Hepatitis B Vaccines
Hepatitis B Antibodies
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Hepatitis B virus
Mercury poisoning: a rare but treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression in an infant. (1/3)An infant presented with failure to thrive and developmental regression. Physical examination revealed an irritable child with swollen, erythematous extremities, and elevated blood pressure. Extensive investigations, including a metabolic work-up and neuroimaging, were unrevealing. Exposure to self-purchased medication was initially denied. The physical signs were suggestive of acrodynia. Mercury poisoning was ultimately established by measuring paired blood and urine mercury levels. On further enquiry, it was revealed that the child had been given a Chinese medicinal product for 4 months. He responded well to a chelating agent. Acrodynia is a childhood disease considered to be of historical interest only, but making a diagnosis of mercury poisoning is rewarding because the response to treatment is good. This case highlights the common misconception that alternative medicines are safe and benign. (+info)
Ancestry of pink disease (infantile acrodynia) identified as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders. (2/3)(+info)
Mercury as a health hazard. (3/3)Pink disease has virtually disappeared since teething powders were withdrawn. We describe a case in a boy who was exposed to metallic mercury vapour. We discuss the potential health hazard of spilled elemental mercury in the house and the difficulties of removing it from the environment. (+info)
Acrodynia is a medical condition characterized by pain, swelling, and discoloration of the hands and feet. It is also known as "Pink Disease." Historically, acrodynia was associated with mercury poisoning, often due to the use of mercury-based teething powders or exposure to mercury in the environment.
Symptoms of acrodynia can include:
* Pain, swelling, and redness of the hands and feet
* Desquamation (peeling) of the skin on the hands and feet
* Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)
* Photophobia (sensitivity to light)
* Irritability and restlessness
* Anorexia (loss of appetite)
* Weight loss
* Hypertension (high blood pressure)
The condition is rare today, as the use of mercury in medical and consumer products has been largely discontinued. However, it is still possible for individuals to be exposed to mercury through certain industrial processes or environmental contamination. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have acrodynia, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.
"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.
The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.
It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."
Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.
Acute hepatitis B infection lasts for a few weeks to several months and often causes no symptoms. However, some people may experience mild to severe flu-like symptoms, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, and fatigue. Most adults with acute hepatitis B recover completely and develop lifelong immunity to the virus.
Chronic hepatitis B infection can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. People with chronic hepatitis B may experience long-term symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, and depression. They are also at risk for developing liver failure and liver cancer.
Prevention measures include vaccination, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing needles or other drug injection equipment, and covering wounds and skin rashes. There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, but chronic hepatitis B can be treated with antiviral medications to slow the progression of liver damage.
Hepatitis B antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of the Hepatitis B virus. There are two main types of Hepatitis B antibodies:
1. Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs): This is produced when a person has recovered from a Hepatitis B infection or has been successfully vaccinated against the virus. The presence of anti-HBs indicates immunity to Hepatitis B.
2. Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBC): This is produced during a Hepatitis B infection and remains present for life, even after the infection has been cleared. However, the presence of anti-HBC alone does not indicate immunity to Hepatitis B, as it can also be present in people who have a chronic Hepatitis B infection.
It's important to note that testing for Hepatitis B antibodies is typically done through blood tests and can help determine whether a person has been infected with the virus, has recovered from an infection, or has been vaccinated against it.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg) are proteins found on the surface of the Hepatitis B virus. They are present in the blood of individuals infected with the Hepatitis B virus and are used as a marker for the presence of a current Hepatitis B infection. The detection of HBsAg in the blood indicates that an individual is infectious and can transmit the virus to others. It is typically used in diagnostic tests to detect and diagnose Hepatitis B infections, monitor treatment response, and assess the risk of transmission.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.
The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.
HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.
These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.
Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.
Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.
The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.
Viral hepatitis vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by various hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis A and B. These vaccines contain antigens that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against infection with the corresponding virus. The vaccines are typically administered through injection and may require multiple doses for full protection.
The hepatitis A vaccine is made from inactivated hepatitis A virus, while the hepatitis B vaccine is made from recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. Both vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing infection and reducing the risk of complications associated with viral hepatitis, such as liver disease and liver cancer.
It's important to note that there are no vaccines available for other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis C, D, or E. Prevention strategies for these types of viral hepatitis typically involve measures to reduce exposure to the virus, such as safe injection practices and avoiding high-risk behaviors like sharing needles or having unprotected sex with infected individuals.
