3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
Acridines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of a planar, unsaturated ring system, which have been widely used in chemotherapy and have also found applications in dye industries and fluorescence microscopy.
Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.
Nitrosoguanidines are organic compounds containing a nitroso group (-NO) and a guanidine group (-R1R2N-CN-), known for their alkylating properties and potential use as therapeutic agents or carcinogenic substances, depending on the specific compound and context.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that has a tendency to form long filaments. Its organisms are widely distributed in nature and are found in MAMMALS; BIRDS; and FISHES. Erysipelothrix may appear gram-negative because they decolorize easily.
Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.

Bacteriophage T4 rnh (RNase H) null mutations: effects on spontaneous mutation and epistatic interaction with rII mutations. (1/109)

The bacteriophage T4 rnh gene encodes T4 RNase H, a relative of a family of flap endonucleases. T4 rnh null mutations reduce burst sizes, increase sensitivity to DNA damage, and increase the frequency of acriflavin resistance (Acr) mutations. Because mutations in the related Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD27 gene display a remarkable duplication mutator phenotype, we further explored the impact of rnh mutations upon the mutation process. We observed that most Acr mutants in an rnh+ strain contain ac mutations, whereas only roughly half of the Acr mutants detected in an rnhDelta strain bear ac mutations. In contrast to the mutational specificity displayed by most mutators, the DNA alterations of ac mutations arising in rnhDelta and rnh+ backgrounds are indistinguishable. Thus, the increase in Acr mutants in an rnhDelta background is probably not due to a mutator effect. This conclusion is supported by the lack of increase in the frequency of rI mutations in an rnhDelta background. In a screen that detects mutations at both the rI locus and the much larger rII locus, the r frequency was severalfold lower in an rnhDelta background. This decrease was due to the phenotype of rnh rII double mutants, which display an r+ plaque morphology but retain the characteristic inability of rII mutants to grow on lambda lysogens. Finally, we summarize those aspects of T4 forward-mutation systems which are relevant to optimal choices for investigating quantitative and qualitative aspects of the mutation process.  (+info)

Scanning cysteine accessibility of EmrE, an H+-coupled multidrug transporter from Escherichia coli, reveals a hydrophobic pathway for solutes. (2/109)

EmrE is a 12-kDa Escherichia coli multidrug transporter that confers resistance to a wide variety of toxic reagents by actively removing them in exchange for hydrogen ions. The three native Cys residues in EmrE are inaccessible to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and a series of other sulfhydryls. In addition, each of the three residues can be replaced with Ser without significant loss of activity. A protein without all the three Cys residues (Cys-less) has been generated and shown to be functional. Using this Cys-less protein, we have now generated a series of 48 single Cys replacements throughout the protein. The majority of them (43) show transport activity as judged from the ability of the mutant proteins to confer resistance against toxic compounds and from in vitro analysis of their activity in proteoliposomes. Here we describe the use of these mutants to study the accessibility to NEM, a membrane permeant sulfhydryl reagent. The study has been done systematically so that in one transmembrane segment (TMS2) each single residue was replaced. In each of the other three transmembrane segments, at least four residues covering one turn of the helix were replaced. The results show that although the residues in putative hydrophilic loops readily react with NEM, none of the residues in putative transmembrane domains are accessible to the reagent. The results imply very tight packing of the protein without any continuous aqueous domain. Based on the findings described in this work, we conclude that in EmrE the substrates are translocated through a hydrophobic pathway.  (+info)

Candida albicans mutants deficient in respiration are resistant to the small cationic salivary antimicrobial peptide histatin 5. (3/109)

