Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/6631)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (2/6631)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

The effects of d-amphetamine on the temporal control of operant responding in rats during a preshock stimulus. (3/6631)

The operant behavior of six rats was maintained by a random-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three-minute periods of noise were superimposed on this behavior, each period ending with the delivery of an unavoidable shock. Overall rates of responding were generally lower during the periods of noise than in its absence (conditioned suppression). These suppressed response rates also exhibited temporal patterning, with responding becoming less frequent as each noise period progressed. The effects of d-amphetamine on this behavioral baseline were then assessed. In four animals the relative response rates during the noise and in its absence suggested that the drug produced a dose-related decrease in the amount of conditioned suppression. However, this effect was often due to a decrease in the rates of responding in the absence of the preshock stimulus, rather than to an increase in response rates during the stimulus. Temporal patterning in response rates during the preshock stimulus was abolished, an effect that was interpreted in terms of rate-dependent effect of d-amphetamine. This study thus extends rate-dependent analyses of the effects of amphetamines to the patterns of operant behavior that occur during a preshock stimulus, and which have been discussed in terms of the disrupting effects of anxiety on operant behavior.  (+info)

Midbrain combinatorial code for temporal and spectral information in concurrent acoustic signals. (4/6631)

All vocal species, including humans, often encounter simultaneous (concurrent) vocal signals from conspecifics. To segregate concurrent signals, the auditory system must extract information regarding the individual signals from their summed waveforms. During the breeding season, nesting male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) congregate in localized regions of the intertidal zone and produce long-duration (>1 min), multi-harmonic signals ("hums") during courtship of females. The hums of neighboring males often overlap, resulting in acoustic beats with amplitude and phase modulations at the difference frequencies (dFs) between their fundamental frequencies (F0s) and harmonic components. Behavioral studies also show that midshipman can localize a single hum-like tone when presented with a choice between two concurrent tones that originate from separate speakers. A previous study of the neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent signals demonstrated that midbrain neurons temporally encode a beat's dF through spike synchronization; however, spectral information about at least one of the beat's components is also required for signal segregation. Here we examine the encoding of spectral differences in beat signals by midbrain neurons. The results show that, although the spike rate responses of many neurons are sensitive to the spectral composition of a beat, virtually all midbrain units can encode information about differences in the spectral composition of beat stimuli via their interspike intervals (ISIs) with an equal distribution of ISI spectral sensitivity across the behaviorally relevant dFs. Together, temporal encoding in the midbrain of dF information through spike synchronization and of spectral information through ISI could permit the segregation of concurrent vocal signals.  (+info)

Desynchronizing responses to correlated noise: A mechanism for binaural masking level differences at the inferior colliculus. (5/6631)

We examined the adequacy of decorrelation of the responses to dichotic noise as an explanation for the binaural masking level difference (BMLD). The responses of 48 low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs were recorded to binaurally presented noise with various degrees of interaural correlation and to interaurally correlated noise in the presence of 500-Hz tones in either zero or pi interaural phase. In response to fully correlated noise, neurons' responses were modulated with interaural delay, showing quasiperiodic noise delay functions (NDFs) with a central peak and side peaks, separated by intervals roughly equivalent to the period of the neuron's best frequency. For noise with zero interaural correlation (independent noises presented to each ear), neurons were insensitive to the interaural delay. Their NDFs were unmodulated, with the majority showing a level of activity approximately equal to the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF obtained with fully correlated noise. Partial decorrelation of the noise resulted in NDFs that were, in general, intermediate between the fully correlated and fully decorrelated noise. Presenting 500-Hz tones simultaneously with fully correlated noise also had the effect of demodulating the NDFs. In the case of tones with zero interaural phase, this demodulation appeared to be a saturation process, raising the discharge at all noise delays to that at the largest peak in the NDF. In the majority of neurons, presenting the tones in pi phase had a similar effect on the NDFs to decorrelating the noise; the response was demodulated toward the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF. Thus the effect of added tones on the responses of delay-sensitive inferior colliculus neurons to noise could be accounted for by a desynchronizing effect. This result is entirely consistent with cross-correlation models of the BMLD. However, in some neurons, the effects of an added tone on the NDF appeared more extreme than the effect of decorrelating the noise, suggesting the possibility of additional inhibitory influences.  (+info)

Corticofugal amplification of facilitative auditory responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat. (6/6631)

Recent studies on the bat's auditory system indicate that the corticofugal system mediates a highly focused positive feedback to physiologically "matched" subcortical neurons, and widespread lateral inhibition to physiologically "unmatched" subcortical neurons, to adjust and improve information processing. These findings have solved the controversy in physiological data, accumulated since 1962, of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons: inhibitory, excitatory, or both (an inhibitory effect is much more frequent than an excitatory effect). In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex each have "FM-FM" neurons, which are "combination-sensitive" and are tuned to specific time delays (echo delays) of echo FM components from the FM components of an emitted biosonar pulse. FM-FM neurons are more complex in response properties than cortical neurons which primarily respond to single tones. In the present study, we found that inactivation of the entire FM-FM area in the cortex, including neurons both physiologically matched and unmatched with subcortical FM-FM neurons, on the average reduced the facilitative responses to paired FM sounds by 82% for thalamic FM-FM neurons and by 66% for collicular FM-FM neurons. The corticofugal influence on the facilitative responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons is much larger than that on the excitatory responses of subcortical neurons primarily responding to single tones. Therefore we propose the hypothesis that, in general, the processing of complex sounds by combination-sensitive neurons more heavily depends on the corticofugal system than that by single-tone sensitive neurons.  (+info)

Effects of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus in rats. (7/6631)

The conditioned suppression technique was employed to study the ototoxic effects of chronic administration of the antibiotic, kanamycin. Lever pressing behavior for food reinforcement of rats was suppressed in the presence of an auditory stimulus (sound) or visual stimulus (light) that had been previously paired with electric shocks. Repeated administration of kanamycin at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day for more than 50 days significantly attenuated the conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus but did not attenuate the conditioned suppression to visual stimulus. This finding suggests that the attenuating effect of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus can be interpreted in terms of the selective action of the drug on the auditory system.  (+info)

Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination. (8/6631)

Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events.  (+info)

The interplay between spin waves (magnons) and electronic structure in materials leads to the creation of additional bands associated with electronic energy levels which are called magnon sidebands. The large difference in the energy scales between magnons (meV) and electronic levels (eV) makes this direct interaction weak and hence makes magnon sidebands difficult to probe. Linear light absorption and scattering techniques at low temperatures are traditionally used to probe these sidebands. Here we show that optical second-harmonic generation, as the lowest-order nonlinear process, can successfully probe the magnon sidebands at room temperature and up to 723 K in bismuth ferrite, associated with large wave vector multimagnon excitations which linear absorption studies are able to resolve only under high magnetic fields and low temperatures. Polarized light studies and temperature dependence of these sidebands reveal a spin-charge coupling interaction of the type Ps L2 between the spontaneous ...
Monitoring techniques are a key technology for examining the conditions in various scenarios, e.g., structural conditions, weather conditions, and disasters. In order to understand such scenarios, the appropriate extraction of their features from observation data is important. This paper proposes a monitoring method that allows sound environments to be expressed as a sound pattern. To this end, the concept of synesthesia is exploited. That is, the keys, tones, and pitches of the monitored sound are expressed using the three elements of color, that is, the hue, saturation, and brightness, respectively. In this paper, it is assumed that the hue, saturation, and brightness can be detected from the chromagram, sonogram, and sound spectrogram, respectively, based on a previous synesthesia experiment. Then, the sound pattern can be drawn using color, yielding a
Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention ...
The book starts out with a chapter on acoustics, and the rest of the book focuses on the anatomy and physiology of the peripheral systems in a rather traditional manner: from caudal through rostral levels, ending with the descending auditory system. Note that these chapters, for the most part, review topic areas that are best considered basic research and are not translational in nature. However, the final section attempts to tie perception to the underlying physiologic responses, and chapters are parsed into stimulus factors (such as intensity, frequency, binaural stimulation, and complex sounds). ...
Physical tradeoffs may in some cases constrain the evolution of sensory systems. The peripheral auditory system, for example, performs a spectral decomposition of sound that should result in a tradeof
Background: This paper reviews the physiological correlates of arousal to develop a comprehensive and collective understanding of the physiological co..
