A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
Acridines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of a planar, unsaturated ring system, which have been widely used in chemotherapy and have also found applications in dye industries and fluorescence microscopy.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.
Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Plasmids which determine the ability of a bacterium to ferment lactose.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Phenazines are nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds that have been widely studied for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic properties, and can be found in various natural sources such as bacteria and fungi, or synthesized chemically.
An aniline dye used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic agent. It is weakly fluorescing and binds specifically to certain proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.
A neoplasm containing HISTIOCYTES. Important forms include BENIGN FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA; and MALIGNANT FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.

Comparison of five methods of malaria detection in the outpatient setting. (1/413)

In eastern Africa where 90% of the malaria is due to Plasmodium falciparum, the accuracy of malaria diagnosis at the outpatient level is becoming increasingly important due to problems of drug resistance and use of alternative, costly antimalarial drugs. The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique, acridine orange staining with an interference filter system, and the ParaSight-F test have been introduced as alternative methods to conventional microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria. Two hundred thirteen outpatients were tested using these alternative methods and conventional microscopy by five experienced technologists; two were randomly allocated to read the results of each test. Paired results showed the highest level of agreement with the ParaSight-F test (99%), followed by Field stain (92%). The results of the QBC technique showed the least agreement (73%). Using conventional microscopy as the reference standard, the ParaSight-F test had a sensitivity range of 90-92% and a specificity of 99%, staining with acridine orange had a sensitivity range of 77-96% and a specificity range of 81-98% and the QBC technique had a sensitivity range of 88-98% and a specificity range of 58-90%. All microscopic tests showed lower sensitivities (as low as 20% using staining with acridine orange) in detecting low parasitemias (< or = 320/microl) than the ParaSight-F test (70%). Due to the high cost of the ParaSight-F test, Field-stained blood films remain the most appropriate method for diagnosis of P. falciparum in eastern Africa. The ParaSight-F test may be used in situations where no trained microscopists are available, or where malaria is strongly suspected and the results of microscopy are negative.  (+info)

Destruction of protamine in human sperm inhibits sperm binding and penetration in the zona-free hamster penetration test but increases sperm head decondensation and male pronuclear formation in the hamster-ICSI assay. (2/413)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to investigate the fertilizing ability of human protamine-damaged sperm in a heterologous system using hamster oocytes. METHODS: The protamine of the sperm were damaged by exposure to dithiothreitol, a disulfide-reducing agent. Their ability to penetrate and form male pronuclei were investigated using the zona-free hamster penetration test and the hamster-intracytoplasmic sperm injection assay, respectively. RESULTS: The zona-free hamster penetration test revealed that protamine-damaged sperm are unable to bind and penetrate the hamster oocyte. On the other hand, hamster-intracytoplasmic sperm injection assay results showed that 56.9% and 39.2% of the injected oocytes developed male pronuclei in protamine-damaged and live-intact sperm groups, respectively, with a significant difference in these rates (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that protamine-damaged sperm are able to undergo sperm head decondensation and male pronuclear formation only when injected into the ooplasm, although they cannot bind and penetrate through the zona and enter the ooplasm.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis and necrosis in bovine corneal endothelial cells. (3/413)

PURPOSE: The loss of corneal endothelial cells associated with aging and possibly other causes has been speculated to be related to exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The current study was conducted to investigate, by use of photosensitizers, the underlying mechanisms involved in the death of bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCENs) caused by ROS. METHODS: BCEN cells in primary culture were treated with a photosensitizer (riboflavin or rose bengal) with light exposure. The patterns of cell damage and death were assessed using an acridine orange-ethidium bromide differential staining method, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity was assayed by mitochondrial function using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) testing. Antioxidants, including catalase, L-histidine, salicylic acid, and superoxide dismutase, were used to determine the types of ROS involved. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB was examined by fluorescent immunocytochemistry with anti-p65 antibody. RESULTS: Light-irradiated riboflavin or rose bengal resulted in a significant decrease in viability of BCEN cells. Chromosomal condensation and fragmentation were observed in apoptotic cells, and membrane lysis and damage of cell ultrastructures were observed in necrotic cells. Riboflavin induced apoptosis at 30 minutes and thereafter and induced necrosis after 2 hours. Rose bengal was shown to cause similar effects within half the time required for the effects of riboflavin. Catalase and salicylic acid were found to provide protection for BCENs from cytotoxic effects of riboflavin, and L-histidine was found to protect BCENs from cytotoxicity induced by rose bengal. Kinetic studies using immunocytochemistry showed that NF-kappaB was translocated into the nucleus within 15 minutes and 30 minutes after treatment with rose bengal and riboflavin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cytotoxic effects of photo-irradiated riboflavin and rose bengal are shown to be mediated by two distinct but parallel pathways, one leading to apoptosis and the other to necrosis. Possible involvement of NF-kappaB in cell death is suggested. These findings provide potential leads for future investigation into the molecular mechanisms of loss of corneal endothelial cells related to aging, oxidative stress, and possibly other similar causes.  (+info)

Differential chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to ganciclovir treatment following adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transfer. (4/413)

The development of resistance to radiation and chemotherapeutic agents that cause DNA damage is a major problem for the treatment of breast and other cancers. The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a direct role in the signaling of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, and p53 gene mutations have been correlated with increased resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene transfer followed by ganciclovir (GCV) treatment is a novel tumor ablation strategy that has shown good success in a variety of experimental tumor models. However, GCV cytotoxicity is believed to be mediated by DNA damage-induced apoptosis, and the relationship between p53 gene status, p53-mediated apoptosis, and the sensitivity of human tumors to HSV-tk/GCV treatment has not been firmly established. To address this issue, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of adenovirus-mediated HSV-tk gene transfer and GCV treatment in two human breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 cells, which express wild-type p53, and MDA-MB-468 cells, which express high levels of a mutant p53 (273 Arg-His). Treating MCF-7 cells with AdHSV-tk/GCV led to the predicted increase in endogenous p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 protein levels, and apoptosis was observed in a significant proportion of the target cell population. However, treating MDA-MB-468 cells under the same conditions resulted in a much stronger apoptotic response in the absence of induction in p21WAF1/CIP1 protein levels. This latter result suggested that HSV-tk/GCV treatment can activate a strong p53-independent apoptotic response in tumor cells that lack functional p53. To confirm this observation, four additional human breast cancer cell lines expressing mutant p53 were examined. Although a significant degree of variability in GCV chemosensitivity was observed in these cell lines, all displayed a greater reduction in cell viability than MCF-7 or normal mammary cells treated under the same conditions. These results suggest that endogenous p53 status does not correlate with chemosensitivity to HSV-tk/GCV treatment. Furthermore, evidence for a p53-independent apoptotic response serves to extend the potential of this therapeutic strategy to tumors that express mutant p53 and that may have developed resistance to conventional genotoxic agents.  (+info)

