Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Phosphoramide Mustards: A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Allyl CompoundsSmokeCystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Peroxiredoxin III: A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.Allylamine: Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Norleucine: An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.SemicarbazonesNociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Molluscacides: Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cyclamen: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.ButanonesLysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.MercaptoethylaminesInhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.SemicarbazidesAlkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)MaleatesSchiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Mice, Inbred C57BLEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Rats, Inbred F344Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.AcroleinDrug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Synechocystis: A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)UracilAcetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.I-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.

Acrolein causes inhibitor kappaB-independent decreases in nuclear factor kappaB activation in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. (1/412)

Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde to which humans are exposed in various situations. In the present study, the effects of sublethal doses of acrolein on nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were investigated. Immediately following a 30-min exposure to 45 fmol of acrolein/cell, glutathione (GSH) and DNA synthesis and NF-kappaB binding were reduced by more than 80%. All parameters returned to normal or supranormal levels by 8 h post-treatment. Pretreatment with acrolein completely blocked 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced activation of NF-kappaB. Cells treated for 1 h with 1 mM diethyl maleate (DEM) showed a 34 and 53% decrease in GSH and DNA synthesis, respectively. DEM also reduced NF-kappaB activation by 64% at 2 h post-treatment, with recovery to within 22% of control at 8 h. Both acrolein and DEM decreased NF-kappaB function approximately 50% at 2 h after treatment with TPA, as shown by a secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter assay. GSH returned to control levels by 8 h after DEM treatment, but proliferation remained significantly depressed for 24 h. Interestingly, DEM caused a profound decrease in NF-kappaB binding, even at doses as low as 0.125 mM that had little effect on GSH. Neither acrolein nor DEM had any effect on the levels of phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated inhibitor kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). Furthermore, acrolein decreased NF-kappaB activation in cells depleted of IkappaB-alpha by TPA stimulation in the presence of cycloheximide, demonstrating that the decrease in NF-kappaB activation was not the result of increased binding by the inhibitory protein. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that acrolein modified NF-kappaB in the cytosol prior to chemical dissociation from IkappaB with detergent. Together, these data support the conclusion that the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by acrolein and DEM is IkappaB-independent. The mechanism appears to be related to direct modification of thiol groups in the NF-kappaB subunits.  (+info)

Regulation of human airway mucins by acrolein and inflammatory mediators. (2/412)

Bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, marked by inflammation and mucus hypersecretion, can be caused or exacerbated by airway pathogens or irritants including acrolein, an aldehyde present in tobacco smoke. To determine whether acrolein and inflammatory mediators alter mucin gene expression, steady-state mRNA levels of two airway mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, were measured (by RT-PCR) in human lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H292). MUC5AC mRNA levels increased after >/=0.01 nM acrolein, 10 microM prostaglandin E2 or 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 1.0 nM tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or 10 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (a protein kinase C activator). In contrast, MUC5B mRNA levels, although easily detected, were unaffected by these agonists, suggesting that irritants and associated inflammatory mediators increase mucin biosynthesis by inducing MUC5AC message levels, whereas MUC5B is constitutively expressed. When transcription was inhibited, TNF-alpha exposure increased MUC5AC message half-life compared with control level, suggesting that transcript stabilization is a major mechanism controlling increased MUC5AC message levels. Together, these findings imply that irritants like acrolein can directly and indirectly (via inflammatory mediators) increase airway mucin transcripts in epithelial cells.  (+info)

Cigarette smoke induces direct DNA damage in the human B-lymphoid cell line Raji. (3/412)

Human lymphoid cells (Raji) were exposed to water-soluble compounds from cigarette smoke (CS) generated in a smoking machine. DNA damage, as detected by alkaline single-cell microelectrophoresis (COMET assay), was induced in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in the cells. Most of the rapidly induced DNA damage was attributable to direct-acting compounds since cytochrome P450-related metabolic activities (ethoxy- and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylases and coumarin-7-hydroxylase) were absent or very low. In addition, induction of DNA damage could be inhibited only slightly by beta-naphthoflavone and coumarin. Vitamin C enhanced DNA damage in Raji cells probably by redox cycling of catechol and hydroquinone present in CS implicating reactive oxygen intermediates as another source of DNA damage. N-acetylcysteine, a radical scavenger and glutathione precursor, reduced DNA damage in Raji cells when exposure to CS was followed by 2 h post-incubation in culture medium. Unrepaired DNA damage caused by CS persisted longer than gamma-irradiation-induced DNA damage. Among the CS constituents, acrolein, but not formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, induced DNA damage although less intensely than CS itself. At 50 and 100 microM concentrations, acrolein also inhibited repair of gamma- irradiation-induced DNA damage in the COMET assay. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by acrolein at 50 microM was demonstrated by an immunochemical assay for bromo-deoxyuridine incorporation; however, inhibition of a representative repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanosine hydrolase, by either CS or acrolein was not observed. The present results further confirm the presence of direct-acting genotoxic components and inhibitors of DNA repair in the gas phase of tobacco smoke, that may contribute to DNA damage and smoking-associated cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract.  (+info)

Monocyte inflammation augments acrolein-induced Muc5ac expression in mouse lung. (4/412)

Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde found in smog and tobacco smoke, can induce airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion. To determine whether changes in steady-state mucin gene expression (Muc2 and Muc5ac) are associated with inflammatory cell accumulation and neutrophil elastase activity, FVB/N mice were exposed to acrolein (3.0 parts/million; 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 3 wk). The levels of Muc2 and Muc5ac mRNA were determined by RT-PCR, and the presence of Muc5ac protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Total and differential cell counts were determined from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and neutrophil elastase activity was measured in the BAL fluid supernatant. Lung Muc5ac mRNA was increased on days 12 and 19, and Muc5ac protein was detected in mucous granules and on the surface of the epithelium on day 19. Lung Muc2 mRNA was not detected at measurable levels in either control or exposed mice. Acrolein exposure caused a significant and persistent increase in macrophages and a rapid but transient increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid. Recoverable neutrophil elastase activity was not significantly altered at any time after acrolein exposure. To further examine the role of macrophage accumulation in mucin gene expression, additional strains of mice (including a strain genetically deficient in macrophage metalloelastase) were exposed to acrolein for 3 wk, and Muc5ac mRNA levels and macrophage accumulation were measured. The magnitude of macrophage accumulation coincided with increased Muc5ac mRNA levels, indicating that excessive macrophage accumulation augments acrolein-induced Muc5ac synthesis and secretion after repeated exposure. These findings support a role for chronic monocytic inflammation in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion observed in chronic bronchitis.  (+info)

Effect of acrolein on human alveolar macrophage NF-kappaB activity. (5/412)

Acrolein is an environmental pollutant that is known to suppress respiratory host defense against infections; however, the mechanism of the decrease in host defense is not yet clear. We have previously reported that acrolein inhibited endotoxin-induced cytokine release and induced apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages, suggesting that the inhibition of cytokine release and/or cytotoxicity to alveolar macrophages may, in part, be responsible for acrolein-induced immunosuppression in the lung. Because nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is an important transcription factor for a number of cytokine genes and is also an important regulator of apoptosis, the effect of acrolein on NF-kappaB activity was examined by electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Acrolein caused a dose-dependent inhibition of endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB activation as well as an inhibition of basal level NF-kappaB activity. Because IkappaB is a principal regulator of NF-kappaB activity in the nucleus, changes in IkappaB were determined by Western blotting. Acrolein-inhibited IkappaB phosphorylation leads to an increase in cellular IkappaB levels preventing NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and is likely the mechanism of acrolein-induced inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. The role of basal level NF-kappaB in acrolein-induced apoptosis was also examined. An NF-kappaB inhibitor (MG-132) also induced apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages, suggesting that a certain basal level NF-kappaB activity may be required for macrophage cell survival. Taken together, our results suggest that the acrolein-inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-kappaB activation decreased the basal level NF-kappaB activity, which may be responsible for the inhibition of cytokine release and the induction of apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Pharmacological and molecular evidence for kinin B1 receptor expression in urinary bladder of cyclophosphamide-treated rats. (6/412)

