Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.AcridinesWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pyronine: Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Bromouracil: 5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Thiouracil: Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Crithidia: A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crithidia fasciculata: A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Flexibacter: A genus of gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the family CYTOPHAGACEAE. In some species there is a cyclic change in cell morphology.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Characidae: A family of fresh water fish in the order CHARACIFORMES, which includes the Tetras.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.IndiaMolluginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain triterpenoid saponins.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Diazonium CompoundsAzo CompoundsPelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Psychological Techniques: Methods used in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral, personality, and mental disorders.Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Pelvic Floor Disorders: Injury, weakening, or PROLAPSE of the pelvic muscles, surrounding connective tissues or ligaments (PELVIC FLOOR).Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Mice, Inbred BALB CLeishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Pfiesteria piscicida: A dinoflagellate with a life cycle that includes numerous flagellated, amoeboid, and encysted stages. Both the flagellated and amoeboid forms produce toxins which cause open wounds on fish. Pfiesteria piscicida feeds on tissue sloughed from these wounds, as well as on bacteria and algae. It is found in Atlantic estuaries of the United States.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Confusion: A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Opuntia: A plant genus of the family CACTACEAE. Species with cylindrical joints are called Cholla; flat jointed ones are Prickly-pear.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Mortierella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.Eugenol: A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.QuinaldinesCactaceae: The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
(1/109) Bacteriophage T4 rnh (RNase H) null mutations: effects on spontaneous mutation and epistatic interaction with rII mutations.

The bacteriophage T4 rnh gene encodes T4 RNase H, a relative of a family of flap endonucleases. T4 rnh null mutations reduce burst sizes, increase sensitivity to DNA damage, and increase the frequency of acriflavin resistance (Acr) mutations. Because mutations in the related Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD27 gene display a remarkable duplication mutator phenotype, we further explored the impact of rnh mutations upon the mutation process. We observed that most Acr mutants in an rnh+ strain contain ac mutations, whereas only roughly half of the Acr mutants detected in an rnhDelta strain bear ac mutations. In contrast to the mutational specificity displayed by most mutators, the DNA alterations of ac mutations arising in rnhDelta and rnh+ backgrounds are indistinguishable. Thus, the increase in Acr mutants in an rnhDelta background is probably not due to a mutator effect. This conclusion is supported by the lack of increase in the frequency of rI mutations in an rnhDelta background. In a screen that detects mutations at both the rI locus and the much larger rII locus, the r frequency was severalfold lower in an rnhDelta background. This decrease was due to the phenotype of rnh rII double mutants, which display an r+ plaque morphology but retain the characteristic inability of rII mutants to grow on lambda lysogens. Finally, we summarize those aspects of T4 forward-mutation systems which are relevant to optimal choices for investigating quantitative and qualitative aspects of the mutation process.  (+info)

(2/109) Scanning cysteine accessibility of EmrE, an H+-coupled multidrug transporter from Escherichia coli, reveals a hydrophobic pathway for solutes.

EmrE is a 12-kDa Escherichia coli multidrug transporter that confers resistance to a wide variety of toxic reagents by actively removing them in exchange for hydrogen ions. The three native Cys residues in EmrE are inaccessible to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and a series of other sulfhydryls. In addition, each of the three residues can be replaced with Ser without significant loss of activity. A protein without all the three Cys residues (Cys-less) has been generated and shown to be functional. Using this Cys-less protein, we have now generated a series of 48 single Cys replacements throughout the protein. The majority of them (43) show transport activity as judged from the ability of the mutant proteins to confer resistance against toxic compounds and from in vitro analysis of their activity in proteoliposomes. Here we describe the use of these mutants to study the accessibility to NEM, a membrane permeant sulfhydryl reagent. The study has been done systematically so that in one transmembrane segment (TMS2) each single residue was replaced. In each of the other three transmembrane segments, at least four residues covering one turn of the helix were replaced. The results show that although the residues in putative hydrophilic loops readily react with NEM, none of the residues in putative transmembrane domains are accessible to the reagent. The results imply very tight packing of the protein without any continuous aqueous domain. Based on the findings described in this work, we conclude that in EmrE the substrates are translocated through a hydrophobic pathway.  (+info)

(3/109) Candida albicans mutants deficient in respiration are resistant to the small cationic salivary antimicrobial peptide histatin 5.