Evanescent-wave microscopy: a new tool to gain insight into the control of transmitter release. (5/413)

Evanescent-wave excitation was used to visualize individual fluorescently labelled vesicles in an optical slice near the plasma membrane of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. A standard upright microscope was modified to accommodate the optics used for directing a laser beam under a supracritical angle on to the glass-water interface on top of which the cells are grown. Whereas epi-illumination images appeared blurred and structureless, evanescent-wave excitation highlighted acridine orange-labelled vesicles as individual pinpoints. Three-dimensional (3D) trajectories of individual vesicles were obtained from time-resolved image stacks and used to characterize vesicles in terms of their average fluorescence F and mobility, expressed here as the 3D diffusion coefficient D(3). Based on the single-vesicle analysis, two groups of vesicles were identified. Transitions between these states were studied before and after stimulation of exocytosis by repetitive or maintained membrane depolarizations by elevated extracellular [K+]. Findings were interpreted as sequential transitions between the previously characterized pools of vesicles preceding the fusion step. The observed approach of vesicles to their docking sites was not explained in terms of free diffusion: most vesicles moved unidirectionally as if directed to their binding sites at the plasma membrane. Vesicle mobility at the membrane was low, such that the sites of docking and fusion were in close vicinity. Both the rim region and confined areas in the centre of the footprint region were the site of intense vesicle trafficking.  (+info)

Arrest of endosome acidification by bafilomycin A1 mimics insulin action on GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (6/413)

In insulin-sensitive fat and muscle cells, the major glucose transporter GLUT4 is constitutively sequestered in endosomal tubulovesicular membranes, and moves to the cell surface in response to insulin. While sequence information within GLUT4 appears to be responsible for its constitutive intracellular sequestration, the regulatory elements and mechanisms that enable this protein to achieve its unique sorting pattern under basal and insulin-stimulated conditions are poorly understood. We show here that arrest of endosome acidification in insulin-sensitive 3T3-L1 adipocytes by bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar proton pump, results in the rapid and dose-dependent translocation of GLUT4 from the cell interior to the membrane surface; the effects of maximally stimulatory concentrations of bafilomycin A1 (400-800 nM) were equivalent to 50-65% of the effects of acute insulin treatment. Like insulin, bafilomycin A1 induced the redistribution of GLUT1 and Rab4, but not that of other proteins whose membrane localization has been shown to be insulin-insensitive. Studies to address the mechanism of this effect demonstrated that neither autophosphorylation nor internalization of the insulin receptor was altered by bafilomycin A1 treatment. Bafilomycin-induced GLUT4 translocation was not blocked by cell pretreatment with wortmannin. Taken together, these data indicate that arrest of endosome acidification mimics insulin action on GLUT4 and GLUT1 translocation by a mechanism distal to insulin receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, and suggest an important role for endosomal pH in the membrane dynamics of the glucose transporters.  (+info)

Radiation-induced leukocyte entrapment in the rat retinal microcirculation. (7/413)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of irradiation on leukocyte dynamics in the rat retinal microcirculation. METHODS: Thirty-five Brown-Norway rats received a dose of 10 Gy irradiation in one fraction. Leukocyte dynamics were studied with acridine orange digital fluorography, in which a nuclear fluorescent dye of acridine orange is used and examined by scanning laser ophthalmoscope. This technique allowed visualization of fluorescent leukocytes in vivo. The leukocyte dynamics were evaluated at 0, 4, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days after the irradiation. RESULTS: Mean leukocyte velocity in the retinal capillaries decreased immediately. It partially recovered on day 4 but then gradually decreased up to the 2-month mark. Low-dose irradiation induced entrapment of leukocytes in the retinal microcirculation. The number of entrapped leukocytes gradually increased with time. The major retinal vessels significantly constricted immediately after irradiation. The diameter was reduced by 76% in arteries and 75% in veins, 2 months after irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: Entrapped leukocytes may be activated and exacerbate vascular injury and microinfarction and thus may participate in the pathogenesis of radiation retinopathy.  (+info)

Tick-borne relapsing fever imported from West Africa: diagnosis by quantitative buffy coat analysis and in vitro culture of Borrelia crocidurae. (8/413)

West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is difficult to diagnose due to the low number of spirochetes in the bloodstream of patients. Previously, the causative microorganism, Borrelia crocidurae, had never been cultured in vitro. TBRF was rapidly diagnosed for two patients returning from western Africa with fever of unknown origin by quantitative buffy coat (QBC) analysis. Diagnosis was confirmed by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood specimens from patients into laboratory mice. In vitro experiments showed that QBC analysis may be as much as 100-fold more sensitive than thick smear. Spirochetes were also cultured from blood samples from both patients in modified Kelly's medium and were identified as B. crocidurae by partial sequencing of the PCR-amplified rrs gene.  (+info)

Acridine Orange is a fluorescent dye commonly used in various scientific applications, particularly in the field of cytology and microbiology. Its chemical formula is C17H19N3O.

In medical terms, Acridine Orange is often used as a supravital stain to differentiate between live and dead cells or to identify bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms in samples. It can also be used to detect abnormalities in DNA and RNA, making it useful in the identification of certain types of cancerous cells.

When exposed to ultraviolet light, Acridine Orange exhibits a green fluorescence when bound to double-stranded DNA and a red or orange-red fluorescence when bound to single-stranded RNA. This property makes it a valuable tool in the study of cell division, gene expression, and other biological processes that involve nucleic acids.

However, it is important to note that Acridine Orange can be toxic to living cells in high concentrations or with prolonged exposure, so it must be used carefully and in accordance with established safety protocols.

