Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.AcridinesMinicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.Guyana: A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.AcridinesStaining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Zinc Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.AcridinesChlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Hexachlorophene: A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Dictionaries, MedicalAcridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.AcridinesDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalAminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.AcridinesSalts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.AcridinesInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.AcridinesProflavine: Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Pharmaceutic Aids: Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.AcridinesSoftware: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.AcridinesMusculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pharmacovigilance: The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.AcridinesPyridinium CompoundsDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide: Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.Fonofos: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)PicratesMedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Paraffin: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Thanatology: The study of the theory, philosophy, and doctrine of death.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Bromcresol Purple: An indicator and reagent. It has been used for several purposes including the determination of serum albumin concentrationsBromcresol Green: An indicator and reagent. It has been used in serum albumin determinations and as a pH indicator.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Bromphenol Blue: A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.AcridinesRosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Proton Pumps: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Fecal Impaction: Formation of a firm impassable mass of stool in the RECTUM or distal COLON.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.AcridinesEpidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus: Atrophy and shriveling of the SKIN of the VULVA that is characterized by the whitish LICHEN SCLEROSUS appearance, inflammation, and PRURITUS.Vulvar Diseases: Pathological processes of the VULVA.Keratin-10: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Neurodermatitis: An extremely variable eczematous skin disease that is presumed to be a response to prolonged vigorous scratching, rubbing, or pinching to relieve intense pruritus. It varies in intensity, severity, course, and morphologic expression in different individuals. Neurodermatitis is believed by some to be psychogenic. The circumscribed or localized form is often referred to as lichen simplex chronicus.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Chemical EngineeringEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)EncyclopediasPhosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Beauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Europium: Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.Terbium: Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Lanthanoid Series Elements: Elements of the lanthanoid series including atomic number 57 (LANTHANUM) through atomic number 71 (LUTETIUM).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Aristolochic Acids: Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
(1/786) Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA.

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

(2/786) Multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein enhances esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol.

Class I P-glycoproteins (Pgp) confer multidrug resistance in tumors, but the physiologic function of Pgp in normal tissues remains uncertain. In cells derived from tissues that normally express Pgp, recent data suggest a possible role for Pgp in cholesterol trafficking from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. We investigated the esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol under basal conditions and in response to sphingomyelinase treatment in transfected and drug-selected cell lines expressing differing amounts of functional class I Pgp. Compared with parental NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, cells transfected with human multidrug resistance (MDR1) Pgp esterified more cholesterol both without and with sphingomyelinase. Esterification also was greater in drug-selected Dox 6 myeloma cells than parental 8226 cells, which express low and non-immunodetectable amounts of Pgp, respectively. However, no differences in total plasma membrane cholesterol were detected. Transfection of fibroblasts with the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) did not alter esterification, showing that cholesterol trafficking was not generally affected by ATP-binding cassette transporters. Steroidal (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) and non-steroidal antagonists (verapamil, PSC 833, LY335979, and GF120918) were evaluated for effects on both cholesterol trafficking and the net content of 99mTc-Sestamibi, a reporter of drug transport activity mediated by Pgp. In Pgp-expressing cells treated with nonselective and selective inhibitors, both the kinetics and efficacy of inhibition of cholesterol esterification differed from the antagonism of drug transport mediated by Pgp. Thus, although the data show that greater expression of class I Pgp within a given cell type is associated with enhanced esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol in support of a physiologic function for Pgp in facilitating cholesterol trafficking, the molecular mechanism is dissociated from the conventional drug transport activity of Pgp.  (+info)

(3/786) Serum sErbB1 and epidermal growth factor levels as tumor biomarkers in women with stage III or IV epithelial ovarian cancer.