Histatins are a group of small cationic peptides in human saliva which are well known for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. In a previous study we demonstrated that histatin 5 kills both blastoconidia and germ tubes of Candida albicans in a time- and concentration-dependent manner at 37 degrees C, whereas no killing was detected at 4 degrees C. This indicated that killing activity depends on cellular energy. To test histatin 5 killing activity at lower cellular ATP levels at 37 degrees C, respiratory mutants, or so-called petite mutants, of C. albicans were prepared. These mutants are deficient in respiration due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Mutants were initially identified by their small colony size and were further characterized with respect to colony morphology, growth characteristics, respiratory activity, and cytochrome spectra. The killing activity of histatin 5 at the highest concentration was only 28 to 30% against respiratory mutants, whereas 98% of the wild-type cells were killed. Furthermore, histatin 5 killing activity was also tested on wild-type cells in the presence of the respiratory inhibitor sodium azide or, alternatively, the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. In both cases histatin 5 killing activity was significantly reduced. Additionally, supernatants and pellets of cells incubated with histatin 5 in the presence or absence of inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthesis were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. It was observed that wild-type cells accumulated large amounts of histatin 5, while wild-type cells treated with inhibitors or petite mutants did not accumulate significant amounts of the peptide. These data showed first that cellular accumulation of histatin 5 is necessary for killing activity and second that accumulation of histatin 5 depends on the availability of cellular energy. Therefore, mitochondrial ATP synthesis is required for effective killing activity of histatin 5.  (+info)

(4/109) An essential glutamyl residue in EmrE, a multidrug antiporter from Escherichia coli.

EmrE is an Escherichia coli 12-kDa protein that confers resistance to toxic compounds, by actively removing them in exchange with protons. The protein includes eight charged residues. Seven of these residues are located in the hydrophilic loops and can be replaced with either Cys or another amino acid bearing the same charge, without impairing transport activity. Glu-14 is the only charged residue in the membrane domain and is conserved in all the proteins of the family. We show here that this residue is the site of action of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a carbodiimide known to act in hydrophobic environments. When Glu-14 was replaced with either Cys or Asp, resistance was abolished. Whereas the E14C mutant displays no transport activity, the E14D protein shows efflux and exchange at rates about 30-50% that of the wild type. The maximal DeltapH-driven uptake rate of E14D is only 10% that of the wild type. The mutant shows a different pH profile in all the transport modes. Our results support the notion that Glu-14 is an essential part of a binding domain shared by substrates and protons but mutually exclusive in time. This notion provides the molecular basis for the obligatory exchange catalyzed by EmrE.  (+info)

(5/109) A two-component multidrug efflux pump, EbrAB, in Bacillus subtilis.

Genes (ebrAB) responsible for ethidium resistance were cloned from chromosomal DNA of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372. The recombinant plasmid produced elevated resistance against ethidium bromide, acriflavine, pyronine Y, and safranin O not only in Escherichia coli but also in B. subtilis. It also caused an elevated energy-dependent efflux of ethidium in E. coli. EbrA and EbrB showed high sequence similarity with members of the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family of multidrug efflux pumps. Neither ebrA nor ebrB was sufficient for resistance, but introduction of the two genes carried on different plasmids conferred drug resistance. Thus, both EbrA and EbrB appear to be necessary for activity of the multidrug efflux pump. In known members of the SMR family, only one gene produces drug efflux. Thus, EbrAB is a novel SMR family multidrug efflux pump with two components.  (+info)

(6/109) Ozonation of mutagenic and carcinogenic polyaromatic amines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water.

