Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Deltaretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.HIV Long Terminal Repeat: Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.United StatesGene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Zalcitabine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins: Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.HIV Envelope Protein gp160: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Job Syndrome: Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine: The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.Foscarnet: An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of ARTERIES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that occurs in patients with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME or AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Inosine Pranobex: An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Retroviruses, Simian: Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.San FranciscoInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Abnormalities, MultiplePregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Aortic Arch Syndromes: Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Genes, nef: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.Gene Products, vpr: Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Genes, tat: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Sex Counseling: Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.New York CityGerstmann Syndrome: A disorder of cognition characterized by the tetrad of finger agnosia, dysgraphia, DYSCALCULIA, and right-left disorientation. The syndrome may be developmental or acquired. Acquired Gerstmann syndrome is associated with lesions in the dominant (usually left) PARIETAL LOBE which involve the angular gyrus or subjacent white matter. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p457)Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.DiGeorge Syndrome: Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Hypergammaglobulinemia: An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Type 1: An X-linked hyper-IgM immunodeficiency subtype resulting from mutation in the gene encoding CD40 LIGAND.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genes, rev: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.

Dysregulated production of interleukin-8 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (1/6107)

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in vivo was monitored in four study groups: normal blood donors, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and dually infected (HIV/TB) patients. We show that whereas there was evidence of detectable levels of cell-associated IL-8 (mRNA and protein) in peripheral cells of healthy individuals, this was largely lost in the disease states studied. Coupled with this finding was significantly increased circulating levels of IL-8 in HIV-1-infected individuals with or without concomitant pulmonary TB (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the capacity of peripheral mononuclear cells to produce IL-8 spontaneously ex vivo was enhanced in HIV-1 and TB patients (P < 0.05) and many of the HIV/TB group, but their corresponding capacities to respond to various stimuli, in particular phytohemagglutinin, were significantly diminished compared to those of normal donors (P < 0.05). Circulating levels of IL-8 in a group of HIV/TB patients were significantly positively correlated with the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the peripheral circulation (r = 0.65; P = 0.01), the proportions of IL-8 receptor A (IL-8RA)-expressing (r = 0.86; P < 0.01) and IL-8RB-expressing (r = 0.77; P < 0.01) PMN, and the capacity of PMN to migrate in response to IL-8 as chemoattractant (r = 0.68; P < 0. 01). IL-8RB fluorescence intensity, however, was negatively correlated with plasma IL-8 levels (r = -0.73; P < 0.01). Our results suggest that altered regulation of IL-8 in HIV-1 may have important implications for antimicrobial defenses and for normal immune processes.  (+info)

Incidence and duration of hospitalizations among persons with AIDS: an event history approach. (2/6107)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze hospitalization patterns of persons with AIDS (PWAs) in a multi-state/multi-episode continuous time duration framework. DATA SOURCES: PWAs on Medicaid identified through a match between the state's AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files; hospital admission and discharge dates identified through Medicaid claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a Weibull event history framework, we model the hazard of transition between hospitalized and community spells, incorporating the competing risk of death in each of these states. Simulations are used to translate these parameters into readily interpretable estimates of length of stay, the probability that a hospitalization will end in death, and the probability that a nonhospitalized person will be hospitalized within 90 days. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, participation in a Medicaid waiver program offering case management and home care was associated with hospital stays 1.3 days shorter than for nonparticipants. African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with hospital stays 1.2 days and 1.0 day longer than for non-Hispanic whites; African Americans also experienced more frequent hospital admissions. Residents of the high-HIV-prevalence area of the state had more frequent admissions and stays two days longer than those residing elsewhere in the state. Older PWAs experienced less frequent hospital admissions but longer stays, with hospitalizations of 55-year-olds lasting 8.25 days longer than those of 25-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Much socioeconomic and geographic variability exists both in the incidence and in the duration of hospitalization among persons with AIDS in New Jersey. Event history analysis provides a useful statistical framework for analysis of these variations, deals appropriately with data in which duration of observation varies from individual to individual, and permits the competing risk of death to be incorporated into the model. Transition models of this type have broad applicability in modeling the risk and duration of hospitalization in chronic illnesses.  (+info)

Relative rates of AIDS among racial/ethnic groups by exposure categories. (3/6107)

The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities.  (+info)

Outcome and predictors of failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy: one-year follow-up of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons. (4/6107)

The outcome and predictors of virologic treatment failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were determined for 271 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected protease inhibitor-naive persons. During a follow-up of 48 weeks after the initiation of HAART, 6.3% of patients experienced at least one new AIDS-defining event, and 3.0% died. Virologic treatment failure occurred in 40% (indinavir, 27%; ritonavir, 30%; saquinavir, 59%; ritonavir plus saquinavir, 32%; chi2, P=.001). Risk factors for treatment failure were baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA (odds ratio [OR], 1.70 per log10 copies increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA), baseline CD4 cell count (OR, 1. 35 per 100 CD4 cells/mm3 decrease), and use of saquinavir versus other protease inhibitors (OR, 3.21). During the first year of treatment, 53% of all patients changed (part of) their original HAART regimen at least once. This was significantly more frequent for regimens containing saquinavir (62%; 27% for virologic failure) or ritonavir (64%; 55% for intolerance) as single protease inhibitor.  (+info)

Characterization of viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy: relationships to host factors, cellular restoration, and virologic end points. (5/6107)

Biphasic plasma viral decays were modeled in 48 patients treated with ritonavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. Estimated first- and second-phase decay rates were d1 as 0.47/day and d2 as 0.04/day. Interpatient differences in both decay rates were significant. The d1 was directly correlated with baseline CD4+, CD4+CD28+, and CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte counts (P<.05) and inversely correlated with baseline virus load (P=.044) and the magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte recovery (P<.01). The d2 was directly correlated with baseline percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes (P=.023), the CD8+CD38+ cell number (P=.024), and the level of IgG that binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 (P=.02). Viral decay rates were not predictive of treatment failure or durability of viral suppression. These exploratory findings are consistent with a model in which immunologic factors contribute to elimination of HIV-infected cells and suggest a dynamic interplay between regulation of HIV expression and lymphocyte activation and recovery.  (+info)

Proliferative responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 peptides in HIV-1-infected individuals immunized with HIV-1 rgp120 or rgp160 compared with nonimmunized and uninfected controls. (6/6107)

