A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
Acridines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of a planar, unsaturated ring system, which have been widely used in chemotherapy and have also found applications in dye industries and fluorescence microscopy.
Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Acridine antineoplastic agent used in mammary and ovarian tumors. It inhibits RNA synthesis.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A topically applied anti-infective agent.
An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Plasmids which determine the ability of a bacterium to ferment lactose.
Compounds based on acridone, which have three linear rings, with the center ring containing a ring nitrogen and a keto oxygen opposite to each other. Many of them are naturally occurring alkaloids.
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups. Although otherwise structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA. They are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents.
A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.
Phenazines are nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds that have been widely studied for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic properties, and can be found in various natural sources such as bacteria and fungi, or synthesized chemically.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
An aniline dye used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic agent. It is weakly fluorescing and binds specifically to certain proteins.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A neoplasm containing HISTIOCYTES. Important forms include BENIGN FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA; and MALIGNANT FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA.

Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA. (1/786)

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

Multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein enhances esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol. (2/786)

Class I P-glycoproteins (Pgp) confer multidrug resistance in tumors, but the physiologic function of Pgp in normal tissues remains uncertain. In cells derived from tissues that normally express Pgp, recent data suggest a possible role for Pgp in cholesterol trafficking from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. We investigated the esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol under basal conditions and in response to sphingomyelinase treatment in transfected and drug-selected cell lines expressing differing amounts of functional class I Pgp. Compared with parental NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, cells transfected with human multidrug resistance (MDR1) Pgp esterified more cholesterol both without and with sphingomyelinase. Esterification also was greater in drug-selected Dox 6 myeloma cells than parental 8226 cells, which express low and non-immunodetectable amounts of Pgp, respectively. However, no differences in total plasma membrane cholesterol were detected. Transfection of fibroblasts with the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) did not alter esterification, showing that cholesterol trafficking was not generally affected by ATP-binding cassette transporters. Steroidal (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) and non-steroidal antagonists (verapamil, PSC 833, LY335979, and GF120918) were evaluated for effects on both cholesterol trafficking and the net content of 99mTc-Sestamibi, a reporter of drug transport activity mediated by Pgp. In Pgp-expressing cells treated with nonselective and selective inhibitors, both the kinetics and efficacy of inhibition of cholesterol esterification differed from the antagonism of drug transport mediated by Pgp. Thus, although the data show that greater expression of class I Pgp within a given cell type is associated with enhanced esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol in support of a physiologic function for Pgp in facilitating cholesterol trafficking, the molecular mechanism is dissociated from the conventional drug transport activity of Pgp.  (+info)

Serum sErbB1 and epidermal growth factor levels as tumor biomarkers in women with stage III or IV epithelial ovarian cancer. (3/786)

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a high mortality rate, which is due primarily to the fact that early clinical symptoms are vague and nonspecific; hence, this disease often goes undetected and untreated until in its advanced stages. Sensitive and reliable methods for detecting earlier stages of EOC are, therefore, urgently needed. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a ligand for EGF receptor (ErbB1); this receptor is the product of the c-erbB1 proto-oncogene. ErbB1 overexpression is common in human ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines and tumors, in which overexpression is thought to play a critical role in tumor etiology and progression. Furthermore, ErbB1 overexpression is associated with disease recurrence and decreased patient survival. Recently, we have developed an acridinium-linked immunosorbent assay that detects a approximately 110-kDa soluble analogue of ErbB1, ie., sErbB1, in serum samples from healthy men and women (A. T. Baron, et al., J. Immunol. Methods, 219: 23-43, 1998). Here, we demonstrate that serum p110 sErbB1 levels are significantly lower in EOC patients with stage III or IV disease prior to (P < 0.0001) and shortly after (P < 0.0001) cytoreductive staging laparotomy than in healthy women of similar ages, whereas EGF levels are significantly higher than those of age-matched healthy women only in serum samples collected shortly after tumor debulking surgery (P < 0.0001). We observe that the preoperative serum sErbB1 concentration range of advanced stage EOC patients barely overlaps with the serum sErbB1 concentration range of healthy women. In addition, we show that serum sErbB1 and EGF levels changed temporally for some EOC patients who were surgically debulked of tumor and who provided a second serum sample during the course of combination chemotherapy. Finally, we observe a significant positive association between sErbB1 and EGF levels only in serum samples of EOC patients collected prior to cytoreductive surgery (correlation coefficient = 0.61968; P = 0.0027). These data suggest that epithelial ovarian tumors concomitantly affect serum sErbB1 and EGF levels. In conclusion, these data indicate that serum sErbB1 and EGF (postoperative only) levels are significantly different between EOC patients and healthy women and that altered and/or changing serum sErbB1 and EGF levels may provide important diagnostic and/or prognostic information useful for the management of patients with EOC.  (+info)

Selective inhibition of MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by the acridone carboxamide derivative GG918. (4/786)

The acridone carboxamide derivative GG918 (N-{4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)-ethyl]-pheny l}-9,10dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide) is a potent inhibitor of MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Direct measurements of ATP-dependent MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in plasma membrane vesicles from human and rat hepatocyte canalicular membranes indicated 50% inhibition at GG918 concentrations between 8 nM and 80 nM using N-pentyl-[3H]quinidinium, ['4C]doxorubicin and [3H]daunorubicin as substrates. The inhibition constant K for GG918 was 35 nM in rat hepatocyte canalicular membrane vesicles with [3H]daunorubicin as the substrate. Photoaffinity labelling of canalicular and recombinant rat Mdr1b P-glycoprotein by [3H]azidopine was suppressed by 10 muM and 40 muM GG918. The high selectivity of GG918-induced inhibition was demonstrated in canalicular membrane vesicles and by analysis of the hepatobiliary elimination in rats using [3H]daunorubicin, [3H]taurocholate and [3H]cysteinyl leukotrienes as substrates for three distinct ATP-dependent export pumps. Almost complete inhibition of [3H]daunorubicin transport was observed at GG918 concentrations that did not affect the other hepatocyte canalicular export pumps. The high potency and selectivity of GG918 for the inhibition of human MDR1 and rat Mdr1b P-glycoprotein may serve to interfere with this type of multidrug resistance and provides a tool for studies on the function of these ATP-dependent transport proteins.  (+info)

A method for the deductive and unique determination of the values of three parameters involved in fractional functions applicable to relaxation kinetics. (5/786)

A novel method is proposed to determine deductively and uniquely the values of three parameters, a, b, and c in a fractional function of the form, y=a+bx/(c+x) where x and y are experimentally obtainable variables. This type of equation is frequently encountered in chemistry and biochemistry involving relaxation kinetics. The method of least squares with the Taylor expansion is employed for direct curve fitting of observed data to the fractional function. Approximate values of the parameters, which are always necessary prior to commending the above procedure, can be obtained by the method of rearrangement after canceling the denominator of fractional functions. This procedure is very simple, but very effective for estimating provisional values of the parameters. Deductive and unique determination of the parameters involved in the fractional function shown above can be accomplished for the first time by the combination of these two procedures. This method is extended to include the analysis of relaxation kinetic data such as those of temperature-jump method where the determination of equilibrium concentrations of reactants in addition to the three parameters is also necessary.  (+info)