This paper describes a general methodological framework for evaluating the perceptual properties of auditory stimuli. The framework provides analysis techniques that can ensure the effective use of sound for a variety of applications including virtual reality and data sonification systems. Specifically, we discuss data collection techniques for the perceptual qualities of single auditory stimuli including identification tasks, context-based ratings, and attribute ratings. In addition, we present methods for comparing auditory stimuli, such as discrimination tasks, similarity ratings, and sorting tasks. Finally, we discuss statistical techniques that focus on the perceptual relations among stimuli, such as Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Pathfinder Analysis. These methods are presented as a starting point for an organized and systematic approach for non-experts in perceptual experimental methods, rather than as a complete manual for performing the statistical techniques and data collection methods. It
The present results provide behavioral evidence that stimuli can be processed by a mechanism that is selective for particular combinations of spectral and temporal modulation frequencies. We trained listeners to discriminate the depth of spectral, temporal, or upward spectrotemporal modulation and tested the generalization of their learning to the trained conditions of the other groups as well as to the depth discrimination of downward spectrotemporal modulation and the detection of upward spectrotemporal modulation. Three influences of training were dependent on the spectrotemporal characteristics of the trained stimulus. First, and most importantly, there was no generalization of training-induced improvement to the untrained depth-discrimination conditions. Learning on isolated spectral (0.5 cyc/oct; 0 Hz) or temporal (0 cyc/oct; 32 Hz) modulation did not generalize to either direction of spectrotemporal modulation (0.5 cyc/oct; ±32 Hz), even though the spectrotemporal conditions shared one ...
Our brain needs to constantly fuse sensory information detected by our multiple senses in order to produce a seamless coherentre presentation of the world. Rather than being the exception, this binding process is ubiquitous to sensory-motor integration and isimplicated in most cognitive functions. Its impairment is a cause of various pathologies, such as schizophrenia or autism. Multisensoryprocessing operates on all brain levels from primary cortices over subcortical structures up to higher associative centers, while thesmallest operational units are single multisensory neurons.. In an interdisciplinary effort, we combine optical developments, genetics and neuro-computation to obtain new insights into the activityof brain-wide neural circuits that process multisensory information. To reduce the complexity, we study the small transparent brain ofzebrafish larvae as a model system. We focus on gaze stabilization as an inherently multisensory model task that is conservedamong all vertebrates. This ...
The most comparable evidence for human tonotopy is strikingly consistent with that of the monkey: an fMRI study that quantified tonotopy using the same statistical method as Bulkin and Groh (2011) identified ∼18% of the IC as tonotopic (Ress and Chandrasekaran, 2013); other studies reported evidence of tonotopy, although they did not quantify its scope (Geniec and Morest, 1971; De Martino et al., 2013). If the human IC is only sparsely tonotopic and variable across subjects (Ress and Chandrasekaran, 2013), it will be challenging to place a single array of electrodes with any consistency in a tonotopic region. Indeed, plans for the upcoming second clinical trial include the implantation of multiple arrays of electrodes (Lim and Lenarz, 2015) and this may increase the likelihood that the electrodes span sites with a range of different BFs.. A second issue that emerged from the physiological mapping study was that tuning of IC neurons to sound frequency was quite broad. For sounds of moderate ...
May 25, 2014 Meowing can be a sweet and loving communication with you, but it can also become obnoxious. Your felines language is composed of a number of vocalizations, scent signals and body postures. Because we humans do not have a...
serge baghdassarians / boris baltschun. auditorium. auditorium is an installation consisting of several related works translating sound through illumination and animation. the led-displays of guitar pedal tuners become the surface for the projection of letters, words and sentences. these words refer to different forms of auditory activity such as tuning and memorising and point to the regulative powers of musical systems.. each word becomes a number of tone names which cannot be heard but are to be imagined.. ...
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I suppose this is self-evident to many people, but I have found that doing everything I can to focus my brain on the visual and auditory stimulation...
Big new collab 12 from Parris & Call Super, bringing out the best in each others sound and treating us to this gem of a platter. Glassy melodics and floor ready beats fused together creating this ever so slightly wonky, dubwise club record which demands repeated play and is sure to nice up the dance. […]
I have an issue with a gear drive on a ball mill. 2XGM is rising and i have sidebands at 107cpm and I dont know why they are at 107 (not relevant to any turning speeds ect.) I checked the root clearance a week ago and the inboard is about a .066 smaller than the outboard. The pinion is 24 long and has 24 teeth. It is obvious i have misalignment.And there is obvious spalling on the gear faces .... ...
High performance diaphragm pump, easy-to-use solution for small benchtop desiccators. It is portable and low sound level during operation with below 45 dB(A).
Report on the Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Workshop Malcolm Slaney, Dan Ellis, Dave Rosenthal Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 19 and 20th, 1995. The first workshop on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA) was held August 19 and 20th at the 1995 IJCAI (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) in Montreal. Organized by Hiroshi Okuno and David Rosenthal, the workshop was attended by about thirty people doing work on scientific and engineering models of human audition and signal processing. Perhaps the workshop will best be remembered as the largest gathering to date of people interested in computer models of auditory scene analysis (ASA). The attendees were nearly evenly split between those that are interested in understanding human auditory perception and those that want to solve problems in auditory perception, perhaps using some of the techniques of auditory scene analysis. Al Bregman served as keynote speaker for the conference. His book, Auditory Scene ...
The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. This cortex area is the neural crux of hearing, and-in humans-language and music. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around one another, with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that neighboring cells in the cortex respond to neighboring frequencies.[23] Tonotopic mapping is preserved throughout most of the audition circuit. The primary auditory cortex receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and thus is thought to identify the fundamental elements of music, such as pitch and loudness. An evoked response study of congenitally deaf kittens used local field potentials to measure cortical plasticity in the auditory cortex. These kittens were stimulated and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. AU - Polley, Daniel B.. AU - Heiser, Marc A.. AU - Blake, David T.. AU - Schreiner, Christoph E.. AU - Merzenich, Michael M.. PY - 2004/11/16. Y1 - 2004/11/16. N2 - Since the dawn of experimental psychology, researchers have sought an understanding of the fundamental relationship between the amplitude of sensory stimuli and the magnitudes of their perceptual representations. Contemporary theories support the view that magnitude is encoded by a linear increase in firing rate established in the primary afferent pathways. In the present study, we have investigated sound intensity coding in the rat primary auditory cortex (AI) and describe its plasticity by following paired stimulus reinforcement and instrumental conditioning paradigms. In trained animals, population-response strengths in AI became more strongly nonlinear with increasing stimulus intensity. Individual AI responses became ...
We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. Cortical responses were collected during continuous stimulation by sequences of sounds with varying frequency, period, or interaural level differences. We used a set of stimuli that differ in spectral structure, but have the same periodicity and therefore evoke the same pitch percept (click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, and iterated ripple noise). These stimuli failed to reveal a consistent periodotopic map across the auditory fields imaged. Rather, gradients of period sensitivity differed for the different types of periodic stimuli. Binaural interactions were studied both with single contralateral, ipsilateral, and diotic broadband noise bursts and with sequences of broadband noise bursts with varying level presented contralaterally, ipsilaterally, or in opposite phase to both ears. Contralateral responses were generally largest and ipsilateral
In Pressl. Basura GL, Koehler S, and Shore SE. . Stimulus-timing dependence of auditory-somatosensory plasticity in auditory cortex neurons after noise induced temporary threshold shifts and tinnitus. Journal of Neurophysiology: In Press, 2015. Article featured on JNP homepage.
Auditory working memory weakness can cause problems in the classroom. Here are my top 10 strategies for managing these weaknesses.
TY - GEN. T1 - On the synthesis of multiple frequency tone burst stimuli for efficient high frequency auditory brainstem response. AU - Ellingson, Roger M.. AU - Dille, Marilyn L.. AU - Leek, Marjorie R.. AU - Fausti, Stephen A.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - The development and digital waveform synthesis of a multiple-frequency tone-burst (MFTB) stimulus is presented. The stimulus is designed to improve the efficiency of monitoring high-frequency auditory-brainstem-response (ABR) hearing thresholds. The pure-tone-based, fractional-octavebandwidth MFTB supports frequency selective ABR audiometry with a bandwidth that falls between the conventional click and single-frequency tone-burst stimuli. The MFTB is being used to identify high frequency hearing threshold change due to ototoxic medication which most generally starts at the ultra-highest hearing frequencies and progresses downwards but could be useful in general limitedbandwidth testing applications. Included is a Mathcad® implementation and ...
A novel method is presented for creating a probability map from histologically defined cytoarchitectonic data, customised for the anatomy of individual fMRI volunteers. Postmortem structural and cytoarchitectonic information from a published dataset is combined with high resolution structural MR images using deformable registration of a region of interest. In this paper, we have targeted the three sub-areas of the primary auditory cortex (located on Heschls gyrus); however, the method could be applied to any other cytoarchitectonic region. The resulting probability maps show a significantly higher overlap than previously generated maps using the same cytoarchitectonic data, and more accurately span the macroanatomical structure of the auditory cortex. This improvement indicates a high potential for spatially accurate fMRI analysis, allowing more reliable correlation between anatomical structure and function. We validate the approach using fMRI data from nine individuals, taken from a published ...