The proliferative responses to a series of peptides constituting the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 sequence were evaluated in 19 HIV-1-infected rgp160 vaccine recipients, 17 HIV-1-infected rgp120 vaccine recipients, 15 HIV-1-infected placebo recipients, and 18 HIV-1-uninfected controls. Many regions of the gp120 molecule were found to contribute proliferative epitopes, although there were clearly regions of relative dominance and silence. Vaccine recipients tended to have broader, more robust, and more frequent peptide recognition than the placebo recipients. Despite the considerable variability in the pattern of peptide recognition among individuals, there was a striking similarity between the rgp160 and rgp120 vaccinee groups as a whole. Low-risk HIV-1-uninfected individuals may react to a few peptides within the gp120 sequence as well, despite a lack of significant response to the whole gp120 protein.  (+info)

No evidence for an effect of the CCR5 delta32/+ and CCR2b 64I/+ mutations on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease progression among HIV-1-infected injecting drug users. (7/6107)

The relationship between CCR5 and CCR2b genotypes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease progression was studied among the 108 seroconverters of the Amsterdam cohort of injecting drug users (IDUs). In contrast to earlier studies among homosexual men, no effect on disease progression of the CCR5 Delta32/+ and the CCR2b 64I/+ genotypes was found, when progression to AIDS, death, or a CD4 cell count <200/microL was compared by a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, CD4 cell decline (by a regression model for repeated measurements) and virus load in the first 3 years after seroconversion did not differ between the CCR5 and CCR2b wild type and heterozygous genotypes. A nested matched case-control study also revealed no significant effect of the CCR5 and CCR2b mutations. Immunologic differences between IDUs and homosexual men may account for the observed lack of effect. Alternatively, difference in transmission route or characteristics of the HIV-1 variants that circulate in IDUs could also explain this phenomenon.  (+info)

A randomized trial of high- versus low-dose subcutaneous interleukin-2 outpatient therapy for early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. (8/6107)

Forty-nine outpatients infected with human immunodeficiency virus with baseline CD4 cell counts >/=500/mm3, who were on stable antiretroviral therapy, were randomized to receive 5-day cycles of either low-dose (1.5 million IU [MIU] twice a day) or high-dose (7.5 MIU twice a day) subcutaneous (sc) interleukin (IL)-2 every 4 or every 8 weeks. High-dose recipients experienced mean slopes of +116.1 cells/month and +2.7 %/month in CD4 cells and percents, respectively, whereas low-dose recipients displayed mean slopes of +26.7 and +1.3% in the same parameters. At month 6, high-dose recipients achieved a 94.8% increase in mean CD4 cells over baseline compared with a 19.0% increase in low-dose recipients. While high-dose recipients encountered more constitutional side effects, these were generally not dose-limiting. High-dose scIL-2 therapy in outpatients with early HIV-1 infection was well tolerated and induced dramatic, sustained rises in CD4 cells.  (+info)