Increased NADH-oxidase-mediated superoxide production in the early stages of atherosclerosis: evidence for involvement of the renin-angiotensin system. (6/786)

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II activates NAD(P)H-dependent oxidases via AT1-receptor stimulation, the most important vascular source of superoxide (O2*-). The AT1 receptor is upregulated in vitro by low-density lipoprotein. The present study was designed to test whether hypercholesterolemia is associated with increased NAD(P)H-dependent vascular O2*- production and whether AT1-receptor blockade may inhibit this oxidase and in parallel improve endothelial dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular responses were determined by isometric tension studies, and relative rates of vascular O2*- production were determined by use of chemiluminescence with lucigenin, a cypridina luciferin analogue, and electron spin resonance studies. AT1-receptor mRNA was quantified by Northern analysis, and AT1-receptor density was measured by radioligand binding assays. Hypercholesterolemia was associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and increased O2*- production in intact vessels. In vessel homogenates, we found a significant activation of NADH-driven O2*- production in both models of hyperlipidemia. Treatment of cholesterol-fed animals with the AT1-receptor antagonist Bay 10-6734 improved endothelial dysfunction, normalized vascular O2*- and NADH-oxidase activity, decreased macrophage infiltration, and reduced early plaque formation. In the setting of hypercholesterolemia, the aortic AT1 receptor mRNA was upregulated to 166+/-11%, accompanied by a comparable increase in AT1-receptor density. CONCLUSIONS: Hypercholesterolemia is associated with AT1-receptor upregulation, endothelial dysfunction, and increased NADH-dependent vascular O2*- production. The improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of the oxidase, and reduction of early plaque formation by an AT1-receptor antagonist suggests a crucial role of angiotensin II-mediated O2*- production in the early stage of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Paracrine role of adventitial superoxide anion in mediating spontaneous tone of the isolated rat aorta in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. (7/786)

The relationship between vascular generation of superoxide anion and spontaneous tone observed in the isolated aorta was studied in hypertensive rats infused with angiotensin II. Aortic rings from hypertensive, but not from sham-operated rats, demonstrated oscillatory spontaneous tone that represented 52+/-5.6% of the maximal contraction to KCl. Spontaneous tone was prevented by calcium-free buffer or by blocking calcium influx through L-type calcium channels with nifedipine. The production of superoxide anion measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence was up to 15-fold higher than in sham-operated rat aorta. The adventitial site of production of superoxide anion was suggested by the fact that lucigenin chemiluminescence was 5.5-fold higher from the adventitia than from the intima. This was confirmed histochemically by demonstrating that the adventitia was the site of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium as well as immunohistochemical staining of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit proteins. A causal link between superoxide anion production by NAD(P)H oxidase and the spontaneous tone is suggested by the fact that superoxide dismutase or the inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase, diphenylene iodonium, decreased both superoxide anion production and spontaneous tone. L-NAME or removal of the endothelium from the aorta had no significant effect on superoxide anion levels or spontaneous tone. However, although superoxide dismutase decreased superoxide anion levels in the presence of L-NAME or in endothelium-denuded rings, it no longer inhibited the tone. This suggests that the effect on tone of superoxide anion originating in the adventitia is mediated by inactivating endothelium-derived nitric oxide, which promotes smooth muscle calcium influx and spontaneous tone. The adventitia is not a passive bystander during the development of hypertension, but rather it may have an important role in the regulation of smooth muscle tone.  (+info)

Chemiluminescent detection of oxidants in vascular tissue. Lucigenin but not coelenterazine enhances superoxide formation. (8/786)

Lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence has frequently been used to assess the formation of superoxide in vascular tissues. However, the ability of lucigenin to undergo redox cycling in purified enzyme-substrate mixtures has raised questions concerning the use of lucigenin as an appropriate probe for the measurement of superoxide production. Addition of lucigenin to reaction mixtures of xanthine oxidase plus NADH resulted in increased oxygen consumption, as well as superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of cytochrome c, indicative of enhanced rates of superoxide formation. Additionally, it was revealed that lucigenin stimulated oxidant formation by both cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and isolated rings from rat aorta. Lucigenin treatment resulted in enhanced hydrogen peroxide release from endothelial cells, whereas exposure to lucigenin resulted in inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated aortic rings that was superoxide dismutase inhibitable. In contrast, the chemiluminescent probe coelenterazine had no significant effect on xanthine oxidase-dependent oxygen consumption, endothelial cell hydrogen peroxide release, or endothelium-dependent relaxation. Study of enzyme and vascular systems indicated that coelenterazine chemiluminescence is a sensitive marker for detecting both superoxide and peroxynitrite.  (+info)

Acridine Orange is a fluorescent dye commonly used in various scientific applications, particularly in the field of cytology and microbiology. Its chemical formula is C17H19N3O.

In medical terms, Acridine Orange is often used as a supravital stain to differentiate between live and dead cells or to identify bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms in samples. It can also be used to detect abnormalities in DNA and RNA, making it useful in the identification of certain types of cancerous cells.

When exposed to ultraviolet light, Acridine Orange exhibits a green fluorescence when bound to double-stranded DNA and a red or orange-red fluorescence when bound to single-stranded RNA. This property makes it a valuable tool in the study of cell division, gene expression, and other biological processes that involve nucleic acids.

However, it is important to note that Acridine Orange can be toxic to living cells in high concentrations or with prolonged exposure, so it must be used carefully and in accordance with established safety protocols.

Acridines are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a nucleus of three fused benzene rings and a nitrogen atom. They have a wide range of applications, including in the development of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer and antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic drugs. Some acridines also exhibit fluorescent properties and are used in research and diagnostic applications.

In medicine, some acridine derivatives have been found to intercalate with DNA, disrupting its structure and function, which can lead to the death of cancer cells. For example, the acridine derivative proflavin has been used as an antiseptic and in the treatment of certain types of cancer. However, many acridines also have toxic side effects, limiting their clinical use.

It is important to note that while acridines have potential therapeutic uses, they should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can cause harm if not used properly.

Aminoacridines are a group of synthetic chemical compounds that contain an acridine nucleus, which is a tricyclic aromatic structure, substituted with one or more amino groups. These compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties, particularly as antiseptics and antibacterial agents. However, their use in medicine has declined due to the development of newer and safer antibiotics. Some aminoacridines also exhibit antimalarial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. They can intercalate into DNA, disrupting its structure and function, which is thought to contribute to their antimicrobial effects. However, this property also makes them potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic, limiting their clinical use.