Acridines are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a nucleus of three fused benzene rings and a nitrogen atom. They have a wide range of applications, including in the development of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer and antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic drugs. Some acridines also exhibit fluorescent properties and are used in research and diagnostic applications.

In medicine, some acridine derivatives have been found to intercalate with DNA, disrupting its structure and function, which can lead to the death of cancer cells. For example, the acridine derivative proflavin has been used as an antiseptic and in the treatment of certain types of cancer. However, many acridines also have toxic side effects, limiting their clinical use.

It is important to note that while acridines have potential therapeutic uses, they should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can cause harm if not used properly.

'Citrus sinensis' is the scientific name for the fruit species more commonly known as sweet oranges. These are popular fruits that belong to the Rutaceae family and have originated in Southeast Asia. Sweet oranges are widely cultivated and consumed all over the world, both fresh and as juice. They have a sweet taste and juicy pulp, enclosed in a thick and fragrant orange-colored peel. Some well-known varieties of 'Citrus sinensis' include Navel, Valencia, and Blood oranges.

Aminoacridines are a group of synthetic chemical compounds that contain an acridine nucleus, which is a tricyclic aromatic structure, substituted with one or more amino groups. These compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties, particularly as antiseptics and antibacterial agents. However, their use in medicine has declined due to the development of newer and safer antibiotics. Some aminoacridines also exhibit antimalarial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. They can intercalate into DNA, disrupting its structure and function, which is thought to contribute to their antimicrobial effects. However, this property also makes them potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic, limiting their clinical use.

'Staining and labeling' are techniques commonly used in pathology, histology, cytology, and molecular biology to highlight or identify specific components or structures within tissues, cells, or molecules. These methods enable researchers and medical professionals to visualize and analyze the distribution, localization, and interaction of biological entities, contributing to a better understanding of diseases, cellular processes, and potential therapeutic targets.

Medical definitions for 'staining' and 'labeling' are as follows:

1. Staining: A process that involves applying dyes or stains to tissues, cells, or molecules to enhance their contrast and reveal specific structures or components. Stains can be categorized into basic stains (which highlight acidic structures) and acidic stains (which highlight basic structures). Common staining techniques include Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), which differentiates cell nuclei from the surrounding cytoplasm and extracellular matrix; special stains, such as PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) for carbohydrates or Masson's trichrome for collagen fibers; and immunostains, which use antibodies to target specific proteins.
2. Labeling: A process that involves attaching a detectable marker or tag to a molecule of interest, allowing its identification, quantification, or tracking within a biological system. Labels can be direct, where the marker is directly conjugated to the targeting molecule, or indirect, where an intermediate linker molecule is used to attach the label to the target. Common labeling techniques include fluorescent labels (such as FITC, TRITC, or Alexa Fluor), enzymatic labels (such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase), and radioactive labels (such as ³²P or ¹⁴C). Labeling is often used in conjunction with staining techniques to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of detection.

Together, staining and labeling provide valuable tools for medical research, diagnostics, and therapeutic development, offering insights into cellular and molecular processes that underlie health and disease.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

Ethidium is a fluorescent, intercalating compound that is often used in molecular biology to stain DNA. When ethidium bromide, a common form of ethidium, binds to DNA, it causes the DNA to fluoresce brightly under ultraviolet light. This property makes it useful for visualizing DNA bands on gels, such as agarose or polyacrylamide gels, during techniques like gel electrophoresis.

It is important to note that ethidium bromide is a mutagen and should be handled with care. It can cause damage to DNA, which can lead to mutations, and it can also be harmful if inhaled or ingested. Therefore, appropriate safety precautions must be taken when working with this compound.

Intercalating agents are chemical substances that can be inserted between the stacked bases of DNA, creating a separation or "intercalation" of the base pairs. This property is often exploited in cancer chemotherapy, where intercalating agents like doxorubicin and daunorubicin are used to inhibit the replication and transcription of cancer cells by preventing the normal functioning of their DNA. However, these agents can also have toxic effects on normal cells, particularly those that divide rapidly, such as bone marrow and gut epithelial cells. Therefore, their use must be carefully monitored and balanced against their therapeutic benefits.

'Azure stains' is a term used in pathology to describe a histological staining technique that uses a type of dye called methyl blue, which turns the stained structures a blue-purple color. This technique is often used to stain acid mucins, which are found in various types of tissues and can be indicative of certain medical conditions.

In particular, azure stains are sometimes used to help diagnose certain types of cancer, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, a type of salivary gland tumor that produces acid mucins. The staining technique can help pathologists identify the presence and distribution of these mucins within the tumor cells, which can aid in making an accurate diagnosis and determining the best course of treatment.

It's worth noting that there are several different types of histological stains that use various dyes to highlight different structures or features within tissues. Azure stains are just one example of these techniques, and they are typically used in conjunction with other staining methods to provide a comprehensive picture of the tissue being examined.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lactose factors" is not a standard term in medicine or nutrition. Lactose is a sugar found in milk and dairy products, and lactose intolerance is a common condition where people have difficulty digesting lactose due to a lack of the enzyme lactase. However, there's no recognized concept called "lactose factors."

If you have any more context or details about where you encountered this term, I'd be happy to try and help further!

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

Gentian Violet is not a medical term per se, but it is a substance that has been used in medicine. According to the US National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus, Gentian Violet is a type of crystal violet dye that has antifungal and antibacterial properties. It is often used as a topical treatment for minor cuts, burns, and wounds, as well as for fungal infections such as thrush (oral candidiasis) and athlete's foot. Gentian Violet can also be used to treat ringworm and impetigo. However, it should not be used in the eyes or mouth, and it should be used with caution on broken skin, as it can cause irritation. Additionally, there is some concern that long-term use of Gentian Violet may be carcinogenic (cancer-causing), so its use should be limited to short periods of time and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

'Citrus' is a genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. It includes several species of shrubs and trees that produce fruits known as citrus fruits. Some common examples of citrus fruits are oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruits, and pomelos. These fruits are popular for their juicy pulp and fragrant zest, which are used in a wide variety of culinary applications around the world.

Citrus fruits are also known for their high vitamin C content and other health benefits. They contain various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and carotenoids, which have antioxidant properties and may help protect against chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, citrus fruits are a good source of dietary fiber, which can aid in digestion and help regulate blood sugar levels.