1. In the present study, we developed an experimental model of cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). In order to characterize des-Arg9-BK-induced contraction on the urinary bladder (UB) during the development of inflammation and to quantify kinin B1 receptor gene expression using a quantitative RT - PCR technique. 2. In the presence of peptidase inhibitors captopril (10 microM), DL-thiorphan (1 microM) and DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidino-ethylthiopropanoic acid (MERGEPTA 5 microM), bradykinin (BK) (0.3 - 3,000 nM) evoked a concentration-dependent contraction of rat UB which was not different between the CYP- and vehicle-treated groups. Unlike BK, des-Arg9-BK (0.3 - 100,000 nM) did not contract UB from vehicle-treated rats but contracted vigorously bladder strips from CYP-treated rats 14, 24 and 168 h after treatment. In UB of 24 h treated rat, the pD2 value of des-Arg9-BK was 7.3+/-0.1. 3. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (3 microM) reduced by 30% the maximal response of des-Arg9-BK. Both the kinin B1 receptor antagonists des-Arg9-[Leu8]BK (10 microM) and des-Arg10-Hoe 140 (10 microM) produced a rightward shift of the concentration-response curve to des-Arg9-BK yielding pKB values of 6.8+/-0.2 and 7.2+/-0.1, respectively, whilst the kinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (1 microM) had no effect. 4. After CYP treatment, mRNA coding for the kinin B1 receptor appeared predominantly in UB. In this organ, the induction was progressive, reaching a maximum 48 h after CYP treatment. 5. In conclusion, the present study provides strong evidence for an induction of kinin B1 receptors in UB of CYP-treated rats. This was associated at a molecular level with an increase in mRNA expression of the gene coding for the kinin B1 receptor. This kinin receptor displayed the whole features of a classical rat kinin B1 receptor.  (+info)

Sensory nerve-mediated immediate nasal responses to inspired acrolein. (7/412)

To investigate the role of sensory C-fiber stimulation and tachykinin release in the immediate nasal responses to the sensory irritant acrolein, the upper respiratory tract of the urethan-anesthetized male Fischer 344 rat was isolated via insertion of an endotracheal tube, and acrolein-laden air [2, 5, 10, or 20 parts/million (ppm)] was drawn continuously through that site at a flow rate of 100 ml/min for 50 min. Uptake of the inert vapor acetone was measured throughout the exposure to assess nasal vascular function. Plasma protein extravasation into nasal tissue and nasal lavage fluid was also assessed via injection of Evans blue dye. At 20 ppm, acrolein induced 1) a twofold increase in acetone uptake, indicative of vasodilation, followed by a progressive decline toward basal levels and 2) increased plasma protein extravasation, as indicated by dye leakage into nasal tissue and nasal lavage. These responses were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment and the neurokinin type 1 antagonist N-acetyltrifluoromethyl tryptophan benzyl ester and were potentiated by the peptidase inhibitors phosphoramidon and captopril, suggesting that these responses were mediated by tachykinin. At lower exposure concentrations, acrolein was without effect on dye leakage but produced vasodilation, as indicated by increased acetone uptake. The responses at the lower concentrations were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment, implicating nasal sensory C-fiber involvement, but were not influenced by N-acetyltrifluoromethyl tryptophan benzyl ester, phosphoramidon, or captopril, suggesting the involvement of a mediator other than the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A.  (+info)

Glutathione antagonized cyclophosphamide- and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity of PC3 cells and immunosuppressive actions in mice. (8/412)

AIM: To study the antagonistic effect of glutathione (GSH) on toxicity of PC3 cell induced by cyclophosphamide (Cyc) and acrolein (Acr) and on immunosuppressive actions caused by Cyc. METHODS: Splenocyte, PC3 cell proliferation and cell protein content were measured by tetrazolium (MTT) assay and Coomassie brilliant blue assay. Serum anti-SRBC hemolysin, agglutinin, and splenocyte proliferation were measured in normal and S-180-bearing mice. Tumors were weighed. RESULTS: Pretreatment with GSH 2 mmol.L-1 reduced splenocyte proliferation inhibition from 18.64%, 49.72% to 6.78%, 18.36% (induced by Cyc 1, and 5 mmol.L-1), and PC3 cell proliferation inhibition from 27.7%, 45.3%, and 74.6% to 14.6%, 18.8%, and 49.1% (induced by Cyc 1, 3, and 5 mmol.L-1), and from 62.6%, 85.4%, and 90.6% to 41.9%, 57.7%, and 86.4% (induced by Acr 10, 25, and 50 mumol.L-1), respectively. In normal mice, s.c. GSH 75 or 150 b.i.d. x 5 d after i.p. Cyc 40, the hemolysin and the splenocyte proliferation were higher than those in normal mice i.p. Cyc 40 alone. Hemolysin, serum agglutinin, and splenocyte proliferation in S-180-bearing mice given s.c. GSH 150 b.i.d. x 10 d after i.p. Cyc 40 were also markedly higher than those in S-180-bearing mice given i.p. Cyc alone. But, according to tumor weight, GSH did not interfere the antitumor activity of Cyc in S-180-bearing mice. CONCLUSION: GSH exhibited protective effects against Cyc and Acr, but had no effect on the antitumor action of Cyc.  (+info)