The Salmonella-microsome assay for mutagenesis was used to determine the effect of ozone on the mutagenesis of selected carcinogens and mutagens in water. Short periods of ozonation were shown to completely inactivate the mutagenicity of several polyaromatic amine mutagens including acriflavine, proflavine, and beta-naphthylamine. Selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons were also sensitive to ozonation. Kinetic studies revealed that the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene was destroyed after short periods of ozonation. To correlate loss of mutagenicity with loss of carcinogenicity, two polyaromatic hydrocarbons were treated with ozone, extracted from water with hexane, and tested for carcinogenicity in mice. When 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene and 3-methyl-cholanthrene were treated with ozone, there was a substantial reduction in carcinogenicity compared to control groups treated with oxygen alone. However, a small number of tumors developed in the group of animals receiving a hexane extract of ozonated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. This activity may be due to breakdown products of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene that are not mutagenic.  (+info)

(7/109) Interaction of the expression of two membrane genes, acrA and plsA, in Escherichia coli K-12.

The mutation acrA1, leading to acriflavine sensitivity through disorganization of the plasma membrane, is located between proC and purE on the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. Gene plsA has been reported to determine biosynthesis of membrane phospholipid and to be located very near acrA (1). Genes acrA and plsA fall into different cistrons and are arranged in the order proC-acrA-plasA-purE. The genes were shown to interact with each other. Introduction of acrA mutation into a plsA temperature-sensitive mutant mitigated the heat sensitivity. Plasmid (F-gal+) stability in acrA mutants was restored by introduction of the plasA mutation into the acrA cells. When an Hfr plsA donor was conjugated with an acrA recipient, or when reciprocally conjugated, the exogenotes were eliminated at high frequency during subsequent subcultivation in broth. However, the exogenotes were not eliminated in all other allelic combinations of genes acrA and plsA. When an F-gal+ plasmid was introduced into the unstable heterozygotes (acrA+plsA/acrApls1+), the plasmids were stably hosted, whereas the acrA+ plasA exogenotes were spontaneously lost at a high frequency. On the other hand, when the unstable heterozygotes carrying F-gal+ were cultured in acriflavine-containing medium, the F-gal+ plasmids were preferentially eliminated but the acrA+plasA exogenotes were not affected. The results suggest that the organization of the plasma membrane controls the recombination of the exogenotes introduced into zygotes.  (+info)

(8/109) Role of pyrimidine dimer excision in loss of potential streptomycin resistance mutations of ultraviolet-irradiated Escherichia coli on phosphate-buffered agar.

The frequency of ultraviolet (UV)-induced mutations to streptomycin resistance dropped rapidly when starved Escherichia coli strains WP-2 B/r and B/r T- were incubated on phosphate-buffered agar (PBA), but was reduced only slightly in a WP-2 hcr- mutant. During postirradiation, incubation viability remained approximately constant. Cells given an optimal recovery treatment with photo-reactivating light showed no further recovery if subsequently incubated on PBA. At least 70% of the mutations induced to streptomycin resistance by UV could be repaired. The loss of potential streptomycin-resistant mutants was markedly reduced in strain B/r T- when 5 mug of acriflavin or 700 mug of caffeine per ml was added to PBA. The excision of UV-induced thymine-containing dimers from E. coli tb/r T- was investigated. Dimer excision progressed more slowly when the cells were incubated on PBA containing acriflavin or caffeine. There was no congruity between the kinetics of dimer excision and the kinetics of mutant loss. Our results indicate that removal of potential streptomycin-resistant mutants is considerably faster than the excision of pyrimidine dimers.  (+info)