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a high mortality rate, which is due primarily to the fact that early clinical symptoms are vague and nonspecific; hence, this disease often goes undetected and untreated until in its advanced stages. Sensitive and reliable methods for detecting earlier stages of EOC are, therefore, urgently needed. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a ligand for EGF receptor (ErbB1); this receptor is the product of the c-erbB1 proto-oncogene. ErbB1 overexpression is common in human ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines and tumors, in which overexpression is thought to play a critical role in tumor etiology and progression. Furthermore, ErbB1 overexpression is associated with disease recurrence and decreased patient survival. Recently, we have developed an acridinium-linked immunosorbent assay that detects a approximately 110-kDa soluble analogue of ErbB1, ie., sErbB1, in serum samples from healthy men and women (A. T. Baron, et al., J. Immunol. Methods, 219: 23-43, 1998). Here, we demonstrate that serum p110 sErbB1 levels are significantly lower in EOC patients with stage III or IV disease prior to (P < 0.0001) and shortly after (P < 0.0001) cytoreductive staging laparotomy than in healthy women of similar ages, whereas EGF levels are significantly higher than those of age-matched healthy women only in serum samples collected shortly after tumor debulking surgery (P < 0.0001). We observe that the preoperative serum sErbB1 concentration range of advanced stage EOC patients barely overlaps with the serum sErbB1 concentration range of healthy women. In addition, we show that serum sErbB1 and EGF levels changed temporally for some EOC patients who were surgically debulked of tumor and who provided a second serum sample during the course of combination chemotherapy. Finally, we observe a significant positive association between sErbB1 and EGF levels only in serum samples of EOC patients collected prior to cytoreductive surgery (correlation coefficient = 0.61968; P = 0.0027). These data suggest that epithelial ovarian tumors concomitantly affect serum sErbB1 and EGF levels. In conclusion, these data indicate that serum sErbB1 and EGF (postoperative only) levels are significantly different between EOC patients and healthy women and that altered and/or changing serum sErbB1 and EGF levels may provide important diagnostic and/or prognostic information useful for the management of patients with EOC.  (+info)

(4/786) Selective inhibition of MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by the acridone carboxamide derivative GG918.

The acridone carboxamide derivative GG918 (N-{4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)-ethyl]-pheny l}-9,10dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide) is a potent inhibitor of MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Direct measurements of ATP-dependent MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in plasma membrane vesicles from human and rat hepatocyte canalicular membranes indicated 50% inhibition at GG918 concentrations between 8 nM and 80 nM using N-pentyl-[3H]quinidinium, ['4C]doxorubicin and [3H]daunorubicin as substrates. The inhibition constant K for GG918 was 35 nM in rat hepatocyte canalicular membrane vesicles with [3H]daunorubicin as the substrate. Photoaffinity labelling of canalicular and recombinant rat Mdr1b P-glycoprotein by [3H]azidopine was suppressed by 10 muM and 40 muM GG918. The high selectivity of GG918-induced inhibition was demonstrated in canalicular membrane vesicles and by analysis of the hepatobiliary elimination in rats using [3H]daunorubicin, [3H]taurocholate and [3H]cysteinyl leukotrienes as substrates for three distinct ATP-dependent export pumps. Almost complete inhibition of [3H]daunorubicin transport was observed at GG918 concentrations that did not affect the other hepatocyte canalicular export pumps. The high potency and selectivity of GG918 for the inhibition of human MDR1 and rat Mdr1b P-glycoprotein may serve to interfere with this type of multidrug resistance and provides a tool for studies on the function of these ATP-dependent transport proteins.  (+info)

(5/786) A method for the deductive and unique determination of the values of three parameters involved in fractional functions applicable to relaxation kinetics.

A novel method is proposed to determine deductively and uniquely the values of three parameters, a, b, and c in a fractional function of the form, y=a+bx/(c+x) where x and y are experimentally obtainable variables. This type of equation is frequently encountered in chemistry and biochemistry involving relaxation kinetics. The method of least squares with the Taylor expansion is employed for direct curve fitting of observed data to the fractional function. Approximate values of the parameters, which are always necessary prior to commending the above procedure, can be obtained by the method of rearrangement after canceling the denominator of fractional functions. This procedure is very simple, but very effective for estimating provisional values of the parameters. Deductive and unique determination of the parameters involved in the fractional function shown above can be accomplished for the first time by the combination of these two procedures. This method is extended to include the analysis of relaxation kinetic data such as those of temperature-jump method where the determination of equilibrium concentrations of reactants in addition to the three parameters is also necessary.  (+info)

(6/786) Increased NADH-oxidase-mediated superoxide production in the early stages of atherosclerosis: evidence for involvement of the renin-angiotensin system.