Intercalating agents are chemical substances that can be inserted between the stacked bases of DNA, creating a separation or "intercalation" of the base pairs. This property is often exploited in cancer chemotherapy, where intercalating agents like doxorubicin and daunorubicin are used to inhibit the replication and transcription of cancer cells by preventing the normal functioning of their DNA. However, these agents can also have toxic effects on normal cells, particularly those that divide rapidly, such as bone marrow and gut epithelial cells. Therefore, their use must be carefully monitored and balanced against their therapeutic benefits.

Aminacrine is a type of medication known as an antineoplastic agent or chemotherapeutic drug. It is primarily used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Aminacrine works by interfering with the DNA replication process within cancer cells, which helps to inhibit the growth and proliferation of these cells.

The chemical name for aminacrine is 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate. It has a yellowish crystalline appearance and is typically administered intravenously in a hospital setting. Common side effects of aminacrine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and hair loss. More serious side effects can include heart rhythm abnormalities, seizures, and lung or kidney damage.

It's important to note that the use of aminacrine is typically reserved for cases where other cancer treatments have not been effective, due to its potential for serious side effects. As with all medications, it should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

'Staining and labeling' are techniques commonly used in pathology, histology, cytology, and molecular biology to highlight or identify specific components or structures within tissues, cells, or molecules. These methods enable researchers and medical professionals to visualize and analyze the distribution, localization, and interaction of biological entities, contributing to a better understanding of diseases, cellular processes, and potential therapeutic targets.

Medical definitions for 'staining' and 'labeling' are as follows:

1. Staining: A process that involves applying dyes or stains to tissues, cells, or molecules to enhance their contrast and reveal specific structures or components. Stains can be categorized into basic stains (which highlight acidic structures) and acidic stains (which highlight basic structures). Common staining techniques include Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), which differentiates cell nuclei from the surrounding cytoplasm and extracellular matrix; special stains, such as PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) for carbohydrates or Masson's trichrome for collagen fibers; and immunostains, which use antibodies to target specific proteins.
2. Labeling: A process that involves attaching a detectable marker or tag to a molecule of interest, allowing its identification, quantification, or tracking within a biological system. Labels can be direct, where the marker is directly conjugated to the targeting molecule, or indirect, where an intermediate linker molecule is used to attach the label to the target. Common labeling techniques include fluorescent labels (such as FITC, TRITC, or Alexa Fluor), enzymatic labels (such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase), and radioactive labels (such as ³²P or ¹⁴C). Labeling is often used in conjunction with staining techniques to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of detection.

Together, staining and labeling provide valuable tools for medical research, diagnostics, and therapeutic development, offering insights into cellular and molecular processes that underlie health and disease.

I apologize, but "Nitracrine" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical terminology or pharmacology. It's possible that there may be a spelling error or it could be a very specialized or obscure term that is not widely used or known.

If you meant "Nitracrine" as a type of chemical compound, it refers to a class of compounds known as nitroaromatics, which contain a nitro group (-NO2) attached to an aromatic ring. However, I couldn't find any specific medical or clinical use for a compound named "Nitracrine".

Please double-check the spelling and let me know if you meant a different term or if you need information on a related topic.

Ethidium is a fluorescent, intercalating compound that is often used in molecular biology to stain DNA. When ethidium bromide, a common form of ethidium, binds to DNA, it causes the DNA to fluoresce brightly under ultraviolet light. This property makes it useful for visualizing DNA bands on gels, such as agarose or polyacrylamide gels, during techniques like gel electrophoresis.

It is important to note that ethidium bromide is a mutagen and should be handled with care. It can cause damage to DNA, which can lead to mutations, and it can also be harmful if inhaled or ingested. Therefore, appropriate safety precautions must be taken when working with this compound.

Quinacrine is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called antimalarials. It is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. Quinacrine works by inhibiting the growth of the malarial parasites in the red blood cells.

In addition to its antimalarial properties, quinacrine has been used off-label for various other medical conditions, including the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), a type of skin lupus. However, its use in these conditions is not approved by regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to limited evidence and potential side effects.

Quinacrine has several known side effects, including gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, headache, dizziness, and potential neuropsychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, or confusion. Long-term use of quinacrine may also lead to yellowing of the skin and eyes (known as quinacrine jaundice) and other eye-related issues. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting quinacrine or any other medication for appropriate dosage, duration, and potential side effects.

Proflavine is an antimicrobial agent, specifically a type of dye known as an acridine dye. It is used primarily as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant. Proflavine works by intercalating into DNA, which disrupts the structure of the DNA molecule and prevents bacterial replication.

It's important to note that proflavine has been largely replaced by other more effective and safer antimicrobial agents in clinical practice. It is still used in some research settings and for certain specific applications, such as staining tissues for microscopic examination.

Proflavine should be used with caution, as it can cause skin irritation and may have harmful effects if ingested or absorbed through the skin. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

Ethacridine is an antiseptic and disinfectant agent that was previously used in medical and veterinary settings. It is a synthetic compound with the chemical formula C~14~H~15~ClN~3~O. Ethacridine has been used as a topical treatment for wounds, burns, and skin infections due to its ability to kill bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, its use has declined over the years due to concerns about its potential toxicity and side effects.

Ethacridine works by interfering with the metabolic processes of microorganisms, which ultimately leads to their death. It is particularly effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, it has limited activity against gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus.

Despite its antimicrobial properties, ethacridine is not commonly used in clinical practice today due to its potential toxicity. It can cause skin irritation, allergic reactions, and damage to the eyes and mucous membranes. Additionally, there are concerns that ethacridine may be absorbed into the body and cause harm to internal organs, such as the liver and kidneys.

Overall, while ethacridine has been a useful antiseptic and disinfectant in the past, its use is now limited due to concerns about its safety and efficacy.

Amsacrine is a chemotherapeutic agent, which means it is a medication used to treat cancer. It is classified as an antineoplastic drug, and more specifically, as an intercalating agent and a topoisomerase II inhibitor. Amsacrine works by intercalating, or inserting itself, into the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents the DNA from replicating and ultimately leads to the death of the cancer cell. It is primarily used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other hematologic malignancies.

The chemical name for Amsacrine is 5-[3-amino-1-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxybut-1-yloxy]-8-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone. It has a molecular formula of C16H17ClNO5 and a molecular weight of 359.8 g/mol.

Amsacrine is typically administered intravenously, and its use is usually reserved for patients who have not responded to other forms of chemotherapy. It may be used in combination with other anticancer drugs as part of a treatment regimen. As with any chemotherapeutic agent, Amsacrine can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and hair loss. It can also cause damage to the heart and other organs, so it is important for patients to be closely monitored during treatment.

It's worth noting that while Amsacrine can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer, it is not a cure-all, and its use must be carefully considered in the context of each individual patient's medical history and current health status.