*  Acriflavine
... Encyclopædia Britannica Acriflavine use in aquaria Lee, K.; Zhang, H.; Qian, D. Z.; Rey, S.; Liu, J. O.; Semenza, G ... Acriflavine (INN: acriflavinium chloride) is a topical antiseptic. It has the form of an orange or brown powder. It may be ... Acriflavine was developed in 1912 by Paul Ehrlich, a German medical researcher, and was used during the First World War against ... Acriflavine is used in biochemistry for fluorescently labeling high molecular weight RNA. It is used as treatment for external ...
*  Acriflavine resistance protein family
The Escherichia coli Acriflavine resistance (acrA and acrB genes) encode a multi-drug efflux system that is believed to protect ...
*  Hypoxia-inducible factors
Lee K, Zhang H, Qian DZ, Rey S, Liu JO, Semenza GL (October 2009). "Acriflavine inhibits HIF-1 dimerization, tumor growth, and ... so HIF inhibitors such as phenethyl isothiocyanate and Acriflavine are (since 2006) under investigation for anti-cancer effects ...
*  Endomicroscopy
Commonly used fluorescent stains include topically applied acriflavine, and intravenously administered fluorescein sodium. ...
*  Tritrichomonas foetus
Topical treatment of acriflavine or berenil applied to prepTransmissionuce has been proven effective for treatment. There are ...
*  Victoria Chan-Palay
Chan-Curtis, Victoria Lye-Hua (October 1969). Cytochemical localization of the nucleic acids by an acriflavine-phosphotungstate ...
*  Petite mutation
Petite mutants can be generated in the laboratory by using high-efficiency treatments which are acriflavine, ethidium bromide, ...
*  Proflavine
... , also called proflavin and diaminoacridine and bate na bina, is an acriflavine derivative, a disinfectant ...
*  Suman Kumar Dhar
He also worked on anti-malarial drugs and proposed Acriflavine as an anti-malarial agent, which has also been patented by him. ... Entamoeba histolytica Amoebiasis ORC6 Geminin Helicobacter pylori Plasmodium falciparum Acriflavine Tapas Kumar Kundu India ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D03)
... acriflavine MeSH D03.494.046.250.200 --- aminacrine MeSH D03.494.046.250.225 --- amsacrine MeSH D03.494.046.250.450 --- ...
*  Deepak Gaur
... was successful in identifying acriflavine, an anti-parasitic drug in use in the 20th century, to be effective against ...
*  John Leonora
... acriflavine hydrochloride. He found that in the teeth of rats fed a cariogenic diet the flow of dentinal fluid was markedly ...
*  Georges Mathé
He played a crucial role in the development of several important molecules such as acriflavine, bestatine, ellipticine, ...
*  Bath treatment (fishkeeping)
3 tablespoons of salt for every one gallon of water Acriflavine: a powerful dye used for treating protozoans, fungus, ...
THE LOSS OF KINETOPLASTIC DNA IN TWO SPECIES OF TRYPANOSOMATIDAE TREATED WITH ACRIFLAVINE | JCB  THE LOSS OF KINETOPLASTIC DNA IN TWO SPECIES OF TRYPANOSOMATIDAE TREATED WITH ACRIFLAVINE | JCB
The effects of acriflavine on two species of Trypanosomatidae, Crithidia luciliae and Trypanosoma mega, have been investigated ... THE LOSS OF KINETOPLASTIC DNA IN TWO SPECIES OF TRYPANOSOMATIDAE TREATED WITH ACRIFLAVINE. M. Steinert, Suzanne van Assel ... Radioautography was used to study the effects of acriflavine on thymidine-3H incorporation in C. luciliae. At the concentration ... It has been observed that kinetoplastic (i.e. mitochondrial) DNA is lost in a high percentage of acriflavine-treated cells. ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/34/2/489
Acriflavine - The Free Freshwater and Saltwater Aquarium Encyclopedia Anyone Can Edit - The Aquarium Wiki  Acriflavine - The Free Freshwater and Saltwater Aquarium Encyclopedia Anyone Can Edit - The Aquarium Wiki
Acriflavine is a topical antiseptic. It has the form of an orange or brown powder. It may be harmful in the eyes or if inhaled ... Acriflavine may also be used as an alternative to Malachite Green when it is known that certain species of fish may be ... Acriflavine is a preventative and treatment for the control of Oodinium (Velvet) in freshwater and marine fishes. It is also ... Acriflavine is useful for fish egg disinfection, treatment of open wounds, and external protozoan infections. The chemical said ...