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II activates NAD(P)H-dependent oxidases via AT1-receptor stimulation, the most important vascular source of superoxide (O2*-). The AT1 receptor is upregulated in vitro by low-density lipoprotein. The present study was designed to test whether hypercholesterolemia is associated with increased NAD(P)H-dependent vascular O2*- production and whether AT1-receptor blockade may inhibit this oxidase and in parallel improve endothelial dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular responses were determined by isometric tension studies, and relative rates of vascular O2*- production were determined by use of chemiluminescence with lucigenin, a cypridina luciferin analogue, and electron spin resonance studies. AT1-receptor mRNA was quantified by Northern analysis, and AT1-receptor density was measured by radioligand binding assays. Hypercholesterolemia was associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and increased O2*- production in intact vessels. In vessel homogenates, we found a significant activation of NADH-driven O2*- production in both models of hyperlipidemia. Treatment of cholesterol-fed animals with the AT1-receptor antagonist Bay 10-6734 improved endothelial dysfunction, normalized vascular O2*- and NADH-oxidase activity, decreased macrophage infiltration, and reduced early plaque formation. In the setting of hypercholesterolemia, the aortic AT1 receptor mRNA was upregulated to 166+/-11%, accompanied by a comparable increase in AT1-receptor density. CONCLUSIONS: Hypercholesterolemia is associated with AT1-receptor upregulation, endothelial dysfunction, and increased NADH-dependent vascular O2*- production. The improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of the oxidase, and reduction of early plaque formation by an AT1-receptor antagonist suggests a crucial role of angiotensin II-mediated O2*- production in the early stage of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

(7/786) Paracrine role of adventitial superoxide anion in mediating spontaneous tone of the isolated rat aorta in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

The relationship between vascular generation of superoxide anion and spontaneous tone observed in the isolated aorta was studied in hypertensive rats infused with angiotensin II. Aortic rings from hypertensive, but not from sham-operated rats, demonstrated oscillatory spontaneous tone that represented 52+/-5.6% of the maximal contraction to KCl. Spontaneous tone was prevented by calcium-free buffer or by blocking calcium influx through L-type calcium channels with nifedipine. The production of superoxide anion measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence was up to 15-fold higher than in sham-operated rat aorta. The adventitial site of production of superoxide anion was suggested by the fact that lucigenin chemiluminescence was 5.5-fold higher from the adventitia than from the intima. This was confirmed histochemically by demonstrating that the adventitia was the site of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium as well as immunohistochemical staining of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit proteins. A causal link between superoxide anion production by NAD(P)H oxidase and the spontaneous tone is suggested by the fact that superoxide dismutase or the inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase, diphenylene iodonium, decreased both superoxide anion production and spontaneous tone. L-NAME or removal of the endothelium from the aorta had no significant effect on superoxide anion levels or spontaneous tone. However, although superoxide dismutase decreased superoxide anion levels in the presence of L-NAME or in endothelium-denuded rings, it no longer inhibited the tone. This suggests that the effect on tone of superoxide anion originating in the adventitia is mediated by inactivating endothelium-derived nitric oxide, which promotes smooth muscle calcium influx and spontaneous tone. The adventitia is not a passive bystander during the development of hypertension, but rather it may have an important role in the regulation of smooth muscle tone.  (+info)

(8/786) Chemiluminescent detection of oxidants in vascular tissue. Lucigenin but not coelenterazine enhances superoxide formation.

Lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence has frequently been used to assess the formation of superoxide in vascular tissues. However, the ability of lucigenin to undergo redox cycling in purified enzyme-substrate mixtures has raised questions concerning the use of lucigenin as an appropriate probe for the measurement of superoxide production. Addition of lucigenin to reaction mixtures of xanthine oxidase plus NADH resulted in increased oxygen consumption, as well as superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of cytochrome c, indicative of enhanced rates of superoxide formation. Additionally, it was revealed that lucigenin stimulated oxidant formation by both cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and isolated rings from rat aorta. Lucigenin treatment resulted in enhanced hydrogen peroxide release from endothelial cells, whereas exposure to lucigenin resulted in inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated aortic rings that was superoxide dismutase inhibitable. In contrast, the chemiluminescent probe coelenterazine had no significant effect on xanthine oxidase-dependent oxygen consumption, endothelial cell hydrogen peroxide release, or endothelium-dependent relaxation. Study of enzyme and vascular systems indicated that coelenterazine chemiluminescence is a sensitive marker for detecting both superoxide and peroxynitrite.  (+info)

*  Vital stain
Hathaway WE, Newby LA, Githens JH (1964). "THE ACRIDINE ORANGE VIABILITY TEST APPLIED TO BONE MARROW CELLS. I. CORRELATION WITH ...
*  Acridine
... is easily oxidized by peroxymonosulfuric acid to the acridine amine oxide. The carbon 9-position of acridine is ... biologically active acridines, applications of acridines, new syntheses and reactions of acridines] Synthesis of acridone in ... Acridine and its homologues are weakly basic. Acridine is a photobase which have a ground state pKa of 5.1, which is similar to ... Acridine and related derivatives (such as amsacrine) bind to DNA and RNA due to their abilities to intercalate. Acridine orange ...
*  Acridine yellow
... damages DNA and is used as a mutagen in microbiology. Acridine yellow is similar to acridine orange. Acridine ... Acridine yellow, also known as acridine yellow G, acridine yellow H107, basic yellow K, and 3,6-diamino-2,7-dimethylacridine, ... It is a derivate of acridine. In histology, it is used as a fluorescent stain, and as a fluorescent probe for non-invasive ...
*  Acridine orange
... is useful for enumerating the microbes in a sample. Acridine dyes are prepared via the condensation of 1,3- ... and seawater samples can be achieved using acridine orange. Acridine orange direct count (AODC) methodology has been used in ... When an acridine orange binds with DNA, it exhibits an excitation maximum at 502 nm (cyan) and an emission maximum at 525 nm ( ... Acridine orange is an organic compound. It is used as a nucleic acid-selective fluorescent cationic dye useful for cell cycle ...
*  Acridine carboxamide
... is an chemotherapy agent that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of ... Ondansetron, an isomer of Acridine carboxamide Dittrich C, Dieras V, Kerbrat P, et al. (2003). "Phase II study of XR5000 (DACA ...
*  Bernthsen acridine synthesis
The Bernthsen acridine synthesis is the chemical reaction of a diarylamine heated with a carboxylic acid (or acid anhydride) ... The use of polyphosphoric acid will give acridine products at a lower temperature, but also with decreased yields. Bernthsen, A ... and zinc chloride to form a 9-substituted acridine. Using zinc chloride, one must heat the reaction to 200-270 °C for 24hrs. ...
*  DNA
Ferguson LR, Denny WA (September 1991). "The genetic toxicology of acridines". Mutation Research. 258 (2): 123-60. doi:10.1016/ ... Most intercalators are aromatic and planar molecules; examples include ethidium bromide, acridines, daunomycin, and doxorubicin ...
*  Acriflavine
It is derived from acridine. Commercial preparations are often mixtures with proflavine. It is known by a variety of commercial ...
*  Aromatization
The possibility for extended planar aromatic systems such as acridine (dibenzo[b,e]pyridine) to insert between base pairs was ... Lerman, L. S. (1963). "The Structure of the DNA-Acridine Complex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Lerman, L. S. (1961). "Structural Considerations in the Interaction of DNA and Acridines". Journal of Molecular Biology. 3 (1 ...
*  Phenanthridine