The objective was to study changes in the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related Kaposi s sarcoma and the association with degree of immunodeficiency over time. Danish patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 n=687 were followed clinically and with consecutive CD4 cell count...
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): Symptoms ❗ Workup ❗ Diagnosis ❗ Treatment ❗ Complications ❗ Causes ❗ Epidemiology ❗ Incidence ❗ Prognosis ❗ Check at SYMPTOMA.com Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is considered to be the most severe stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is…
Definition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome? Meaning of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as a finance term. What does acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mean in finance?
Marriage is by no means common for people with Down Syndrome has always been with us, but it was not until the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that anyone thought to research and will look to integrate my findings into my current Energy Psychology sessions and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome a baby with Down syndrome, but it is caused due to primary adrenal tumor.. By the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome above 42 are at major risk of prevalence is about 23.4% and 11% in individuals suffering from Down syndrome later. In the early childhood girls suffering from depression, alcoholism, malnutrition and panic disorders also have Fibromyalgia. The most common techniques used are computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Computerized tomography actually produces a series of X-ray images that imparts a cross-sectional image of any part of chromosome 21.. And when you label a condition incorrectly it can also place pressure on the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome a ...
Synonyms for Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 2 words related to acquired: nonheritable, noninheritable. What are synonyms for Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome?
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Read about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS & HIV
National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness and Information Day is observed each year on February 7 to call attention to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on the black population in the United States. The event is sponsored by a coalition of nongovernment organizations, with support from CDC. During 2000--2003, more than half of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in 32 states were among blacks, although blacks represented only 13% of the population of those states. In 2003, black men had the highest rate of HIV/AIDS diagnoses of any racial/ethnic population, approximately seven times the rate among white men and twice the rate among black women (1). Black women are also severely impacted by HIV. During 2000--2003, approximately 69% of women who had HIV/AIDS diagnosed were black. In 2003, the rate of HIV/AIDS was 18 times greater among black women than among non-Hispanic white women (1). CDC is working to reduce new HIV infections among ...
The number of AIDS-related deaths and the rate of new HIV infections have both dropped dramatically as access to better treatments has increased, according to a new report from the U.N
Virsuses: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Outline. Introductory Comments Virus versus bacteria Examples of DNA and RNA containing viruses How RNA containing viruses can replicate Origins of HIV Dr. Hahn and colleagues Characteristics of HIV Particle Slideshow 6705718 by natalie-mcmillan
Recent scientific articles (1-11), including one in this issue of the Annals (12), provide information relevant to the association of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with the receipt of blood or blood products. The diverse topics covered in these articles show the number and complexity of the issues involved. The uncertainty about the cause and natural history of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome makes it difficult to place in proper perspective the risk of developing the syndrome from transfusions.. Of the 3064 cases of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) by 22 December 1983, ...
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Objective To evaluate the intervention effects of health education on AIDS-related knowledge,attitude and behaviors of MSM in colleges,and provide reference for formulating effective intervention measures.Methods On the basis of the baseline survey conducted by sampling of snowball,comprehensive intervention strategies were taken among all subjects,such as AIDS-related health education for 6 months and peer education.And investigation was conducted again after intervention.Results Before and after intervention,the proportion of subjects who admited having homosexual behaviors within the last 6 months changed from 78.2% to 75.4%,and no significance was found(P0.05).Whether homosexual or heterosexual,the prevalence rates of sexual behaviors were all obviously higher before intervention.The proportion of subjects using condoms in the last homosexual behavior changed from 56.5% before intervention to 67.9% after intervention,there was significant differenec(P0.05).There was no significant difference before
Developing Hiv Aids Diseases Fitness Health: 2 assigned downloads, like Love in the Time of AIDS: Inequality, Gender, and Rights in South Africa - Mark Hunter from ebook-reader
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The secretary-general of the National AIDS Authority said Tuesday that HIV/AIDS prevalence among Cambodians ages 15-49 fell from 2.5 percent in 1998 to ...
Across the country, the week of November 24 to December 1 marked Canadian HIV/AIDS Awareness Week. Its an occasion to raise awareness surrounding HIV/AIDS issues nationally and culminates in the international observance of World AIDS Day.. December 1 of each year is World AIDS Day, a day dedicated to increasing awareness of HIV/AIDS issues worldwide and an occasion to call upon leaders to honour their commitments in the fight against HIV/AIDS.. December 1st is often marked with a variety of events, including vigils, awareness campaigns and many other activities. World AIDS Day is especially poignant this year as two milestones are commemorated: the 30th year of HIV, with the first reported case documented in 1981 and the Canadian AIDS Society 25th anniversary responding to the epidemic. The theme chosen for the 2011 Canadian HIV/AIDS Awareness Week and World AIDS Day is Do Something.. HIV (the Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus ...
World Health Organization. (‎1985)‎. ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ - UPDATE1 = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIT ACQUIS (‎SIDA)‎ - MISE À JOUR1. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 60 (‎10)‎, 71 - 73. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/225290 ...
You searched for: Languages German Remove constraint Languages: German Subjects Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- prevention & control Remove constraint Subjects: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- prevention & control Start Over ...
It is often said that access to HIV/AIDS medicines is only one part of HIV/AIDS treatment, that other elements such as education of healthcare personnel, infrastructure, healthcare systems are important, too. This is correct but it misses the most important point: Without medicines there is simply no treatment against HIV/AIDS.
HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention medical practice guideline documents and related reports and reference materials. Guidelines prepared by expert panels convened by U.S. government and updated continuously. Available for downloading in print and PDA formats for health care providers and consumers.
Free Online Library: OraSure Salutes National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness and Information Day with OraQuick Rapid Testing Initiative on February 7th. by Business Wire; Business, international Medical testing products
Description: (1) The Central Government may, by notification, make guidelines consistent with this Act and any rules thereunder, generally to carry out the provisions of this Act. (2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such guidelines may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:- (a) information relating to risk and benefits or alternatives to the proposed intervention under clause (n) of section 2; (b) the manner of obtaining the informed consent under sub-section (1) and the manner of pre test and post test counselling under sub-section (2) of section 5; (c) guidelines to be followed by a testing or diagnostic centre or pathology laboratory or blood bank for HIV test under section 7; (d) the manner of taking data protection measures under section 11; (e) guidelines in respect of protocols for HIV/AIDS relating to Anti-retroviral Therapy and Opportunistic Infections Management under sub-section (2) of section 14; (f) care, support and ...
By Elizabeth Meier. June is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) awareness month in the United States - a month to create awareness of the virus that has taken the lives of more than 25 million people since 1981. Education and awareness has given way to improved care, and a higher survival rate, however, AIDS remains a critical world health issue and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, states the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS are a common issue adding "significantly to patient morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of lung of complications associated with HIV. Accurate diagnosis is based on an understanding of the pathogenesis of the processes involved and their imaging findings. Imaging also plays an important role in selection of the most appropriate site for tissue sampling, staging of disease and follow-ups… Almost 70% of the patients suffer at least one respiratory ...