more infohttp://www.theaquariumwiki.com/wiki/Acriflavine
Inherited and Environmentally Induced Differences in Mutation Frequencies Between Wild Strains of Sordaria fimicola From ...  Inherited and Environmentally Induced Differences in Mutation Frequencies Between Wild Strains of Sordaria fimicola From ...
Acriflavine, an acridine dye, was used as acriflavine hydrochloride (Sigma, Poole, UK), which consists of acriflavine HCl and ... A level of 50 μg/ml acriflavine was used by Perkins (1996) for selecting acriflavine-resistant Neurospora crassa acr-2R strains ... None of these strains had previously been exposed to acriflavine.. The ability of ascospores to germinate on acriflavine could ... but can show spontaneous mutation to acriflavine resistance in germination. The genetics of acriflavine resistance has not ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/149/1/87
skin rules  Betta Fish Diseases and Their Cures  skin rules Betta Fish Diseases and Their Cures
Medicines like Jungle's Velvet Guard and acriflavine could help remove this parasite from your betta. ...
more infohttp://skinrules.net/?p=775
Acriflavine is efffective against external parasitic infections  Acriflavine is efffective against external parasitic infections
Acriflavine's MSDS Sheet Acriflavine MSDS - by MSDS Dept. Acriflavine MSDS. Section I - IDENTIFICATION. PRODUCT: Acriflavine ... Acriflavine for Koi Diseases Acriflavine - by Doc Johnson. General Information. Acriflavine is efffective against external ... Acriflavine might be the silver bullet for Costia but it stains you badly, and kills plants.. ... Doc Johnson: 'More work is needed on Acriflavine. We need to establish the effect on filter bacteria, most of the common pond ...
more infohttps://www.koivet.com/a_acriflavine_koi_parasite_treatment.html
Acriflavine - Wikipedia  Acriflavine - Wikipedia
acriflavine Encyclopædia Britannica Acriflavine use in aquaria Lee, K.; Zhang, H.; Qian, D. Z.; Rey, S.; Liu, J. O.; Semenza, G ... Acriflavine (INN: acriflavinium chloride) is a topical antiseptic. It has the form of an orange or brown powder. It may be ... Acriflavine was developed in 1912 by Paul Ehrlich, a German medical researcher, and was used during the First World War against ... Acriflavine is used in biochemistry for fluorescently labeling high molecular weight RNA. It is used as treatment for external ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acriflavine
Acriflavine hydrochloride | definition of acriflavine hydrochloride by Medical dictionary  Acriflavine hydrochloride | definition of acriflavine hydrochloride by Medical dictionary
What is acriflavine hydrochloride? Meaning of acriflavine hydrochloride medical term. What does acriflavine hydrochloride mean? ... Looking for online definition of acriflavine hydrochloride in the Medical Dictionary? acriflavine hydrochloride explanation ... redirected from acriflavine hydrochloride). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. fla·vin. , flavine (flā'vin, -vēn, flav'in ... 2. Any of several acridine derivatives, such as acriflavine, formerly used as antiseptics. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/acriflavine+hydrochloride
Acriflavine resistance protein family - Wikipedia  Acriflavine resistance protein family - Wikipedia
The Escherichia coli Acriflavine resistance (acrA and acrB genes) encode a multi-drug efflux system that is believed to protect ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acriflavine_resistance_protein_family
Acriflavine - The Free Freshwater and Saltwater Aquarium Encyclopedia Anyone Can Edit - The Aquarium Wiki  Acriflavine - The Free Freshwater and Saltwater Aquarium Encyclopedia Anyone Can Edit - The Aquarium Wiki