An abortifacient agent is a substance or drug that causes abortion by inducing the uterus to contract and expel a fetus. These agents can be chemical or herbal substances, and they work by interfering with the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining or by stimulating uterine contractions to expel the developing embryo or fetus.

Examples of abortifacient agents include misoprostol, mifepristone, and certain herbs such as pennyroyal, tansy, and black cohosh. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents can have serious health consequences, including infection, bleeding, and damage to the reproductive system. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any abortifacient agent.

'Azure stains' is a term used in pathology to describe a histological staining technique that uses a type of dye called methyl blue, which turns the stained structures a blue-purple color. This technique is often used to stain acid mucins, which are found in various types of tissues and can be indicative of certain medical conditions.

In particular, azure stains are sometimes used to help diagnose certain types of cancer, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, a type of salivary gland tumor that produces acid mucins. The staining technique can help pathologists identify the presence and distribution of these mucins within the tumor cells, which can aid in making an accurate diagnosis and determining the best course of treatment.

It's worth noting that there are several different types of histological stains that use various dyes to highlight different structures or features within tissues. Azure stains are just one example of these techniques, and they are typically used in conjunction with other staining methods to provide a comprehensive picture of the tissue being examined.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lactose factors" is not a standard term in medicine or nutrition. Lactose is a sugar found in milk and dairy products, and lactose intolerance is a common condition where people have difficulty digesting lactose due to a lack of the enzyme lactase. However, there's no recognized concept called "lactose factors."

If you have any more context or details about where you encountered this term, I'd be happy to try and help further!

"Acridones" are a class of chemical compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring structure consisting of a benzene ring fused to a pyrimidine ring. The name "acridone" refers to the parent compound of this class, which is 9-phenylacridine or dibenzo[b,f]pyrimidine-7(8H)-one.

Acridones have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including their antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor activities. However, some acridones have also been found to be toxic or carcinogenic, so their use in medical applications is limited.

In a medical context, "acridones" may refer to a specific class of drugs that are derived from the parent compound and have been investigated for their potential therapeutic uses. It is important to note that each drug or chemical compound should be evaluated on its own merits and in the context of its specific medical use, as generalizations about a entire class of compounds can be misleading.

Chlorophyllides are the breakdown products of chlorophyll, which is the green pigment found in plants and algae that is essential for photosynthesis. Chlorophyllides are formed when chlorophyll is broken down by enzymes or through other chemical processes. They differ from chlorophyll in that they lack a phytol tail, which is a long hydrocarbon chain that is attached to the chlorophyll molecule.

Chlorophyllides have been studied for their potential health benefits, as they are thought to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some research has suggested that chlorophyllides may help protect against certain types of cancer, improve immune function, and reduce the risk of heart disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the optimal dosages and methods for consuming chlorophyllides.

It's worth noting that chlorophyllides are not typically found in significant quantities in the diet, as they are primarily produced during the breakdown of chlorophyll in plants. However, some supplements and green superfood powders may contain chlorophyllides or chlorophyllin, which is a semi-synthetic form of chlorophyll that is more stable and easier to absorb than natural chlorophyll.

Gentian Violet is not a medical term per se, but it is a substance that has been used in medicine. According to the US National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus, Gentian Violet is a type of crystal violet dye that has antifungal and antibacterial properties. It is often used as a topical treatment for minor cuts, burns, and wounds, as well as for fungal infections such as thrush (oral candidiasis) and athlete's foot. Gentian Violet can also be used to treat ringworm and impetigo. However, it should not be used in the eyes or mouth, and it should be used with caution on broken skin, as it can cause irritation. Additionally, there is some concern that long-term use of Gentian Violet may be carcinogenic (cancer-causing), so its use should be limited to short periods of time and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Mustard compounds refer to a group of chemical agents that are derivatives of mustard gas (sulfur mustard), a powerful blistering agent used in World War I and II. The term "mustard compounds" often includes sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustards. These compounds have alkylating properties, meaning they can interact with DNA and proteins to prevent cell division and cause damage to tissues. Nitrogen mustards are particularly potent alkylating agents and are used in chemotherapy for the treatment of various types of cancer. Sulfur mustard is not used medically but remains a significant concern as a chemical warfare agent.

Tetrahydroisoquinolines (TIQs) are not a medical condition, but rather a class of organic compounds that have been studied in the field of medicine and neuroscience. TIQs are naturally occurring substances found in various foods, beverages, and plants, as well as produced endogenously in the human body. They have been shown to have various pharmacological activities, including acting as weak psychoactive agents, antioxidants, and inhibitors of certain enzymes. Some TIQs have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of certain neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand their roles and potential therapeutic applications.

Phenazines are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that consist of two nitrogen atoms connected by a five-membered ring. They are naturally occurring in various species of bacteria and fungi, where they play a role in chemical defense and communication. Some phenazines have been found to have antibiotic, antifungal, and antiparasitic properties. Synthetic phenazines are also used in various industrial applications, such as dyes and pigments, and as components in some pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

I apologize, but I am not able to find a medical definition for "Benzophenoneidum." It is possible that this term may be used in other scientific fields, such as chemistry or materials science, but it does not appear to have a specific meaning within the field of medicine.

Benzophenones are a class of chemical compounds that contain a benzene ring linked to a ketone group through a carbon-carbon bond. They are often used in industrial and consumer products as UV absorbers, fragrances, and photographic developers. Some benzophenones have been studied for their potential toxicity and endocrine-disrupting effects, but they do not have a specific medical definition or application.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if you need information on a related topic, please let me know!

Coloring agents, also known as food dyes or color additives, are substances that are added to foods, medications, and cosmetics to improve their appearance by giving them a specific color. These agents can be made from both synthetic and natural sources. They must be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be used in products intended for human consumption.

Coloring agents are used for various reasons, including:

* To replace color lost during food processing or preparation
* To make foods more visually appealing
* To help consumers easily identify certain types of food
* To indicate the flavor of a product (e.g., fruit-flavored candies)

It's important to note that while coloring agents can enhance the appearance of products, they do not affect their taste or nutritional value. Some people may have allergic reactions to certain coloring agents, so it's essential to check product labels if you have any known allergies. Additionally, excessive consumption of some synthetic coloring agents has been linked to health concerns, so moderation is key.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Cardiolipins are a type of phospholipid that are primarily found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of cells. They play a crucial role in several important cellular processes, including energy production, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and maintenance of the structural integrity of the mitochondria.

Cardiolipins are unique because they contain four fatty acid chains, whereas most other phospholipids contain only two. This gives cardiolipins a distinctive conical shape that is important for their function in maintaining the curvature and stability of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Cardiolipins have also been implicated in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and bacterial infections. For example, changes in cardiolipin composition or distribution have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and other neurological conditions. Additionally, certain bacteria, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, can manipulate host cell cardiolipins to facilitate their own survival and replication.