By Elizabeth Meier. June is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) awareness month in the United States - a month to create awareness of the virus that has taken the lives of more than 25 million people since 1981. Education and awareness has given way to improved care, and a higher survival rate, however, AIDS remains a critical world health issue and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, states the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS are a common issue adding "significantly to patient morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of lung of complications associated with HIV. Accurate diagnosis is based on an understanding of the pathogenesis of the processes involved and their imaging findings. Imaging also plays an important role in selection of the most appropriate site for tissue sampling, staging of disease and follow-ups… Almost 70% of the patients suffer at least one respiratory ...
Indian-born film director Mira Nair has launched an AIDS awareness project called Jaago to highlight the spread of the disease and its danger to society.
twenty years. This is just the right, smart, and the moral thing to do! 1 Al-Bayati, MA. Get All The Facts: HIV does not cause AIDS. Toxi ...
As we mark World AIDS Day on Dec. 1, Save the Children remembers the millions of lives lost, and reaffirms its commitment to preventing HIV transmission and AIDS-related death. With more than 2.5 million children infected with the virus, according to UNAIDS, it is critical we work to improve care and treatment, while preventing more children from contracting it., , , , The global theme of World AIDS Day Getting to Zero stands for zero new infections, zero AIDS-related death, and zero disc...
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations $258 million AIDS prevention program in India has prevented more than 100,000 people from becoming infected, according to a study published today in the... Science News Summaries. | Newser
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related cancer include those types of cancer which occurs in patients suffering from AIDS. Download the sample report.... ...
Via IOL News in South Africa: Aid groups steel for Ebola onslaught. Excerpt: International aid organisations launched a series of emergency measures across west Africa on Thursday in a bid to contain one of the worst ever outbreaks of the...
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related cancer include those types of cancer which occurs in patients suffering from AIDS. Download the sample report.... ...
ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS) - DATA AS AT 31 MARCH 1989 = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIENCE ACQUISE (SIDA) - DONNÉES A U 31 MARS ...
Foal Immunodeficiency Syndrome (FIS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, meaning the affected foal must receive a copy of the mutation from each parent. The mutation occurs in the SLC5A3 gene and results in a deficiency of B lymphocytes. Affected foals are unable to produce antibodies on their own and succumb to infection as the maternal antibodies supplied by the mares colostrums are lost at 3-6 weeks of age. Foals either die or fail to thrive to the point that they are humanely destroyed.. About 30% of Fell Ponies and 18% of Dales Ponies are carriers. The syndrome is also found in Gypsy horses, most likely due to crosses with Fell Ponies. Since carriers of the mutation show no outward signs, it is important to determine if a horse is a carrier for this mutation prior to breeding.. The cost is $45 for each test. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disseminated tuberculosis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AU - Pitchenik, A. E.. AU - Fischl, M. A.. PY - 1983/1/1. Y1 - 1983/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020685392&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020685392&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.7326/0003-4819-98-1-112_2. DO - 10.7326/0003-4819-98-1-112_2. M3 - Letter. C2 - 6848033. AN - SCOPUS:0020685392. VL - 98. JO - Annals of Internal Medicine. JF - Annals of Internal Medicine. SN - 0003-4819. IS - 1. ER - ...
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I am out here to testify about the good work Dr peter has done in my life with his healing spell. I have be suffering from HIV diseases for the past 2yeares now before I came across Dr peter who healed me with his powerful healing spell. I never believe that Dr peter could ever get my HIV-AIDS cured with his healing spell, i have tried almost everything but i couldnt find any solution to my disease, despite all these happening to me, i always spend a lot to buy a HIV drugs from hospital and taking some several medications but no relieve, until one day i was just browsing on the internet when i come across a great post of a lady who was tstifying about how she get cured of her HIV disease with the help of these great powerful healing spell caster called Dr peter. So i have to contact him, and he ask me some few questions and he said a thing i will never forget that anyone who contacted him is always getting his or her healing in just 3 days after doing all he ask from me, so i was happy all the ...
That means it could easily spread to the general population. When it does, the results could be cataclysmic.. "Once this reaches the general population, it will be truly unstoppable," explains Binh Diep, the researcher who led the study.. While AIDS disproportionately affected intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs and, of course, homosexual men practicing their own special brand of risky and unnatural acts, it never did break into the general population in a big way.. AIDS was actually hard to get.. This new bug is not.. But the very same people are spreading it - a special-interest group defined proudly by their sexual deviance, a special-interest group actually empowered politically by the very AIDS crisis that once threatened to wipe it out.. Its just another alternative lifestyle, were told.. Yet it is a lifestyle that is deadly - one that serves as a breeding ground for AIDS, syphilis, rectal gonorrhea, dozens of other sexually transmitted diseases and now MRSA.. I have a profound question ...
DARI MANA HIV AIDS BERASAL ? Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome atau Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (disingkat AIDS) adalah sekumpulan gejala dan infeksi (atau: sindrom) yang timbul karena rusaknya sistem kekebalan tubuh manusia akibat infeksi virus HIV; atau infeksi virus-virus lain yang mirip yang menyerang spesies lainnya (SIV, FIV, dan lain-lain). Virusnya sendiri bernama Human Immunodeficiency Virus (atau disingkat HIV) yaitu virus yang memperlemah kekebalan pada tubuh manusia. Orang yang…
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is no longer the death sentence it once was. Thirty years ago, doctors had little more than comforting words to offer patients who had been diagnosed with the virus. And while there remains no cure fo ...
Staph Fatalities May Exceed AIDS Deaths By LINDSEY TANNER AP Medical Writer CHICAGO — More than 90,000 Americans get potentially deadly...
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). The retrovirus primarily attacks the immune defense system, making the body extremely vulnerable to opportunistic infections.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is collection of symptoms and infections resulting of damage to the immune system cause by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans. Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century ...
English: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (or acronym AIDS or Aids), is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ...
There are more than 30,000 people living with HIV in Maryland. Baltimore remains one of the nations cities with the highest rates of AIDS. Sunday Aug. 2 | HIV-AIDS Awareness
To illustrate the flaws in the various definitions of AIDS, lets consider Kaposis sarcoma (KS), which for years was the hallmark AIDS disease. It was believed that an infectious agent, later declared to be HIV (aka HTLV-III/LAV) caused a condition of immune deficiency (gauged not by the traditional tests of immune function, but rather by newly developed tests which counted CD4 cells), and that the immune deficiency in turn caused KS. Unfortunately for this model, many gay men with KS tested negative on all the HIV tests, and did not have immune deficiency. Further, use of the recreational drug poppers (nitrite inhalants) closely fits the epidemiology of KS. And so, in May 1994 the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) convened a meeting in Gaithersburg, Maryland to examine the connection between poppers and KS. Top AIDS experts including Robert Gallo were present. Their conclusions: 1) there may be as many as four different kinds of KS, 2) KS is not a form of cancer, 3) KS is not ...