Histatins are a group of small cationic peptides in human saliva which are well known for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. In a previous study we demonstrated that histatin 5 kills both blastoconidia and germ tubes of Candida albicans in a time- and concentration-dependent manner at 37 degrees C, whereas no killing was detected at 4 degrees C. This indicated that killing activity depends on cellular energy. To test histatin 5 killing activity at lower cellular ATP levels at 37 degrees C, respiratory mutants, or so-called petite mutants, of C. albicans were prepared. These mutants are deficient in respiration due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Mutants were initially identified by their small colony size and were further characterized with respect to colony morphology, growth characteristics, respiratory activity, and cytochrome spectra. The killing activity of histatin 5 at the highest concentration was only 28 to 30% against respiratory mutants, whereas 98% of the wild-type cells were killed. Furthermore, histatin 5 killing activity was also tested on wild-type cells in the presence of the respiratory inhibitor sodium azide or, alternatively, the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. In both cases histatin 5 killing activity was significantly reduced. Additionally, supernatants and pellets of cells incubated with histatin 5 in the presence or absence of inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthesis were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. It was observed that wild-type cells accumulated large amounts of histatin 5, while wild-type cells treated with inhibitors or petite mutants did not accumulate significant amounts of the peptide. These data showed first that cellular accumulation of histatin 5 is necessary for killing activity and second that accumulation of histatin 5 depends on the availability of cellular energy. Therefore, mitochondrial ATP synthesis is required for effective killing activity of histatin 5.  (+info)

An essential glutamyl residue in EmrE, a multidrug antiporter from Escherichia coli. (4/109)

EmrE is an Escherichia coli 12-kDa protein that confers resistance to toxic compounds, by actively removing them in exchange with protons. The protein includes eight charged residues. Seven of these residues are located in the hydrophilic loops and can be replaced with either Cys or another amino acid bearing the same charge, without impairing transport activity. Glu-14 is the only charged residue in the membrane domain and is conserved in all the proteins of the family. We show here that this residue is the site of action of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a carbodiimide known to act in hydrophobic environments. When Glu-14 was replaced with either Cys or Asp, resistance was abolished. Whereas the E14C mutant displays no transport activity, the E14D protein shows efflux and exchange at rates about 30-50% that of the wild type. The maximal DeltapH-driven uptake rate of E14D is only 10% that of the wild type. The mutant shows a different pH profile in all the transport modes. Our results support the notion that Glu-14 is an essential part of a binding domain shared by substrates and protons but mutually exclusive in time. This notion provides the molecular basis for the obligatory exchange catalyzed by EmrE.  (+info)

A two-component multidrug efflux pump, EbrAB, in Bacillus subtilis. (5/109)

Genes (ebrAB) responsible for ethidium resistance were cloned from chromosomal DNA of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372. The recombinant plasmid produced elevated resistance against ethidium bromide, acriflavine, pyronine Y, and safranin O not only in Escherichia coli but also in B. subtilis. It also caused an elevated energy-dependent efflux of ethidium in E. coli. EbrA and EbrB showed high sequence similarity with members of the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family of multidrug efflux pumps. Neither ebrA nor ebrB was sufficient for resistance, but introduction of the two genes carried on different plasmids conferred drug resistance. Thus, both EbrA and EbrB appear to be necessary for activity of the multidrug efflux pump. In known members of the SMR family, only one gene produces drug efflux. Thus, EbrAB is a novel SMR family multidrug efflux pump with two components.  (+info)

Ozonation of mutagenic and carcinogenic polyaromatic amines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water. (6/109)

The Salmonella-microsome assay for mutagenesis was used to determine the effect of ozone on the mutagenesis of selected carcinogens and mutagens in water. Short periods of ozonation were shown to completely inactivate the mutagenicity of several polyaromatic amine mutagens including acriflavine, proflavine, and beta-naphthylamine. Selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons were also sensitive to ozonation. Kinetic studies revealed that the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene was destroyed after short periods of ozonation. To correlate loss of mutagenicity with loss of carcinogenicity, two polyaromatic hydrocarbons were treated with ozone, extracted from water with hexane, and tested for carcinogenicity in mice. When 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene and 3-methyl-cholanthrene were treated with ozone, there was a substantial reduction in carcinogenicity compared to control groups treated with oxygen alone. However, a small number of tumors developed in the group of animals receiving a hexane extract of ozonated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. This activity may be due to breakdown products of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene that are not mutagenic.  (+info)