In summary, cardiolipins are essential phospholipids found in the inner mitochondrial membrane that play a critical role in several cellular processes, and have been implicated in various diseases.

Antimutagenic agents are substances that prevent or reduce the frequency of mutations in DNA, which can be caused by various factors such as radiation, chemicals, and free radicals. These agents work by preventing the formation of mutations or by repairing the damage already done to the DNA. They can be found naturally in foods, such as antioxidants, or they can be synthesized in a laboratory. Antimutagenic agents have potential use in cancer prevention and treatment, as well as in reducing the negative effects of environmental mutagens.

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for breaking down and recycling various materials, such as waste products, foreign substances, and damaged cellular components, through a process called autophagy or phagocytosis. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into their basic building blocks, which can then be reused by the cell. They play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are often referred to as the "garbage disposal system" of the cell.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Nitrogen mustard compounds are a group of chemical agents that have been used historically as chemotherapy drugs and also have potential as military chemical warfare agents. They are alkylating agents, which means they work by modifying DNA in such a way that it can no longer replicate properly, leading to cell death.

In the medical context, nitrogen mustard compounds are used to treat certain types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. They may also be used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and other cancers.

The most common nitrogen mustard compounds used in medicine are mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and melphalan. These drugs are typically administered intravenously or orally, and their use is carefully monitored to minimize side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and suppression of the immune system.

It's worth noting that nitrogen mustard compounds can also be highly toxic and dangerous if used as chemical warfare agents. They can cause severe respiratory, skin, and eye damage, as well as potentially fatal systemic effects.

Nucleic acid denaturation is the process of separating the two strands of a double-stranded DNA molecule, or unwinding the helical structure of an RNA molecule, by disrupting the hydrogen bonds that hold the strands together. This process is typically caused by exposure to high temperatures, changes in pH, or the presence of chemicals called denaturants.

Denaturation can also cause changes in the shape and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can disrupt the secondary and tertiary structures of RNA molecules, which can affect their ability to bind to other molecules and carry out their functions within the cell.

In molecular biology, nucleic acid denaturation is often used as a tool for studying the structure and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can be used to separate the two strands of a DNA molecule for sequencing or amplification, or to study the interactions between nucleic acids and other molecules.

It's important to note that denaturation is a reversible process, and under the right conditions, the double-stranded structure of DNA can be restored through a process called renaturation or annealing.

Histiocytoma is a general term used to describe a group of disorders characterized by an abnormal accumulation or proliferation of histiocytes, which are a type of immune cell. These cells normally play a role in fighting infection and helping to heal wounds. However, when they multiply excessively, they can form tumors known as histiocytomas.

There are several types of histiocytomas, including:

1. Cutaneous histiocytoma: This is the most common type of histiocytoma, which typically appears as a small, raised, hairless, and pink or red bump on the skin. It usually affects dogs, but can also occur in cats and rarely in humans. These tumors are benign and often regress spontaneously within a few months.
2. Systemic histiocytoses: These are less common types of histiocytomas that involve multiple organs and tissues throughout the body. They can be further classified into several subtypes, such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), and malignant histiocytosis. These conditions can range from benign to malignant and may require aggressive treatment, including chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that while histiocytomas are generally benign, they can sometimes mimic other more serious conditions. Therefore, it is essential to have any suspicious growths evaluated by a veterinarian or healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and management.