In medical terms, citrus fruits may be recommended as part of a healthy diet to help prevent nutrient deficiencies and promote overall health. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergies or sensitivities to citrus fruits, which can cause symptoms like mouth irritation, hives, or anaphylaxis in severe cases. Additionally, citrus fruits can interact with certain medications, so it's always a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider before making any significant changes to your diet.

Coloring agents, also known as food dyes or color additives, are substances that are added to foods, medications, and cosmetics to improve their appearance by giving them a specific color. These agents can be made from both synthetic and natural sources. They must be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be used in products intended for human consumption.

Coloring agents are used for various reasons, including:

* To replace color lost during food processing or preparation
* To make foods more visually appealing
* To help consumers easily identify certain types of food
* To indicate the flavor of a product (e.g., fruit-flavored candies)

It's important to note that while coloring agents can enhance the appearance of products, they do not affect their taste or nutritional value. Some people may have allergic reactions to certain coloring agents, so it's essential to check product labels if you have any known allergies. Additionally, excessive consumption of some synthetic coloring agents has been linked to health concerns, so moderation is key.

Cardiolipins are a type of phospholipid that are primarily found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of cells. They play a crucial role in several important cellular processes, including energy production, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and maintenance of the structural integrity of the mitochondria.

Cardiolipins are unique because they contain four fatty acid chains, whereas most other phospholipids contain only two. This gives cardiolipins a distinctive conical shape that is important for their function in maintaining the curvature and stability of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Cardiolipins have also been implicated in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and bacterial infections. For example, changes in cardiolipin composition or distribution have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and other neurological conditions. Additionally, certain bacteria, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, can manipulate host cell cardiolipins to facilitate their own survival and replication.

In summary, cardiolipins are essential phospholipids found in the inner mitochondrial membrane that play a critical role in several cellular processes, and have been implicated in various diseases.

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for breaking down and recycling various materials, such as waste products, foreign substances, and damaged cellular components, through a process called autophagy or phagocytosis. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into their basic building blocks, which can then be reused by the cell. They play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are often referred to as the "garbage disposal system" of the cell.

Phenazines are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that consist of two nitrogen atoms connected by a five-membered ring. They are naturally occurring in various species of bacteria and fungi, where they play a role in chemical defense and communication. Some phenazines have been found to have antibiotic, antifungal, and antiparasitic properties. Synthetic phenazines are also used in various industrial applications, such as dyes and pigments, and as components in some pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

I apologize, but I am not able to find a medical definition for "Benzophenoneidum." It is possible that this term may be used in other scientific fields, such as chemistry or materials science, but it does not appear to have a specific meaning within the field of medicine.

Benzophenones are a class of chemical compounds that contain a benzene ring linked to a ketone group through a carbon-carbon bond. They are often used in industrial and consumer products as UV absorbers, fragrances, and photographic developers. Some benzophenones have been studied for their potential toxicity and endocrine-disrupting effects, but they do not have a specific medical definition or application.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if you need information on a related topic, please let me know!

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Aminacrine is a type of medication known as an antineoplastic agent or chemotherapeutic drug. It is primarily used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Aminacrine works by interfering with the DNA replication process within cancer cells, which helps to inhibit the growth and proliferation of these cells.

The chemical name for aminacrine is 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate. It has a yellowish crystalline appearance and is typically administered intravenously in a hospital setting. Common side effects of aminacrine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and hair loss. More serious side effects can include heart rhythm abnormalities, seizures, and lung or kidney damage.

It's important to note that the use of aminacrine is typically reserved for cases where other cancer treatments have not been effective, due to its potential for serious side effects. As with all medications, it should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Histiocytoma is a general term used to describe a group of disorders characterized by an abnormal accumulation or proliferation of histiocytes, which are a type of immune cell. These cells normally play a role in fighting infection and helping to heal wounds. However, when they multiply excessively, they can form tumors known as histiocytomas.

There are several types of histiocytomas, including:

1. Cutaneous histiocytoma: This is the most common type of histiocytoma, which typically appears as a small, raised, hairless, and pink or red bump on the skin. It usually affects dogs, but can also occur in cats and rarely in humans. These tumors are benign and often regress spontaneously within a few months.
2. Systemic histiocytoses: These are less common types of histiocytomas that involve multiple organs and tissues throughout the body. They can be further classified into several subtypes, such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), and malignant histiocytosis. These conditions can range from benign to malignant and may require aggressive treatment, including chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that while histiocytomas are generally benign, they can sometimes mimic other more serious conditions. Therefore, it is essential to have any suspicious growths evaluated by a veterinarian or healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and management.

Fluorophotometry is a medical diagnostic technique that measures the concentration of fluorescein dye in various tissues, particularly the eye. This technique utilizes a specialized instrument called a fluorophotometer which emits light at a specific wavelength that causes the fluorescein to emit light at a longer wavelength. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of fluorescein in the tissue.

Fluorophotometry is often used in ophthalmology to assess the permeability of the blood-retinal barrier, which can be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and uveitis. It may also have applications in other medical fields for measuring the concentration of fluorescent markers in various tissues.