The basic morphological aspects of auditory cortex organization in different orders of eutherian mammals are considered in the present review. The modern data describing a partitioning of mammalian auditory cortex into subfields are presented. A detailed observation of the structural organization of primary auditory cortex is given, as well as a review of recent morphological data about secondary auditory areas. Another section describes the system of auditory cortical projections. The data are considered from the perspective of possible homologies existing between the auditory cortices in different mammalian species.
The most common active mode-locking technique places a standing wave electro-optic modulator into the laser cavity. When driven with an electrical signal, this produces a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the light in the cavity. Considering this in the frequency domain, if a mode has optical frequency ν, and is amplitude-modulated at a frequency f, the resulting signal has sidebands at optical frequencies ν − f and ν + f. If the modulator is driven at the same frequency as the cavity-mode spacing Δν, then these sidebands correspond to the two cavity modes adjacent to the original mode. Since the sidebands are driven in-phase, the central mode and the adjacent modes will be phase-locked together. Further operation of the modulator on the sidebands produces phase-locking of the ν − 2f and ν + 2f modes, and so on until all modes in the gain bandwidth are locked. As said above, typical lasers are multi-mode and not seeded by a root mode. So multiple modes need to work out which phase to ...
Sound is dynamic and as such has temporal and spectral content. The auditory system extracts the spectral aspects and the temporal ones in parallel in the cochlea and auditory nerve. For frequencies below about 1.5 kHz, the spectral and temporal representations of sound are potentially redundant and both represent the pitch of speech and music. Auditory temporal processing determines our understanding of speech, our appreciation of music, being able to localize a sound source, and to listen to a person in a noisy crowd. The underlying basic capabilities of the auditory system include precise representation of sound onsets and offsets, representing gap durations in sound, and being able to code fast amplitude- and frequency- modulations of sound. The co-occurrence of such onsets and modulations of sound determine auditory objects and allow separating those from other auditory streams. Problems with precise temporal representations of sound occur in auditory neuropathy and multiple sclerosis and lead to a
Sound is dynamic and as such has temporal and spectral content. The auditory system extracts the spectral aspects and the temporal ones in parallel in the cochlea and auditory nerve. For frequencies below about 1.5 kHz, the spectral and temporal representations of sound are potentially redundant and both represent the pitch of speech and music. Auditory temporal processing determines our understanding of speech, our appreciation of music, being able to localize a sound source, and to listen to a person in a noisy crowd. The underlying basic capabilities of the auditory system include precise representation of sound onsets and offsets, representing gap durations in sound, and being able to code fast amplitude- and frequency- modulations of sound. The co-occurrence of such onsets and modulations of sound determine auditory objects and allow separating those from other auditory streams. Problems with precise temporal representations of sound occur in auditory neuropathy and multiple sclerosis and lead to a
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Probabilistic mapping and volume measurement of human primary auditory cortex.
Visual and auditory stimulation at 3 frequencies in the alpha-band range caused an analgesic effect in participants exposed to experimental pain, according
A method and device for detecting dichroic and/or birefringent narrow spectral features in a sample is described. The method includes the steps of providing a beam of light having an optical frequency bandwidth which is narrow compared to the width of the narrow spectral feature and having a center frequency ωc which lies near the narrow spectral feature, polarization phase modulating a beam of light with a single RF frequency to provide a pure FM spectrum having upper and lower sidebands in which either the carrier and sidebands have been polarized with respect to one another, exposing the sample containing the narrow spectral feature to the polarized modulated light so that the FM sidebands probe the narrow spectral feature, polarization analyzing and then photodetecting the light emerging from the sample to detect a RF beat at the specific RF frequency used for the polarization phase modulation, and electronically monitoring the amplitude of the RF beat signal to indicate the strength of the narrow
A method for providing broad-band antireflective surface layers on a chemically durable borosilicate glass which comprises phase-separating the glass by heat treatment at 630 -660 C., removing a siliceous surface layer from the glass, and treating the glass in an aqueous solution containing both H+ ions and F- ions for a time sufficient to produce the antireflective surface layer, is described. Antireflective surface layers exhibiting reflectances as low as 0.5% throughout the wavelength range from about 0.4-2.0 microns have been produced.
This thesis improves the audio display for multiple Morse communications. Factors considered to improve the audio display are frequency of source, volume level of source, and methods of unmasking. The best frequency and volume level of a Morse source is 500 Hz at 70 dB sound pressure level. Two types of masking are researched frequency masking and expectation driven masking. Experiments showed by amplifying high pitched sources the effects of frequency masking are minimized. Other methods to compensate for frequency masking are 3-D sound and the placement of a source out of phase between the ears. Morse code recognition at 500 Hz is greatest when presented at the NO S-pi condition. Greatest unmasking for broadband signals occurs at 3-D locations between 60 and 90 deg where the largest ITD interaural time difference exists. This thesis theorizes and confirms that greatest unmasking of a source tone in 3-D sound corresponds to the spatial location that gives an ITD equal to a 180 deg phase shift for that
3. Compromise - Chris Thompson - Alarm Sounds. Distinctive as Pattersons sounds are, succesive IEC committees have not endorsed them. Mostly this was, I think, because simpler devices would have found it difficult, technically, to generate such complex sounds. Hence the simpler, more easily generated pulse tones of 9703.2 and 60601-1-8.. None the less, the underlying psychoacoustic principles advocated by Patterson are, I think, entirely valid, as was the concept of providing unique sounds for the main categories of medical alarms. My greatest reservation with the existing 60601-1-8 melodies is that the high priority melodies are too complex. Although the high priority sounds are based on the medium priority melodies, two additional beeps after the base melody confuse the sound greatly, so that each high priority alarm is quite different from its medium priority version. This means that there are almost 13 different sounds to learn, and they can be too easily confused. The general rule of ...
Almost all medical devices in ICU/CCU have a built-in clinical alarm system to alert when there are changes in a patients condition. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the existing alarm system in ICU/CCU. Two summative usability tests were conducted to test the effectiveness of existing and new alarm signals based on IEC 60601-1-8:2006 standard. Further formative test was conducted to study perception of urgency associated with number of tones in the alarm signals. The findings indicate that the existing auditory alarm signal in ICU/CCU do not indicate the urgency of the alarm conditions. The simulation test indicates that the respondents preferred 282Hz, 500Hz and 800Hz for low, medium and high-risk alarm respectively. The one-sample proportion z test on urgency mapping indicates that the proportion of responses for highest risk is more than 50% for single tone test signal. These results show that single tone test signal being perceived as highest risk ...
BPSK signals in this modem design are demodulated synchronously, and synchronous detectors require a reference carrier for phase determination. Since the BPSK transmitter suppresses its carrier in its balanced modulator, there is no clearly defined reference present in a BPSK signal. The demodulator must therefore synthesize a BPSK reference carrier from sideband components present in the composite BPSK signal. If viewed in the time domain, the carrier of a signal whose phase shifts by 180 degree intervals may be extracted by taking the absolute value of the BPSK waveform voltage and filtering the result. A full-wave rectifier can be used to perform the absolute value function. The rectification process yields a waveform of constant phase and frequency twice that of the BPSK suppressed carrier. In the frequency domain, the rectifier may be thought of as being a non-linear circuit that mixes the upper and lower BPSK sidebands producing the algebraic sum of those sidebands. Dividing the frequency ...
Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee..………………Clear!..................... KA-CHUNK!!!!!!!...... Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep………………… You know what this sounds like. You know exactly what this sounds like. Youve heard it on practically every hospital TV show, every movie in which someone is rescued near death in a spaceship with a sickbay…over, and over, and over. And its…
Blue Hell, they may have worked out what tinnitus is and how to fix it. The basic idea is that when your ear is damaged (by noise,medication,etc), auditory cortex neurons in the brain become starved of certain frequencies. In Darwinian survival style, they become hyperactive and start receiving input sound from bordering undamaged zones, which we hear as tinnitus. The objective therefore is to re-supply the missing input noise to a now over-active auditory cortex to suppress the excessive neuronal firing which causes tinnitus ...
Personally everything anyone needs to know about BFS has already been researched and written up in BFS in a Nutshell. And that document has been stickied and prominently posted here on this very website for nearly ten years. I just find it rather silly that people are still seeking answers and still pushing for more research when we all know *beep* well they are going to find what every oldtimer here already knows. That is why I choose not to participate, and why I am guessing a lot of people choose not to participate. The #1 rule when you truly do accept your BFS is stop self testing and researching and obsessing so much about neurology! So by very definition participating in a study like this is such a backwards slide for most of us that I would consider it to be emotionally and mentally damaging. In any case, you are asking why people choose not to participate and that is why for a lot of us. I already know why I have BFS. I already know what BFS is. And I choose not to go back into the ...
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Functions and Calculus, an essential link between Algebra and Number, is one of the strands of the Project Maths Course in the Irish curriculum.