... is easily oxidized by peroxymonosulfuric acid to the acridine amine oxide. The carbon 9-position of acridine is ... biologically active acridines, applications of acridines, new syntheses and reactions of acridines] Wikisource has original ... Acridine and its homologues are weakly basic. Acridine is a photobase which has a ground state pKa of 5.1, similar to that of ... Acridine and related derivatives (such as amsacrine) bind to DNA and RNA due to their abilities to intercalate. Acridine orange ...
... damages DNA and is used as a mutagen in microbiology. Acridine yellow is similar to acridine orange. According ... Acridine yellow, also known as acridine yellow G, acridine yellow H107, basic yellow K, and 3,6-diamino-2,7-dimethylacridine, ... It is a derivate of acridine. In histology, it is used as a fluorescent stain, and as a fluorescent probe for non-invasive ... Acridine yellow absorption and emission spectra v t e (Articles needing additional references from July 2021, All articles ...
... is derived from the organic molecule acridine, which was first discovered by Carl Grabe and Heinrich Caro, who ... Acridine orange and fluorescein have a maximum excitation at 502nm and 525 nm (green). When acridine orange associates with RNA ... Acridine orange is useful in the rapid screening of ordinarily sterile specimens. When acridine orange is used with flow ... Acridine dyes are prepared via the condensation of 1,3-diaminobenzene with suitable benzaldehydes. Acridine orange is derived ...
... is a chemotherapy agent that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of ... Ondansetron, an isomer of Acridine carboxamide Dittrich C, Dieras V, Kerbrat P, Punt C, Sorio R, Caponigro F, et al. (August ... Acridines, All stub articles, Antineoplastic and immunomodulating drug stubs). ...
Ferguson LR, Denny WA (September 1991). "The genetic toxicology of acridines". Mutation Research. 258 (2): 123-60. doi:10.1016/ ... Most intercalators are aromatic and planar molecules; examples include ethidium bromide, acridines, daunomycin, and doxorubicin ...
Bernthsen, August (1884). "Die Acridine". Justus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie (in German). 224 (1-2): 1-56. doi:10.1002/jlac. ... Synthese der Acridine". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft (in German). 16 (2): 1802-1819. doi:10.1002/cber. ...
Cairns Smith, A. G. (1957). "Studies in the acridine series". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Dennett ...
It is derived from acridine. Commercial preparations are often mixtures with proflavine. It is known by a variety of commercial ...
Gatasheh MK, Kannan S, Hemalatha K, Imrana N (December 2017). "Proflavine an acridine DNA intercalating agent and strong ... Denny WA (September 2002). "Acridine derivatives as chemotherapeutic agents". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 9 (18): 1655-1665. ... Acridines, DNA intercalaters, All stub articles, Molecular and cellular biology stubs). ...
... also binds to acridine orange. Chlorophyllin has been validated to exhibit ameliorative effects against food ...
It is an isomer of acridine. Phenanthridine was discovered by Amé Pictet and H. J. Ankersmit in 1891 by pyrolysis of the ...
ISBN 978-1-284-10449-3. Each mutagenic event in the presence of an acridine results in the addition or removal of a single base ... Examples include ethidium bromide and acridine.[citation needed] Mismatched base pairs can be generated by errors of DNA ...
Lerman, L. S. (1963). "The structure of the DNA-acridine complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 49 (1): 94-102. Bibcode:1963PNAS ... Lerman, L. S. (1961). "Structural considerations in the interactions of deoxyribonucleic acid and acridines". Journal of ...
Lerman, L. S. (1963). "The structure of the DNA-acridine complex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... 9 epoxide of aflatoxin B1 and acridines such as proflavine or quinacrine. Intercalation as a mechanism of interaction between ... "Structural considerations in the interaction of DNA and acridines" (PDF). Journal of Molecular Biology. 3 (1): 18-30. doi: ...
It is observed in compounds such as calixarenes and acridines. Peri-substitution occurs in naphthalenes for substituents at the ...
Derivatives are formed in moderate to good yield; acridine is essential for high reaction efficiency. Jiao et al. enabled the ...
He discovered the therapeutic qualities of acridine dyes. He was born on 21 May 1881 the son of Friederike Sophia Pauline (née ...
Acridine derivatives: proflavin, acridine orange, acridine yellow, etc. Arylmethine derivatives: auramine, crystal violet, ...
"Synthesis of Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acids Possessing Acridine Derivatives. Thermal Stability Studies". Bioconjugate ...
Darzynkiewicz Z, Kapuscinski J. (1990)"Acridine Orange, a Versatile Probe of Nucleic Acids and Other Cell Constituents." ... Another example of metachromatic dye (fluorochrome) is acridine orange. Under certain conditions it stains single-stranded ...
... is also a precursor to certain acridine dyes. Via aldol condensations, benzaldehyde is converted into derivatives ...
Hathaway WE, Newby LA, Githens JH (1964). "The Acridine Orange Viability Test Applied to Bone Marrow Cells. I. Correlation with ...
Polymorphism of organic substances: acridine, catechol, diphenylamine and suberic acid) -- (1943). "Mikro-Thermoanalyse ...
Acridine has been obtained as eight polymorphs and aripiprazole has nine. The record for the largest number of well- ... Acridine Solid Form Landscape: Eight Polymorphs and a Hydrate" (PDF). Crystal Growth & Design. 19 (8): 4884-4893. doi:10.1021/ ...
"Zincate-Mediated Arylation Reactions of Acridine: Pre- and Postarylation Structural Insights" (PDF). Organometallics. 34 (11): ...
Cell apoptosis is tested by treating the lysosomal membrane with acridine orange. Acridine orange radiates a red fluorescent ...
Traganos F, Darzynkiewicz Z (1994). "Lysosomal proton pump activity: supravital cell staining with acridine orange ...
His project was a study of the effects of acridines on the replication of bacteriophage T4 DNA. He received his Ph.D. in ...
Clark, Ewan R.; Ingleson, Michael J. (2013-11-25). "[(acridine)BCl2]+: A Borenium Cation That Is a Strong Boron- and Carbon- ...
M Garciafernandez; D Ceccarelli; U Muscatello (2004). "Use of the fluorescent dye 10-N-nonyl acridine orange in quantitative ... Jacobson J, Duchen MR, Heales SJ (2002). "Intracellular distribution of the fluorescent dye nonyl acridine orange responds to ... Keij JF, Bell-Prince C, Steinkamp JA (2000). "Staining of mitochondrial membranes with 10-nonyl acridine orange, MitoFluor ... Based on this special structure, the fluorescent mitochondrial indicator, nonyl acridine orange (NAO) was introduced in 1982, ...
Acridine is easily oxidized by peroxymonosulfuric acid to the acridine amine oxide. The carbon 9-position of acridine is ... biologically active acridines, applications of acridines, new syntheses and reactions of acridines] Wikisource has original ... Acridine and its homologues are weakly basic. Acridine is a photobase which has a ground state pKa of 5.1, similar to that of ... Acridine and related derivatives (such as amsacrine) bind to DNA and RNA due to their abilities to intercalate. Acridine orange ...
... Gary Lum glum at ozemail.com.au Fri Oct 10 05:57:03 EST 1997 *Previous message: ... I was at a meeting last week and someone mentioned that for acridine orange staining, slides should not be methanol fixed. Can ...
Benzo[h]benz[5,6]acridino[2,1,9,8-klmna]acridine-8,16-dione, also known as Pigment Yellow 24, is an industrial chemical. ... Benzo[h]benz[5,6]acridino[2,1,9,8-klmna]acridine-8,16-dione (Pigment Yellow 24). CAS Registry Number 475-71-8 ... Benzo[h]benz[5,6]acridino[2,1,9,8-klmna]acridine-8,16-dione (Pigment Yellow 24) ...
A revision of the grasshoppers of the Acridine Genus Orphylella Giglio-Tos : as known to occur in America north of Mexico ( ... Gurney, Ashley Buell, "A revision of the grasshoppers of the Acridine Genus Orphylella Giglio-Tos : as known to occur in ...
Induction of apoptosis in human HT1080 cells assessed as nucleus fragmentation after 72 hrs by acridine orange staining based ...
2023 PGL Chemie, Kiev, Ukraine ...
For technical information about these pages see ...
Hantzsch reaction with bis-indole-2, 3-diones: Synthesis of novel bis-spirocyclic oxindole incorporating acridine, dipyrazolo [ ... Hantzsch reaction with bis-indole-2, 3-diones: Synthesis of novel bis-spirocyclic oxindole incorporating acridine, dipyrazolo [ ... Hantzsch reaction with bis-indole-2, 3-diones: Synthesis of novel bis-spirocyclic oxindole incorporating acridine, dipyrazolo [ ... Synthesis of novel bis-spirocyclic oxindole incorporating acridine, dipyrazolo [3, 4-b: 4, 3-e] pyridine and pyrido [2, 3-d: ...
Acridine Orange+DNA. 2018년 5월 28일. Jae Hwan Jin ...
acridine carboxamide. Definition / meaning of acridine carboxamide. A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 1-nitronaphtho[2,1,8-mna]acridine (C19H10N2O2) from the PQR.