... and fluorescein have a maximum excitation at 502nm and 525 nm (green). When acridine orange associates with RNA ... Acridine orange is useful in the rapid screening of ordinarily sterile specimens. When acridine orange is used with flow ... When the pH of the environment is 3.5, acridine orange becomes excited by blue light (460 nm). When acridine orange is excited ... using acridine orange is a method known for examining the microbial content within food and water. The use of acridine orange ...
... damages DNA and is used as a mutagen in microbiology. Acridine yellow is similar to acridine orange. According ... Acridine yellow, also known as acridine yellow G, acridine yellow H107, basic yellow K, and 3,6-diamino-2,7-dimethylacridine, ... It is a derivate of acridine. In histology, it is used as a fluorescent stain, and as a fluorescent probe for non-invasive ... Acridine yellow absorption and emission spectra v t e (Articles needing additional references from July 2021, All articles ...
... and related derivatives (such as amsacrine) bind to DNA and RNA due to their abilities to intercalate. Acridine orange ... Acridine is easily oxidized by peroxymonosulfuric acid to the acridine amine oxide. The carbon 9-position of acridine is ... at one time acridine dyes were popular, but they are now relegated to niche applications, such as with acridine orange. The ... biologically active acridines, applications of acridines, new syntheses and reactions of acridines] Wikisource has original ...
... also binds to acridine orange. Chlorophyllin has been validated to exhibit ameliorative effects against food ...
Acridine derivatives: proflavin, acridine orange, acridine yellow, etc. Arylmethine derivatives: auramine, crystal violet, ... DRAQ7 and CyTRAK Orange Pyrene derivatives: cascade blue, etc. Oxazine derivatives: Nile red, Nile blue, cresyl violet, oxazine ...
Darzynkiewicz Z, Kapuscinski J. (1990)"Acridine Orange, a Versatile Probe of Nucleic Acids and Other Cell Constituents." ... Another example of metachromatic dye (fluorochrome) is acridine orange. Under certain conditions it stains single-stranded ...
Hathaway WE, Newby LA, Githens JH (1964). "The Acridine Orange Viability Test Applied to Bone Marrow Cells. I. Correlation with ...
Cell apoptosis is tested by treating the lysosomal membrane with acridine orange. Acridine orange radiates a red fluorescent ...
Traganos F, Darzynkiewicz Z (1994). "Lysosomal proton pump activity: supravital cell staining with acridine orange ...
... consists of two acridine orange subunits that are bridged by a linear oxygenated spacer. Its fluorophore, and ... Ethidium bromide GelRed SYBR Green I Agarose gel electrophoresis and gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids Acridine orange US ... therefore its optical properties, are essentially identical to those of other N-alkylacridinium orange dyes. When exposed to ...
Acridine orange (AO) is a nucleic acid selective fluorescent cationic dye useful for cell cycle determination. It is cell- ... The stain may also be used in conjunction with acridine orange (AO) in viable cell counting. This EB/AO combined stain causes ... In a skillfully made H&E preparation the red blood cells are almost orange, and collagen and cytoplasm (especially muscle) ... It uses a combination of haematoxylin, Orange G, eosin Y, Light Green SF yellowish, and sometimes Bismarck Brown Y. Periodic ...
Acridine orange (AO) staining: Next, 1.20 ml of AO staining solution with 6 µg AO/ml staining buffer is added into the mixture ... Through acridine orange (AO) staining, AO molecules are intercalated into double-stranded DNA in intact sperms while ... Acridine orange test and toluidine blue assay". Andrologia. 49 (10): e12765. doi:10.1111/and.12765. PMID 28224638. S2CID ...
1977). Bacterial cells were counted with an epifluorescence microscope, producing what is called an "acridine orange direct ...
Several dyes have been studied for MUSE's application, including eosin, rhodamine, DAPI, Hoechst, acridine orange, propidium ...
The blood is taken in a QBC capillary tube which is coated with acridine orange (a fluorescent dye) and centrifuged; the ...
The blood is taken in a QBC capillary tube which is coated with acridine orange (a fluorescent dye) and centrifuged; the ...
Fluorescent dyes include DAPI, Acridine Orange, SYBR Green 1, and YO-PRO-1, all of which are capable of staining both DNA and ... Gonzalez K, Mcvey S, Cunnick J, Udovichenko IP, Takemoto DJ (1995). "Acridine orange differential staining of total DNA and RNA ... while Synechococcus emits both orange and red fluorescence; orange from phycobilins and red from chlorophyll. Besides ...
Cooperative Complex Formation of Acridine Orange with poly-l-glutamic Acid] (in German). University of California. OCLC ...
M Garciafernandez; D Ceccarelli; U Muscatello (2004). "Use of the fluorescent dye 10-N-nonyl acridine orange in quantitative ... Jacobson J, Duchen MR, Heales SJ (2002). "Intracellular distribution of the fluorescent dye nonyl acridine orange responds to ... Keij JF, Bell-Prince C, Steinkamp JA (2000). "Staining of mitochondrial membranes with 10-nonyl acridine orange, MitoFluor ... Based on this special structure, the fluorescent mitochondrial indicator, nonyl acridine orange (NAO) was introduced in 1982, ...
Affected cells do not exhibit hallmarks of apoptosis but rather autophagy as seen by staining with acridine orange and ...
B. turicatae is best seen by dark-field microscopy, but the organisms can also be detected using acridine orange or Wright's ...
They applied high alternating voltages in air to materials such as acridine orange dye, either deposited on or dissolved in ...
... as revealed by acridine orange staining and PCR-based diagnoses". Tropical Medicine and International Health. 3 (4): 304-312. ...
... acridine orange stain, and phase-contrast microscopy. It is capable of forming biofilms and can convert from spiral to a ...
An exception is the metachromatic fluorochrome acridine orange, which under the specific staining protocol can differentially ... or DNA susceptibility to denaturation at low pH using the metachromatic dye acridine orange, reveals the G1Q, G1A, and G1B cell ... Aside from propidium iodide and acridine orange, quantifiable dyes that are frequently used include (but are not limited to) ...
... when Bernanose and coworkers first produced electroluminescence in crystalline thin films of acridine orange and quinacrine. In ...
... include acridine orange, methylene blue, curcumin, and indocyanine green. A study by Suzuki et al. used acridine orange, a ...
... acridine orange MeSH D03.494.046.250.177 - acriflavine MeSH D03.494.046.250.200 - aminacrine MeSH D03.494.046.250.225 - ...
Nonyl Acridine Orange, a fluorescent die. It can stain cardiolipin content of mitochondria. North Atlantic oscillation, a ...
Psoralens, coal tars, photo-active dyes (eosin, acridine orange) Musk ambrette, methylcoumarin, lemon oil (may be present in ... In these areas an unsightly orange to brown tint may form, usually near or on the face. Many medications and conditions can ...
Acridine orange and fluorescein have a maximum excitation at 502nm and 525 nm (green). When acridine orange associates with RNA ... Acridine orange is useful in the rapid screening of ordinarily sterile specimens. When acridine orange is used with flow ... When the pH of the environment is 3.5, acridine orange becomes excited by blue light (460 nm). When acridine orange is excited ... using acridine orange is a method known for examining the microbial content within food and water. The use of acridine orange ...
... Gary Lum glum at ozemail.com.au Fri Oct 10 05:57:03 EST 1997 *Previous message: ... I was at a meeting last week and someone mentioned that for acridine orange staining, slides should not be methanol fixed. Can ...