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HIV can eventually cause AIDS by attacking a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells [2]. These are the same cells in the immune system [3] that are supposed to protect the body from disease. When your immune system loses too many CD4 cells, you are less able to fight off infection and can develop serious illnesses, cancers [4], and neurological (nerve system) problems. These are called opportunistic infections (OIs), because they take advantage of the bodys weakened defenses.. Many viruses can be controlled by the immune system [3]. But HIV takes over CD4 cells and turns them into virus factories that produce thousands of viral copies. As the virus multiplies, it damages or kills CD4 cells, which damages the immune system and weakens the bodys defenses. OIs take an opportunity to infect you when your defenses are down. OIs can lead to hospitalization and disability, and are responsible for most of the deaths in people with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).. The US Centers for ...
এইডছ (AIDS) সম্পূৰ্ণ নাম Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome হল, Acquired অৰ্থাত এই ৰোগটো সহজাত বা জন্মগত নহয় বৰঞ্চ আয়ত্ব বা অৰ্জন কৰি লোৱা ৰোগ । Immune শব্দটো Immunology শব্দটোৰপৰা আহিছে ৷ প্ৰত্যেক মানুহৰ দেহত ৰোগ প্ৰতিৰোধকাৰী এক বিশেষ ক্ষমতা থাকে । তেজত থকা শ্বেত ৰক্তকণিকাৰ Lymphocyte নামৰ কোষবোৰে এই ক্ষেত্ৰত বিশেষ ভূমিকা লয় । বিভিন্ন বাহ্যিক বীজাণু - ভাইৰাচ, বেক্টেৰিয়া, প্ৰটযৱা, ভেঁকুৰ ইত্যাদিয়ে শৰীৰক সদায়ে আক্ৰমণ ...
এইডছ (AIDS) সম্পূৰ্ণ নাম Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome হল, Acquired অৰ্থাত এই ৰোগটো সহজাত বা জন্মগত নহয় বৰঞ্চ আয়ত্ব বা অৰ্জন কৰি লোৱা ৰোগ । Immune শব্দটো Immunology শব্দটোৰপৰা আহিছে ৷ প্ৰত্যেক মানুহৰ দেহত ৰোগ প্ৰতিৰোধকাৰী এক বিশেষ ক্ষমতা থাকে । তেজত থকা শ্বেত ৰক্তকণিকাৰ Lymphocyte নামৰ কোষবোৰে এই ক্ষেত্ৰত বিশেষ ভূমিকা লয় । বিভিন্ন বাহ্যিক বীজাণু - ভাইৰাচ, বেক্টেৰিয়া, প্ৰটযৱা, ভেঁকুৰ ইত্যাদিয়ে শৰীৰক সদায়ে আক্ৰমণ ...
Jaspan, Heather B; Cunningham, Coleen K; Tucker, Tim J P; Wright, Peter F; Self, Steve G; Sheets, Rebecca L; Rogers, Audrey S; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wilson, Craig M; Duerr, Ann; Wasserheit, Judith N; the HIV Vaccine Adolescent Trials Working Group Less ...
High, Kevin P.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Clifford, David B.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Currier, Judith; Deeks, Steven G.; Deren, Sherry; Effros, Rita B.; Gebo, Kelly; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Justice, Amy C.; Landay, Alan; Levin, Jules; Miotti, Paolo G.; Munk, Robert J.; Nass, Heidi; Rinaldo, Charles R. Jr; Shlipak, Michael G.; Tracy, Russell; Valcour, Victor; Vance, David E.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Volberding, Paul; For the OAR Working Group on HIV and Aging Less ...
Shortly after quitting his job, Hubert started collecting disability benefits and began taking a new triple drug therapy including nucleoside analogs like AZT and one protease inhibitor, which cripples an enzyme vital to the final stages of the virus reproduction. [...] his T-cells are skyrocketing past 300, his viral load is undetectable and Hubert wants his life back. Since the FDA approved protease inhibitors in November 1995, the revolutionary AIDS drug has halted death sentences and renewed hope for thousands of Bay Area residents. In The City, where 1,000 people become infected each year, $18.9 million in grants was awarded by Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala last December to provide care to HIV and AIDS patients. Faced with confusing medical benefits plans, the first job interview in a decade and the desire to change occupations, AIDS patients are streaming into advice and placement organizations like Positive Resource and AIDS Benefits Counselors for help. The main
While we applaud gains over the past 20 years to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic, we also recognize our work is far from done. Globally 36 million people are infected with HIV, and two million are adolescents aged 10-19 years old. Gender inequality and economic instability put women at high risk for sexual violence, substance abuse and HIV. Women may not able to delay sex or insist on protection to prevent them from being infected.. HIV/AIDS is the second leading cause of death in adolescents globally and, programmatically, adolescents are often an afterthought. Teenagers have unique needs that need to be met with with age-appropriate behavioral and medical interventions, and our systems are not always serving them well. They are often excluded from medical research because they are a difficult group to work with ethically and practically. While AIDS-related deaths are decreasing in children, youth (age 20-24) and adults, they are increasing in adolescents. Without intervention in early life, the ...
AIDS is a disease that affects the immune system of a human which is caused by the HIV or human immunodeficiency virus. Learn on the reasons for the test, method and more.
Lang, W., Perkins, H., Anderson, R. E., Royce, R., Jewell, N., & Winkelstein, W. (1989). Patterns of Lymphocyte-T Changes with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infection - from Seroconversion to the Development of Aids. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 2(1), 63-69 ...
Psychosocial factors such as stress, depression and trauma can have a significant impact on the treatment outcomes of people infected with HIV/AIDS, according to a researcher from
... Learn about HIV, its treatment, and how to take care of yourself when you have HIV.
KASABAY nang pagtaas sa bilang ng mga taong nagpositibo sa Human Immunodeficency Virus-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDS) infections ay dalawa na sa kanila ang naitatalang binawian ng buhay.. Ayon kay Dr. Susan Duran ng Department of Health (DOH) Region II, may 50 HIV/AIDS cases na silang naitala simula 1999 hanggang 2012 at mula sa nasabing bilang ay dalawa na rito ang namatay.. Lumalabas na isang taong gulang ang pinakabatang tinamaan ng virus habang 57-anyos naman ang pinakamatanda.. Nangunguna sa kanila ay heterosexual na sinundan ng homosexual at bisexual.. ...
AIDS/HIV (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus) caught everyone by surprise nearly three decades ago. Since then, 35 million people worldwide have succumbed to complications arising from AIDS and a further 75 million have become infected with HIV. In 2016, there were 36.7 million people living with HIV.
HIV-positive patients in Europe should soon benefit from a new drug recently approved by the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA).
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that damages the cells in your immune system and weakens your ability to fight everyday infections and disease. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is the name used to describe a number of potentially life-threatening infections and illnesses that happen when your immune system has been severely damaged by the HIV virus.. While AIDS cant be transmitted from one person to another, the HIV virus can.. Theres currently no cure for HIV, but there are very effective drug treatments that enable most people with the virus to live a long and healthy life. With an early diagnosis and effective treatments, most people with HIV wont develop any AIDS-related illnesses and will live a near-normal lifespan.. These pages cover:. Symptoms. Causes. Diagnosis. Treatment. Living with. Prevention. ...
There have been no major breakthroughs in AIDS therapies since the development of protease inhibitors six years ago. And with current therapies bedeviled ...
3rd March HIV & AIDS HIV is a virus which you can get by sharing needles, having unprotected sex, breastfeeding and from getting blood from someone with HIV into your system. HIV destroys your immune system which means that you cant fight off germs. Once your immune system has been totally destroyed this is called AIDS. You dont die of AIDS you die of the illnesses you get. A simple thing like a cold can kill you. This is what HIV & AIDS stand for: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ...
Eventbrite - Innovative Safety Solutions presents Level 3 Emergency 1st Aid at Work - 1 day course - Monday, 19 March 2018 at Innovative Safety Solutions Ltd, Widnes, Cheshire. Find event and ticket information.
Legal Aid at Work offers free information online, including the following sample letters, toolkits, and guides. We also offer free trainings.
World AIDS Day The United Nations (UN) World AIDS Day is held on December 1 each year to honor AIDS victims. It also focuses on issues surrounding HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). A simple red ribbon is one of the most widely recognized symbols of HIV and AIDS.©iStockphoto.com/Jill Chen What…
or with someone you know has several sex partners.. Unprotected sex (without a condom) with an infected person.. Safe Behavior. Not having sex.. Sex with one mutually faithful, uninfected partner.. Not shooting drugs.. What About Dating?. Dating and getting to know other people is a normal part ...
Media outlets continued to reflect on news from the International AIDS Conference-AIDS 2010, which attracted over 19,000 participants from 197 countries to Vienna last week, according to the conference blog.. ...
Free Online Library: AIDS virus weakening?(Worldwide news) by International Midwifery; Business Business, international General interest AIDS (Disease) Prevention HIV HIV (Viruses) Virus diseases
Globally, the years 2000 to 2015 saw the scaling-up of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), with a 35 percent decrease in AIDS-related deaths since 2005. A record number of almost 16 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) have been initiated on ART as of mid-2015, three in four of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa, where the needs are most acute. Civil society and public health services alike have rallied to bring new evidence-based treatments and best practices to PLHIV.. ...