9-Amino acridine pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and in vitro/in vivo efficacy against malignant glioma. In: Cancer ... 9-Amino acridine pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and in vitro/in vivo efficacy against malignant glioma. Cancer ... 9-Amino acridine pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and in vitro/in vivo efficacy against malignant glioma. / Teitelbaum, ... title = "9-Amino acridine pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and in vitro/in vivo efficacy against malignant glioma", ...
Watsonnoke Scientific Ltd develops Acridine series photoinitiator CAS WI-DAP-701 it is a highly efficient free radical liquid ... You are here: Home / Products / Warshel Chemical Ltd / Other Performance Products / Acridine series photoinitiator CAS WI-DAP- ... Acridine series photoinitiator CAS WI-DAP-701 January 9, 2018. /in Other Performance Products, Photoinitiators, Products, Ulcho ... Specifications and Other Information of Our Acridine series photoinitiator CAS WI-DAP-701. Standard. Enterprise standard ...
Acridine. 65996-93-2. GF8655000. Acroleic acid. 79-10-7. AS4375000. Acrolein *. 107-02-8. AS1050000. ...
3.1 Acridine orange staining for apoptosis Follow the same protocol used for cell cycle analysis of cells. The apoptotic ... 2.3 DNA-RNA Differential Staining Using Acridine Orange Reagents. *Stock solution AO: 1 mg/mL ... Add 2.0 mL of 5 µg/mL acridine orange in a buffer containing 0.1M citric acid, 0.2M Na2HPO4 at pH 2.6. ... When acquiring a sample for acridine orange, The doublet discrimination (DDM) function of the FACScan must be on. The DDM ...
For acridine orange staining, embryos were manually dechorionated and incubated in acridine orange (0.5μl of 4% acridine orange ... A-F) 1-cell stage of embryos were injected with either MOctrl or MOesrra, raised and subjected to acridine orange stain to ... In situ hybridization, immunostaining, acridine orange staining and alcian blue staining. In situ hybridization and ... embryos displaying an increased number of apoptotic cells in the central nervous system at 1 dpf by acridine orange staining ( ...
More meanings of acridine, its definitions, example sentences, related words, idioms and quotations. ... Acridine meanings in Urdu is اکریڈائن Acridine in Urdu. ... Acridine meanings in Urdu. Acridine meanings in Urdu is ... What are the meanings of Acridine in Urdu?. Meanings of the word Acridine in Urdu are . To understand how would you translate ... We have tried our level best to provide you as much detail on how to say Acridine in Urdu as possible so you could understand ...
Rapid diagnosis of malaria using acridine orange (AO) staining and a light microscope with a halogen lamp and interference ... Kimura, M., Teramoto, I., Chan, C.W. et al. Improvement of malaria diagnostic system based on acridine orange staining. Malar J ... Rapid staining by acridine orange (AO), a fluorochrome dye, was extensively studied as an alternative approach to Giemsa ... Acridine Orange for malaria diagnosis: its diagnostic performance, its promotion and implementation in Tanzania, and the ...
By acridine orange staining. ,,,Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get ...
Acidic Vesicular Compartment Quantification by the Acridine Orange Assay. To quantify the volume/amount of the acidic vesicular ... Acridine orange; AMPs, Antimicrobial protein and peptides; BA, Bafilomycin A; CFU, Colony forming unit; XDR, Extensively drug- ... compartment, RAW264.7 macrophage cells were treated with the proteins and were stained with acridine orange (AO, ThermoFisher ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): What Are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)?
9-substituted acridine derivatives with long half-life and potent antitumor activity: synthesis and structure-activity ...
Photo physical properties and estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of acridine orange hemi zinc salt and ... physical properties and estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of acridine orange hemi zinc salt and acridine ...
... acridine orange (AO) staining of thin blood films and the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) method, for the microscopical diagnosis ... Acridine orange fluorescence techniques as alternatives to traditional Giemsa staining for the diagnosis of malaria in ... Acridine orange fluorescence techniques as alternatives to traditional Giemsa staining for the diagnosis of malaria in ... Acridine Orange, Adult, Animals, Azure Stains, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Fluorescent Dyes, Humans, Malaria, Male, ...
Ltd latest company news about Chemiluminescence acridine ester series are more and more widely used. ... acridine ester nsp-dmae-nhs, acridine salt nsp-sa-nhs, acridine salt nsp-sa-nhs, acridine hydrazide nsp-sa-adh, acridine ester ... Chemiluminescence acridine ester series are more and more widely used. Acridine esters have been widely used in the field of ... Application of acridine ester. 1. Determination of tissue type plasminogen activator activity by acridine ester luminescent ...
Acridine and phenothiazine derivatives as pharmacotherapeutics for prion disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Aug 14. 98(17 ...
Acridine. 2714. 133. Zinc resinate. 2715. 133. Aluminum resinate. 2716. 153. 1,4-Butynediol. 2717. 133. Camphor. 2717. 133. ...
  • at one time acridine dyes were popular, but they are now relegated to niche applications, such as with acridine orange. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several dyes and drugs feature the acridine skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • At one time acridine dyes were commercially significant, but they are now uncommon because they are not lightfast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine dyes are prepared by condensation of 1,3-diaminobenzene derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphological features of the roots were assessed using a root scanner, and then attempts were made to stain the roots in four types of dyes: 0.01% methylene blue, 0.01% acridine orange, 0.01% malachite green, and 0.01% carbol fuchsin. (scirp.org)
  • Talking in the Eagle one time, I knew that proflavine… because of my long interest in these damn acridine dyes and their attachment to DNA and all the measurements that had been made in the early '50s by people, though I began to wonder whether in fact there was not another hypothesis. (webofstories.com)
  • Acridine orange (3,6-dimethylaminoacridine) is a nucleic acid-selective metachromatic stain useful for cell cycle determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • I was at a meeting last week and someone mentioned that for acridine orange staining, slides should not be methanol fixed. (bio.net)
  • Rapid diagnosis of malaria using acridine orange (AO) staining and a light microscope with a halogen lamp and interference filter was deployed in some malaria-endemic countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By acridine orange staining. (cdc.gov)
  • Acridine orange fluorescence techniques as alternatives to traditional Giemsa staining for the diagnosis of malaria in developing countries. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Traditional Giemsa-stained thick blood films were compared with 2 fluorescence microscopy techniques, acridine orange (AO) staining of thin blood films and the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) method, for the microscopical diagnosis of malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The cell viability and apoptosis were determined by CCK-8 assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence staining assay. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Like the related molecules pyridine and quinoline, acridine is mildly basic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine is a photobase which has a ground state pKa of 5.1, similar to that of pyridine, and an excited state pKa of 10.6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridines are substituted derivatives of the parent ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine and its derivatives can be prepared by many synthetic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine and related derivatives (such as amsacrine) bind to DNA and RNA due to their abilities to intercalate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9-substituted acridine derivatives with long half-life and potent antitumor activity: synthesis and structure-activity relationships. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Many acridines, such as proflavine, also have antiseptic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle with the formula C13H9N. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen peroxide produced by enzyme reaction oxidizes 10-methyl-9-methylphthalophenyl acridine ester fluorosulfonate in alkaline medium to produce chemiluminescence. (vacutaineradditives.com)
  • As long as the antigen of the disease is prepared and used to coat the solid phase, the acridine ester human IgG antibody marker can be used for determination, which provides meaningful information for clinical diagnosis and pathogenesis research. (vacutaineradditives.com)