Debbie, what you are describing sounds very much like what most BFSers call exercise intolerance. It is very common with BFS. Some of your other symptoms may or may not be related to BFS. I have seen many posts where people describe exactly what you have with ALL of your symptoms and were diagnosed with BFS. If you havent seen a neurologist yet, go see one so you can have peace of mind and KNOW that its only BFS once and for all. Guessing will only keep youre mind going in circles and yes, time is on your side with BFS but how long do you want to guess and wonder what if...? I am in that boat and have been for almost 2 years now and I can tell you, it sucks. There are no good neuros where I live and I am just a big baby and am too scared to go. Its aguy thing... we are ALWAYS sicker than you girls, whether its the flu, a cold, a stomach ache or anything... all men are whiners and I am the biggest one! Ha-ha!! I drive my wife nuts when I am sick with my whining and complaining... dont ...
White Noise and Ear Buds/Headphones: Blocking out distractions is HUGE. After using white noise with ear buds for so many years, youd think Id remember just how effective it is in helping me focus, but no. I tend to not use them for weeks, then plug in the ear buds out of desperation, and discover that WOW, I just had a monumentally productive writing session! My favorite white noise app (and website) is Simply Noise. They have three types of white noise (in addition to rain and other sounds): white, pink, and brown. For my ear, brown is the soothing one, while white and pink are grating. Everyone is different. I like setting the high oscillation feature, which turns the volume up and down in a wave-like pattern. Somehow that aids in concentrating too. The app has a timer, too, so you can set the white noise to run for, say 30 minutes, and then shut off. Thats been very helpful in keeping me from staying so deep into the rabbit hole that I forget carpool duty or other crucial things ...
With powerful JBL Signature Sound, a sleek, contemporary look and smart, touch-control features, the JBL LIVE 500BT is perfect for any on-the-go lifestyle. Prepare to hit the streets with an innovative listening experience, optimized for Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa, as well as Ambient Aware and TalkThru technologies. With TalkThru, music temporarily pauses at the touch of a button, lowering speech and amplifying sound to make it easy to chat with a friend without removing the headphones. In Ambient Aware mode, listeners can control the amount of background noise they want to let in, to stay keyed into their surroundings when its needed most, such as walking in a busy intersection, dodging through a crowd of people or having an ear out for the family dog playing in the park.
With powerful JBL Signature Sound, a sleek, contemporary look and smart, touch-control features, the JBL LIVE 500BT is perfect for any on-the-go lifestyle. Prepare to hit the streets with an innovative listening experience, optimized for Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa, as well as Ambient Aware and TalkThru technologies. With TalkThru, music temporarily pauses at the touch of a button, lowering speech and amplifying sound to make it easy to chat with a friend without removing the headphones. In Ambient Aware mode, listeners can control the amount of background noise they want to let in, to stay keyed into their surroundings when its needed most, such as walking in a busy intersection, dodging through a crowd of people or having an ear out for the family dog playing in the park.
Stereo systems, music, equilibrium of different sounds, and certain other aspects are the fundamental grounds of any approved studio headphones. However, when we add the word
We research how listeners use sounds in order to learn about, and interact with their surroundings. Our work is based on behavioral methods (psychophysics), eye tracking and functional brain imaging (MEG, EEG and fMRI). We are based at the Ear Institute. MEG and fMRI scanning is conducted at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. We are also affiliated with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.. By studying how brain responses unfold in time, we explore how representation that are useful for behaviour arise from sensory input and dissociate automatic ,stimulus-driven, processes from those that are affected by the perceptual state, task and goals of the listener. Examples of the questions we address in our experiments are: How do listeners detect the appearance or disappearance of new auditory objects (sound sources) in the environment? What makes certain events pop-out and grab listeners attention even when it is focused elsewhere while the detection of other events requires directed ...
Das BfS steht im Fokus der Öffentlichkeit. Medien berichten häufig über die Arbeit des BfS. Eine kleine, nicht repräsentative Auswahl an Zeitungsartikeln, die sich mit der Arbeit des BfS auseinandersetzen und Aspekte sachlich und anschaulich darstellen, haben wir Ihnen hier zusammengestellt.. ...
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Is multisensory instruction EFFECTIVE? Is it good for ALL Kids? Learn what the research says about multisensory instruction and multisensory learning.
The Korg TM50 is a perfect pitch and rhythm training device allowing use of the metronome and tuner simultaneously The Korg TM50 allows you to use the tuner and metronome simultaneously Since this single unit is all you need for both pitch and rhythm tra
Reverse My Tinnitus Review - Discover How To get Rid Of Tinnitus Naturally Tinnitus is the sensation of hearing certain noises for example ringing, buzzing or any other sounds in a continual or intermittent type, and in a different range of loudness, if you find no actual real audio to listen for. The sounds are usually heard once the background .... Read More » ...
Ernst, M.O., Bresciani, J.-P., & Drewing, K., 2004. Feeling what you hear: Auditory signals can modulate the perception of tactile taps. Perception, 33(Suppl. 1), p 143-143 ...
Un lloc... is a single piece, running almost 54 minutes. It begins with a plucked, six-note pattern on acoustic guitar, resonant and pensive, slightly reminiscent of a given stretch of Feldman piano music. Fages takes it through several subtle variations but after only a couple of minutes, the music begins to fragment and dissolve, reforming for a while, disintegrating again, reappearing in more isolated, fragmented form, splintered into high, muted pings now and then--all quite thoughtful, attractive and finely placed. Some twelve minutes in, all overt guitarisms evaporate and were in a world of sine tones, soft, high-pitched, overlaid and quietly vibrant. This state of affairs lasts about twelve minutes more and is enchanting, otherworldly. For a bit over the final half of the work, Fages reverts to the guitar, at first overlapping with the sine tones, but occupying a somewhat less quasi-tonal area than was the case at the beginning. The notes, sometimes chords, sometimes single tones, are ...
Tonotopy, the orderly representation of sound frequency is a fundamental organizing principle of the auditory system. However, the mechanisms by which precise t...
It was not my time to be soft hearted. I knew it would be best if she stayed away from me completely. I called my parents to pick her up. They were here in a jiffy. I didn t even see her going. I know
WASHINGTON, March 24, 2009 - The Federal Communications Commission on Tuesday outlined the procedures by which parties wishing to provide written or oral
in front of a sound name, such as ^weapons/explode3.wav tells the sound engine that it is a distance based sound. The left channel of the .wav is the near sound that will play when the sound originates close to you, and the right channel is the far sound that will play when the sound originates far from you. If the ^ mark is not used in the soundscript the sound is treated as stereo with no directionality or distance. This is a different feature than the sndlvl entry to control attenuation. This distant variant feature allows you to play two different sounds (but using only one file) and cross-fading between the two depending on how far away the sound originates. Currently the fade distances are hardcoded to begin at 20 feet (240 world units) and end at 110 feet (1320 world units) and cannot be changed in a mod. ...
Hardwood shapes in 6 pairs which can be color matched, or turned over and matched by sound (each color coded sound prism makes a different sound when shaken).
Free Crystal Metronome Download,Crystal Metronome 1.4.6 is Tempo markings. Measures. Subdivisions including eighth notes and triplets
Combines the Real and Imaginary data sets to one array for exporting to the Simepr.exe program. You must use this feature to Optimize or Tune an FT spectrum. This feature has no meaning for a CW spectrum. Only a symmetric spectrum which is centered in the data array will produce a Fourier transform which is purely either Real or Imaginary depending on the harmonic with the exception of noise. A first derivative CW spectrum will produce a purely Imaginary display after an FFT+1. To simulate the FT of non-symmetric and/or non-centered spectra, this feature has been added. Because the spectral information is compressed into the low frequency region of an FT by the exponential linewidth function, the high frequency region may be discarded. This now empty space of the Imaginary array is used to hold the low frequency information of the Real array. You will be prompted for n, the frequency value (data point) for combination. This number should be above the region of significant low frequency spectral ...
Hoffman HS, Fleshler M (September 1963). "Startle Reaction: Modification by Background Acoustic Stimulation". Science. 141 ( ... The stimuli are usually acoustic, but tactile stimuli (e.g. via air puffs onto the skin) and light stimuli are also used. When ... A burst of white noise is usually used as the acoustic startle stimulus. Typical durations are 20 ms for prepulse and 40 ms for ... Kumari V, Soni W, Sharma T (June 2001). "Influence of cigarette smoking on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response ...
The whitetip reef shark is highly responsive to olfactory, acoustic, and electrical cues given off by potential prey. Its ... "Behavioral response of sharks to electric stimulation". Bulletin of Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute. 78: 13-30.. ... 1970). Acoustic studies on sharks: Rangiroa Atoll, July 1969. ONR Technical Report 2, No. N00014-68-C-0138. ...