Globally, the years 2000 to 2015 saw the scaling-up of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), with a 35 percent decrease in AIDS-related deaths since 2005. A record number of almost 16 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) have been initiated on ART as of mid-2015, three in four of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa, where the needs are most acute. Civil society and public health services alike have rallied to bring new evidence-based treatments and best practices to PLHIV.. ...
Ebola is a terrible disease, and it certainly needs research into a cure. But on a relative scale, Ebola is far from being a truly global killer. That dubious title goes to HIV/AIDS, which, based on World Health Organization statistics, was the sixth-leading global killer in 2012, claiming 1.5 million lives. For context, this is down from 1.7 million deaths associated with HIV/AIDS in 2000.. But, just because HIV/AIDS awareness and education has increased, it doesnt mean that the spread of the disease has reversed course. In fact, the number of people living with HIV each year hit 10 million in 1991, 20 million in 1996, 30 million in 2002, and based on data published by WHO sat at 35 million in 2012, including 3.2 million children who are less than 15 years old. WHO estimated another 2.1 million people worldwide became infected with the disease in 2013.. In short, if theres a disease thats truly worthy of billions of dollars in research that we as a society need to nip in the bud, its ...
Steroids have extreme and far-reaching effects on many systems of the body. Immune system * Reduce functions and numbers of T and B cells and other lymphocytes and macrophages
This is your game. Don t let AIDS score. Zero new HIV infections Zero discrimination Zero AIDS-related deaths Protect the goal The Protect the Goal initiative is the new UNAIDS campaign to raise HIV awareness
Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The virus weakens a persons ability to fight infections and cancer.
Index of articles from AIDS Treatment News Statement of Purpose AIDS Treatment News is one of the primary treatment resources for community-based ...
HIV-1, 0.2 mg. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections.
Mondays Academy Awards show will, no doubt, be the usual fashion competition among the movie elite, but most will be wearing the same accessory in one form or another: a red ribbon in the shape of
Bruce House is a community-based organization providing housing, compassionate care and support in Ottawa-Carleton for people living with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome ...
We are able to contract an HIV infection. This is one reason why those at higher risk should consider regular screening. These are the risk factors to take into consideration and ensure adequate testing ... ...
... ! Combivir, an antiviral medicine, is used in combination with at least one other antiviral medicine to treat patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Combivir, taken in combination with at least one other antiviral medicine, reduces the amount of HIV in the blood and keeps it at a low level.
An acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is a disease affecting the immune system and lowers the ability to resist infections ...
University of Bielefeld. Nov. 23, 2017Science Imaging HIV Particles at the Virological Synapse The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and
3) HIV. The human immunodeficiency virus can be transmitted for the same reason hepatitis is. Carriers may be completely asymptomatic until the virus kills off enough of one of the bodys natural infection fighting cells (the T-cells). When that happens (the lapse time can vary widely--2 week to 20 years), certain infections can take the opportunity to attack the individual (called opportunistic infections, or OIs). This is when the diagnosis of AIDS (Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome) occurs. These OIs include herpes, thrush (yeast in the throat), tuberculosis, and pneumonias, among others. They are also at risk of certain cancers, including lymphomas and Kaposis sarcoma. Luckily, there are excellent anti-viral medications available today that are effective in controlling the virus, though there still is no cure or effective vaccine ...
2) One reason the true picture of heterosexual AIDS transmission is best obtained by talking to doctors and public health professionals, rather than consulting published research, is that testing data are not derived from interviews with people who test positive, meaning that a history of drug use and sexual practice is not obtained. For many years after Surgeon General Koop, in 1987, endorsed testing without taking names, that approach prevailed, although some states chose to use identified test results. It makes sense to test anonymously because then people are not afraid to get tested, as they are, studies have shown, when they know their name will be sent to a government file. But what gay leaders, who were the main force behind advancing the cause of anonymous testing, and others who backed this cause, failed to do is to do is recommend obtaining a risk history from an individual who tests positive. People who test positive are willing to give a risk history if they trust that their name ...
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS, AIDS has taken 30 million lives all over the world,a womans biological disadvantage is not the only leak in her vulnerability to AIDS
This section contains a brief explanation of how common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are passed on, their symptoms and their treatment.
Interactive map of HIV services in countries and regions all over the world. Information and statistics on HIV from reliable sources.
Interactive map of HIV services in countries and regions all over the world. Information and statistics on HIV from reliable sources.
antiretroviral_therapies_or_art_have_enabled_people_with_hiv_and_aids_to_live_much_longer_lives_transforming_what_was_considered_a_death_sentence_into_a_chronic_condition_yet_concerns_for_these_patients_remain_up_to_half_of_people_with_hiv_on_these_drug_regimens_have_some_sort_of_cognitive_impairment_such_as_memory_loss_or_problems_with_executive_functioning_despite_the_virus_being_almos
Peter Duesberg is the among the forefathers of the HIV/AIDS denialist movement. They reject the notion that HIV causes AIDS, despite being contradicted by a massive amount of scientific evidence and has held on to this view for three decades. Duesberg has recently got an article called AIDS since 1984: No evidence for a new,…
A South African girl born with the AIDS virus has kept her infection suppressed for more than eight years after stopping anti-HIV medicines - more evidence that early treatment can occasionally cause a long remission that, if it lasts,...
Republican presidential hopeful Mike Huckabee refused to retract a statement he made in 1992 calling for the isolation of AIDS patients.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) = سندرم نقص ایمنی اکتسابی یک بیماری ویروسی است که منجر به تخریب قدرت دفاعی بدن در مبارزه با عوامل عفونت زا می شود و د رنتیجه بدن را مستعد به ابتلاء به سایر بیماریها می کند A viral disease that destroys the bodys ability to fight infections, leaving the body susceptible to many other diseases. Acute = شروع ناگهانی علائم یک بیماری A sudden onset of symptoms or disease.. Adenocarcinoma = سرطان غدد مترشحه خارجی به مبحث سرطان مراجعه شود See Carcinoma. Adenoma = آدنوم یک بیماری خوش خیم است که از بافت غده ای شکل تشکیل یافته است بعنوان مثال آدنوم غده هیپوفیز منجر به تولید مقادیر غیر طبیعی هورمونها می شود . A benign tumor made up of glandular tissue. For ...
AIDS began as a big-city epidemic affecting mainly gay white men. The updates, the first since 2000, aim to spread money more equally around the country. Current law had only counted patients with full-blown AIDS. The revision also counts patients with the HIV virus who have not developed AIDS. That change favors the South and rural areas, for example, where the disease is a newer phenomenon ...
HIV and AIDS continue to be a major public health issue in countries around the world. But wherever HIV is spreading, The United Methodist Church is there to provide care for those living with the virus and to address stigma.
The Schaefer administrations drive to get the names of people carrying the virus that causes AIDS was rejected by a 6-5 vote in a state Senate committee yesterday.The Economic and Environmental
The Clinton Foundation and two Indian drug makers have reached an agreement thats expected to greatly reduce the cost of treating children with HIV/Aids in developing countries.
Hi, everybody! My name is Thao. It is a little about myself: I live in Great Britain, my city of Bredon. It's called often Eastern or cultural capital of NA. I've married 2 years ago. I have 2 children - a son (Cortez) and the daughter (Jillian). We all like Parkour.
Endocrine complications of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine, 1991; 151:1441-1444. A. Levin ... activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus ...
Chiao EY, Krown SE (September 2003). "Update on non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies". Current Opinion ... Some genetic syndromes[26] including congenital melanocytic nevi syndrome which is characterized by the presence of nevi ( ...
HIV is an acronym for human immunodeficiency virus, which is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). ... "The Relationship Between the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome", National Institute of ... Ammann, A.J.; Wara, D.W.; Cowan, M.J. (1984). "Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Annals of the New York Academy of ... "Impact of protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral treatments on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome survival in San ...