  • Desheng has six kinds of acridine ester products with different groups: acridine ester dmae-nhs, acridine ester nsp-dmae-nhs, acridine salt nsp-sa-nhs, acridine salt nsp-sa-nhs, acridine hydrazide nsp-sa-adh, acridine ester me-dmae-nhs. (vacutaineradditives.com)
  • In addition to acridine ester series of chemiluminescence reagents, we also have luminol and isoluminol and other products. (vacutaineradditives.com)
  • Acridine ester is a high-efficiency luminescent reagent that can be used in clinical immunoassa. (kitairu.net)
  • Previous studies by our laboratory have identified a series of 9-amino acridine compounds that block the catalytic cycle of topoisomerase II resulting in apoptosis and cell death in a variety of cancer cell lines. (umn.edu)
  • Pharmacokinetic data collected at time intervals following a 60 mg/kg oral dose of acridine 1 and 2 showed both compounds penetrate the blood-brain barrier yielding peak concentrations of 0.25 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. (umn.edu)
  • Shell type castings did not generate any acridine in emission samples. (cdc.gov)
  • Acridine is separated from coal tar by extracting with dilute sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • When formic acid is the carboxylic acid, the reaction yields the parent acridine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine is easily oxidized by peroxymonosulfuric acid to the acridine amine oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine esters have been widely used in the field of life science, mainly because of their high luminous efficiency, mild reaction conditions, only H2O2 and dilute alkali are needed, and no catalyst is needed to stimulate chemiluminescence (CL). (vacutaineradditives.com)
  • Acridine antibody conjugates can be used for the determination of antibodies produced by bacteria, viruses and human autoimmunity. (vacutaineradditives.com)
  • At present, acridine esters have been successfully synthesized in China, and the properties of acridine esters have been comprehensively analyzed, which provides a favorable condition for the establishment of a sensitive and low-cost quantitative method for t-PA activity. (vacutaineradditives.com)
  • Addition of potassium dichromate to this solution precipitates acridine bichromate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon 9-position of acridine is activated for addition reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other older methods for the organic synthesis of acridines include condensing diphenylamine with chloroform in the presence of aluminium chloride, by passing the vapours of orthoaminodiphenylmethane over heated litharge, by heating salicylaldehyde with aniline and zinc chloride or by distilling acridone (9-position a carbonyl group) over zinc dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although we have added all of the meanings of Acridine with utmost care but there could be human errors in the translation. (meaningin.com)
  • In case you want even more details, you can also consider checking out all of the definitions of the word Acridine. (meaningin.com)
  • Through the modification of its structure, the possibility of acridine esters involved in the establishment of ultramicro immunochemical analysis was greatly increased. (vacutaineradditives.com)
  • Crystal structure of a telomeric RNA G-quadruplex complexed with an acridine-based ligand. (sdsc.edu)
  • Concentrations of acridine from emissions in urethane molds were the highest, 25 micrograms per gram (microg/g), 13microg/g in furan molds, and 37.7microg/g in green sand. (cdc.gov)
  • We have tried our level best to provide you as much detail on how to say Acridine in Urdu as possible so you could understand its correct English to Urdu translation. (meaningin.com)
  • Acridine, a heterocyclic nucleus is a sole moiety in various existing drug molecules such as quinacrine (antimalarial), acriflavine and proflavine (antiseptics), ethacridine (abortifacient), amsacrine and nitracine (anticancer) and tacrine (anti-Alzheimer). (nih.gov)
  • Acridine is a heterocyclic nucleus consisting of three fused rings heterocyclic moiety and a presence of Nitrogen in the ring structure. (ijpsr.com)
  • Acridine orange (3,6-dimethylaminoacridine) is a nucleic acid-selective metachromatic stain useful for cell cycle determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine Orange is a metachromatic dye which can stain DNA, RNA and acid glycosaminoglycans. (umass.edu)
  • The tube is centrifuged and stained with a fluorescent stain, acridine orange. (healthy.net)
  • Samples may also be analyzed with Acridine Orange or Hoechst stain to detect lysosomal organelle structure or nuclear morphology respectively. (immunochemistry.com)
  • In the Bernthsen acridine synthesis, diphenylamine is condensed with carboxylic acids in the presence of zinc chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other older methods for the organic synthesis of acridines include condensing diphenylamine with chloroform in the presence of aluminium chloride, by passing the vapours of orthoaminodiphenylmethane over heated litharge, by heating salicylaldehyde with aniline and zinc chloride or by distilling acridone (9-position a carbonyl group) over zinc dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addition of potassium dichromate to this solution precipitates acridine bichromate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the related molecules pyridine and quinoline, acridine is mildly basic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine nucleus thus plays a potent role in combatting the silent and deadly disease for a better healthy nation. (ijpsr.com)
  • 16. Potent inhibition of telomerase by small-molecule pentacyclic acridines capable of interacting with G-quadruplexes. (nih.gov)
  • Acridine ester coupled with antigen and antibody for chemiluminescence Immunoassay is an advanced and popular technology in the field of in vitro diagnosis. (hbdsbio.com)
  • Acridine is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle with the formula C13H9N. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laser flash photolysis of acridine in various organic solvents (polar, non-polar and hydroxylic) has been carried out. (ias.ac.in)
  • In alkaline H2O2 solution, when the acridine ester molecule is attacked by hydrogen peroxide ion, the substituent on the acridine ring can form an unstable dioxane structure with carbon 9 and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) on the acridine ring. (hbdsbio.com)
  • The carbon 9-position of acridine is activated for addition reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acridine ester series products are ultra-high sensitivity chemiluminescence substrate reagents developed by the company, with high detection sensitivity, no need for light source background interference, and easy automation operation. (hbdsbio.com)
  • Shell type castings did not generate any acridine in emission samples. (cdc.gov)
  • High end biochemical reagents such as acridine ester are gradually replacing imported ones with domestic ones. (hbdsbio.com)
  • In addition, some experimenters found that the luminous efficiency of acridine ester is sometimes high and sometimes low, which is usually caused by the instability of the labeling efficiency. (hbdsbio.com)
  • The value of high luminous efficiency can be measured, indicating that there is no problem with the luminescence of acridine ester. (hbdsbio.com)
  • Biphotonic ionisation of acridine occurs at high laser intensities and is more efficient in hydroxylic solvents compared to benzene or acetonitrile. (ias.ac.in)
  • Several dyes and drugs feature the acridine skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unique qualities of acridines are primarily attractive due to the possibility of using them for the purpose-oriented designing of drugs. (ijpsr.com)
  • Thus, acridines were used as a basis to create the specific regulatory HIV-1 elements, proliferation inhibitors of leukemia cells, and new anti-tumor drugs. (ijpsr.com)
  • In these experiments they used acridine mutants of viral DNA (mutants produced by chemicals of the acridine type, such as proflavin, which trigger additions to or deletions from the base sequence) in order to demonstrate that the genetic code was a three-letter code. (nih.gov)
  • At one time acridine dyes were commercially significant, but they are now uncommon because they are not lightfast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, there will be a significant increase in domestic acridine ester and other chemiluminescent reagents in 2022. (hbdsbio.com)
  • Concentrations of acridine from emissions in urethane molds were the highest, 25 micrograms per gram (microg/g), 13microg/g in furan molds, and 37.7microg/g in green sand. (cdc.gov)
  • Acridine is known to induce small insertions or deletions in nucleotide sequences, resulting in frameshift mutations. (wikipedia.org)