Acridine is an isomer of phenanthridine. Phenanthridine was discovered by Amé Pictet and H. J. Ankersmit in 1891 by pyrolysis ...
*  Base pair
Examples include ethidium bromide and acridine. An unnatural base pair (UBP) is a designed subunit (or nucleobase) of DNA which ...
*  Leonard Lerman
Lerman, L. S. (1963). "The structure of the DNA-acridine complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 49: 94-102. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... Lerman, L. S. (1961). "Structural considerations in the interactions of deoxyribonucleic acid and acridines". Journal of ...
*  Intercalation (biochemistry)
Lerman, L. S. (1963). "The structure of the DNA-acridine complex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Lerman, L. S. (1961). "Structural considerations in the interaction of DNA and acridines" (PDF). Journal of Molecular Biology. ... 9 epoxide of aflatoxin B1 and acridines such as proflavine or quinacrine. Intercalation as a mechanism of interaction between ...
*  Decarboxylative cross-coupling
Derivatives are formed in moderate to good yield; acridine is essential for high reaction efficiency. Jiao et al. enabled the ...
*  Carl Hamilton Browning
He discovered the therapeutic qualities of acridine dyes. He was born on 21 May 1881 the son of Hugh Hamilton Browning MA BD ( ...
*  Fluorophore
Acridine derivatives: proflavin, acridine orange, acridine yellow, etc. Arylmethine derivatives: auramine, crystal violet, ...
*  Twisted intercalating nucleic acid
"Synthesis of Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acids Possessing Acridine Derivatives. Thermal Stability Studies." Bioconjugate Chem ...
*  Metachromasia
Acta 883: 173-177 Notes Darzynkiewicz Z, Kapuscinski J. (1990)"Acridine Orange, a Versatile Probe of Nucleic Acids and Other ... Another example of metachromatic dye (fluorochrome) is acridine orange. Under certain conditions it stains single-stranded ...
*  Proton-enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy
"Optically Enhanced Nuclear Cross Polarization in Acridine-Doped Fluorene" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-20. https://pines.berkeley. ...
*  Clastogen
Known clastogens include acridine yellow, benzene, ethylene oxide, arsenic, phosphine and mimosine. Exposure to clastogens ...
*  Cardiolipin
M Garciafernandez; D Ceccarelli; U Muscatello (2004). "Use of the fluorescent dye 10-N-nonyl acridine orange in quantitative ... Jacobson J, Duchen MR, Heales SJ (2002). "Intracellular distribution of the fluorescent dye nonyl acridine orange responds to ... Based on this special structure, the fluorescent mitochondrial indicator, nonyl acridine orange (NAO) was introduced in 1982, ... and LM-cells with new acridine dyes". Histochemistry. 74 (1): 1-7. PMID 7085344. Thomas H. Haines; Norbert A. Dencher (2002). " ...
*  2,4-Diaminotoluene
4-diaminotoluene with acetaldehyde gives the acridine dye called Basic Yellow 9. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0620 ...
*  Bucket evaluations
"Comparative Chemogenomics To Examine the Mechanism of Action of DNA-Targeted Platinum-Acridine Anticancer Agents". ACS Chem. ...
*  Chemogenomics
"Comparative chemogenomics to examine the mechanism of action of dna-targeted platinum-acridine anticancer agents". ACS Chemical ...
*  Heinrich Caro
He was the first to isolate acridine and "Caro's acid" (peroxymonosulfuric acid) is named after him. Nikodem Caro, co-inventor ...
acridine (CHEBI:36420)  acridine (CHEBI:36420)
... has role genotoxin (CHEBI:50902) acridine (CHEBI:36420) is a acridines (CHEBI:22213) acridine (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:36420 - acridine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:36420
Benz[c]acridine  Benz[c]acridine
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C225514&Units=SI&Mask=1EFF
Acridine, 9-methyl  Acridine, 9-methyl
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi?ID=C611643&
Acridine Orange  Acridine Orange
... Joanne Lannigan joannelannigan at virginia.edu Mon Jun 7 15:20:40 EST 2004 *Previous message: Acridine Orange ... Acridine Orange , , Does anyone routinely run acridine orange through their , FACScan/FACSort? I would like suggestions for ...
more infohttps://lists.purdue.edu/pipermail/cytometry/2004-June/026822.html
Acridine Orange  Acridine Orange
... DARZYNKIEWICZ ZBIGNIEW Z_DARZYNKIEWICZ at nymc.edu Mon Jun 7 14:47:50 EST 2004 *Previous message: Parts to ... Acridine Orange Does anyone routinely run acridine orange through their FACScan/FACSort? I would like suggestions for cleaning ... We do routinely use acridine orange using FACScan. A 20 min rinse with 10 times water-diluted Chlorox bleach is adequate to ...