Induction of apoptosis in human HT1080 cells assessed as nucleus fragmentation after 72 hrs by acridine orange staining based ...
Acridine Orange+DNA. 2018년 5월 28일. Jae Hwan Jin ... Acridine Orange+DNA Spectrum. Excitation (㎚). Emission (㎚). 500 ...
3.1 Acridine orange staining for apoptosis Follow the same protocol used for cell cycle analysis of cells. The apoptotic ... 2.3 DNA-RNA Differential Staining Using Acridine Orange Reagents. *Stock solution AO: 1 mg/mL ... Add 2.0 mL of 5 µg/mL acridine orange in a buffer containing 0.1M citric acid, 0.2M Na2HPO4 at pH 2.6. ... When acquiring a sample for acridine orange, The doublet discrimination (DDM) function of the FACScan must be on. The DDM ...
For acridine orange staining, embryos were manually dechorionated and incubated in acridine orange (0.5μl of 4% acridine orange ... A-F) 1-cell stage of embryos were injected with either MOctrl or MOesrra, raised and subjected to acridine orange stain to ... In situ hybridization, immunostaining, acridine orange staining and alcian blue staining. In situ hybridization and ... embryos displaying an increased number of apoptotic cells in the central nervous system at 1 dpf by acridine orange staining ( ...
Rapid diagnosis of malaria using acridine orange (AO) staining and a light microscope with a halogen lamp and interference ... Kimura, M., Teramoto, I., Chan, C.W. et al. Improvement of malaria diagnostic system based on acridine orange staining. Malar J ... Rapid staining by acridine orange (AO), a fluorochrome dye, was extensively studied as an alternative approach to Giemsa ... Acridine Orange for malaria diagnosis: its diagnostic performance, its promotion and implementation in Tanzania, and the ...
Acidic Vesicular Compartment Quantification by the Acridine Orange Assay. To quantify the volume/amount of the acidic vesicular ... Acridine orange; AMPs, Antimicrobial protein and peptides; BA, Bafilomycin A; CFU, Colony forming unit; XDR, Extensively drug- ... RAW264.7 macrophage cells were treated with the proteins and were stained with acridine orange (AO, ThermoFisher Scientific, ...
By acridine orange staining. ,,,Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get ...
Photo physical properties and estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of acridine orange hemi zinc salt and ... physical properties and estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of acridine orange hemi zinc salt and acridine ...
... acridine orange (AO) staining of thin blood films and the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) method, for the microscopical diagnosis ... Acridine orange fluorescence techniques as alternatives to traditional Giemsa staining for the diagnosis of malaria in ... Acridine orange fluorescence techniques as alternatives to traditional Giemsa staining for the diagnosis of malaria in ... Acridine Orange, Adult, Animals, Azure Stains, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Fluorescent Dyes, Humans, Malaria, Male, ...
Ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining. The fluorescent DNA-binding dyes ethidium bromide and acridine orange were used ... Whereas acridine orange is membrane-permeable and stains living cells, ethidium homodimer cannot penetrate intact cellular ... Shown are micrographs of ethidium bromide/acridine orange-stained (A; magnification 400×) and TUNEL-stained (B; magnification ... illustrated by representative fluorescent micrographs of OGD-challenged neurons stained with ethidium bromide/acridine orange ( ...
Upon close association of the GFP-tagged POI with Sytox-Orange-stained nucleic acids, a substantial decrease of the GFP ... After sample fixation and cell wall permeabilization, leaves are treated with Sytox Orange, a nucleic acid dye that can ... Green fluorescence is due to DNA binding ability of Acridine Orange. Presence of RNA allows Acridine Orange to emit red ... Scale bar: 10μm B: Overview of the fluorescence of Acridine Orange stained nuclei after RNase treatment. ...
Any granulomatous lesions were then stained with a modified Ziehl-Neelson procedure and an auramine orange and acridine orange ... Auramine O and acridine orange staining procedure. In: Standard operating procedure. Ames (IA): Center for Veterinary Biologics ...
A-F, Acridine orange and FM1-43 labeling, respectively, of HCs in live zebrafish larvae (A-C, 7 dpf; D-F, 5 dpf) of indicated ... We labeled live larvae (7 dpf) with the cell-death marker acridine orange. NM HC nuclei of gemtc123d and gemtn004 homozygotes ... FM1-43- and acridine orange-labeled larvae were examined under a fluorescence microscope using 10-20× objectives and a 63× ... Phalloidin, FM1-43, and acridine orange labeling. Five days postfertilization (dpf), larvae were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde ( ...
Gender Determination in Deciduous Pulp Tissue using Barr Bodies by Comparing Feulgen Stain, Acridine Orange, and Papanicolaou ...
Acridine Orange. 503. 530/640. DNA/RNA. SYTOX Green. 504. 523. ~600 DNA ...
Acridine Orange(AO)/Propidium Iodide (PI) Double Staining Morphological Analysis. Approximately cells/mL of HT29 were seeded ... Acridine Orange (AO)/Propidium Iodide (PI) Double Staining Morphological Analysis. AO/PI double staining morphological analysis ... Acridine orange, trypan blue, and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (Sigma-Aldrich Co., St. ... DNA-binding dye acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) were used for morphological detection of apoptotic and necrotic ...
Slides were stained by immersion in 125 μg/mL Acridine Orange in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 6.8 for approximately 10 ... STAIN (for cytogenetic assays): Acridine Orange. NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: A, B. Sets of duplicate cultures were exposed to the ... STAIN (for cytogenetic assays): Acridine Orange in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). METHODS OF SLIDE PREPARATION AND STAINING ... other: Acridine mutagen (ICR-191), 2-Aminoanthracene (2-AA). Details on test system and experimental conditions:. METHOD OF ...
39009 - AT - Acridine Orange/Di-8-ANEPPS. 39010 - AT - Texas Red/mCherry/AlexaFluor 594. ...
Detection of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana by routine acridine orange staining of broth blood cultures. J Clin Micro. June/ ...
The cells were incubated with acridine orange (1 µg/ml) 24 h later at 37°C. After 30 min, the acridine orange was removed and a ... the volume of the cellular acidic compartment was visualized by acridine orange staining; acridine orange staining of rat NP ... D) Acridine orange staining (AO) showed more autophagic vacuoles in the cells treated with SM7368 compared with the control. NP ... 5B and C). To further verify the effect of the NF-κB and JNK inhibitor, acridine orange staining was used to detect the ...
Ideal for use with: Blue: DAPI; Green: FITC , GFP ; Orange: TRITC ; Red: Cy5; Red/ Near-IR: Cy7 ... Ideal for use with: Blue: DAPI; Green: FITC , GFP ; Orange: TRITC ; Red: Cy5; DeepRed/ Near-IR: Cy7 ... Ideal for use with: Blue: DAPI; Green: FITC , GFP ; Orange: TRITC ; Red: Cy5 ...
Acridine Orange (+DNA) 502 526 Acridine Yellow 470 550 Alexa Fluor® 405 401 422 ...
Acridine orange stain of Rickettsia africae isolated in Vero E6 cells from an eschar biopsy specimen from a patient with ...