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease comprising associated conditions caused by a human immunodeficiency ... "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Rwanda". Lancet. 2 (8394): 62-65. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(84)90240-x. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID ... "Human immunodeficiency virus infection in urban Rwanda. Demographic and behavioral correlates in a representative sample of ...
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome atau Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (disingkat AIDS) adalah sekumpulan gejala dan ... AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. CD4+: Sel T pembantu CCR5: Chemokine (C-C motif) ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Pita Merah terlipat adalah simbol solidaritas orang-orang yang positif terinfeksi ... "Hypothyroxinemia in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Nigeria ...
"Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Council of State and Territorial ... Genetic diseases, like Klinefelter's syndrome, Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia syndrome. *Autoimmune diseases, ... like Sjögren's syndrome, celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.[15][16] ...
Gowda VK, Sukanya V (2012). "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis". Pediatric Neurology ... Reye syndrome is a non-specific descriptive term covering a group of heterogeneous disorders. Moreover, not only the use of ... Reye's Syndrome at NINDS "Epidemiologic evidence indicates that aspirin (salicylate) is the major preventable risk factor for ... Casteels-Van Daele M, Van Geet C, Wouters C, Eggermont E (April 2000). "Reye syndrome revisited: a descriptive term covering a ...
Heart problems are very important in people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome (AIDS ... Cardiac involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a multicentre clinical-pathological study. AIDS Res Hum ... Cardiac involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a multicentre clinical-pathological study. AIDS Res Hum ... Cardiac involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a multicentre clinical-pathological study. AIDS Res Hum ...
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The American Journal of Pathology. 1983- ... 猴免疫缺陷病毒(英语:Simian immunodeficiency virus,简称SIV),也称为非洲绿猴病毒(英语:African Green Monkey virus),是一种可影响至少33种非洲灵长目的逆转录病毒。[1][2]在对比奥科岛(于大 ... That means humans have presumably
Ivey, Nathan S; MacLean, Andrew G; Lackner, Andrew A (2009). "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the blood-brain barrier". ... De Vivo disease (also known as GLUT1 deficiency syndrome) is a rare condition caused by inadequate transportation of the sugar ... Klepper, Jörg; Voit, Thomas (June 2002). "Facilitated glucose transporter protein type 1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome: impaired ...
The human immunodeficiency virus can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Untreated HIV infected expectant ... By the end of the tenth week of gestational age the embryo has acquired its basic form and is referred to as a fetus. The next ... There is a risk of Down syndrome for infants born to those aged over 40 years. Young teenaged mothers (younger than 16) and ... Alcohol, certain drugs, and other toxins that cause birth defects, such as fetal alcohol syndrome ...
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a leading cause of death in the world. It was identified as a disease in 1981. Two ... are antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NNRTIs inhibit reverse transcriptase (RT ...
Bruce A. Chabner (April 13, 1982). "Kaposi's Sarcoma/Opportunistic Infections/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - U.S. ... The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome amendments were compiled as Title II - Programs with Respect to Acquired Immune ... The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome was officially recognized on June 5, 1981, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ... On April 13, 1982, the first U.S. congressional hearings were conducted on the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome by U.S. ...
"Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory ... Patients experiencing this particular syndrome may report a skin lesion (often similar to those caused by MRSA), which does not ...
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, and therapeutic considerations". Ann. Intern. Med. ... Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Fauci AS (Feb 1993). "New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection ... link) Fauci AS (February 1988). "The human immunodeficiency virus: infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenesis". Science. 239 ( ... is an American immunologist who has made substantial contributions to HIV/AIDS research and other immunodeficiencies, both as a ...
"Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory ... Pure granulomatous lesions are rare in patients with AIDS and other related immunodeficiency states as the patients do not have ... A perivascular cuffing with amoebae in necrotic tissue is usual finding in the AIDS and related T-cell immunodeficiency ... Infection is generally associated with underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency, diabetes, malignancies, malnutrition, ...
"Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". International Journal of Dermatology. ... Fearfield, LA; Rowe, A; Francis, N; Bunker, CB; Staughton, RC (1999). "Itchy folliculitis and human immunodeficiency virus ... "Metronidazole for eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive patients". Archives of ...
... ; Steven S Witkin; David T Purtilo (6 May 1983). "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, opportunistic infections ...
"Rapidly Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome". American Journal of Ophthalmology. 110: ... Researchers have also looked at two cases of ARN in patients who have been diagnosed with an immunodeficiency virus. The ... Researchers are now wondering if this type of ARN is specific to those who have the immunodeficiency virus. Cytomegalovirus ...
"The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cohort of homosexual men. A six-year follow-up study". Annals of Internal Medicine ... "The Origins of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Viruses: Where and When?" The Royal Society (2001): 867-76. Print. Marx PA, ... By August 1982, the disease was being referred to by its new CDC-coined name: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In ... "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science. 220 ( ...
Gowda VK, Sukanya V (2012). "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis". Pediatric Neurology ... "Aspirin and Reye's Syndrome". MHRA. October 2003. Archived from the original on 2012-03-19. Retrieved 2011-03-17.. ... Reye's Syndrome at NINDS "Epidemiologic evidence indicates that aspirin (salicylate) is the major preventable risk factor for ... Reye syndrome is a non-specific descriptive term covering a group of heterogeneous disorders. Moreover, not only the use of ...
"Elevated erythrocyte adenosine deaminase activity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Proceedings of the ... The resulting deficiency is one cause of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), particularly of autosomal recessive ... gene implies a high incidence of ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Somalia and a single, common ... understanding catalysis and immunodeficiency mutations". Science. 252 (5010): 1278-1284. doi:10.1126/science.1925539. PMID ...
"Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Council of State and Territorial ... Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia syndrome Autoimmune diseases, like Sjögren's syndrome, celiac disease, ... Medical treatments, like radiation therapy and chemotherapy Genetic diseases, like Klinefelter's syndrome, ...
Duesberg P (1989). "Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation". Proc ... 2000). "Impact of protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral treatments on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome survival in San ... Update on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), United States. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and ... Revision of the CDC Surveillance Case Definition of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for National Reporting, United States. [ ...
Rosenberg JD, Scheinfeld NS (December 2003). "Cutaneous histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". ... "Disseminated bilateral chorioretinitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ... Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) causes chorioretinitis, where the choroid and retina of the eyes are scarred, ... These include recurrent pneumonia, respiratory failure, fibrosing mediastinitis, superior vena cava syndrome, pulmonary vessel ...
The global human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic has been an important factor in ... candidiasis-endocrinopathy syndrome and candidiasis thymoma syndrome. About 90% of people with chronic mucocutaneous ... Candida species are acquired from the mother's vaginal canal during birth. At very young ages, the immune system is yet to ... Immunodeficiency is a state of reduced function of the immune system, which can be caused by medical conditions or treatments. ...
Including Monitoring for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (https://www.cdc.gov/ ... Guidelines for National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Case Surveillance, ...