Background: Adverse health effects of tobacco smoke arise partly from its influence on innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to impaired innate immunity and host defense. The impact of smoking on allergic asthma remains unclear, with various reports demonstrating that cigarette smoke enhances asthma development but can also suppress allergic airway inflammation. Based on our previous findings that immunosuppressive effects of smoking may be largely attributed to one of its main reactive electrophiles, acrolein, we explored the impact of acrolein exposure in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by intraperitoneal injection with the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide on days 0 and 7, and challenged with aerosolized OVA on days 14-16. In some cases, mice were also exposed to 5 ppm acrolein vapor for 6 hrs/day on days 14-17. Lung tissues or brochoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were collected either 6 hrs after a single ...
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of cinnamaldehyde on feed intake, gain, feed efficiency, ruminal fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, carcass yield, and meat quality of lambs fed barley-based diets. Forty-eight ewe lambs were stratified by live weight (LW) and randomized among treatments (n= 4) at weaning (LW = 20.4 ± 1.12 kg). Animals had ad libitum access to pelleted diets (140 g CP/kg of DM; 309 g NDF/kg of DM) and water over 18-week period. There were four treatments with 12 animals each: 1) Control (no cinnamaldehyde); 2) cinnamaldehyde at 100 mg/kg of dry matter (DM); 3) cinnamaldehyde at 200 mg/kg of DM; 4) cinnamaldehyde at 400 mg/kg of DM. Dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion (DMI/ADG) were not affected by cinnamaldehyde supplementation. Ruminal pH, total VFA concentrations, molar proportions of individual VFA (acetate, propionate and valerate) and ammonia concentration were similar between lambs fed ...
... is also known as a corrosion inhibitor for steel and other ferrous alloys in corrosive fluids such as hydrochloric acid. It is believed that this is achieved by polymerization to form a protective film on the metal surface.[20][21] It can be used in combination with additional components such as dispersing agents, solvents and other surfactants. Cinnamaldehyde is also a potent inducer of apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.[22] Some early evidence shows that cinnamaldehyde blocks formation of Tau protein aggregation into neurofibrillary tangles, a major pathology in Alzheimers Disease. [23] Cinnamaldehyde also has antimicrobial properties.[24] Cinnamaldehyde is also a TRPA1 activator, and can excite a subset of sensory neurons that are mainly cold-sensitive neurons, to cause nociceptive behavior in mice.[25] Cinnamaldehyde has been found to improve metabolic health by acting directly on adipocytes and ...
... - relief for dogs with itching, sneezing and other symptoms related to environmental irritants.
4-(Dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde 6203-18-5 safety info, 4-(Dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde chemical safety search, Chemical 4-(Dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde safety technical specifications ect.
In fresh years, critical argument has surrounded the position of acrolein adducts in smoking-related lung cancer, with conflicting findings reported as regards the mutagenic properties of acrolein-derived DNA adducts. Factors that lengthen the danger for developing visual reduction comprehend prematurity, developmental halt, genetic syndrome, people relation of eyesight malady, African American birthright, above no laughing matter view injury, diabetes, HIV, and chronic corticosteroid use. Robinson KA, Baughman W, Rothrock G, et al generic cialis soft 20mg mastercard diabetic erectile dysfunction icd 9 code. Rank all of the auscultatory areas, listening in the beginning one more time the two shakes of a lambs tail above-board interspace (aortic valve) and then over the assistant left interspace (pulmonic valve); next ploy to the left-hand put down sternal border (tricuspid neighbourhood); and conclusively auscultate over and above the fifth interspace, midclavicular train (mitral size). AD is ...
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of tCIN self-included in β-CD complexes (CIs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of β-CD, tCIN, or CIs for different times. β-CD alone did not affect the production of nitric oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, both tCIN and CI significantly reduced NO and ROS production. Thus, CIs may have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, similar to those of tCIN when used alone.
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of tCIN self-included in β-CD complexes (CIs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of β-CD, tCIN, or CIs for different times. β-CD alone did not affect the production of nitric oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, both tCIN and CI significantly reduced NO and ROS production. Thus, CIs may have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, similar to those of tCIN when used alone.
... specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer Suppling large quantity of Artichoke extract with the extract ratio 4: 1, 5: 1 powder form. More question or information you required pls feel free to contact usThe specification, 5: 1 10: 1 The min order, 1kgWe are the lead manufacture of Plant extr
increases membrane permeability to help organic acids and cinnamaldehyde to get into the bacterial cell. Cinnamaldehyde works synergistically with organic acids to maintain a balanced gut microbial population. Cinnamaldehyde plays an essential role in reducing the bacterial cell division. Organic acids in their undissociated form are able to enter the bacterial cell and exert antimicrobial effects. A wise and deliberate combination of organic acids provides greater efficacy in reducing growth of pathogenic bacteria. Sequential Release Medium (SRM) is a special inorganic carrier that ensures gradual release of active ingredients in the gastrointestinal tract.. ...
Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant whose contribution to the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases has long been recognized, albeit not completely understood (NRC, 1993). Surprisingly,...
1LAS: Structure of an oligodeoxynucleotide containing a 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct positioned in a palindrome derived from the Salmonella typhimurium hisD3052 gene: Hoogsteen pairing at pH 5.2.
1LAE: Structure of the 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct in a three-base DNA hairpin loop derived from a palindrome in the Salmonella typhimurium hisD3052 gene.
Millions of Americans suffer from sinus pain, pressure, and reoccurring infections each year. Unfortunately, time and time again those suffering from sinus problems turn to western medicine and prescription drugs to relieve their pain. A simple little device, known as a neti pot could save pain, suffering, infections, and unnecessary antibiotics every year.. The neti pot is a ceramic or plastic container that looks like a tea pot or genie lamp. When filled with a saline solution, the neti pot is highly effective at flushing the nasal passages and helping the bodys natural cleansing methods function better. Surgeries, allergies, and environmental irritants can clog the nasal passages and prevent the sinus cilia cells from clearing mucus and irritants naturally.. Many people that suffer from sinus pressure, pain, and infections are turning to neti pots to relieve their symptoms more often. Most use the neti pot on a regular basis, some even as frequently as daily to relieve their pain, ...
COPD is generally caused by long-term exposure from environmental irritants such as smoke (including second-hand smoke), air pollution, fumes, and wood smoke. A rare cause can be from a deficiency in alpha-1 antitrypsin; without the enzyme, the body is not able to break down mucus, which leads to thick mucus building up in patients with COPD from smoking. Causes of Emphysema
The mini size formula of Stress Solution calms and soothes skin, protects against visible irritation from over-exfoliation, sensitivities or aggressive topical products and boosts skins resistance to environmental irritants.
Allergies: The most common cause of dog ear problems is an allergic reaction of some sort. Allergies can be caused by food ingredients or environmental irritants such as pollen or dust. Itchy, inflamed ears and paws are symptoms of an allergy. Switch to a low-allergen food that does not contain wheat, soy or corn. Often, switching to a higher quality dog food reduces allergic reaction ear problems. Keep the environment as dust free and clean as possible ...
And Roufogalispyrazine-1 (2H)-carboxamide (BCTC) plus a thio-derivative of BCTC, (2R)-4-(3-chloro-2 pyridinyl)-2-methyl-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1 piperazonecarboxamide (CTPC) and SB-452533 [14, 231]. Surprisingly, 2-APB, an activator of TRPV1, two and three is an antagonist of TRPM8 [80]. 2-APB may be beneficial in characterizing TRPM8 mechanisms selectively. Agonists of TRPA1 like cinnamaldehyde and URB597 are shown to antagonize TRPM8 [124, 150]. […]. Continue reading ...
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TY - THES. T1 - Physiologically based in silico modelling to examine DNA adduct formation by different food-borne a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes at realistic low dietary exposure levels. AU - Kiwamoto, R.. N1 - WU thesis, no. 6025. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Abstract (R.Kiwamoto ISBN 978-94-6257-284-3) Various α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in fruits, vegetables, spices, or processed products containing these items as natural constituents or as added food flavouring agents. Because of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety the β carbon in the molecule becomes electron deficient and the aldehydes react with electron rich molecules including DNA via Michael addition. The formation of DNA adducts raises a concern for genotoxicity, although formation of DNA adducts may not be significant at low doses relevant for dietary exposure in vivo because of adequate detoxification. This thesis therefore aimed at determining dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of food-borne ...