Interaction of the expression of two membrane genes, acrA and plsA, in Escherichia coli K-12. (7/109)

The mutation acrA1, leading to acriflavine sensitivity through disorganization of the plasma membrane, is located between proC and purE on the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. Gene plsA has been reported to determine biosynthesis of membrane phospholipid and to be located very near acrA (1). Genes acrA and plsA fall into different cistrons and are arranged in the order proC-acrA-plasA-purE. The genes were shown to interact with each other. Introduction of acrA mutation into a plsA temperature-sensitive mutant mitigated the heat sensitivity. Plasmid (F-gal+) stability in acrA mutants was restored by introduction of the plasA mutation into the acrA cells. When an Hfr plsA donor was conjugated with an acrA recipient, or when reciprocally conjugated, the exogenotes were eliminated at high frequency during subsequent subcultivation in broth. However, the exogenotes were not eliminated in all other allelic combinations of genes acrA and plsA. When an F-gal+ plasmid was introduced into the unstable heterozygotes (acrA+plsA/acrApls1+), the plasmids were stably hosted, whereas the acrA+ plasA exogenotes were spontaneously lost at a high frequency. On the other hand, when the unstable heterozygotes carrying F-gal+ were cultured in acriflavine-containing medium, the F-gal+ plasmids were preferentially eliminated but the acrA+plasA exogenotes were not affected. The results suggest that the organization of the plasma membrane controls the recombination of the exogenotes introduced into zygotes.  (+info)

Role of pyrimidine dimer excision in loss of potential streptomycin resistance mutations of ultraviolet-irradiated Escherichia coli on phosphate-buffered agar. (8/109)

The frequency of ultraviolet (UV)-induced mutations to streptomycin resistance dropped rapidly when starved Escherichia coli strains WP-2 B/r and B/r T- were incubated on phosphate-buffered agar (PBA), but was reduced only slightly in a WP-2 hcr- mutant. During postirradiation, incubation viability remained approximately constant. Cells given an optimal recovery treatment with photo-reactivating light showed no further recovery if subsequently incubated on PBA. At least 70% of the mutations induced to streptomycin resistance by UV could be repaired. The loss of potential streptomycin-resistant mutants was markedly reduced in strain B/r T- when 5 mug of acriflavin or 700 mug of caffeine per ml was added to PBA. The excision of UV-induced thymine-containing dimers from E. coli tb/r T- was investigated. Dimer excision progressed more slowly when the cells were incubated on PBA containing acriflavin or caffeine. There was no congruity between the kinetics of dimer excision and the kinetics of mutant loss. Our results indicate that removal of potential streptomycin-resistant mutants is considerably faster than the excision of pyrimidine dimers.  (+info)

Acriflavine is an antiseptic and disinfectant substance that has been used in dermatology and veterinary medicine. Its chemical name is trypaflavine, and it is a mixture of basic dyes with the ability to interact with DNA, RNA, and proteins. Acriflavine has shown antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, although its use in human medicine has been limited due to its potential toxicity and staining effects on tissues. It is still used in some topical preparations for the treatment of skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema.

Acridines are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a nucleus of three fused benzene rings and a nitrogen atom. They have a wide range of applications, including in the development of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer and antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic drugs. Some acridines also exhibit fluorescent properties and are used in research and diagnostic applications.

In medicine, some acridine derivatives have been found to intercalate with DNA, disrupting its structure and function, which can lead to the death of cancer cells. For example, the acridine derivative proflavin has been used as an antiseptic and in the treatment of certain types of cancer. However, many acridines also have toxic side effects, limiting their clinical use.