Acriflavine is a topical antiseptic. It has the form of an orange or brown powder. It may be harmful in the eyes or if inhaled ... Acriflavine may also be used as an alternative to Malachite Green when it is known that certain species of fish may be ... Acriflavine is a preventative and treatment for the control of Oodinium (Velvet) in freshwater and marine fishes. It is also ... Acriflavine is useful for fish egg disinfection, treatment of open wounds, and external protozoan infections. The chemical said ...
more infohttp://www.theaquariumwiki.com/w/index.php?title=Acriflavine&
Gentaur Molecular :TitanBiotech \ ACRIFLAVINE HYDROCHLORIDE                                                                    ...  Gentaur Molecular :TitanBiotech \ ACRIFLAVINE HYDROCHLORIDE ...
ACRIFLAVINE HYDROCHLORIDE \ 646 for more molecular products just contact us ... We have also other products like : ACRIFLAVINE HYDROCHLORIDE Related products : ACRIFLAVINE HYDROCHLORIDE ... 30236645] Optimized acriflavine-loaded lipid nanocapsules as a safe and effective delivery system to treat breast cancer.. [ ... 24309178] Investigation on the inclusion and toxicity of acriflavine with cyclodextrins: a spectroscopic approach.. [24237726] ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product295375-search-ACRIFLAVINE_HYDROCHLORIDE_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.html
Acriflavine | HIF/HIF Prolyl-Hydroxylase Inhibitor | MedChemExpress  Acriflavine | HIF/HIF Prolyl-Hydroxylase Inhibitor | MedChemExpress
Acriflavine is a fluorescent dye for labeling high molecular weight RNA. It is also a topical antiseptic. - Mechanism of Action ... Acriflavine is identified as a potent inhibitor of the MCT4 that can inhibit the binding between Basigin and MCT4. Acriflavine ... Acriflavine treatment inhibits intratumoral expression of VEGF and tumor vascularization[1]. In a murine CML model, acriflavine ... Acriflavine retards tumor growth in a murine model of breast cancer. The combination of sunitinib with acriflavine ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/Acriflavine.html
Acriflavine Neutral BPC-49 (Euflavine) Manufacturer, Exporter & Supplier  Acriflavine Neutral BPC-49 (Euflavine) Manufacturer, Exporter & Supplier
... trader of Acriflavine Neutral BPC-49 (Euflavine) at the best price. ... Acriflavine Neutral BPC-49 (Euflavine). We , SHREEJI PHARMA International, established in 2004, are proud to introduce ...
more infohttp://www.shreejiexports.net/acriflavine-neutral-bpc-49-euflavine--1191871.html
Intravital accumulation of acriflavine in m - swopload fun  Intravital accumulation of acriflavine in m - swopload fun
HomeUncategorizedIntravital accumulation of acriflavine in m. Intravital accumulation of acriflavine in m. By admin April 25, ...
more infohttp://swopload.fun/intravital-accumulation-of-acriflavine-in-m/
Active Pharmaceuticals Ingredients (API) Aceclofenac, Acefylline, Acenocoumarol, Acriflavine Hcl, Albuterol Sulphate, Ambroxol...  Active Pharmaceuticals Ingredients (API) Aceclofenac, Acefylline, Acenocoumarol, Acriflavine Hcl, Albuterol Sulphate, Ambroxol...
Exporters Of Aceclofenac, Acefylline, Acenocoumarol, Albuterol Sulphate, Ambroxol Hcl, Amlodipine Besylate, Atorvastatin Calcium, shreeji pharma, vadodara, gujarat, india
more infohttps://www.shreejipharma.co.in/aceclofenac.html
Glossary of Pharmacology Stubs related terms, short phrases and...  "Glossary of Pharmacology Stubs" related terms, short phrases and...
Acriflavine. *Acriflavine is a topical antiseptic.. *Acriflavine is also used as treatment for external fungal infections of ... ACRIFLAVINE. ACTINOMYCIN. ACTIVE INGREDIENT. ADVERSE EVENT. AFRIN. ALAMETHICIN. ALBENDAZOLE. ALFUZOSIN. ALKYLATING AGENT. ... Acriflavine was developed in 1912 by Paul Ehrlich, a German medical researcher and was used during the First World War against ...
more infohttp://keywen.com/en/GLOSSARY_OF_PHARMACOLOGY_STUBS
Products in Reagents, A, bioWORLD on Thomas Scientific  Products in Reagents, A, bioWORLD on Thomas Scientific