natural cinnamic aldehyde for sale - 122 - natural cinnamic aldehyde wholesalers & natural cinnamic aldehyde manufacturers from China manufacturers.
Application of a capillary microreactor for selective hydrogenation of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in aqueous multiphase catalysis ...
Cinnamic aldehyde is a yellow colored oily liquid organic compound with flour and odor of cinnamon spice. Cinnamon is globally recognized spice and been used from quite ancient times. Cinnamic aldehyde is a viscous liquid occurring in the bark of cinnamon trees and can also be made synthetically.
Wang H,Shu YY,Zheng MY,et al. Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Hydrocinnamaldehyde over SiO2 Supported Nickel Phosphide Catalysts[J]. Catalysis Letters,2008,124:219-225 ...
You posted poorly-researched questions in the wrong folder, and the second a mod sees this thread its going to get canned anyway. Anyway, you need to drop the idea of using cinnamaldehyde, since there are much easier, cheaper precursors out there. Styrene, for example, can be purchased at boat supply stores as "resin thinner". Or better yet, you can get it by destructively distilling polystyrene! Doesnt that sound fun? ...
The benefits of using the oxidized oils from rendering and recycling as an economic source of lipids and energy in animal feed always coexist with the concerns that diverse degradation products in these oxidized oils can negatively affect animal health and performance. Therefore, the quality markers that predict growth performance could be useful when feeding oxidized oils to non-ruminants. However, the correlations between growth performance and chemical profiles of oxidized oils have not been well examined. In this study, six thermally oxidized soybean oils (OSOs) with a wide range of quality measures were prepared under different processing temperatures and processing durations, including 45 °C-336 h; 67.5 °C-168 h; 90 °C-84 h; 135 °C-42 h; 180 °C-21 h; and 225 °C-10.5 h. Broilers and nursery pigs were randomly assigned to diets containing either unheated control soybean oil or one of six OSOs. Animal performance was determined by measuring body weight gain, feed intake, and gain to feed ratio.
Alarie, Y. Dose-response analysis in animal studies: prediction of human responses. Environ Health Perspect 42, 9-13 (1981).. Baraldi, P. G., Preti, D., Materazzi, S. & Geppetti, P. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel as emerging target for novel analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents. J Med Chem 53, 5085-5107, doi:10.1021/jm100062h (2010).. Bautista, D. M. et al. TRPA1 mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents. Cell 124, 1269-1282, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.023 (2006).. Belvisi, M. G., Dubuis, E. & Birrell, M. A. Transient receptor potential A1 channels: insights into cough and airway inflammatory disease. Chest 140, 1040-1047, doi:10.1378/chest.10-3327 (2011).. Bandell, M. et al. Noxious Cold Ion Channel TRPA1 Is Activated by Pungent Compounds and Bradykinin. Neuron 41, 849-857, doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(04)00150-3 (2004).. Bessac, B. F. & Jordt, S. E. Breathtaking TRP channels: TRPA1 and TRPV1 in airway chemosensation and reflex ...
Yingcheng Wuhan Organic Material Co., Ltd. have more than 50 years history of production and R&D benzaldehyde derivates. We supply cinnamon series, ester series, nitrile series and electronic-grade ammonium series, more than 50 kinds of products..
Sewald, N., Wilking, S. D., Eckel, R., Ros, A., Ros, R., and Anselmetti, D. (2004). PROBING DNA-PEPTIDE INTERACTION FORCES ON THE SINGLE MOLECULE LEVEL. JOURNAL OF PEPTIDE SCIENCE 10, 261-261 ...
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
A redox-neutral, [3+3]-type condensation of O-acetyl ketoximes and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, that is synergistically catalyzed by a copper(I) salt and a secondary ammonium salt (or amine), allows modular synthesis of a variety of substituted pyridines under mild conditions with tolerance of a broad range of functional groups. The reaction is driven by a merger of iminium catalysis and redox activity of the copper catalyst ...
Free Shipping on most orders over $60. Great Low Price. HistAll H helps maintain normal histamine levels in horses. All-natural support for seasonal allergies, respiratory health, and a healthy immune system in horses. Also aids your horse in combating environmental irritants and pollutants. Histall H contains a blend of natural ingredients, including turmeric, bromelain, choline chloride, vitamin D, and vitamin C. Feed 1 oz. twice daily for 10 days, then 1 oz. daily. Powder.HistAll H for Horses
HistALL H - All-natural, economical blend, containing turmeric powder and bromelain, for use in horses suffering from seasonal allergies; to support normal histamine levels and a healthy immune system. HistALL H aids horses in combating environmental irritants and pollutants, and in the suppre
Doctors give trusted, helpful answers on causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and more: Dr. Seres on feels like i need to pee all the time but no fever and no actual pain: As suggested in your question, your symptom can still represent a uti. Other several possibilities includes-1. Diabetes (though other symptoms would be present) 2. Environmental irritant (soap is too alkali or irritating) 3. Anatomical issues (retention of urine) or 4. Physiologic problem (overactive bladder).
60 CapsulesÊÊ The health bringing properties of the Oregano Leaf have been known in traditional medicine for many years and are supported by modern science. Oregano supports: áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊSignificant warming qualities; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊStrong antioxidant áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊSupports a healthy immune system; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊCan help the regulation of the menstrual cycle; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊReduces sensitivities to environmental irritants; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊStimulates bile flow and supports the entire digestive process; áÊÊÊÊÊÊÊHelps relieve respiratory congestion. Ê Ê All products at True Botanica are made in a GMP compliant facility.Ê Attention:ÊPlease read carefully the Alert/Disclaimer passageÊat the bottom of every page of this website! Ê Ê
Your dogs cough may be nothing more than a reaction to inhaling an environmental irritant, but there are other less common culprits. If your vet cant find the root of your dogs coughing, here are eight surprising causes to consider.
Your dogs cough may be nothing more than a reaction to inhaling an environmental irritant, but there are other less common culprits. If your vet cant find the root of your dogs coughing, here are eight surprising causes to consider.
AluSpray is a aerosol wound dressing for dogs, cats, horses, and livestock. When applied, it forms a protective barrier over minor wounds, abrasions, and cuts. AluSpray has a water-resistant formula that seals the wound from bacteria, dirt, and environmental irritants while still allowing the skin to breathe. It also a
Many things can cause that unpleasant, scratchy, and sometimes painful condition known as a sore throat. Viruses, bacteria, allergens, environmental irritants
2008 (English)In: 6:e Svensk-norskt miljökemiskt möte: SNMM 2008 22-24 September, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) ...
Lignin - a cross-linked racemic macromolecule with molecular masses in excess of 10,000 u. It is relatively hydrophobic and aromatic in nature. There are three monolignol monomers, methoxylated to various degrees: p-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol. Lignin is an integral part of the secondary cell walls of plants and constitutes from a quarter to a third of the dry mass of wood ...
Chew Stop - Stops horses from wood chewing. Spray on fences, corrals, stalls, mangers, gates, posts and trees. Will not stain when applied to white fences. Contains aromatic hydrocarbons and cinnamaldehyde.
The present invention provides: a production process for a catalyst for synthesis of an unsaturated aldehyde and/or an unsaturated carboxylic acid, which production process is suitable for producing the catalyst with good reproducibility, wherein the catalyst is excellent in activity, selectivity, and physical strength; this catalyst; and a production process for the unsaturated aldehyde and/or the unsaturated carboxylic acid by using this catalyst. The production process for the catalyst comprises the steps of: carrying out heat treatment of an aqueous solution or slurry of a starting material to thus prepare a catalyst precursor P 1 , wherein the starting material includes molybdenum, bismuth, and iron as essential components; thereafter adding and mixing a binder into the P 1 to thus prepare a catalyst precursor P 2 ; and molding and then calcining the P 2 , thereby producing the catalyst for synthesis of the unsaturated aldehyde and/or the unsaturated carboxylic acid; with the production
ERASMUS, Elizabeth. Hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde over an ionic cobalt promoted alumina-supported palladium catalyst. S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) [online]. 2013, vol.66, pp.00-00. ISSN 1996-840X.. Nano γ-alumina-supported transition metal-based mono- (Pd0/γ-Al2O3 or CoIII/γ-Al2O3) and bimetallic catalysts (Pd0CoIII/γ-Al2O3), were prepared by wet impregnation, oxidation and in situ reduction of the palladium. The palladium(II) acetate [PdII3(OOCCH3)6], cobalt(II) acetate [CoII(OOCCH3)2].4H2O and palladium, cobalt bridging tetraacetate [PdIICoII(OOCCH3)4].H2O.2CH3COOH, were used as catalyst precursors to prepare a 7.4 % mol catalyst/support loading. The oxidation states of these activated catalysts were studied by XPS. These catalysts were evaluated for hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde in a biphasic reaction under 3 MPa of hydrogen at 80 °C. The Pd0/γ-Al2O3 selectively catalyzed the hydrogenation of C=C bond in cinnamaldehyde to form phenylpropanol (100 %). In contrast, catalysis with ...