It is important to note that while acridines have potential therapeutic uses, they should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can cause harm if not used properly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyronine" is not a medical term. It is a type of basic dye that is often used in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) and cytology (the study of individual cells). Pyronin Y, a specific type of pyronine dye, is sometimes used to stain acidic components within cells, such as DNA and RNA. However, it is not a term that is typically used in clinical medicine to describe diseases or conditions.

Bromouracil is a chemical compound that is used in the synthesis of DNA. It is a brominated derivative of uracil, which is one of the nucleobases found in RNA. Bromouracil can be incorporated into DNA during replication in place of thymine, another nucleobase. This can lead to mutations in the DNA because bromouracil behaves differently from thymine in certain chemical reactions.

Bromouracil is not typically found in living organisms and is not considered to be a normal part of the genetic material. It may be used in research settings to study the mechanisms of DNA replication and mutation. In clinical medicine, bromouracil has been used in the treatment of psoriasis, a skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches. However, its use in this context is not common.

It is important to note that bromouracil can have toxic effects and should be handled with care. It can cause irritation to the skin and eyes, and prolonged exposure may lead to more serious health problems. If you have any questions about bromouracil or its use, it is best to speak with a healthcare professional or a qualified scientist.

Ethidium is a fluorescent, intercalating compound that is often used in molecular biology to stain DNA. When ethidium bromide, a common form of ethidium, binds to DNA, it causes the DNA to fluoresce brightly under ultraviolet light. This property makes it useful for visualizing DNA bands on gels, such as agarose or polyacrylamide gels, during techniques like gel electrophoresis.

It is important to note that ethidium bromide is a mutagen and should be handled with care. It can cause damage to DNA, which can lead to mutations, and it can also be harmful if inhaled or ingested. Therefore, appropriate safety precautions must be taken when working with this compound.

Thiouracil is not typically used as a medical treatment in current clinical practice. It is an anti-thyroid medication that was historically used to manage hyperthyroidism, particularly in cases of Graves' disease. However, due to its adverse effect profile and the availability of safer and more effective treatment options, thiouracil has largely been replaced by other medications such as methimazole and propylthiouracil.

Thiouracil works by inhibiting the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones in the body. By blocking this enzyme, thiouracil reduces the amount of thyroid hormones produced and can help to control symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as rapid heart rate, tremors, and weight loss.

While thiouracil is still available for use in some cases, its use is generally reserved for patients who cannot tolerate or have failed other treatments. The medication can cause serious side effects, including liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and allergic reactions, and requires careful monitoring during treatment.

A spheroplast is a type of cell structure that is used in some scientific research and studies. It is created through the process of removing the cell wall from certain types of cells, such as bacteria or yeast, while leaving the cell membrane intact. This results in a round, spherical shape, hence the name "spheroplast."

Spheroplasts are often used in research because they allow scientists to study the properties and functions of the cell membrane more easily, without the interference of the rigid cell wall. They can also be used to introduce foreign DNA or other molecules into the cell, as the absence of a cell wall makes it easier for these substances to enter.

It is important to note that spheroplasts are not naturally occurring structures and must be created in a laboratory setting through specialized techniques.

Anti-infective agents, local, are medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. These agents include topical antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and anti-parasitic drugs. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the infectious organisms, thereby preventing their spread and reducing the risk of infection. Local anti-infective agents are often used to treat skin infections, eye infections, and other localized infections, and can be administered as creams, ointments, gels, solutions, or drops.

Azaguanine is a type of antimetabolite drug that is used in medical research and treatment. It is a purine analogue, which means it has a similar chemical structure to the natural purine bases adenine and guanine, which are building blocks of DNA and RNA. Azaguanine can be incorporated into the genetic material of cells, interfering with their normal function and replication. It is used in research to study the effects of such interference on cell growth and development.

In clinical medicine, azaguanine has been used as an anticancer drug, although it is not widely used today due to its toxicity and the availability of more effective treatments. It may also have some activity against certain types of parasitic infections, such as leishmaniasis and malaria.