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- Acrodynia is a medical condition which occurs due to mercury poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
- However, mercury poisoning and acrodynia still exist today. (wikipedia.org)
- Mercury exposure in a sensitive person is considered to be responsible for the development of acrodynia. (medscape.com)
- The deleterious effects of relatively small doses of mercury on the nervous system that are sometimes seen in the course of acrodynia add to the acrodynic reaction. (medscape.com)
- Acrodynia is a rare disorder caused due to chronic mercury poisoning or idiosyncrasy to mercury. (statpearls.com)
- Acrodynia is a manifestation of chronic mercury poisoning or idiosyncrasy to mercury. (statpearls.com)
- Acrodynia is related more often to the elemental form of mercury (quicksilver) inorganic salts than the organic forms. (statpearls.com)
- In the present, only rare cases of acrodynia with varied presentations are reported in the literature, most of which are related to accidental exposure to mercury in non-occupational settings. (statpearls.com)
-  Certain traditional ayurvedic medicines contain a significant amount of mercury and have caused cases of acrodynia. (statpearls.com)
-  The neural degeneration associated with mercury poisoning is responsible for the painful extremities, peripheral neuropathy, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms, as seen in acrodynia. (statpearls.com)
- Acrodynia is a syndrome caused almost exclusively by mercury poisoning in children, and causes gastrointestinal symptoms in adults in addition to anorexia, photophobia, sweating, and tachycardia (fast heart beat). (wordinfo.info)
- 0000008411 00000 n 0000008390 00000 n MERCURY Safety Data Sheet according to the federal final rule of hazard communication revised on 2012 (HazCom 2012) 11/23/2013 EN (English) 2/9 brain. (barteltentverhuur.nl)
- Ancestry of pink disease (infantile acrodynia) identified as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders. (bjorklundnutrition.net)
Infants and young children1
- Acrodynia most often occurs in infants and young children. (medscape.com)
- Most cases are due to renal disease, others to coarctation of the aorta, acrodynia, lead poisoning, Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism and rare types of brain tumor involving the hypothalamus. (jamanetwork.com)
- In acrodynia, no reflex dilatation of the peripheral vessels occurs in response to heat. (medscape.com)
- A family history of pink disease (also known as Acrodynia) is a significant risk factor for developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD), new research from Swinburne University of Technology in Australia has found. (bjorklundnutrition.net)
- Review the diagnosis and management of a case of acrodynia. (statpearls.com)
- Acrodynia was especially common in Australia. (medscape.com)
Development of acrodynia2
- Mercury exposure in a sensitive person is considered to be responsible for the development of acrodynia. (medscape.com)
- 12 Vividly described in a series of 41 children, the development of acrodynia was more common in younger children, did not seem to correlate with mercury dose, and was not necessarily related to urine concentrations of mercury. (mhmedical.com)
Primarily affects young children1
- Now a rare disease, acrodynia (painful extremities) primarily affects young children. (medscape.com)
- Barbacki M. [Acrodynia in Poland after the 2d World War]. (medscape.com)
- From December 1, 1989, to April 4, 1990, the male patient's 24-hour urine mercury values declined from 1540 ug/L to 101 ug/L. Except for a persistent mild tremor, acrodynia and other neurologic symptoms resolved following two 21-day courses of DMSA therapy. (cdc.gov)
- In the early 1900s, acrodynia, or "pink disease," was described in children who received calomel for ascariasis or teething discomfort. (mhmedical.com)
- The acrodynia in the rats appeared to resemble pellagra (a disease where the skin becomes red and rough). (freefitnesstips.co.uk)
- Since scientists already knew that pellagra was caused by a lack of vitamin B3 and could be used to treat the condition, they assumed that B3 could also be used to treat acrodynia. (freefitnesstips.co.uk)
- Some children exposed to high levels of mercury vapor can develop a reversible condition called acrodynia, in which the palms of the hands and soles of the feet become reddened and tender, before beginning to peel. (cdc.gov)
- Vitamin B6 (also known as pyridoxine) is a water soluble vitamin and part of the B complex group (a group of eight vitamins which were first thought to be the singular vitamin B). It was first discovered when scientists were looking for a vitamin that would cure acrodynia (a skin inflammation) in rats. (freefitnesstips.co.uk)