2-Hexenal is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound which is mutagenic, genotoxic and forms cyclic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts like similar propenals for which carcinogenicity was shown, e.g. acrolein or crotonaldehyde. Since humans have a permanent intake of 2-hexenal via vegetarian food this genotoxic compound is considered to play a role in human carcinogenicity. The data base is, however, presently not sufficient for a cancer risk assessment. To date no long term carcinogenicity study on 2-hexenal has been published. Detection of respective DNA adducts of this substance in animals or humans could allow cancer risk assessment. Therefore, we have developed a 32P-post-labeling technique based on nuclease P1 enrichment and TLC separation of the labeled adducts. The respective adducts are stable over a wide pH range from pH 4 to pH 11 and relatively stable against nuclease P1. The detection limit was 0.03 adducts per 106 nucleotides and the recovery was 10%. With this method we have shown ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Hydrogenation of alpha, beta unsaturated aldehydes over platinum catalysts. AU - Englisch, M.. AU - Lercher, J.A.. PY - 1995/7/6. Y1 - 1995/7/6. KW - METIS-107776. M3 - Other contribution. CY - Velem, Hungary. ER - ...
2015 Elsevier Inc. High-dose chemotherapy regimens using cyclophosphamide (CY) are frequently associated with cardiotoxicity that could lead to myocyte damage and congestive heart failure. However, the mechanisms regulating the cardiotoxic effects of CY remain unclear. Because CY is converted to an unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a toxic, reactive CY metabolite that induces extensive protein modification and myocardial injury, we examined the role of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), an acrolein-metabolizing enzyme, in CY cardiotoxicity in wild-type (WT) and GSTP-null mice. Treatment with CY (100-300. mg/kg) increased plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK·MB) and heart-to-body weight ratio to a significantly greater extent in GSTP-null than WT mice. In addition to modest yet significant echocardiographic changes following acute CY-treatment, GSTP insufficiency was associated with greater phosphorylation of c-Jun and p38 as well as greater accumulation of albumin and protein-acrolein ...
DAY , # OF LIVING , MORPHOLOGICAL , BEHAVIORAL , OTHER , , HYDRA , CHANGES , CHANGES , CHANGES 1 , , , , , 2 , , , , , 3 , , , , , 4 , , , , , Care of the Hydra 1) Feed the hydra artemia (washed to remove salt) during the observation periods. Observe any changes in feeding habits and record them on the data chart. Fresh water crustaceans need not be washed, but the food must be free of dead organisms. 2) Replace the water in the petri dishes with fresh pond water daily. 3) Place the petri dishes containing hydra back into their correct environmental chamber. 4) Refill chamber A with automobile exhaust. Repeat the above experimental strategy Reduce the trial periods to 12 hours over a four day period. This will result in eight readings, one for each 12 hour period. Modify the existing chart to accommodate the additional readings. Record and Summarize Your Observations References ...
Abstract. A chiral bisaryl-silyl-protected pyrrolidine acts as a very selective epoxidation organocatalyst using simple oxidation agents. The scope of the reaction is demonstrated by the formation of optically active α,β-epoxy aldehydes in high yields and enantioselectivities. The asymmetric epoxidation reactions proceed also under environmental friendly reaction conditions in, for example, water mixtures of alcohols.. ...
Hydration reaction H. Adkins; W. H. Hartung (1926). "Acrolein". Organic Syntheses. 6: 1. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.006.0001. ; ...
The Butadiene + Acrolein Paradigm". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 120 (10): 2415-2420. doi:10.1021/ja9722279. Carey ...
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ...
3. Unsaturated Aliphatics: Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Maleic Anhydride". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 40 ( ... The glycerol route begins with pyrolysis to acrolein, which undergoes ammoxidation to give acrylonitrile. The glutamic route ...
A meta-analysis of 77 surveys of VOCs in homes in the US found the top ten riskiest indoor air VOCs were acrolein, formaldehyde ... Overheated cooking oils emit acrolein and formaldehyde. ...
The respiratory irritants were Acrolein and Benzaldehyde. In part three of the experiment series, polar narcotics phenol, 2,4- ... Acrolein and Benzaldehyde". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 6 (4): 313-328. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060408. Bradbury SP, ...
Liu XY, Zhu MX, Xie JP (2010). "Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts". Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 20 (1): 36- ...
Evidence for this mechanism was found by irritating the lining of the bladders of female rats with acrolein. If the rats were ... Kalota SJ, Stein PC, Parsons CL (1992). "Prevention of acrolein-induced bladder injury by pentosanpolysulfate". J Urol. 148 (1 ...
Acrolein may induce irritation to the upper respiratory tract. Acrolein levels were reduced by 60% in dual users and 80% for ... Some e-cigarette products had acrolein identified in the aerosol. It may be generated when glycerin is heated to higher ... acrolein, and glyoxal by the chemical reaction of the e-liquid when the nichrome wire (heating element) is heated, to high ...
Acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide and acrolein are known by-products. It is used in the preparation of homo- and copolymers, ...
Acrolein has been shown to be a mutagen and carcinogen in human cells. The carcinogenicity of acrolein has been difficult to ... However, acrolein is 1000 times more abundant than PAHs in cigarette smoke and is able to react as is, without metabolic ... Like PAH metabolites, acrolein is also an electrophilic alkylating agent and permanently binds to the DNA base guanine, by a ... Acrolein is only one of them present in cigarette smoke; for example, crotonaldehyde has been found in cigarette smoke. Michael ...
SMILEY KL, SOBOLOV M (1962). "A cobamide-requiring glycerol dehydrase from an acrolein-forming Lactobacillus". Arch. Biochem. ...
"Mammalian translesion DNA synthesis across an acrolein-derived deoxyguanosine adduct. Participation of DNA polymerase eta in ...
... acrolein, zinc sulphate and chlorine. Central nervous system (CNS) seizure agents. CNS seizure agents inhibit cellular ...
The smoke, which contains acrolein, is an eye irritant and asphixiant. The smoke point of oils vary widely. Depending on origin ...
Discovery of Acrolein and Acrylic acid Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. Lauenburg (1888), "Redtenbacher, Joseph", ... He is credited with the discoveries of acrolein and acrylic acid. He also performed important research involving the ...
Engels C, Schwab C, Zhang J, Stevens MJ, Bieri C, Ebert MO, McNeill K, Sturla SJ, and Lacroix C (2016). "Acrolein contributes ... A. "13C and 1H NMR study of formaldehyde reactions with acetaldehyde and acrolein. Synthesis of 2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3- ... Reuterin consists of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, its hydrate, its dehydration product (acrolein), and its dimer in dynamic ...
Acrolein: elevated levels of acrolein, a toxic metabolite produced from the polyamines spermine, spermidine and by amine ... 2009). "Acrolein, IL-6 and CRP as markers of silent brain infarction". Atherosclerosis. 203 (2): 557-62. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Polyamine oxidase and acrolein as novel biochemical markers for diagnosis of cerebral stroke". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral ...
1997). "Reaction Pathway of the Conjugate Addition of Lithium Organocuprate Clusters to Acrolein". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119: 4900- ...
An example is the production of acrylic acid from acrolein, propylene and propane. The possible effect of water in these ...
First, acrolein is formed in a Knoevenagel condensation from the acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. It is then condensed with ...
Examples of unsaturated carbonyls are acrolein (propenal), mesityl oxide, acrylic acid, and maleic acid. Unsaturated carbonyls ...
Dehydration of glycerol gives acrolein which condenses with the amine followed by a cyclization. In terms of its coordination ...
Acroleins are prone to oligomerization, and allenoates easily undergo cycloaddition reactions. It is extremely hard to develop ...
Major pollutants reported by the study included acrolein, manganese compounds, sulfuric acid, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde. ...
Acrolein is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages. The main metabolic pathway for acrolein is ... The acrolein content in cigarette smoke depends on the type of cigarette and added glycerin making up up to 220 µg acrolein per ... The "acrolein test" is for the presence of glycerin or fats. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is ... The WHO suggests a "tolerable oral acrolein intake" of 7.5 μg per day per kg of body weight. Although acrolein occurs in French ...
This information profile on acrolein (107028) is part of a group of 46 such profiles that provide information about chemicals ... This information profile on acrolein (107028) is part of a group of 46 such profiles that provide information about chemicals ...
Cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust contain acrolein. Acrolein causes burning of the nose and throat and can damage the ... Exposure to acrolein occurs mostly from breathing it in the air. ... How can acrolein affect my health?. *How likely is acrolein to ... Exposure to acrolein occurs mostly from breathing it in air. Cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust contain acrolein. Acrolein ... What is acrolein?. Acrolein is a colorless or yellow liquid with a disagreeable odor. It dissolves in water very easily and ...
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See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Acrolein (EHC 127, 1991) Acrolein (HSG 67, 1991) Acrolein (CICADS 43, 2002) Acrolein ( ...
Acrolein is toxic and is a strong irritant for the skin, eyes, and nasal passages.[4] The main metabolic pathway for acrolein ... The "acrolein test" is for the presence of glycerin or fats. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is ... The WHO suggests a "tolerable oral acrolein intake" of 7.5 μg per day per kg of body weight. Although acrolein occurs in French ... Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide treatment results in the production of acrolein.[21] Acrolein produced during cyclophosphamide ...