more infohttps://lists.purdue.edu/pipermail/cytometry/2004-June/026821.html
Acridine orange hemi(zinc chloride) salt | Abcam  Acridine orange hemi(zinc chloride) salt | Abcam
... acridine hydrochloride zinc chloride double salt (CAS 10127-02-3), a cell-permeable metachromatic fluorescent cationic DNA and ... Acridine orange for cell sorting of sputum.. J Histochem Cytochem 27:552-6 (1979). Read more (PubMed: 86576) » ... The use of thionin and acridine orange in staining semithin sections of plant material embedded in epoxy resin.. Stain Technol ... Analysis of single- and double-stranded nucleic acids on polyacrylamide and agarose gels by using glyoxal and acridine orange. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/acridine-orange-hemizinc-chloride-salt-ab146348.html
Acridine Orange
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Acridine Orange Summary Report | CureHunter
Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and ... Acridine Diamine, Tetramethyl; Base, Acridine Orange; Diamine, Tetramethyl Acridine; Orange 3RN, Basic; Orange Base, Acridine; ... Acridine Orange. Subscribe to New Research on Acridine Orange A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, ... 3,6-Bis(dimethylamino)acridine; Acridine Orange Base; Basic Orange 3RN; C.I. 46005; C.I. Basic Orange 14; Rhoduline Orange; ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000165-Acridine-Orange.do
Benz[a]acridine (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 32, 1983)  Benz[a]acridine (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 32, 1983)
BENZ[a]ACRIDINE. VOL.: 32 (1983) (p. 123) CAS No.: 225-11-6. Chem. Abstr. Name: Benz(a)acridine. 5. Summary of Data Reported ... There is inadequate evidence that benz[a]acridine is active in short-term tests. 5.2 Human data. Benz[a]acridine is present as ... Benz[a]acridine was inadequately tested for carcinogenicity in one experiment by skin application to mice. No data on the ... The available data are inadequate to permit the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of benz[a]acridine in experimental animals. ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol32/benz%5Ba%5Dacridine.html
Acridine Orange hemi(zinc chloride) salt from Sigma-Aldrich  Acridine Orange hemi(zinc chloride) salt from Sigma-Aldrich
Acridine orange has been used as a fluorescent stain for nucleic acids in agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Acridine orange at a ... Acridine Orange hemi(zinc chloride) salt from Sigma-Aldrich,Application: ... Acridine orange; 10 mg/mL solution in water from AnaSpec. 2. Acridine orange 10-nonyl bromide from AnaSpec. 3. Acridine orange ... Acridine orange at a concentration of 120 μM will detect purified DNA in gels with a sensitivity of 25-50 ng per band. It has ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-products/Acridine-Orange-hemi-28zinc-chloride-29-salt-from-Sigma-Aldrich-1874-1/
Acridine | definition of acridine by Medical dictionary  Acridine | definition of acridine by Medical dictionary
... acridine explanation free. What is acridine? Meaning of acridine medical term. What does acridine mean? ... Looking for online definition of acridine in the Medical Dictionary? ... acridine. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to acridine: acridine dyes anthracene. [an´thrah-sēn] a ... acridine. /ac·ri·dine/ (ak´rĭ-dēn) an alkaloid from anthracene used in the synthesis of dyes and drugs.. acridine. [ak′ridēn] ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/acridine
Acridine-9-carboxylic acid hydrate, 97%, ACROS Organics™  Acridine-9-carboxylic acid hydrate, 97%, ACROS Organics™
9-acridinecarboxylic acid hydrate, acridine-9-carboxylic acid hydrate, acmc-1afs1, c14h9no2.h2o, acridin-9-carboxylic acid ... 9-acridinecarboxylic acid hydrate, acridine-9-carboxylic acid hydrate, acmc-1afs1, c14h9no2.h2o, acridin-9-carboxylic acid ... 9-acridinecarboxylic acid hydrate, acridine-9-carboxylic acid hydrate, acmc-1afs1, c14h9no2.h2o, acridin-9-carboxylic acid ... hydrate, 9-acridinecarboxylic acid hydrate, acridine-9-carboxylic acid hydrate 1:x. ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/acridine-9-carboxylic-acid-hydrate-97-acros-organics-4/p-2703621
Acridine Orange  Acridine Orange
By Leo Chan,2018-06-20T20:27:59+00:00May 20th, 2015,Categories: Cellometer Application News,Tags: Acridine Orange, Propidium ...