It's important to note that azaguanine is not a commonly used medication and its use should be under the supervision of a medical professional with experience in its administration and management of potential side effects.

Nitrosoguanidines are a type of organic compound that contain a nitroso (NO) group and a guanidine group. They are known to be potent nitrosating agents, which means they can release nitrous acid or related nitrosating species. Nitrosation is a reaction that leads to the formation of N-nitroso compounds, some of which have been associated with an increased risk of cancer in humans. Therefore, nitrosoguanidines are often used in laboratory studies to investigate the mechanisms of nitrosation and the effects of N-nitroso compounds on biological systems. However, they are not typically used as therapeutic agents due to their potential carcinogenicity.

Erysipelothrix is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and on the skin and mucous membranes of animals such as fish, birds, and swine. The bacteria are named after the disease they cause, erysipelas, which is a type of skin infection characterized by redness, swelling, pain, and fever.

Erysipelothrix species are small, non-sporeforming rods that can be difficult to visualize using standard Gram staining techniques. They are catalase-negative and oxidase-negative, and they can grow on a variety of media at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 45°C.

There are two species of Erysipelothrix that are clinically significant: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Erysipelothrix insidiosa. E. rhusiopathiae is the more common cause of human infections, which typically occur after exposure to contaminated animals or animal products. The bacteria can enter the body through cuts, abrasions, or other breaks in the skin, and can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including cellulitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and arthritis.

Erysipelothrix infections are treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or erythromycin. Prevention measures include wearing protective clothing and gloves when handling animals or animal products, practicing good hygiene, and seeking prompt medical attention if a wound becomes infected.

Aminoacridines are a group of synthetic chemical compounds that contain an acridine nucleus, which is a tricyclic aromatic structure, substituted with one or more amino groups. These compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties, particularly as antiseptics and antibacterial agents. However, their use in medicine has declined due to the development of newer and safer antibiotics. Some aminoacridines also exhibit antimalarial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. They can intercalate into DNA, disrupting its structure and function, which is thought to contribute to their antimicrobial effects. However, this property also makes them potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic, limiting their clinical use.

Trypanosoma is a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. These microscopic single-celled organisms are known to cause various tropical diseases in humans and animals, including Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) and African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei).

The life cycle of Trypanosoma involves alternating between an insect vector (like a tsetse fly or kissing bug) and a mammalian host. The parasites undergo complex morphological changes as they move through the different hosts and developmental stages, often exhibiting distinct forms in the insect vector compared to the mammalian host.

Trypanosoma species have an undulating membrane and a single flagellum that helps them move through their environment. They can be transmitted through various routes, including insect vectors, contaminated food or water, or congenital transmission from mother to offspring. The diseases caused by these parasites can lead to severe health complications and may even be fatal if left untreated.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Microbial genetics is the study of heredity and variation in microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It involves the investigation of their genetic material (DNA and RNA), genes, gene expression, genetic regulation, mutations, genetic recombination, and genome organization. This field is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, evolution, ecology, and biotechnological applications. Research in microbial genetics has led to significant advancements in areas such as antibiotic resistance, vaccine development, and gene therapy.

"Serratia marcescens" is a medically significant species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacillus bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is commonly found in soil, water, and in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce a red pigment called prodigiosin, which gives them a distinctive pink color on many types of laboratory media.

"Serratia marcescens" can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). It is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it primarily causes infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with chronic illnesses or who are undergoing medical treatments that suppress the immune system.

In healthcare settings, "Serratia marcescens" can cause outbreaks of infection, particularly in patients who are hospitalized for extended periods of time. It is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, which makes it difficult to treat and control the spread of infections caused by this organism.

In addition to its medical significance, "Serratia marcescens" has also been used as a model organism in various areas of microbiological research, including studies on bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance.