Acrolein dimethyl acetal for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and ... Acrolein dimethyl acetal was used in the facile one step synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal and its dimethyl acetal via a cross- ... Acrolein dimethyl acetal undergoes cationic α-diimine palladium chelate catalyzed copolymerization with ethene to yield ...
Hydralazine in particular can reduce acrolein concentrations and inhibit acrolein-mediated pathologies in vivo. Acrolein ... Acrolein-mediated injury in nervous system trauma and diseases.. Shi R1, Rickett T, Sun W. ... Exposure to acrolein results in damage to myelin, the myelin-axon junction, and the axonal membranes (B). Influx of calcium ... Acrolein originates from multiple exogenous and endogenous sources and is known to attack protein, lipids, and DNA. Such ...
... researchers concluded that a connection existed between acrolein and MS because the elevated acrolein levels within the mice ... The toxin, acrolein, is found in air pollutants like auto exhaust and tobacco smoke. It is also created inside the body when ... To neutralize acrolein and temporarily halt the onset of MS, Shi used the drug hydralazine, which is an FDA-approved medication ... Researchers believe acrolein is responsible for the dismantling of the myelin as well as inducing the creation of free radicals ...
Reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein (ACR) are major components of environmental pollutants and have been ... Protective Effect of Silymarin against Acrolein-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice. Elahe Taghiabadi,1 Mohsen Imenshahidi,2 Khalil ...
Acrolein for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references. ... Acrolein has been used in the preparation of monomeric and dimeric β-hydroxypropionaldehyde in a hydration reaction. ... Acrolein causes transient urothelial loss and exposes local afferent terminals to a toxic environment. ... Acrolein is a metabolite that is generated by catabolic pathaways via many oxidases. ...
This page contains information on the chemical Acrolein, stabilized including: 1 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal ... Acrolein, stabilized. Identifications. *Synonyms/Related:*Acrolein, stabilized. 49 CFR 172.101 - Hazardous Materials Table. ... Acrolein, stabilized. Yes. No. Isolation and Protective Action Distances Table. SMALL SPILLS. LARGE SPILLS. UN#. Name of ... Acrolein, stabilized (,/a,- This page contains information on the chemical Acrolein, stabilized ...
The processes for oxidation of propylene to acrolein and the oxidation of propylene to acrylic acid in two stages with acrolein ... The acrolein produced in this reaction stage can be recovered or can be directed without separation of the acrolein to a second ... Thus, a portion of the product stream from the first-stage propylene-acrolein reactor can be sent to an acrolein recovery ... As the flowing heat capacity of the reaction feed gas mixture is increased, yield to acrolein, and acrolein plus acrylic acid ...
C-FERST Issue Profile: Acrolein. Acrolein is a clear or yellow liquid with a burned, pungent odor that is commonly used as a ... Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Acrolein *CalEPA OEHHA Acrolein Noncancer Reference Exposure Levels (RELs) (PDF) ( ... Acrolein also can be formed from the breakdown of certain pollutants in outdoor air or from burning organic matter like tobacco ... Small amounts of acrolein may be found in some foods, such as fried foods, cooking oils, and roasted coffee. ...
Acrolein  Gomes, R; Meek, M. E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety (‎World Health ... Acrolein : health and safety guide  World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety (‎World Health ... Acrolein / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour ... Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to acrolein, a chemical produced in large quantities ...
... and related documents for the pesticide acrolein, and opens a public comment period on these documents. The public is ... Acrolein is primarily used in irrigation canals and reservoirs to treat aquatic weeds, such as pondweed. Acroleins secondary ... Acrolein Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability, and Risk Reduction Options. A Notice by the Environmental ... Risks of concern associated with the use of acrolein are: acute and chronic risk to freshwater fish and estuarine/marine fish ...
... acrolein, we explored the impact of acrolein exposure in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Methods: ... In some cases, mice were also exposed to 5 ppm acrolein vapor for 6 hrs/day on days 14-17. Lung tissues or brochoalveolar ... Results: Exposure to acrolein following OVA challenge of OVA-sensitized mice resulted in markedly attenuated allergic airway ... Acrolein exposure rapidly depleted lung tissue glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced activation of the Nrf2 pathway, indicated ...
The shcon/LLCs and shGADD34/LLCs were plated in 12-well dishes and treated with 25 μM acrolein alone for 8 h, or 25 μM acrolein ... The shcon/LLCs and shGADD34/LLCs were plated in 12-well dishes and treated with 25 μM acrolein alone for 8 h, or 25 μM acrolein ... The 25 μM acrolein-treated shcon/LLCs and shGADD34/LLCs were analyzed. (a) Cell survival after 25 μM acrolein treatment was ... GADD34 Mediates Acrolein-Caused Lung Injury. Acrolein has been shown to induce ER stress [14]. We examined the expression of ER ...
Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, has been shown to play a major role in the secondary injury by contributing ... and will also discuss the therapeutic benefits of using acrolein scavengers to attenuate acrolein-mediated neuronal damage ... Acrolein as a novel therapeutic target for motor and sensory deficits in spinal cord injury. Neural Regen Res. Contact: Meng ... Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, has been shown to play a major role in the secondary injury by contributing ...
Read chapter 1 Acrolein: This book is the eighth volume in the series Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne ... 1993). Acrolein was aerosolized by passing 100% N2 (5 mL/min) over a solution of 0.25 mL of acrolein dissolved in 9.75 mL of ... 1964). Concentrated acrolein vapors were produced by passing a stream of air over liquid acrolein held in a diffusion cell in ... Acrolein has also been used in military poison gas mixtures. The largest sources of human exposure to acrolein are from ...
Acrolein preferentially damages nucleolus eliciting ribosomal stress and apoptosis in human cancer cells. Download Prime PubMed ... A549 CellsAcroleinAntineoplastic AgentsApoptosisBinding SitesCell NucleolusDNA AdductsDNA, RibosomalDose-Response Relationship ... Acrolein (Acr) is a potent cytotoxic and DNA damaging agent which is ubiquitous in the environment and abundant in tobacco ... Acrolein Preferentially Damages Nucleolus Eliciting Ribosomal Stress and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells. Oncotarget. 2016 Dec ...
acrolein;. Acr-dG,. 6- or 8-hydroxy-1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine;. BP,. benzo[a]pyrene;. BPDE,. BP diol epoxide;. 4-HNE,. trans-4 ... Acrolein (Acr) is one of the most abundant, reactive, and mutagenic aldehydes in CS; it is found in amounts up to 1,000-fold ... Acrolein (Acr) is abundant in CS, and it can directly adduct DNA. Acr-DNA adducts, similar to PAH-DNA adducts, induce ... Acrolein is a major cigarette-related lung cancer agent: Preferential binding at p53 mutational hotspots and inhibition of DNA ...
Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in ... Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in ... In a separate cohort of rats, arterial blood samples were drawn before, during, and after exposure to acrolein to monitor blood ... EPA Home » Science Inventory » Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood ...
Three surface complexes of acrolein have been identified by high-temperature IR spectroscopic method. Their extinction ... IR spectroscopic studies of surface acrolein and acrylic acid compounds in conditions of catalytic oxidation of acrolein on V− ... Three surface complexes of acrolein have been identified by high-temperature IR spectroscopic method. Their extinction ...
  • In response to occupational exposures to acrolein, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit at 0.1 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) at an eight-hour time-weighted average. (
  • Exposure to acrolein occurs mostly from breathing it in air. (
  • There is very little information about how exposure to acrolein affects people's health. (
  • How can families reduce the risks of exposure to acrolein? (
  • You can reduce your family's exposure to acrolein by reducing their exposure to tobacco smoke, smoke from burning wood products or cooking oils and grease, and exhaust from diesel or gasoline vehicles. (
  • On the cellular level, acrolein exposure can cause membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and myelin disruption. (
  • Such pathologies can be exacerbated by increased concentrations or duration of exposure, and can occur in normal tissue incubated with injured spinal cord, showing that acrolein can act as a diffusive agent, spreading secondary injury. (
  • Exposure to acrolein results in damage to myelin, the myelin-axon junction, and the axonal membranes (B). Influx of calcium activates proteases, which may cause further damage to the paranodal axoglial junction. (
  • Short-term inhalation exposure to acrolein can cause upper respiratory tract irritation and congestion. (
  • Based on our previous findings that immunosuppressive effects of smoking may be largely attributed to one of its main reactive electrophiles, acrolein, we explored the impact of acrolein exposure in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. (
  • Lung tissues or brochoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were collected either 6 hrs after a single initial OVA challenge and/or acrolein exposure on day 14 or 48 hrs after the last OVA challenge, on day 18. (
  • Results: Exposure to acrolein following OVA challenge of OVA-sensitized mice resulted in markedly attenuated allergic airway inflammation, demonstrated by decreased inflammatory cell infiltrates, mucus hyperplasia and Th2 cytokines. (