more infohttps://www.nexcelom.com/tag/acridine-orange/
Acridine orange, C.I. 46005 | Polysciences, Inc.  Acridine orange, C.I. 46005 | Polysciences, Inc.
A grade of acridine orange of exceptionally high purity, suitable for quantitative work. Free of inorganic salts. ... Polysciences' grade of acridine orange is of exceptionally high purity, suitable for quantitative work. It is free of inorganic ... Acridine orange is a nucleic acid-selective fluorescent cationic dye useful for cell cycle determination. It emits green ... We offer a highly purified form of acridine orange while most of the other commercially available grades are either of low ...
more infohttp://www.polysciences.com/chinese/catalog-products/life-sciences/fluorescent-dyes-stains/acridine-orange-ci-46005-very-high/
Acridine orange, C.I. 46005 | Polysciences, Inc.  Acridine orange, C.I. 46005 | Polysciences, Inc.
A grade of acridine orange of exceptionally high purity, suitable for quantitative work. Free of inorganic salts. ... Polysciences' grade of acridine orange is of exceptionally high purity, suitable for quantitative work. It is free of inorganic ... Acridine orange is a nucleic acid-selective fluorescent cationic dye useful for cell cycle determination. It emits green ... We offer a highly purified form of acridine orange while most of the other commercially available grades are either of low ...
more infohttp://www.polysciences.com/default/catalog-products/life-sciences/fluorescent-dyes-stains/acridine-orange-ci-46005-very-high/
Acridine yellow | definition of acridine yellow by Medical dictionary  Acridine yellow | definition of acridine yellow by Medical dictionary
... acridine yellow explanation free. What is acridine yellow? Meaning of acridine yellow medical term. What does acridine yellow ... Looking for online definition of acridine yellow in the Medical Dictionary? ... Acridine yellow , definition of acridine yellow by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/acridine ... acridine yellow. Also found in: Wikipedia. ac·ri·dine yel·low. (ak'ri-dēn yel'ō), A faintly yellow solution with strong bluish- ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/acridine+yellow
Benzo[h]phenanthro[9,10,1-mna]acridine | C27H15N - PubChem  Benzo[h]phenanthro[9,10,1-mna]acridine | C27H15N - PubChem
... acridine , C27H15N , CID 186220 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/186220
Acridine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-, 10-oxide | C13H13NO - PubChem  Acridine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-, 10-oxide | C13H13NO - PubChem
Acridine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-, 10-oxide , C13H13NO , CID 168170 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/168170
Rapid Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Adults Using Acridine Orange Stained Buffy Coat Smears  Rapid Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Adults Using Acridine Orange Stained Buffy Coat Smears
The use of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was assessed as a rapid screening test for bacteremia in adults. A total ... Rapid Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Adults Using Acridine Orange Stained Buffy Coat Smears. Mark Miller1,2 and Jack Mendelson1 ... Compared to blood culture, the overall sensitivity of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was 16%, specificity 88%, and ... from which a buffy coat smear was prepared and stained with acridine orange (100 mg/L; pH 3.0). Forty-one of 356 blood samples ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjidmm/1990/159215/abs/
Acridine - Wikipedia  Acridine - Wikipedia
Acridine is easily oxidized by peroxymonosulfuric acid to the acridine amine oxide. The carbon 9-position of acridine is ... biologically active acridines, applications of acridines, new syntheses and reactions of acridines] Synthesis of acridone in ... Acridine and its homologues are weakly basic. Acridine is a photobase which have a ground state pKa of 5.1, which is similar to ... Acridine and related derivatives (such as amsacrine) bind to DNA and RNA due to their abilities to intercalate. Acridine orange ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acridine
DIBENZ (a,h) ACRIDINE (purity)- CAS Number 226-36-8  DIBENZ (a,h) ACRIDINE (purity)- CAS Number 226-36-8
ACRIDINE (purity) - CAS Number 226-36-8 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check availability and ... 1,2:5,6-Dibenzacridine ; 1,2,5,6-Dibenzoacridine ; Dibenz[a,d]acridine ; Dibenzo(a,h)acridine ;Dibenz[a,h]acridine ;. Read more ...