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- Europe As of October 15, 1984, 559 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had ...
Tuberculosis and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- New York City In recent years, reported tuberculosis (TB) cases in New ... Because the increased TB morbidity in NYC was concurrent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and was ... Tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, and the acquired immuno- deficiency syndrome among Haitian and non-Haitian patients in ... Tuberculosis in patients with the acquired immuno- deficiency syndrome: clinical features, response to therapy, and survival. ...
home/hiv health center/hiv a-z list/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aids center /acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) ... Human immunodeficiency virus causes HIV infection. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition that results after ... AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.. *AIDS is an advanced stage of infection with the human immunodeficiency ... Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). See a picture of HIV/AIDS ...
Current Trends Update: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- United States, 1994 During 1994, state, local, and territorial ... health departments reported to CDC 80,691 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among persons in the United States ... Of these, 39,513 (91%) persons had severe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency only (i.e., less than 200 ... heterosexually acquired AIDS. These persons are classified as no risk reported. @ Northeast=New England and Middle Atlantic ...
1989)‎. SEA/RC42/R2 - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia. https://apps.who.int/iris/ ...
1996)‎. Progress report on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-AIDS. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/121523 ...
Update: Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) In November 1982, 21 patients ... with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and severe, protracted diarrhea caused by cryptosporidiosis were reported; the ... Cryptosporidiosis: assessment of chemotherapy of males with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). MMWR 1982;31:589-92. ... Two have subsequently died from causes related to their underlying immunodeficiency--one with Kaposis sarcoma, the other with ...
ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIENCE ACQUISE (‎SIDA)‎. View/. Open. WER6336_273-273.PDF (‎ ... 1988)‎. ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIENCE ACQUISE (‎SIDA)‎. Weekly Epidemiological ...
ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIT ACQUIS (‎SIDA)‎. View/. Open. WER6122_168-168.PDF (‎ ... 1986)‎. ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIT ACQUIS (‎SIDA)‎. Weekly Epidemiological Record ... Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: current knowledge and future considerations  Malik, M.; Elkholy, A.A.; Khan, W. ... information was undertaken to summarize current understanding and gaps in knowledge about Middle East respiratory syndrome ...
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. To be diagnosed with AIDS, a person with ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Speaker A disease of the immune system due to ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. To be diagnosed with AIDS, a person with ... Related Term(s): Acute HIV Infection, AIDS Case Definition, Chronic HIV Infection, HIV Progression, Human Immunodeficiency ...
Unknown author (‎1985)‎. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (‎AIDS)‎: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*. Bulletin of the World ...
... MMWR 35(37);587-90 Publication date: 09/19/1986. Table of ... Revision of the case definition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome for national reporting--United States. MMWR 1985;34:373-5 ... led to an evaluation of data on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis. Four subgroups of persons were ... The radiographic appearance of tuberculosis in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pre-AIDS. Am ...
... MMWR 42(28);547-551,557 Publication date: 07/23/1993. Table of ... Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -- United States, 1991. MMWR 1992;41:463-8.. *Karon JM, Devine OJ, Morgan WM. ... During 1992, state and territorial health departments reported 47,095 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to CDC ... Rate Of Heterosexually Acquired AIDS Among 20-29-Year Old Women. This page last reviewed: Wednesday, January 27, 2016 This ...
1986)‎. WHO activities for the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. World Health Organization. http:// ...
Sjögrens syndrome-like illness associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related complex.. Ulirsch RC1, Jaffe ES. ... Three cases of Sjögrens syndrome-like illness occurring in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related ... Atypical Sjögrens syndrome now requires evaluation for ARC. Proposed criteria for identifying these patients are as follows: 1 ... Positive serologic tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were documented in two; the third patient was a prison ...
1987)‎. ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ : Global data1 = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIENCE ACQUISE (‎SIDA)‎ : Données ...
Current Trends Revision of the Case Definition of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for National Reporting--United States ... Patients with illnesses that, in retrospect, were manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first ... Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--United States. MMWR 1984;32:688-91. ... Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United States: the first 1,000 cases. J Infect Dis 1983;148:339-45. ...
The epidemiology of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).. ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications*. *Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology. *Acquired Immunodeficiency ... We conclude that DNTM is acquired by unpreventable environmental exposures. Because DNTM adversely affects survival of AIDS ... of DNTM were lower in Hispanics and declined with age but were not significantly different by patient sex or means of acquiring ...
Special Meeting of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Program Advisory Committee (APAC). An Uncategorized Document by the ...
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is medically treatable and is not transmitted by casual contact, and employees with ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). CAUT Policy Statement. Human Immunodeficiency ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is medically treatable and is not transmitted by casual contact, and employees with ... CAUT Policy Statement Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / ...
Another name for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is AIDS. Many patients with HIV infection and AIDS will suffer from ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Anorexia. Many patients with HIV infection and AIDS will suffer from anorexia.. Anorexia is ... PubMed Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome References *Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Anderson J, et al: Primary care guidelines for the ... Continue to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Depression Last Updated: Nov 16, 2010 References Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, ...
... ANSWER ... What are symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?. NEXT QUESTION: What infections and illnesses are related to acquired ... How can treatments help you deal with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?. *What are side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) in ... What should you do if you have side effects while taking antiretroviral (ARV) in your treatment for human immunodeficiency ...
Genetics of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. The safety and scientific ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal. Lentivirus Infections. ... in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PML is a life-threatening infection of the brain that affects about ... Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune System Diseases. Encephalitis, Viral. Central Nervous System Viral Diseases. ...
... ... Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings.. ...
  • A large section of the palliative care patient population has varied forms of compromised immunity due to advanced cancer or cancer treatment, organ failures, chronic autoimmune disorders, degenerative conditions, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (elsevier.com)
  • The concept Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome represents the subject, aboutness, idea or notion of resources found in University of Manitoba Libraries . (umanitoba.ca)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than one million people develop a STI every day and approximately 500 million people acquire one of four STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis each year . (travelhealthpro.org.uk)
  • Proton MR spectra were acquired at 3 T MRI system and the concentration (institutional units) of tNAA (N-acetylaspartate, NAA + N-acetylaspartylglutamate, NAAG), tCr (Creatine, Cr + phosphocreatine, PCr), choline containing compounds (tCho), glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and lipid and macromolecules at 0.9 ppm were determined using LC Model. (biomedcentral.com)