  • Acrolein exposure rapidly depleted lung tissue glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced activation of the Nrf2 pathway, indicated by accumulation of Nrf2, increased alkylation of Keap1, and induction of Nrf2-target genes such as HO-1. (
  • The intranasal exposure of acrolein induced the expression of GADD34, developing the pulmonary damage with inflammation and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (
  • The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular effects of exposure to acrolein, a potent irritant and component of cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust and determine if acrolein exposure causes decreased blood oxygen levels. (
  • We hypothesized that hypertensive rats would be more sensitive to the adverse cardiovascular effects of acrolein and that the cardiovascular effects of acrolein would be coupled with decreased arterial blood oxygen levels during exposure. (
  • In a separate cohort of rats, arterial blood samples were drawn before, during, and after exposure to acrolein to monitor blood oxygen saturation. (
  • We found that hypertensive, but not normal rats, had significant increases in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing frequency, and minute volume during acrolein exposure. (
  • The current study demonstrates that acrolein exposure alone increases heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, breathing frequency, and minute volume in the hypertensive SH rat, with limited effects in the normotensive WKY rat. (
  • At a respiration rate of 2 to 4 L/min, a child could theoretically receive an immunosuppressive dose of acrolein (~10-30 mg) from a 1-hour exposure to the levels of second-hand smoke typically found in restaurants. (
  • Further research is therefore necessary to identify biomarkers of acrolein exposure and to assess the pharmacodynamics of acrolein exposure. (
  • It has been used as a chemical weapon during World War I . It is, however, not outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention .Acrolein is also a metabolite of the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide , and is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis .Skin exposure to acrolein causes serious damage. (
  • Despite the dangerous nature of this chemical, the benefits outweigh the risks of using acrolein in industrial settings so preventative measures have to be implemented to reduce employee exposure. (
  • day), continuous exposure (i.p.) of acrolein alone or with ascorbate (5 mg/kg body wt) for 10 days to rats .Reproductive performance of the treated rats were observed by serial mating experiments with opposite sex of the same strain. (
  • We investigated exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine (by measuring cotinine in urine), and to acrolein (by measuring its primary metabolite, S-(3-hydroxypropyl)mercapturic acid (3-HPMA) in urine) before and after 4 weeks of EC (green smoke, a "cig-a-like" EC, labeled 2.4% nicotine by volume) use, in 40 smokers. (
  • In dual users, EC use significantly reduced exposure to CO and acrolein because of a reduction in smoke intake. (
  • Exposure to acrolein vapors can irritate the mucus membranes. (
  • Exposure to high levels of acrolein can also affect the central nervous system. (
  • Acrolein UE in naive animals was dependent on the concentration of inspired acrolein, airflow rate, and duration of exposure, with increased UE occurring with lower acrolein ex- posure concentrations. (
  • Exposure to acrolein vapor resulted in reduced respiratory epithelial GSH concentrations. (
  • In acrolein-preexposed animals, URT acrolein UE was also dependent on the acrolein concentra- tion used prior to the uptake exposure, with preexposed rats having higher UE than their naive counterparts. (
  • Nasal lesions following acrolein exposure have been replicated thank Drs. Mel Andersen and Teresa Leavens for their critical review in multiple species. (
  • The lung, plasma, and aorta of mice exposed to tobacco smoke or acrolein (for 5 h) accumulated more acrolein-adducted proteins than those tissues of mice exposed to air, indicating that exposure to tobacco smoke results in the systemic delivery of acrolein. (
  • These results indicate that GSTP protects against the endothelial dysfunction induced by tobacco smoke exposure and that this protection may be related to the detoxification of acrolein or other related cigarette smoke constituents. (
  • In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to acrolein. (
  • As a tar component, acrolein toxicity is also thousands of times higher than formaldehyde, and the boiling point is of only 50 degrees Celsius. (
  • With their mild activity, the partially oxidised products are the main products such as acrolein and formaldehyde when oxygen ions react with the allyl intermediate while more complete combustion products such as carbon oxides and organic acids become the side products.Investigation into the kinetics and reaction mechanisms has revealed the aforementioned evidence to support the role of the mobile lattice oxygen ions in the partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein. (
  • Several studies have shown the presence of aldehydes (i.e., formaldehyde, acrolein) in mainstream emissions of some e-cigarettes. (
  • The smell of burnt fat (as when cooking oil is heated to its smoke point) is caused by glycerol in the burning fat breaking down into acrolein. (
  • When glycerol (also called glycerin) is heated to 280 °C, it decomposes into acrolein: (CH2OH)2CHOH → CH2=CHCHO + 2 H2O This route is attractive when glycerol is co-generated in the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils or animal fats. (
  • Acrolein may also be produced on lab scale by the reaction of potassium bisulfate on glycerol (glycerine). (
  • ] ] Acrolein may also be produced on lab scale by the reaction of potassium bisulfate on glycerol (glycerine). (
  • Acrolein is used in the preparation of polyester resin , polyurethane , propylene glycol , acrylic acid , acrylonitrile , and glycerol .Acrolein tends to polymerize when left at room temperature, leaving a gummy yellowish residue with a putrid odor. (
  • Recently, acrolein production via dehydration of glycerol has attracted new attention due to the increase in glycerol availability as a consequence of growing biodiesel production. (
  • Concern has been raised about the presence of toxicants in electronic cigarette (EC) aerosol, particularly carbonyl compounds (e.g., acrolein) that can be produced by heating glycerol and glycols used in e-liquids. (
  • 1. A process for synthesizing acrolein consisting in a first step, in subjecting a glycerol charge resulting from the methanolysis of plant oils or of animal fats to a dehydration reaction resulting in acrolein according to the reaction CH/OH--CHOH--CH 2 OH→CH.sub. (
  • In the present paper we systematically studied the geometries, electronic structures, stability and transformation of various species derived from stepwise hydrogenation of acrolein in the gas phases. (
  • Hydralazine in particular can reduce acrolein concentrations and inhibit acrolein-mediated pathologies in vivo. (
  • Therefore, considering the effectiveness of hydralazine at binding acrolein at such low concentrations, we expect that our study will lead to the development of new neuroprotective therapies for MS that could be rapidly translated into the clinic. (
  • As shown in this Application Note, LaserWarn can detect acrolein leaks at concentrations of around 1 ppm. (
  • Olfactory and respi- ratory glutathione (GSH) concentrations were also evaluated in naive and acrolein-preexposed rats. (
  • Despite having increased acrolein UE, GSH concentrations in the respiratory epithelium of acrolein preexposed rats were higher at the end of the 80 min acrolein uptake experiment than their in naive rat counterparts, suggesting that an adaptive response in GSH metabolism occurred following acrolein preexposure. (
  • 2004). Ambient air with glutathione (GSH) and other cellular nucleophiles (Kehrer measurements in the United States have detected acrolein at & Biswal, 2000), depletes rat nasal and lung GSH (Arumugam concentrations ranging from 2 to 7 ppb. (
  • The in vitro study was conducted by incubating purified human albumin, human hemoglobin, human plasma, or human blood with increasing concentrations of acrolein (0-10 mM) in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, for 2 h at 37°C. Albumin was also incubated with crotonaldehyde under the same conditions as with acrolein. (
  • To neutralize acrolein and temporarily halt the onset of MS, Shi used the drug hydralazine, which is an FDA-approved medication normally used to treat hypertension. (
  • Previous studies conducted by Shi and his team have shown that hydralazine prevents acrolein from causing neuronal death . (
  • For this particular study, researchers concluded that a connection existed between acrolein and MS because the elevated acrolein levels within the mice were reduced by 50 percent when given hydralazine. (
  • Attenuation of mouse somatic and emotional inflammatory pain by hydralazine through scavenging acrolein and inhibiting neuronal activation. (
  • Treatment of SCI animals with the acrolein scavenger hydralazine produced moderate improvement in tactile responses as well as robust changes in thermal sensitivity for up to 49 days. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. (
  • In terms of the "noncarcinogenic health quotient" for components in cigarette smoke, acrolein dominates, contributing 40 times more than the next component, hydrogen cyanide. (
  • Cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust contain acrolein. (
  • As a major compound of cigarette smoke, acrolein plays a critical role in the induction of respiratory diseases. (
  • In ambient air acrolein is estimated at only 0.04 to 0.08 ppm, but the concentration is increased up to 90ppm in vapor phase of cigarette smoke [ 8 ], in auto mobile exhaust [ 9 ]. (
  • Acrolein (2-propenal) is present in cigarette smoke at levels between 60 and 100 μg/cigarette ( 6 ). (
  • The P isoform of GST (GSTP), which catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic molecules in cigarette smoke such as acrolein, was expressed in high abundance in the mouse lung and aorta. (
  • Acrolein is abundant in cigarette smoke, effluent from industrial smokestacks, diesel exhaust, and even hot oil cooking vapors. (
  • Acrolein has been shown to induce G to T and G to A mutations forming mutagenic a- and c-hydroxy-1, N (2)-cyclic propano-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts, which enhance oxidative DNA damage-induced mutagenesis [ 6 ]. (