more infohttps://www.lgcstandards.com/DE/en/DIBENZ-a-h-ACRIDINE-purity-/p/BCR-153R
  • In the Bernthsen acridine synthesis, diphenylamine is condensed with carboxylic acids in the presence of zinc chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other older methods for the organic synthesis of acridines include condensing diphenylamine with chloroform in the presence of aluminium chloride, by passing the vapours of orthoaminodiphenylmethane over heated litharge, by heating salicylaldehyde with aniline and zinc chloride or by distilling acridone (9-position a carbonyl group) over zinc dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • We offer a highly purified form of acridine orange while most of the other commercially available grades are either of low purity or in zinc chloride complex form. (polysciences.com)
  • Labeling of DNA oligos with acridine allows them to rapidly and stably intercalate into a target dsDNA molecule, adding increased stability to the double helix (1). (genelink.com)
  • Like the related molecule pyridine and quinoline, acridine is mildly basic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine is a photobase which have a ground state pKa of 5.1, which is similar to that of pyridine, and have an excited state pKa of 10.6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benz[ a ]acridine was inadequately tested for carcinogenicity in one experiment by skin application to mice. (inchem.org)
  • The single report of the mutagenicity of benz[ a ]acridine in Salmonella typhimurium was inconclusive. (inchem.org)
  • There is inadequate evidence that benz[ a ]acridine is active in short-term tests. (inchem.org)
  • Benz[ a ]acridine is present as a minor component of the total content of polynuclear aromatic compounds in the environment. (inchem.org)
  • Human exposure to benz[ a ]acridine occurs primarily through inhalation of polluted air and by ingestion of food and water contaminated with combustion products. (inchem.org)
  • The available data are inadequate to permit the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of benz[ a ]acridine in experimental animals. (inchem.org)
  • We have recently developed efficient artificial systems for site-selective RNA scission by combining a metal ion (lanthanide ions or some transition metal ions) as molecular scissor and an acridine-modified DNA as a sequence selective RNA activator [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, incorporation of acridine to the 3'-end of an oligo confers a high level of exonuclease resistance to that end (2). (genelink.com)
  • One significant advantage of this system is that any desired function can be added to it by additional modification to the acridine-modified DNA. (hindawi.com)
  • Azobenzene residue introduced adjacent to the acridine residue acts as a photoresponsive switch, which triggers the site-selective scission upon UV irradiation. (hindawi.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the effect of acridine carboxamide on objective response, response rate, and duration of response in patients with unresectable, locally advanced, progressive or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. (knowcancer.com)
  • Patients receive acridine carboxamide IV over 24 hours for 5 days. (knowcancer.com)
  • Acridine-labeled oligos containing a polypyrimidine sequence possess the ability to form triplex helices that are highly stable, and, due to their increased hydrophobicity, can pass through membranes more easily than normal oligos. (genelink.com)
  • Acridine orange staining was used to visualize apoptosis in A172 (A) and U87 (B). Cells were treated with 0, 10 or 100 ng/ml rhTRAIL WT and 0, 25 or 50 μM DMC. (nih.gov)
  • An interesting such application is the use of acridine-labeled primers to study non-enzymatic-template-directed RNA synthesis to provide experimental support for theories concerning possible replication of genetic information by early life forms on Earth (5). (genelink.com)
  • Either of the 5′- or 3′-phosphodiester linkage of the target nucleotide in front of the acridine moiety, which is in protonated form under neutral condition, is site-selectively activated through general acid catalysis [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell viability was measured by MTS assay and apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V/PI and acridine orange staining. (nih.gov)