier.com)
  • Acrolein is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrolein is a severe pulmonary irritant and lacrimating agent. (academic.ru)
  • Acrolein is a potent airway irritant and can induce airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in the lungs of animal models. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust contain acrolein. (cdc.gov)
  • In terms of the "noncarcinogenic health quotient" for components in cigarette smoke, acrolein dominates, contributing 40 times more than the next component, hydrogen cyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a major compound of cigarette smoke, acrolein plays a critical role in the induction of respiratory diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Acrolein is a major cigarette-related carcinogen that preferentially causes p53 mutations and inhibits DNA repair function in lung cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In ambient air acrolein is estimated at only 0.04 to 0.08 ppm, but the concentration is increased up to 90ppm in vapor phase of cigarette smoke [ 8 ], in auto mobile exhaust [ 9 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Acrolein (2-propenal) is present in cigarette smoke at levels between 60 and 100 μg/cigarette ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ability of acrolein to transcriptionaly activate genes responsible for phase II enzymes may form the basis of resistance against cell death and can have implications in cigarette smoke related lung carcinogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The P isoform of GST (GSTP), which catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic molecules in cigarette smoke such as acrolein, was expressed in high abundance in the mouse lung and aorta. (physiology.org)
  • These results indicate that GSTP protects against the endothelial dysfunction induced by tobacco smoke exposure and that this protection may be related to the detoxification of acrolein or other related cigarette smoke constituents. (physiology.org)
  • Moreover, acrolein is a major component of cigarette smoke and recent studies suggest that smokers with chronic hepatitis C have a lower response rate to IFN1 compared to non-smokers. (grantome.com)
  • Acrolein is abundant in cigarette smoke, effluent from industrial smokestacks, diesel exhaust, and even hot oil cooking vapors. (uthscsa.edu)
  • In some cases, mice were also exposed to 5 ppm acrolein vapor for 6 hrs/day on days 14-17. (harvard.edu)
  • Acrolein is also formed during combustion of fuels, wood, and plastics, and is present in ambient air pollution and vapor from electronic cigarettes. (who.int)
  • Ultimately, acrolein damages both axonal membranes and myelin structures (C). Myelin decompaction and retraction prevent saltatory conduction and allow K + channels to spread into the node of Ranvier, furthering disrupting neuronal function. (nih.gov)
  • Prof. Riyi Shi, who comes from University of Purdue in USA will highlight the recent developments in the understanding of the mechanisms of acrolein in motor and sensory dysfunction in animal models of spinal cord injury, and will also discuss the therapeutic benefits of using acrolein scavengers to attenuate acrolein-mediated neuronal damage following spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study demonstrates that acrolein induced cardiovascular responses in hypertesnion are associated with reduced blood oxygen levels suggesting that the cardiovascular effects of air pollution may be mediated by hypoxia. (epa.gov)
  • The current study demonstrates that acrolein exposure alone increases heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, breathing frequency, and minute volume in the hypertensive SH rat, with limited effects in the normotensive WKY rat. (burningissues.org)
  • Acrolein (Acr) is a potent cytotoxic and DNA damaging agent which is ubiquitous in the environment and abundant in tobacco smoke. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Mediating the potent ROS toxicity of acrolein in neurons with silica n" by Desiree White-Schenk, Riyi Shi et al. (purdue.edu)
  • An improved understanding of the relationship between inspired concentration of the potent nasal toxicant acrolein and delivered dose is needed to support quantitative risk assessments. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that acrolein is not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Some monomers, plastics and synthetic elastomers, and acrolein / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, which met in Lyon, 7-13 February 1978. (who.int)
  • At low doses acrolein inhibits cell proliferation without causing cell-death and may enhance apoptosis from secondary toxins. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Acrolein (propenal, CH$_2$=CH---CH=O) is the simplest conjugated enal molecule and serves as a prototype for investigating the photochemical properties of larger enals and enones. (osu.edu)
  • Acrolein (2-propenal) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are the most toxic byproducts of LPO, with detrimental effects in various types of cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ubiquitous presence in the environment and over reactivity of acrolein becomes highly toxic in nature. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Acrolein is a ubiquitous, highly reactive environmental and industrial pollutant, and is designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a high priority air and water pollutant. (grantome.com)
  • Breathing low levels of acrolein can irritate the nose, nasal cavity, windpipe and voice box. (blogspot.com)
  • Exposure to high levels of acrolein can also affect the central nervous system. (blogspot.com)
  • Small amounts of acrolein can be formed and can enter the air when trees, tobacco, other plants, gasoline, and oil are burned. (cdc.gov)
  • In animal studies, ingestion of very large amounts of acrolein during pregnancy caused reduced birth weights and skeletal deformities in newborns. (cdc.gov)
  • Small amounts of acrolein may be found in some foods, such as fried foods, cooking oils, and roasted coffee. (epa.gov)