"A primary acoustic startle circuit: lesion and stimulation studies". Journal of Neuroscience. 2 (6): 791-805. doi:10.1523/ ... The acoustic startle reflex is thought to be caused by an auditory stimulus greater than 80 decibels. The reflex is typically ... A reflex from hearing a sudden loud noise will happen in the primary acoustic startle reflex pathway consisting of three main ... The role of the BNST in the acoustic startle reflex may be attributed to specific areas within the nucleus responsible for ...
Pinette MG, Blackstone J, Wax JR, Cartin A (June 2005). "Using fetal acoustic stimulation to shorten the biophysical profile". ... Fetal heart rate Fetal breathing Fetal movement Fetal tone Amniotic fluid volume Use of vibroacoustic stimulation to accelerate ...
In 2003, he led the Hydrocarbon Acoustic Stimulation (RMS) development, technology which increases the efficiency of oil ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "RMS Hydrocarbon Acoustic Stimulation System". AIC. Retrieved 28 September 2018. CS1 ...
"How the brain combines electric and acoustic stimulation - Bionics Institute". Retrieved 2 June 2020. "Fitbit on a brain wave ... Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) uses a surgically implanted, battery-operated medical device to deliver electrical stimulation to ... "Optical stimulation technology to improve the precision of bionic devices - Bionics Institute". Retrieved 3 June 2020. " ... Institute Staff are recruited from disciplines including neuroscience, psychophysics, medicine, electrical and acoustic ...
Hilali, S.; Whitfield, I. C. (October 1953). "Responses of the trapezoid body to acoustic stimulation with pure tones". The ... which had varying phases according to stimulation frequency. This phenomenon was interpreted as the result of a second harmonic ...
Outer hair cells serve as acoustic amplifiers for stimulation of the inner hair cells. Outer hair cells respond primarily to ... eds.). Cochlear Blood Flow Changes With Short Sound Stimulation. Scientific basis of noise-induced hearing loss. New York ... When this boost occurs, an acoustic reflex mechanism triggers and acts as a defense against these sounds. This mechanism seeks ... A metronome was used as part of a technique to test the effects of musical and rhythmic stimulation in physical rehabilitation ...
Visser, G.H.A.; Mulder, H.H.; Wit, H.P.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Prechtl, H.F.R. (1989). "Vibro-acoustic stimulation of the human fetus ... Vibroacoustic stimulation is a technique involving the repetitive stimulation of the fetus, by applying a vibroacoustic ... Stimulation trials continue into the neonatal period (first 28 days after birth) by presenting the same auditory stimulus, to ... Both auditory and vibroacoustic stimulation have been used in habituation. ...
... are sounds that are heard without any external acoustic stimulation. Endaural means "in the ear". Phenomena ...
... a comparison of fetal acoustic stimulation with acid-base determinations". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 155: 726-728. doi:10.1016/s0002 ... Vibroacoustic stimulation can wake the fetus, and is sometimes used to speed up the test or to facilitate further evaluation of ...
... following acoustic stimulation. Using acoustic stimuli to activate the MOC reflex pathway, recordings have been made from ... Cody and Johnstone (1982) and Rajan and Johnstone (1988a; 1988b) showed that constant acoustic stimulation that in (which ... Acoustic stimulation of the inner hair cells sends a neural signal to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN), and the axons ... electrical stimulation of neurons other than MOCS fibres. Therefore, electrical stimulation of the MOCS may not give an ...
"Cochlear Dead Regions Constrain the Benefit of Combining Acoustic Stimulation With Electric Stimulation". Ear and Hearing. 35 ( ...
Townsend GL, Cody DTR (1971). The averaged inion response evoked by acoustic stimulation: its relation to the saccule. Ann Otol ... Rosengren SM, Todd NPM, Colebatch JG (2005). Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials produced by stimulation with bone- ... bone vibration and short duration electrical stimulation. It is likely that both air-conducted and bone-conducted stimuli ... Vestibulocollic reflexes evoked by short-duration galvanic stimulation in man. J Physiol 513(2):587-97. Curthoys IS, Kim J, ...
"Mapping the tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex with minimally salient acoustic stimulation". Cerebral Cortex. 22 ( ... Consistently, electro stimulation to the aSTG of this patient resulted in impaired speech perception (see also for similar ... and fMRI The latter study further demonstrated that working memory in the AVS is for the acoustic properties of spoken words ... The authors also reported that stimulation in area Spt and the inferior IPL induced interference during both object-naming and ...
"Mapping the tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex with minimally salient acoustic stimulation". Cerebral Cortex. 22 ( ... Studies in mature A1 have focused on neuromodulatory influences and have found that direct and indirect vagus nerve stimulation ... Barton B, Venezia JH, Saberi K, Hickok G, Brewer AA (December 2012). "Orthogonal acoustic dimensions define auditory field maps ... which altered the ability of the auditory cortex to plastically reorganize after changes in the acoustic environment, thereby ...
This physical stimulation appears to enhance the cell-repair effects of the inflammatory response. The first large scale ... This is based on the acoustic radiation force which causes particles to be attracted to either the nodes or anti-nodes of the ... Acoustic tweezers is an emerging tool for contactless separation, concentration and manipulation of microparticles and ... Long-duration therapeutic ultrasound called sustained acoustic medicine is a daily slow-release therapy that can be applied to ...
FAY, R. R., & POPPER, A. N. (1974). Acoustic stimulation of the ear of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of ...
Chouard, CH; Meyer, B; Josset, P; Buche, JF (1983). "The effect of the acoustic nerve chronic electric stimulation upon the ... The study showed that selective electrical stimulation of eight to twelve electrodes, each isolated from the others, placed in ... House, WF; Urban, J (1973). "Long term results of electrode implantation and electronic stimulation of the cochlea in man". Ann ... Djourno, A; Eyries, C (August 1957). "[Auditory prosthesis by means of a distant electrical stimulation of the sensory nerve ...
Brånemark sought an acoustic way to evaluate osseointegration. A patient with implants in the jaws was fitted with a bone ... When tested, the patient experienced very loud sound even at low stimulation levels, indicating sound could propagate very well ...
Shockwave therapy uses acoustic sound waves to alter tissue mechanics and inflammation. Lastly, personalized exercise plans ... Therapeutic ultrasound provides deep tissue thermal stimulation to increase range of motion and tendon strength and is often ... This therapy refers to when stimulation occurs via light and reportedly increases energy and antioxidant production. Hyperbaric ...
The Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD) is an acoustic hailing device developed by LRAD Corporation to send messages and warning ... PERSONNEL HALTING and STIMULATION RESPONSE (PHaSR) Fact Sheet, Air Force Research Laboratory, Office of Public Affairs, April ... Long Range Acoustic device mounted on police vehicle, 2004 Republican National Convention, New York City Swedish police in riot ... The personnel halting and stimulation response rifle (PHASR) is a prototype non-lethal laser dazzler developed by the Air Force ...
Electric Acoustic Stimulation in Children W: Van de Heyning P, Kleine Punte A (eds): Cochlear Implants and Hearing Preservation ...
Acoustic reflex and otoacoustic emissions may also be measured. Results of audiometric tests are used to diagnose hearing loss ... Caloric stimulation of the ear results in rapid side-to-side eye movements called nystagmus. Absence of nystagmus may indicate ... Caloric stimulation/reflex test uses temperature difference between hot and cold water or air delivered into the ear to test ... Acoustic immittance audiometry - Immittance audiometry is an objective technique which evaluates middle ear function by three ...
Leon Jakobovits James (April 1962). "Effects of Repeated Stimulation on Cognitive Aspects of Behavior: Some Experiments on the ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Pilotti, M.; Antrobus, J.S.; Duff, M. (1997). "The effect of presemantic acoustic ...
Due to this mechanism, for example, incoming acoustic stimuli can be processed with astonishing speed as when comprehending ... how automatic predictions about upcoming auditory events can be generated on the basis of regular environmental stimulation. ...
Phonemic Restoration with Simulations of Cochlear Implants and Combined Electric-Acoustic Stimulation". Journal of the ... It is believed that humans and other vertebrates have evolved the ability to complete acoustic signals that are critical but ... For people with cochlear implants, acoustic simulations of the implant indicated the importance of spectral resolution. When ... "Dynamic cortical representations of perceptual fulling-in for missing acoustic rhythm". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 17536. doi: ...
Phonemic Restoration with Simulations of Cochlear Implants and Combined Electric-Acoustic Stimulation". Journal of the ... "The discrimination of voice cues in simulations of bimodal electro-acoustic cochlear-implant hearing". The Journal of the ... "The Cochlear Implant EEG Artifact Recorded From an Artificial Brain for Complex Acoustic Stimuli". IEEE Transactions on Neural ...