Antiporters, also known as exchange transporters, are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the exchange of two or more ions or molecules across a biological membrane in opposite directions. They allow for the movement of one type of ion or molecule into a cell while simultaneously moving another type out of the cell. This process is driven by the concentration gradient of one or both of the substances being transported. Antiporters play important roles in various physiological processes, including maintaining electrochemical balance and regulating pH levels within cells.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

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The Escherichia coli Acriflavine resistance (acrA and acrB genes) encode a multi-drug efflux system that is believed to protect ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR001036 Media related to Acriflavine resistance ...
Lee K, Zhang H, Qian DZ, Rey S, Liu JO, Semenza GL (October 2009). "Acriflavine inhibits HIF-1 dimerization, tumor growth, and ... so HIF inhibitors such as phenethyl isothiocyanate and Acriflavine are (since 2006) under investigation for anti-cancer effects ...
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Commonly used fluorescent stains include topically applied acriflavine, and intravenously administered fluorescein sodium. ...
Chan-Curtis, Victoria Lye-Hua (October 1969). "Cytochemical localization of the nucleic acids by an acriflavine- ...
... , also called proflavin and diaminoacridine, is an acriflavine derivative, a disinfectant bacteriostatic against many ...
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Acriflavine, as acriflavine neutral chloride was obtained from Acros Organics (distributed by Thermo Fisher Scientific New ... In a separate flask, acriflavine (nominally 0.1% w/w on PLA) was dissolved in water and then neutralised to ca. pH 8 with 1 M ... At softwood fibre loadings of 5% w/w in PLA, the wood fibres could be distinguished across a range of acriflavine loadings from ... Figure 2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images showing differing acriflavine concentrations in PLA. Labelled PLA (green) ...
Acriflavine 0.11%). This product is marketed as a bactericide, which these ingredients in this combination can perform as a ...
That contained Victoria green and acriflavine. Then I thought it may be gill flukes cuz fish kept dying so I tried ApI general ...
Napolitano V, et al., Acriflavine, a clinically approved drug, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 and other betacoronaviruses. Cell Chem Bio ...
Contains Acriflavine and Malachite Green Oxalate. *Effective treatment for Fin Rot, Fungus and Bacterial Infections ...
Baird-Parker medium supplemented with acriflavine, polymyxins and sulphonamide for the selective isolation of Staphylococcus ...
... ethidium bromide and acriflavine, and elevated ethidium bromide extrusion was observed (Li et al. 2003). MexAB-OprM and MexVW- ...
Acriflavine 80 mg/100 ml, 9-aminoacridine HCl 800 mg/100 ml. ...
Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less ... Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine ... Results: Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other ... Comparing the efficacy of hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid schiff and fluorescent periodic acid schiff-acriflavine ...
Acriflavine HCl. USD. 57.78 €. -. Toku-e. a019-25g. Acriflavine HCl. USD. 81.32 €. -. Toku-e. ...
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Acriflavine, Emulsion of. Agar-Petrolatum Emulsion. Castor Oil Emulsion, Laxative. Castor Oil Emulsion, Pharmaceutical. ...
I am treating him now, with Victoria green, and acriflavine, for protozoa, and he seems to be getting better. The white fuzz is ... Contains Victoria green and acriflavine, says to use half dose on scaleless, the other two options simply said DO NOT USE on ... If it contains Malachite Green (aka Victoria Green) and Formaldehyde or Acriflavine then use it at half strength. the Malachite ...
These chemicals included malachite green, acriflavine, formaldehyde, Diquat, sodium chloride, zinc, copper, and sodium sulfate ...
The salt (or maybe the acriflavine) did mess up the beneficial bacteria though and Im now getting 0.05 nitrites in the tank. ... Sorry, forgot to add that after the acriflavine treatment failed, I added 1 teaspoon per gallon of salt to the QT and theres ... I suspected columnaris because of the fluffy appearance and started acriflavine and methylene blue treatment (Im in Europe so ...