Acriflavine neutral (euflavin) bioWORLD. A dye widely used as an antifungal and antiparasitic agent in aqueous culture systems ...
more infohttps://www.thomassci.com/nav/cat1/reagentsa/manufacturer/bioworld/0
Cloverleaf Malachite Answer Fish Treatment  Cloverleaf Malachite Answer Fish Treatment
250ml Treats 4 Applications of 5000 Litres (1100 Gal) 1 Litre Treats 4 Applications of 20000 Litres (4400 Gal) How to use the Cloverleaf Answer range of pond treatments 1. Calculate the volume of your pond (see section how to find the volume of my pond) 2. Check you have the correct size bottle to treat your pond 3. Remove the red top and foil from the dose chamber (normally marked with measure lines) 4. Squeeze the sides of the bottle until the required amount fills the dose chamber to required measure. 5. Add dose chamber contents to half a bucket of pond water, repeat until correct amount has been added to the bucket. 6. Gently stir to evenly mix in the bucket. 7. Spread bucket contents evenly around your pond. Once a full course of treatment has been completed do not repeat for 7 days, if symptoms persist we recommend you re assess the original diagnosis before re treating with a follow up dose. Do not mix treatments leave at least 7 days between last completed treatment course. Some ...
more infohttps://www.aquatix-2u.co.uk/clt180-cloverleaf-malachite-answer-fungus-parasite-pond-water-treatment-fish-koi-.html
CHEMBL354349 Compound Report Card  CHEMBL354349 Compound Report Card
ACRIFLAVINE. ChEMBL Synonyms ACRIFLAVINE , Acriflavinium Chloride , FLAVAZOLE IN CARBOWAX. Max Phase. 4 (Approved). ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembl/compound/inspect/CHEMBL354349
Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) as a model for studying inhibition of protein-protein interactions  - Chemical Science (RSC...  Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) as a model for studying inhibition of protein-protein interactions - Chemical Science (RSC...
Acriflavine (Fig. 4) was identified as an inhibitor of dimerization in a screen of compounds that had previously entered phase ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2017/sc/c7sc00388a
  • To the best of our knowledge, the toxicological properties of acriflavine neutral have not been thoroughly investigated. (koivet.com)
  • Acriflavine neutral, methylene blue, and nitrofurazone are not approved and are of high enforcement priority if used illegally in foodfish, and use is subject to regulatory action on a case-by-case basis. (ufl.edu)
  • In contrast, fish treated with acriflavine neutral were inferior to fish not treated with any chemical in both appearance and behavior. (ufl.edu)
  • We used RNA-seq to examine the impact of two drugs, namely undecanoic acid, and acriflavine as well as the effects of the carbon source switching from glucose to keratin on T. rubrum cell wall metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • The combination of sunitinib with acriflavine significantly decreases vascular endothelial growth factor and TGF-β expression and reduces tumor vasculature followed by increased intratumor necrosis and apoptosis . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Acriflavine is efffective against external parasitic infections in freshwater and marine tropical ornamental fishes. (koivet.com)
  • Radioautography was used to study the effects of acriflavine on thymidine- 3 H incorporation in C. luciliae . (rupress.org)
  • In an animal model, acriflavine has been shown to inhibit HIF-1, which prevents blood vessels growing to supply tumors with blood and interferes with glucose uptake and use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long Duration Bath (3 - 5 days) - One application of 200 milligrams of acriflavine per 10 gallons (5 ppm) of either aquarium water, static holding tank water, or shipping water. (koivet.com)
  • Mice: CML mice are treated daily with acriflavine (8 mg/kg) or PBS via intraperitoneal injection, for 10 days starting from day 7 after bone marrow transplantation . (medchemexpress.com)