Fetal Acoustic Stimulation Device, patent ES2546919B1, granted 29 September 2015 to Luis y Pallarés Aniorte and Maria Luisa ... Uchiyama, M.; Jin, X.; Zhang, Q.; Hirai, T.; Amano, A.; Bashuda, H.; Niimi, M. (2012). "Auditory stimulation of opera music ... Matsumi Suzuki, President of Japan Acoustic Lab, and Dr. Norio Kogure, Executive Director, Kogure Veterinary Hospital, for ...
These include cochlear implants, middle ear implants, bone conduction hearing implants, electric acoustic stimulation hearing ...
Multimodal stimulation and music: By combining music, such as lullabies and multi-modal stimulation, premature infants were ... was postulated by Indian musician Chitravina Ravikiran based on fundamental criteria derived from acoustic physics. ... Infant stimulation: This type of intervention uses musical stimulation to compensate for the lack of normal environmental ... Multi-modal stimulation (MMS) includes the applications of auditory, tactile, vestibular, and visual stimulation that helps aid ...
... acoustic neuromas, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, and prevention of keloid scar ... "Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy impairs the stimulation of breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion caused by ...
Acoustic rhinometry. sinus. Sinusotomy. larynx. Laryngoscopy. Laryngectomy. Laryngotomy Thyrotomy. Laryngotracheal ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation has also shown to be useful in the management of post-thoracotomy pain. ... Assessing the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in post-thoracotomy analgesia. Rev Bras Anestesiol ...
High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) has been compared directly to fMRI using response to visual stimulation in ... Cranial ultrasound is usually only used in babies, whose open fontanelles provide acoustic windows allowing ultrasound imaging ... "Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation". by Michael Leventon in association with MIT AI Lab. ...
Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic reflex, ... Norepinephrine modulates the intensity of central reactions to vestibular stimulation and facilitates compensation. Histamine ... one hypothesized cause is that the stimulation of the trigeminal nerve leads to nystagmus in individuals suffering from ...
... scape is the component of the acoustic environment that can be perceived by humans. The acoustic environment is the ... Sensation due to stimulation of the auditory nerves and auditory centers of the brain, usually by vibrations transmitted in a ... In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain.[1] Only acoustic ... American National Standard: Acoustic Terminology. Sec 3.03. *^ Acoustical Society of America. "PACS 2010 Regular Edition- ...
The hair cells convert this pattern of stimulation to nerve signals, and the brain is thus advised of changes in your linear ... it receives the utricular filaments of the acoustic nerve. ... Any orientation of the head causes a combination of stimulation ...
Piezoelectric and acoustic materials for transducer applications. Springer 2008 ISBN 978-0-387-76540-2 PMC 288474260 . Noiz ... 2010-08). «The effectiveness of intracytoplasmic sperm injection combined with piezoelectric stimulation in infertile couples ... 2014-01). «Acoustic Enhancement of Polymer/ZnO Nanorod Photovoltaic Device Performance» Advanced Materials (2): 263-268 doi: ...
Knepel W, Homolka L, Vlaskovska M, Nutto D. (1984). Stimulation of adrenocorticotropin/beta-endorphin release by synthetic ... Some aspects of pregnancy and childbirth including stimulation of uterine contractions during childbirth (Parturition) ...
1617), offers multiple examples of the bait-and-switch and fraud techniques involving the stimulation of greed in Ming-dynasty ... Rockwell, P. A.; Buller, D. B.; Burgoon, J. K. (1997). "Measurement of deceptive voices: Comparing acoustic and perceptual data ...
Lack of response to light stimulation of the right eye if both eyes respond normally to stimulation of the left eye indicates ... and not to the side from which light stimulation originates. Left pupillary reflex refers to the response of the left pupil to ... Acoustic reflex. *H-reflex. *Golgi tendon reflex. *Optokinetic. *Startle response. *Withdrawal reflex (Crossed extensor reflex) ...
Khan, FR; Henderson, JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M. Brain Stimulation: ...
Stimulation of different receptors are involved in different pathways leading to emesis, in the final common pathway substance ... Professor Trevor Cox of the University of Salford's Acoustic Research Centre said, "We are pre-programmed to be repulsed by ... stimulation of which can lead to vomiting. The area postrema is a circumventricular organ and as such lies outside the blood- ... while their further and more vigorous effect occurs by stimulation of the medullary centre.[15] ...
This is also true for stimulation of the amygdala. This proves that excitement enhances memory by the stimulation of hormones ... Short-term memory is believed to rely mostly on an acoustic code for storing information, and to a lesser extent a visual code ... For example, short-term memory can be broken up into different units such as visual information and acoustic information. In a ... On each lobe, three triggers hairs await stimulation. In order to maximize the benefit to cost ratio, the plant enables a ...
Development Of An Acoustic Prosthesis. [44]. UCSF. NINDS. -. - 1980-1982. Develop Electrodes For Auditory Prosthesis. [45]. ... reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in adult owl monkeys after behaviorally controlled tactile stimulation". J ... "ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Development Of An Acoustic Prosthesis". Retrieved 2009-01-02.. CS1 maint: discouraged ... and multiple tonotopic maps of the acoustic inputs in the superior temporal plane.[8] ...
An acoustic neuroma, particularly at the junction between the pons and medulla, may compress the facial nerve (VII) and ... of the vestibular nerve may be tested by putting cold and warm water in the ears and watching eye movements caloric stimulation ...
Brook, P. J. (26 April 1969). "Stimulation of Ascospore Release in Venturia inaequalis by Far Red Light". Nature. 222 (5191): ...
Ebert, U; Koch, M (September 1997). "Acoustic startle-evoked potentials in the rat amygdala: effect of kindling". Physiology & ... since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca2+ waves over long distances in response to stimulation ...
These garments alternate layers of materials with high and low acoustic impedance (the product of a material's density and a ... Chest physical therapy makes use of techniques such as breathing exercises, stimulation of coughing, suctioning, percussion, ...
Neurons sensitive to inter-aural level differences (ILDs) are excited by stimulation of one ear and inhibited by stimulation of ... the head radius is r and the acoustic velocity is c, the function of ITD is given by:[8]. I. T. D. =. {. 300. ×. r. ×. sin. ⁡. ... which refers to the stimulation of each ear with a different stimulus, and diotic listening, the simultaneous stimulation of ... For sound localization via mechanical or electrical means, see acoustic location.. Sound localization is a listener's ability ...
Acoustic rhinometry. sinus. Sinusotomy. larynx. Laryngoscopy. Laryngectomy. Laryngotomy Thyrotomy. Laryngotracheal ... Fetal scalp stimulation test. Sampling. Fetal tissue. Chorionic villus sampling. Amniocentesis. Blood. Triple test. Quad test. ...
The Ghost Crab also is known as an Ocypode quadrata that has its own animal acoustic communication systems. They create many ... teeth of the gastric mill possess a series of comb-like structures that rub against the median tooth to produce stimulation ... "Growling from the Gut: Co-Option of the Gastric Mill for Acoustic Communication in Ghost Crabs." Proceedings of the Royal ... "Growling from the Gut: Co-Option of the Gastric Mill for Acoustic Communication in Ghost Crabs." Proceedings of the Royal ...
1996). Assessing possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld. Journal of Parapsychology. Volume 60 ... stimulation and receptor) by which thoughts could travel from one person to another by which the mind could project itself ...
Hence, it is not clear to what extent the electrical neuron models hold for extra-cellular stimulation (see e.g.[1]). ... Bullock, T. H. (1997-01-01). "Comparative Physiology of Acoustic and Allied Central Analyzers". Acta Oto-Laryngologica. 117 ( ... The models in this category were derived following experiments involving natural stimulation such as light, sound, touch, or ... Most modern electrical neural interfaces apply extra-cellular electrical stimulation to avoid membrane puncturing which can ...
Khan, FR; Henderson, JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M (eds.). Brain ... Stimulation: Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 116. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 28-30. doi:10.1016/ ...
Acoustic rhinometry. sinus. Sinusotomy. larynx. Laryngoscopy. Laryngectomy. Laryngotomy Thyrotomy. Laryngotracheal ... CPR has continued to advance, with recent developments including an emphasis on constant, rapid heart stimulation, and a de- ...
... above 1 kHz can be beyond the range of amplification possible via acoustic stimulation. Electric stimulation (CI), on the other ... Electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) is the use of a hearing aid and a cochlear implant together in the same ear. The hearing ... This acoustic stimulation proves to be particularly effective in the low frequencies, though a severe hearing loss (> 70 dB HL ... Gstoettner W., Helbig S., Maier N., Kiefer J., Radeloff A., Adunka O. (2006). Ipsilateral Electric Acoustic Stimulation of the ...
Experimental: Acoustic 1Hz Stimulation 1 Hz acoustic stimulation applied via headphones and downloadable phone application ... Other: Acoustic 1Hz Stimulation 1Hz acoustic pulses delivered during sleep via headphones ... Acoustic Stimulation for Seizure Suppression. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... The objective of this study is to test the feasibility and physiological effect of low-frequency (1 Hz) acoustic stimulation ...