Autophagy 4:294-308 Hill GC, Anderson WA (1969) Effects of acriflavine on the mitochondria and kinetoplast of Crithidia ...
Acriflavine. Catalog No.: 56900180. CAS No.: 8048-52-0. Alcian Blue 8GX ...
Acriflavine Neutral. 0 out of 5. $7.00. - $75.00. Select options Add to Wishlist ...
Acriflavine 1%. £8.99 - £23.99 Select options. * Pond Medic Dechlorinator. £8.95 - £23.95 Select options ...
Nine compounds showed sufficient activity to merit further consideration, ie, acriflavine, proflavine, hydroxystilbamidine ...
Acriflavine Solution 30ml. S$2.48 Antiseptic and healing solution for cuts and wounds. ...
Cetylpyridinium Chloride, manufactured as per BP/USP DMF, CEP, REACH, WC Available
Acriflavine in Glycerin (500ml). Rated 0 out of 5. R166.59. INCL VAT Out of stock ...
Acriflavine Hydro Chloride CP 100g. R2,150.00. Product Categories. *Agriculture. *Chemicals and Reagents ...
  • Kusuri Acriflavine 1.5% & Malachite Green Premix 0.7% is a ready to use full strength formulation, popular as a pond-wide anti-parasite treatment. (thekoicollection.com)
  • Using Kusuri Acriflavine & Malachite Green Premix within a 1 month period of using Fluke M, Fluke P or Fluke S, can cause fish fatalities. (thekoicollection.com)
  • Acriflavine (INN: acriflavinium chloride) is a topical antiseptic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acriflavine was developed in 1912 by Paul Ehrlich, a German medical researcher, and was used during the First World War against sleeping sickness and as a topical antiseptic. (wikipedia.org)
  • After topical administration of acriflavine in mice, fluorescence was seen in the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium within 5 min and was detectable for 6-12 h. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • I suspected columnaris because of the fluffy appearance and started acriflavine and methylene blue treatment (I'm in Europe so I can't really get hold of antibiotics or furan ). (fishlore.com)
  • RESULTS: QACFG and triclosan showed the highest selectivity for variants with reduced susceptibility to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, acriflavine and triclosan. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • In an animal model, acriflavine has been shown to inhibit HIF-1, which prevents blood vessels growing to supply tumors with blood and interferes with glucose uptake and use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract: Acriflavine, a fluorescent drug previously used for bacterial and trypanosomal infections, reduces hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2 transcriptional activity. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Acriflavine might be effective in fighting common cold virus, and also aid the fight against increasingly antibiotic resistant bacteria because it can cure (remove) plasmids containing antimicrobial resistance genes from Gram positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2014, acriflavine has been undergoing testing as an antimalarial drug to treat parasites with resistance to quinine and modern anti-parasitic medicines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key message: Acriflavine, an inhibitor of HIF-1, suppresses retinal and choroidal neovascularization.HIF-1 plays a critical role in ocular neovascularization.Acriflavine's fluorescence provides a mean to track its entry and exit from the retina.Acriflavine has therapeutic potential for the treatment of ocular neovascularization. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Sorry, forgot to add that after the acriflavine treatment failed, I added 1 teaspoon per gallon of salt to the QT and there's still no change in symptoms. (fishlore.com)
  • That contained Victoria green and acriflavine. (fishlore.com)
  • Acriflavine is slow-acting with bacteriostatic action against many gram-positive organisms and increased activity in alkaline solutions. (drugsformulations.com)
  • Acriflavine (ACF) was created in 1912 by Paul Ehrlich, a German medical researcher, and was used to treat sleeping sickness during World War I. ACF contains antiviral, antibacterial, and trypanocidal properties. (josephflach.co.uk)
  • These data provide additional evidence for an important role for HIF-1 in retinal and choroidal NV and suggest that acriflavine can target HIF-1 through a variety of modes of administration and has good potential to provide a novel therapy for retinal and choroidal vascular diseases. (johnshopkins.edu)