  • Existing animal cancer data also aren't sufficient to determine if acrolein is cancer-causing to humans. (epa.gov)
  • The EPA has stated that the potential carcinogenicity of acrolein cannot be determined based on an inadequate database. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion: Acrolein inhalation suppresses Th2-driven allergic inflammation in sensitized animals, due to direct protein alkylation resulting in activation of Nrf2 and anti-inflammatory gene expression, and inhibition of NF-κB or JNK signaling. (harvard.edu)
  • Acrolein clearance by scavengers will attenuate hepatic injury in ALD . (louisville.edu)
  • Generally, propylene in its gaseous phase is oxidized to acrolein in the presence of molecular oxygen-containing gases and steam, whose concentration is often as high as about 35 volume percent of the total feed stream, by contact at elevated temperatures with solid metal oxide catalysts. (google.com)
  • Another method to produce acrolein was discovered through has-phase oxidation of propylene. (scribd.com)
  • There are several phases of bismuth molybdates but only three of them are known to be active for partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein, namely, α, β, and γ bismuth molybdates. (edu.au)
  • The In-situ diffraction studies have uncovered the relationship between the crystal structure of bismuth molybdates and their selectivity and activity towards the catalytic partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein. (edu.au)
  • and O(1) and O(5) in the γ phase.The mobile lattice oxygen ions are proposed to be the source of the oxidising oxygen responsible for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. (edu.au)
  • The co-existence of molybdenum ions that are co-ordinately unsaturated with bismuth ions that are over valence-charged promote the formation of allyl radical such as those found in the partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein. (edu.au)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Methods and Results Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to high (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the major acrolein metabolite?3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA). (issuelab.org)
  • We investigated exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine (by measuring cotinine in urine), and to acrolein (by measuring its primary metabolite, S-(3-hydroxypropyl)mercapturic acid (3-HPMA) in urine) before and after 4 weeks of EC (green smoke, a "cig-a-like" EC, labeled 2.4% nicotine by volume) use, in 40 smokers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We assessed the in vitro toxicity of the cardiovascular toxicant allylamine, and its presumed in vivo metabolite, acrolein. (utmb.edu)
  • Acrolein is a colorless or yellow liquid with a disagreeable odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein is a colorless or yellowish liquid at ambient temperature and pressure. (nap.edu)
  • Chemical properties Acrolein is colorless, transparent, flammable volatile and volatile liquid, with a strong irritation and the steam has a penetrating, displeasing odor. (chemicalbook.com)
  • However, children who are sensitive to irritants in the air (such as children with asthma) may be more sensitive to lung irritation from acrolein. (cdc.gov)
  • Connections exist between acrolein gas in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung tissues or brochoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were collected either 6 hrs after a single initial OVA challenge and/or acrolein exposure on day 14 or 48 hrs after the last OVA challenge, on day 18. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we investigated the effects of GADD34 on acrolein-induced lung injury. (hindawi.com)
  • These data indicate that GADD34 participates in the development of acrolein-induced lung injury. (hindawi.com)
  • Because acrolein is a DNA damaging agent and induces ER stresses [ 14 ] and induces myeloid infiltration to lung [ 19 ], here we investigated whether GADD34 might affects pathogenesis of acrolein-induced lung injury. (hindawi.com)
  • http://www.healthday.com/view.cfm?id=535235 http://www.healthday.com/view.cfm?id=535235 ] ] In October 2006, researchers found connections between acrolein in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer . (academic.ru)
  • Alternately, in -vitro study indicates that the direct alkylation of DNA by acrolein at low doses seems to be insignificant in human lung adenocarcinoma cells [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The lung, plasma, and aorta of mice exposed to tobacco smoke or acrolein (for 5 h) accumulated more acrolein-adducted proteins than those tissues of mice exposed to air, indicating that exposure to tobacco smoke results in the systemic delivery of acrolein. (physiology.org)
  • It has been shown that acrolein induces these three UPRs [ 11 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It has also been observed in patient of diabetic, nephropathy and Alzheimer's disease with increase lipid peroxidation [ 18 , 19 ].However, the mechanism of action of acrolein has not been known satisfactorily whether acrolein itself or its metabolites are responsible for germ - cell mediated toxicity with special reference to mature female gonads, although it induces spectrum of malformations in rat [ 20 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Acrolein has the ability to polymerize unless inhibited with hydroquinone. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Acrolein is prepared industrially by oxidation of propene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intranasal exposure of acrolein induced the expression of GADD34, developing the pulmonary damage with inflammation and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (hindawi.com)
  • In-vivo acrolein is a by product of cyclophosphamide metabolic pathway and has been found to be formed from threonine by neutrophil myeloperoxidase at sites of inflammation [ 1 , 2 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This experimental data indicates acrolein can induce an allergic inflammation in mast cell lines, and the initiation of degranulation was moderated by the application of antioxidants. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Acrolein and nicotine, carbon monoxide in cigarettes are the three major harmful ingredients, which can lead to gene mutation, and reduce the ability of cell-repair damage, and they are major factors to the damage of the retina. (chemicalbook.com)