  • Acrolein can exert potent cellular toxicity by forming irreversible covalent adducts with proteins thereby interfering with their function. (
  • The present study describes a rapid and sensitive method for the estimation of adducts of albumin and hemoglobin after in vitro and in vivo treatment with acrolein. (
  • Key Words: Acrolein-Protein adducts-Blood-Tritiated borohydride reduction. (
  • Ultimately, acrolein damages both axonal membranes and myelin structures (C). Myelin decompaction and retraction prevent saltatory conduction and allow K + channels to spread into the node of Ranvier, furthering disrupting neuronal function. (
  • Prof. Riyi Shi, who comes from University of Purdue in USA will highlight the recent developments in the understanding of the mechanisms of acrolein in motor and sensory dysfunction in animal models of spinal cord injury, and will also discuss the therapeutic benefits of using acrolein scavengers to attenuate acrolein-mediated neuronal damage following spinal cord injury. (
  • This study demonstrates that acrolein induced cardiovascular responses in hypertesnion are associated with reduced blood oxygen levels suggesting that the cardiovascular effects of air pollution may be mediated by hypoxia. (
  • Acrolein (Acr) is a potent cytotoxic and DNA damaging agent which is ubiquitous in the environment and abundant in tobacco smoke. (
  • An improved understanding of the relationship between inspired concentration of the potent nasal toxicant acrolein and delivered dose is needed to support quantitative risk assessments. (
  • The main metabolic pathway for acrolein is the alkylation of glutathione. (
  • Acrolein may overwhelm the anti-oxidative systems of any cell by depleting glutathione reserves, preventing glutathione regeneration, and inactivating protective enzymes. (
  • The main pathway for elimination of acrolein is conjugation with glutathione (GSH) in the liver, followed by enzymatic cleavage of the γ-glutamic acid and glycine residues, respectively, in the liver and in the kidney and N-acetylation of the resultant cysteine conjugate to form S-(3-oxopropyl)-N-acetylcysteine (OPMA) in the kidney. (
  • A number of useful compounds are made from acrolein, exploiting its bifunctionality. (
  • Researchers believe acrolein is responsible for the dismantling of the myelin as well as inducing the creation of free radicals, which are compounds that cause further injury to tissues that are already damaged due to trauma or disease. (
  • Acrolein is a useful intermediate in the production of various compounds including methionine, methionine hydroxy analog, 1, 3 propanediol and glutaraldehyde. (
  • Existing animal cancer data also aren't sufficient to determine if acrolein is cancer-causing to humans. (
  • Generally, propylene in its gaseous phase is oxidized to acrolein in the presence of molecular oxygen-containing gases and steam, whose concentration is often as high as about 35 volume percent of the total feed stream, by contact at elevated temperatures with solid metal oxide catalysts. (
  • Another method to produce acrolein was discovered through has-phase oxidation of propylene. (
  • There are several phases of bismuth molybdates but only three of them are known to be active for partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein, namely, α, β, and γ bismuth molybdates. (
  • The In-situ diffraction studies have uncovered the relationship between the crystal structure of bismuth molybdates and their selectivity and activity towards the catalytic partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein. (
  • and O(1) and O(5) in the γ phase.The mobile lattice oxygen ions are proposed to be the source of the oxidising oxygen responsible for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. (
  • The co-existence of molybdenum ions that are co-ordinately unsaturated with bismuth ions that are over valence-charged promote the formation of allyl radical such as those found in the partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein. (
  • The catalytic oxidation reactions of this invention are exemplified by the oxidation of propylene to acrolein, the oxidation of isobutylene to methacrolein, the oxydehydro-genation of an olefin having 4 to 8 carbons, such as the oxydehydrogenation of butene-l to butadiene-l,3- the ammoxidation of propylene to acrylonitrile and the ammoxidation of isobutylene to methacrylonitrile. (
  • In cigarettes, the content of acrolein is 10,000 times higher than the carcinogenic substances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (
  • Acrolein (propenal, CH$_2$=CH---CH=O) is the simplest conjugated enal molecule and serves as a prototype for investigating the photochemical properties of larger enals and enones. (
  • 2500 Acrolein (2-Propenal). (
  • rats with normal blood pressure) rats implanted with biopotential radiotelemetry transmitters were exposed once for 3 hours to 3 parts per million acrolein gas or filtered air (control) in whole body plethysmograph chambers while cardiovascular and ventilatory parameters were monitored. (
  • The researchers found that the compound called acrolein tends to build up in the brain tissue of rats affected by Parkinson's. (
  • Additionally, injecting acrolein into healthy rats produced behavioral deficits typical of Parkinson's. (
  • The uptake efficiency (UE) of 0.6, 1.8, or 3.6 ppm acrolein was measured in the isolated upper respiratory tract (URT) of anesthetized naive rats under constant-velocity unidirectional inspi- ratory flow rates of 100 or 300 ml/min for up to 80 min. (
  • rats were treated with acrolein by gavage (13 mg/kg) and killed at 1,2.4. (
  • It has been shown that acrolein induces these three UPRs [ 11 - 14 ]. (
  • Because acrolein is a DNA damaging agent and induces ER stresses [ 14 ] and induces myeloid infiltration to lung [ 19 ], here we investigated whether GADD34 might affects pathogenesis of acrolein-induced lung injury. (
  • It has also been observed in patient of diabetic, nephropathy and Alzheimer's disease with increase lipid peroxidation [ 18 , 19 ].However, the mechanism of action of acrolein has not been known satisfactorily whether acrolein itself or its metabolites are responsible for germ - cell mediated toxicity with special reference to mature female gonads, although it induces spectrum of malformations in rat [ 20 ]. (
  • Acrolein and nicotine, carbon monoxide in cigarettes are the three major harmful ingredients, which can lead to gene mutation, and reduce the ability of cell-repair damage, and they are major factors to the damage of the retina. (
  • [ New Catalyst for the Production of Acrolein Acid ] ] Several million tonnes of acrolein are produced each year. (
  • A large air/propene ration is necessary to maintain the oxidation state of the catalyst above a certain level, as otherwise the acrolein selectivity drops. (
  • The process uses air as the source of oxygen and requires metal oxides as heterogeneous catalysts: CH2CHCH3 + O2 → CH2CHCHO + H2O About 500,000 tons of acrolein are produced in this way annually in North America, Europe, and Japan. (
  • To see if the researchers were correct about acrolein's effects, Shi and his team of researchers used a disease much like MS to elevate the acrolein in the spinal cord tissues of mice by nearly 60 percent. (
  • Ischemic insult exacerbates acrolein-induced conduction loss and axonal membrane disruption in guinea pig spinal cord white matter. (
  • Acrolein inflicts axonal membrane disruption and conduction loss in isolated guinea-pig spinal cord. (
  • It is also thought to be an intermediate in the Skraup synthesis of quinolines, but is rarely used as such due to its instability.Acrolein is sometimes used as a fixative in preparation of biological specimens for electron microscopy . (
  • The first industrial acrolein synthesis in the early 1930s by Degussa, and began production in 1942. (
  • This report presents a cost analysis of DL-Methionine production from acrolein, methyl mercaptan, and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). (
  • Animal studies show that breathing acrolein causes irritation to the nasal cavity, lowered breathing rate, and damage to the lining of the lungs. (
  • An additional group of animals was exposed to 0.6 or 1.8 ppm acrolein, 6 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 14 days prior to performing nasal uptake studies (with 1.8 or 3.6 ppm acrolein) at a 100 ml/min airflow rate. (
  • Nasal lesions induced by acrolein in rodents have been used is College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to Raleigh, NC 27606, USA. (
  • Connections exist between acrolein gas in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer. (
  • However, children who are sensitive to irritants in the air (such as children with asthma) may be more sensitive to lung irritation from acrolein. (
  • Here we investigated the effects of GADD34 on acrolein-induced lung injury. (
  • These data indicate that GADD34 participates in the development of acrolein-induced lung injury. (
  • ] ] In October 2006, researchers found connections between acrolein in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer . (
  • Alternately, in -vitro study indicates that the direct alkylation of DNA by acrolein at low doses seems to be insignificant in human lung adenocarcinoma cells [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. (
  • Recently we have demonstrated that acrolein can induce pulmonary injury and macrophage infiltration. (
  • This information profile on acrolein (107028) is part of a group of 46 such profiles that provide information about chemicals or industrial processes considered to be potential occupational hazards. (
  • Working in or living near industries where acrolein is manufactured or used to make other chemicals. (
  • These tests also cannot be used to determine if you were exposed to acrolein because acrolein can be produced by the breakdown of other chemicals in the body. (
  • Acrolein is a clear or yellow liquid with a burned, pungent odor that is commonly used as a pesticide to control algae, weeds, bacteria and mollusks, and is also used to make other chemicals. (
  • In this episode, Mike and Bob break down one of the best chemicals for instructors to use when giving common scenarios: acrolein. (
  • Molecular mechanisms of acrolein-mediated myelin destruction in CNS trauma and disease. (