A primary acoustic startle circuit: lesion and stimulation studies. M Davis, DS Gendelman, MD Tischler and PM Gendelman ... A primary acoustic startle circuit: lesion and stimulation studies Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... abolish acoustic startle. Electrical stimulation of these nuclei elicits startle-like responses with a latency of about 6 msec ... abolish acoustic startle. Electrical stimulation of these points elicits startle-like responses with a latency of about 5 msec ...
Other: Acoustic stimulation (65db) up-slope of EEG with QST Acoustic stimulation (65 db) synchronized in-phase with the up- ... Other: Acoustic stimulation (65db) down-slope of EEG with QST 65 dB acoustic stimulation synchronized with the down-slope of ... Acoustic stimulation (65db) up-slope of EEG with QST Other: Acoustic stimulation (65db) down-slope of EEG with QST Other: 0 db ... acoustic stimulation delivered in phase with the anticipated trough of EEG slow wave oscillation, and 0 dB stimulation. ...
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI ... Investigation of Balance Function Using Dynamic Posturography under Electrical-Acoustic Stimulation in Cochlear Implant ... Only under the static conditions are significantly poorer scores achieved when stimulation is applied. It may be that the ...
The patient was divided into 3 groups: 1) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation group, 2) Rehabilitation group, 3) Neurumusculer ... electrical stimulation + Rehabilitation group. Affected and unaffected side biceps and gastrocnemius, ARFI elastography ... To evaluate the gastrocnemius/soleus and biceps brachii muscle stiffness by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) ... 1) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (NMES): Neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied on the biceps and ...
The Electric Acoustic Stimulation hearing system combines acoustic amplification and cochlear implant technology for hearing ... Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) uses acoustic amplification and cochlear implant technology (electric stimulation) together ... Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) EAS combines a cochlear implant with hearing aid technology. This solution is for ... EAS provides acoustic stimulation that supports a persons natural residual hearing by amplifying the low frequencies. For ...
... least one hearing device for a patient with residual hearing provide needed orchestration of acoustic and electric stimulation ... stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. [0023] In another ... electric stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. 13. The ... stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. At step 606, a ...
... least one hearing device for a patient with residual hearing provide needed orchestration of acoustic and electric stimulation ... electric stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. At step ... electric stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. ... US7561920B2 - Electric and acoustic stimulation fitting systems and methods - Google Patents. Electric and acoustic stimulation ...
... based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery, Brain and Behavior" on DeepDyve ... Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery. ... Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery. ... Acoustic (loudspeaker) facial electromyographic monitoring: Part 1. Evoked electromyographic activity during acoustic neuroma ...
Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation With Hearing Preservation: Effect of Cochlear Implant Low-Frequency Cutoff on Speech ... and bilateral-aided electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS; CI + bilateral hearing aid). Low-frequency cutoffs both below and ... The aided acoustic bandwidth was fixed and the low-frequency cutoff for the cochlear implant (CI) was varied systematically. ... The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of electric and acoustic overlap for speech understanding in ...
Thirteen participants 60-84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random ... Thirteen participants 60-84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random ... The aim of this study was to use acoustic stimulation to increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. ... The aim of this study was to use acoustic stimulation to increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. ...
Acoustic Stimulation.. Sound-induced mechanical responses were obtained by exposing the animals to periodic chirp sounds (100- ... The particle velocity u of the acoustic stimulus was monitored at the position of the antenna by using an Emkay (Itasca, IL) NR ... Resonant fluctuations at corresponding frequencies occurred in the absence of acoustic stimuli (Fig. 5). Yet, fluctuation power ... 19). Cross-calibration against a Brüel & Kjaer Instruments (Naerum, Denmark) 4138 pressure microphone under acoustic far field ...
To date, developing new stimulation strategies has relied on the efficacy of this shape. Here, we investigate the potential of ... Our study presents the first physiological data on CI-stimulation with ramped pulse shapes. By reducing charge consumption ... a novel stimulation paradigm that uses biophysically-inspired electrical ramped pulses. Using electrically-evoked auditory ... the electric stimulation is performed with a rectangular pulse that generally has two phases of opposite polarity. ...
Acoustic stimulations induced behavioral seizures only in GEPR-9 rats; the seizures were associated with electrographic ... Acoustic stimulations induced behavioral seizures only in GEPR-9 rats; the seizures were associated with electrographic ... Acoustic stimulations induced behavioral seizures only in GEPR-9 rats; the seizures were associated with electrographic ... Acoustic stimulations induced behavioral seizures only in GEPR-9 rats; the seizures were associated with electrographic ...
Acoustic stimulation. The system used for stimulus generation and sound delivery as well as the calibration procedure have been ... 2004) Information content of auditory cortical responses to time-varying acoustic stimuli. J Neurophysiol 91:301-313. ... Precise spike timing to the onset of an acoustic feature is thought to support many auditory percepts, including discrimination ... A similar trend was observed with broadband noise burst stimulation (data not shown): although responses to 50 ms stimuli are ...
The stimulation threshold was determined in 10 different ex vivo hearts and different clinically relevant electrical effects ... Using ultrasonic contrast agent, consistent cardiac stimulation was achievable in vivo for up to 1 hour sessions in 4 different ... such as consecutive stimulations of different heart chambers with a single ultrasonic probe, continuous pacing or the ... Here we described an extracorporeal cardiac stimulation device and study its efficacy and safety. We conducted experiments ex ...
Acoustic Stimulation. Frequency responses were calibrated for the headphones. Acoustic stimuli were generated digitally, ... The mean effect size was higher for monaural auditory stimulations (E0, 0.42; 0E/0I, 0.65), whereas for binaural stimulation ... Light Stimulation. An optic fiber (Thorlabs Multimode Optical Fiber, 0.39 NA, Ø = 200 μm Core, HighOH) was inserted into a ... The most important stimulation parameter was pulse duration and to some degree it can be utilized to compensate for variations ...
Understanding the Benefits of Electric-acoustic Stimulation Dorman, Michael F. Brown, Christopher Leslie Arizona State ... The broad long-term goals of the proposed research are to advance the understanding of how low-frequency acoustic stimulation ... Understanding the benefits of electric-acoustic stimulation. Bacon, Sid P. / Arizona State University-Tempe Campus. $376,111. ... Understanding the benefits of electric-acoustic stimulation. Bacon, Sid P. / Arizona State University-Tempe Campus. $369,938. ...
Acoustic stimulation. In-air hearing sensitivity was measured in sedated animals by measuring their ABRs. The hearing ... In all trials (with and without acoustic stimulation), the headphones were held in place over the animals ear openings by one ... Neuronal waveforms were measured over a period of 10 ms after acoustic stimulation and averaged over the total number of ... Neuronal waveforms were measured over a period of 10 ms after acoustic stimulation and averaged over 512 presentations (epochs ...
Actual Causes of Acoustic Impedance Change in Human Ear during Ipsilateral Sound Stimulation ... acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, ...
3F). Dishabituation to acoustic stimulation via dark-flash stimulation may be unlikely, given that the dark-flash-induced O- ... repetitive acoustic stimulation induces robust short-term habituation that can be modulated by stimulation frequency and ... followed by a final acoustic stimulus. Larvae dishabituated to the acoustic stimulus via cross-modal, tactile stimulation. ... Repetitive Acoustic Stimulation Decreases Short-Latency C-Start Responses.. We next asked whether larval zebrafish also exhibit ...
The benefit of combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) for speech and pitch perception has been demonstrated in a ... Speech Perception with Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation Kong, Ying-Yee Northeastern University, Boston, MA, United ... The benefit of combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) for speech and pitch perception has been demonstrated in a ... The purpose of this study is to identify factors that underlie benefit of combined electric and acoustic stimulation in ...
... includes a stimulation unit for generating acoustic stimulation signals and a control unit for controlling the stimulation unit ... and controls the stimulation unit such that the stimulation unit generates the first acoustic therapy signal. ... The control unit determines a frequency of a first acoustic therapy signal such that a measure of coverage between the ... the frequency of the predetermined tone and a first bandwidth of an auditory filter with the frequency of the first acoustic ...
... an acoustic transducer configured to convert an acoustic signal into an electrical signal, a signal detector configured to ... Leadless cardiac stimulation systems. US20060122667. 21 Jul 2005. 8 Jun 2006. Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.. Systems and methods for ... The acoustic wake-up circuit can be connected to an acoustic transducer, which converts an acoustic wake-up signal received ... until the signal is received by the acoustic transducer 82. Upon excitation by the acoustic waves, the acoustic transducer 82 ...