  • [ http://www.chinatech.com/acrolein.htm New Catalyst for the Production of Acrolein Acid ] ] Several million tonnes of acrolein are produced each year. (academic.ru)
  • A large air/propene ration is necessary to maintain the oxidation state of the catalyst above a certain level, as otherwise the acrolein selectivity drops. (scribd.com)
  • Recently we have demonstrated that acrolein can induce pulmonary injury and macrophage infiltration. (hindawi.com)
  • Male and female volunteers were exposed in a controlled environment at six occasions for 2 hours to clean air only, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA) only and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (Paper I). No significant exposure-related adverse effects (pulmonary function, nasal swelling, and inflammatory markers, coagulation markers, cell differentials, breathing frequency, symptom ratings except eye irritation) were found. (ki.se)
  • A number of useful compounds are made from acrolein, exploiting its bifunctionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers believe acrolein is responsible for the dismantling of the myelin as well as inducing the creation of free radicals, which are compounds that cause further injury to tissues that are already damaged due to trauma or disease. (dailytech.com)
  • Acrolein is a useful intermediate in the production of various compounds including methionine, methionine hydroxy analog, 1, 3 propanediol and glutaraldehyde. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Acrolein is a carbonyl compound and a hazardous chemical, released into the environment through various manufacturing processes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The process uses air as the source of oxygen and requires metal oxides as heterogeneous catalysts: CH2CHCH3 + O2 → CH2CHCHO + H2O About 500,000 tons of acrolein are produced in this way annually in North America, Europe, and Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • To see if the researchers were correct about acrolein's effects, Shi and his team of researchers used a disease much like MS to elevate the acrolein in the spinal cord tissues of mice by nearly 60 percent. (dailytech.com)
  • Ischemic insult exacerbates acrolein-induced conduction loss and axonal membrane disruption in guinea pig spinal cord white matter. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Acrolein inflicts axonal membrane disruption and conduction loss in isolated guinea-pig spinal cord. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Acrolein causes burning of the nose and throat and can damage the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Formed from heated glycerin, acrolein can damage the lungs and contribute to heart disease in smokers. (webmd.com)
  • Several chemical species are capable of binding and inactivating acrolein. (nih.gov)
  • Acrolein is used primarily as an intermediate component in the manufacture of chemical substances. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Acrolein has two important industrial uses, as a chemical precursor and as a powerful biocide. (blockeng.com)
  • Despite the dangerous nature of this chemical, the benefits outweigh the risks of using acrolein in industrial settings so preventative measures have to be implemented to reduce employee exposure. (blockeng.com)
  • Acrolein is an important chemical molecule of the global environment. (alliedacademies.org)
  • It is also thought to be an intermediate in the Skraup synthesis of quinolines, but is rarely used as such due to its instability.Acrolein is sometimes used as a fixative in preparation of biological specimens for electron microscopy . (academic.ru)
  • The first industrial acrolein synthesis in the early 1930s by Degussa, and began production in 1942. (scribd.com)
  • A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate , and acrolein is released if the test is positive. (academic.ru)
  • Animal studies show that breathing acrolein causes irritation to the nasal cavity, lowered breathing rate, and damage to the lining of the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • An additional group of animals was exposed to 0.6 or 1.8 ppm acrolein, 6 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 14 days prior to performing nasal uptake studies (with 1.8 or 3.6 ppm acrolein) at a 100 ml/min airflow rate. (cdc.gov)
  • Nasal lesions following acrolein exposure have been replicated thank Drs. Mel Andersen and Teresa Leavens for their critical review in multiple species. (cdc.gov)
  • Nasal lesions induced by acrolein in rodents have been used is College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to Raleigh, NC 27606, USA. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, in models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some clinical research, acrolein levels are significantly increased. (purdue.edu)
  • In addition, in healthy subjects, CS and BQ chewing were associated with significantly higher levels of 3-HPMA, indicating that CS and BQ chewing promotes acrolein absorption. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, 3-HPMA levels in patients with OSCC were significantly lower than those in healthy subjects, indicating impaired acrolein metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. (deepdyve.com)
  • In dual users, EC use significantly reduced exposure to CO and acrolein because of a reduction in smoke intake. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein alone as well as combined with EA. (ki.se)
  • Additionally, analysis of inflammatory signaling pathways showed suppressed activation of NF-κB and marginally reduced activation of JNK in acrolein-exposed lungs, associated with increased carbonylation of RelA and JNK. (harvard.edu)
  • Fluid build up in the lungs can also occur from breathing acrolein. (blogspot.com)