  • Acridine orange fluorescence techniques as alternatives to traditional Giemsa staining for the diagnosis of malaria in developing countries. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Traditional Giemsa-stained thick blood films were compared with 2 fluorescence microscopy techniques, acridine orange (AO) staining of thin blood films and the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) method, for the microscopical diagnosis of malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The cell viability and apoptosis were determined by CCK-8 assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence staining assay. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Under a magnification of 1000X, this photomicrograph of a sputum smear, processed using a fluorescence acid-fast staining method that implements acridine orange fluorescent dye as a counterstain, revealed the presence of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. (cdc.gov)
  • Figure 1: Green versus red fluorescence cytograms and corresponding alpha t frequency histograms of Acridine Orange (AO) stained bull semen samples prepared and measured by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). (purdue.edu)
  • 2015). A second detector simultaneously captured fluorescence of WBCs, rendered visible by IV injected acridine orange, and sodium fluorescein to label plasma (each using 488nm ex/534nm em). (arvojournals.org)
  • Note the absence of signals from the orange (Alexa Fluor 555) and far-red fluorophores, but the presence of intense green fluorescence from several of the more prominent actin cytoskeletal elements. (microscopyu.com)
  • The mechanism of cell death induced by RE was qualitatively measured using Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide staining and Hoechst staining. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acridine dyes are prepared via the condensation of 1,3-diaminobenzene with suitable benzaldehydes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphological features of the roots were assessed using a root scanner, and then attempts were made to stain the roots in four types of dyes: 0.01% methylene blue, 0.01% acridine orange, 0.01% malachite green, and 0.01% carbol fuchsin. (scirp.org)
  • When bound to DNA, acridine orange is very similar spectrally to an organic compound known as fluorescein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine orange and fluorescein have a maximum excitation at 502nm and 525 nm (green). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells had a bright center and dim surround consistent with DNA labeling of the nucleus by acridine orange (figure). (arvojournals.org)
  • When acridine orange is excited by blue light, the fluorescent dye can differentially stain human cells green and prokaryotic cells orange (600 nm), allowing for rapid detection with a fluorescent microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Past and present studies comparing acridine orange staining with blind subcultures for the detection of positive blood cultures showed that the acridine orange is a simple, inexpensive, rapid staining procedure that appears to be more sensitive than the Gram stain for detecting microorganisms in cerebrospinal fluid and other clinical and non-clinical materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • When acridine orange is used with flow cytometry, the differential stain is used to measure DNA denaturation and the cellular content of DNA versus RNA in individual cells, or detect DNA damage in infertile sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine orange staining has to be performed at an acidic pH to obtain the differential staining, which allows bacterial cells to stain orange and tissue components to stain yellow or green. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine orange is able to withstand low pH environments, allowing the fluorescent dye to penetrate acidic organelles such as lysosomes and phagolysosomes that are membrane-bound organelles essential for acid hydrolysis or for producing products of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptotic cells which nucleolus shrinked and rounded could be coloured orange by fluorescent colouration. (researchgate.net)
  • Acridine orange is an organic compound that serves as a nucleic acid-selective fluorescent dye with cationic properties useful for cell cycle determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • When acridine orange associates with RNA, the fluorescent dye experiences a maximum excitation shift from 525 nm (green) to 460 nm (blue). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine orange is recommended for the use of fluorescent microscopic detection of microorganisms in smears prepared from clinical and non-clinical materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine orange has been widely accepted and used in many different areas, such as epifluorescence microscopy, and the assessment of sperm chromatin quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dexamethasone and OP, but not 17 beta-estradiol, caused significant nuclear condensation after 3 hr of culture (acridine orange staining) or 4 hr of culture (propidium iodide staining). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • When acridine orange binds to DNA, the dye exhibits a maximum excitation at 502 nm producing a maximum emission of 525 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • When bound to RNA, acridine orange displays a maximum emission value of 650 nm and a maximum excitation value of 460 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maximum excitation and emission value that occur when acridine orange is bound to RNA are the result of electrostatic interactions and the intercalation between the acridine molecule and nucleic acid-base pairs present within RNA and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • When acridine orange (AO) stained sperm are exposed to 488 nm laser light, AO intercalated into ds DNA fluoresces green and AO bound to ss DNA fluoresces red. (purdue.edu)
  • Upon close association of the GFP-tagged POI with Sytox-Orange-stained nucleic acids, a substantial decrease of the GFP lifetime due to FRET between the donor and the acceptor can be monitored. (nature.com)
  • In addition, we have incubated the fish in a low amount of acridine orange, which is a chemical compound that stains nucleic acids, but does preferentially enter dying cells in our fish, because the plasma membrane of these cell is breaking down. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Apoptosis was checked by acridine orange/ethidium bromine staining assay and by execution of Western blotting analysis. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Acridine orange/ethidium bromine staining assay revealed that piperine induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells which was further investigated by Western blotting. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Acridine has antimicrobial factors useful in drug-resistant bacteria and isolating bacteria in various environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine orange in the mid-twentieth century was used to examine the microbial content found in soil and direct counts of aquatic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the method of acridine orange direct count (AODC) proved useful in the enumeration of bacteria found within landfills. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of acridine orange in clinical applications has become widely accepted, mainly focusing on highlighting bacteria in blood cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, using the Smithwick method, which employs acridine orange as the specific dye, the M. tuberculosis bacteria glow yellow under ultraviolet light microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • After sample fixation and cell wall permeabilization, leaves are treated with Sytox Orange, a nucleic acid dye that can function as a FRET acceptor. (nature.com)
  • Acridine orange is useful in the rapid screening of ordinarily sterile specimens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid diagnosis of malaria using acridine orange (AO) staining and a light microscope with a halogen lamp and interference filter was deployed in some malaria-endemic countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) using acridine orange is a method known for examining the microbial content within food and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to penetrate the cell membranes of acidic organelles and cationic properties of acridine orange allows the dye to differentiate between various types of cells (i.e., bacterial cells and white blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine orange is cell-permeable, which allows the dye to interact with DNA by intercalation, or RNA via electrostatic attractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the pH of the environment is 3.5, acridine orange becomes excited by blue light (460 nm). (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro, lysosomal destabilization, likely a result of particle uptake, was evident by acridine orange staining. (cdc.gov)
  • The tube is centrifuged and stained with a fluorescent stain, acridine orange. (healthy.net)
  • Unlike methods used in conventional blood analyzers, undiluted blood samples are stained with nucleic acid stain acridine orange. (caltech.edu)
  • In addition, frankly apoptotic cells showed lower cardiolipin levels (by nonyl-acridine orange staining). (nih.gov)
  • The efficiency of energy transfer between nonyl-acridine orange and CMXRos was slightly lower in camptothecin-treated nonapoptotic cells and reduced to zero in frankly apoptotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • With respect to apoptosis, the presence of mitochondrial membrane potential can be probed with rhodamine 123 while the structure and integrity of mitochondria can be assessed using 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • The so-called potential-independent dyes like MitoView™ Green , MitoTracker® Green, and Nonyl Acridine Orange are much more hydrophobic than potential-responsive dyes like MitoView™ 633 , Rhodamine 123 , and JC-1 . (biotium.com)
  • For example, Nonyl Acridine Orange is reported to bind cardiolipin, a lipid that is enriched in mitochondrial membranes. (biotium.com)
  • Acridine Orange hydrochloride solution has been used to study autophagic cell death. (umass.edu)
  • After infection of cells using LV-DSCR1 + , acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining was performed to investigation of apoptosis and autophagy. (techscience.com)
  • Fragmented bright orange nucleuses and vacuoles were observed due to the cell apoptosis and autophagy after acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. (techscience.com)
  • Acridine orange is used in epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • When acridine orange is used with flow cytometry, the differential stain is used to measure DNA denaturation and the cellular content of DNA versus RNA in individual cells, or detect DNA damage in infertile sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accumulation of cells in mitosis studied by two parametric flow cytometry using acridine orange and by DNA distribution analysis. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Comparison of two flow cytometric assays for cellular RNA--acridine orange and propidium iodide. (nih.gov)
  • Acridine orange is an organic compound that serves as a nucleic acid-selective fluorescent dye with cationic properties useful for cell cycle determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maximum excitation and emission value that occur when acridine orange is bound to RNA are the result of electrostatic interactions and the intercalation between the acridine molecule and nucleic acid-base pairs present within RNA and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine orange is able to withstand low pH environments, allowing the fluorescent dye to penetrate acidic organelles such as lysosomes and phagolysosomes that are membrane-bound organelles essential for acid hydrolysis or for producing products of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Past and present studies comparing acridine orange staining with blind subcultures for the detection of positive blood cultures showed that the acridine orange is a simple, inexpensive, rapid staining procedure that appears to be more sensitive than the Gram stain for detecting microorganisms in cerebrospinal fluid and other clinical and non-clinical materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative study of subculture, Gram staining and acridine orange staining for early detection of positive blood cultures. (bmj.com)
  • Acridine Orange is also used to analyze autophagy. (umass.edu)
  • The ability to penetrate the cell membranes of acidic organelles and cationic properties of acridine orange allows the dye to differentiate between various types of cells (i.e., bacterial cells and white blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acridine orange staining has to be performed at an acidic pH to obtain the differential staining, which allows bacterial cells to stain orange and tissue components to stain yellow or green. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNP elevated phrase amounts of g62, ATG7, LC3-II and Beclin-1, as regular autophagic indicators and increased acidic autophagolysosomal vacuoles, discovered by acridine tangerine discoloration. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Western blot analyses of ERK1/2 and autophagic markers (LC3, SQSTM1), and mobile staining with acridine orange confirmed that ERK1/2 and autophagic actions each decreased with time in tradition. (ncbcs.org)
  • Samples may also be analyzed with Acridine Orange or Hoechst stain to detect lysosomal organelle structure or nuclear morphology respectively. (immunochemistry.com)
  • 17. Polyploidization induced by acridine orange in mouse osteosarcoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • 19. A comparison of cell cycle-related changes in postmitotic and quiescent AF8 cells as measured by cytofluorometry after acridine orange staining. (nih.gov)
  • Histochemically processed using acridine orange stain, this thioglycollate blood culture revealed the presence of dysgonic fermenter-2 (DF2) bacteria, amongst numbers of red blood cells (RBCs). (cdc.gov)
  • Acridine orange has been widely accepted and used in many different areas, such as epifluorescence microscopy, and the assessment of sperm chromatin quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total count was determined using an acridine orange staining method followed by epifluorescence microscopic counting. (cdc.gov)
  • Acridine orange in the mid-twentieth century was used to examine the microbial content found in soil and direct counts of aquatic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total acridine orange direct cell counts of the flushed and nonflushed soils decreased over the 15-week testing period, but after 5 weeks, the flushed soils maintained higher cell counts than the nonflushed soils. (nih.gov)
  • Acridine orange is cell-permeable, which allows the dye to interact with DNA by intercalation, or RNA via electrostatic attractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, acridine orange staining revealed no increased cell death upon scylla/charybdis coexpression. (sdbonline.org)
  • The differential staining capability of acridine orange provides quick scanning of specimen smears at lower magnifications of 400x compared to Gram stains that operate at 1000x magnification. (wikipedia.org)