... an acoustic transducer configured to convert an acoustic signal into an electrical signal, a signal detector configured to ... Leadless cardiac stimulation systems. US20070010742 *. 25 May 2005. 11 Jan 2007. General Electric Company. Method and system ... The acoustic wake-up circuit can be connected to an acoustic transducer, which converts an acoustic wake-up signal received ... until the signal is received by the acoustic transducer 82. Upon excitation by the acoustic waves, the acoustic transducer 82 ...
Electric-Acoustic Stimulation Outcomes in Children. Park, Lisa R.; Teagle, Holly F. B.; Gagnon, Erika; More ... Effects of Phantom Electrode Stimulation on Vocal Production in Cochlear Implant Users. Caldwell, Meredith T.; Jiradejvong, ...
... acoustic stimulation; declarative memory; memory; oscillations; sleep; spindles; Title: Closed-loop acoustic stimulation ... 2019). Closed-loop acoustic stimulation enhances sleep oscillations but not memory performance. eNeuro, 6(6): 0306-19.2019. doi ... Closed-loop acoustic stimulation has previously been shown to enhance slow oscillations and spindle activity during sleep and ... We assessed the effect of closed-loop acoustic stimulation during a daytime nap on a virtual reality spatial navigation task in ...
We investigated the effect of acoustic stimulation on neurones in the rat VCN using in vivo intracellular recordings and dye- ... Intracellular responses of ventral cochlear nucleus neurones to acoustic stimulation in the rat. ... Intracellular responses of ventral cochlear nucleus neurones to acoustic stimulation in the rat (128.3Kb) ... response to acoustic stimulation (50 ms pure tones, 5 ms r/f time, 0.2 Hz repetition). ...
SOAEs are narrowband acoustic signals which are spontaneously emitted by the inner ear in the absence of acoustic stimulation. ... Hirsh I, Ward W (1952) Recovery of the auditory threshold after strong acoustic stimulation. J Acoust Soc Am 24:131CrossRef ... 3.4 Effect of Contralateral Acoustic Stimulation (CAS). Patuzzi (2011) suggested that large receptor-potentials elicited by low ... Finally, we show that the Bounce is affected by contralateral acoustic stimulation synchronised to the ipsilateral LF sound. ...
  • For higher frequency sounds, the integrated cochlear implant technology automatically takes over and supplies the appropriate electric stimulation to the neural structures. (medel.com)
  • For treatment of tonal tinnitus, the acoustic "coordinated reset" (CR) stimulation has been developed, counteracting pathologically synchronous neural activity in a targeted manner. (justia.com)
  • CR stimulation typically involves stimulation of neural subpopulations that are sufficiently separate but are not too far apart. (justia.com)
  • The filter has a transfer response to attenuate a frequency of a neural stimulation signal. (google.com)
  • The switch is adapted to place the filter in the signal path when the neural stimulation signal is applied and to remove the filter from the signal path when the neural stimulation signal is not applied. (google.com)
  • 2. The system of claim 1 , wherein the frequency of the neural stimulation signal is near an upper range of a sense amplifier passband, and the frequency filter includes a low pass filter to attenuate frequencies approximately equal to and higher than the frequency of the neural stimulation. (google.com)
  • 3. The system of claim 1 , wherein the frequency filter includes a notch filter having a center frequency corresponding to the neural stimulation frequency. (google.com)
  • 5. The system of claim 3 , wherein the frequency filter further includes a plurality of notch filters, each having a center frequency corresponding to a unique one of a plurality of harmonic frequencies for the frequency of the neural stimulation. (google.com)
  • 7. The system of claim 6 , wherein the CRM device further includes a neural stimulation frequency detector to extract the clock signal from the neural stimulation. (google.com)
  • A team led by Dr. Robert Rennaker and Dr. Michael Kilgard looked at whether repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with a specific movement would change neural activity within the laboratory rats' primary motor cortex. (innovations-report.com)
  • We used egr-1 expression as a marker of neural activation in frogs exposed to conspecific and heterospecific acoustic signals to compare activation patterns throughout the brains of males and females. (biologists.org)
  • Important factors for preserving residual hearing are: Special atraumatic soft electrodes Smallest possible acoustic trauma due to cochleostomy drilling Smallest possible mechanical trauma due to drilling and electrode insertion Avoidance of inflammatory and fibrotic reactions (contamination with blood, bone dust, middle ear bacteria, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • For standard-electrode CI recipients with preserved hearing, spectral overlap of acoustic and electric stimuli yielded significantly better speech understanding and less listening effort in a laboratory-based, restaurant-noise simulation. (ovid.com)
  • b-f ) Representative eABR response traces to increasing stimulation level on E0 (the most apical electrode) to ( b ) rectangular, ( c ) rampUP, ( d ) rampDOWN, and ( e ) rampLONG, all with cathodic-first polarity (mouse M2). (nature.com)
  • deep brain stimulation (DBS) patient-controlled, continuous, high-frequency electrical stimulation of a specific area of the brain by means of an implanted electrode, which is controlled by a battery implanted just below the clavicle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • deep brain stimulation (DBS) patient-controlled, continuous, high-frequency electrical stimulation of a specific area of the thalamus, globus pallidus, or subthalamic nucleus by means of an electrode implanted in the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study demonstrates that electric acoustic stimulation (EAS(®)) using the FLEX(EAS) electrode is a successful treatment method for preservation and stability of low frequency hearing, and results in significant improvements in speech perception. (unibas.ch)
  • determine, without user intervention, an electrical stimulation contribution of the at least one defined electrode to the at least one stimulation zone. (google.co.uk)
  • generate, without user intervention, an electrical stimulation amplitude to be delivered by the at least one defined electrode based on the determined electrical stimulation contribution of the at least one defined electrode and a defined intensity. (google.co.uk)
  • modify, without user intervention, the electrical stimulation amplitude to be delivered by the electrode carried by the housing of the IMD in response to at least one of the user interface receiving user input graphically defining a representation of another electrical stimulation zone, the at least one electrical stimulation zone moving, and the at least one electrical stimulation zone stretching. (google.co.uk)
  • The pulse generator sends out intermittent electrical stimulation to the electrode in the thalamus, which inhibits or partially relieves the tremor. (electronicsforu.com)
  • 4. The system of claim 1 , wherein the waveform generator is configured to generate a stimulation waveform that includes the stimulation pulse and a secondary pulse, the secondary pulse to reduce accumulation of charge at an electrode that has delivered the stimulation pulse. (google.com.au)
  • Subjects were adult guinea pigs, implanted with a minimally invasive electrode to preserve acoustic sensitivity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients. (hindawi.com)
  • It is known that cochlear implantation with a standard-length electrode and standard surgical technique in patients with some residual hearing results in complete loss of the remaining acoustic hearing [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Effects of Phantom Electrode Stimulation on Vocal Production in Cochlear Implant Users. (amedeo.com)
  • Of particular interest are 15 case studies running the reader through from creating a basic programme, using objective measures for fitting, programming for a one-year-old child, addressing speech perception concerns from over-stimulation for a young child, and four electrode impedance cases with different causes. (pluralpublishing.com)
  • Seizure frequency during control and treatment months gathered from seizure diary and IED frequency gathered from EEG (1 month baseline, 1 month sham stimulation, 1 month 1Hz stimulation). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Anti-phase stimulation will serve as an active control while sham stimulation will serve as a passive control. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, no effects on behavioral performance were observed when comparing real versus sham stimulation. (mpg.de)
  • Computationally developed sham stimulation protocol for multichannel desynchronizing stimulation. (stanford.edu)
  • The inner ear processes acoustic and electric stimuli simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data suggest that the increased susceptibility of genetically epilepsy-prone rats to acoustic stimuli may be related to a malfunction of the cyclic AMP system within the inferior colliculus. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings in awake animals reveal that AI neurons combine faster adaptation kinetics and a longer temporal window than evident in IC to represent ongoing acoustic stimuli. (jneurosci.org)
  • Considered a simple form of learning, habituation reflects a suppressed behavioral response to repeated inconsequential stimulation and serves as a mechanism by which the nervous system filters irrelevant stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • cognitive stimulation in the nursing interventions classification , a nursing intervention defined as promotion of awareness and comprehension of surroundings by utilization of planned stimuli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Approximation of the spatial spread of cochlear excitation by recording local field potentials (LFPs) in the inferior colliculus in response to suprathreshold optical, acoustic, and electrical stimuli indicated that optogenetic stimulation achieves better frequency resolution than monopolar electrical stimulation. (jci.org)
  • To assess rapid auditory processing in the left auditory cortex, the amplitude and decrement of the N1m peak, the major component of the late auditory evoked response, were measured during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One way of assessing auditory function is by measuring the amplitude and the decrement of the N1m wave, the major peak of the late auditory response, during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The stimuli are usually acoustic, but tactile stimuli (e.g. via air puffs onto the skin) and light stimuli are also used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation. (indigo.ca)
  • 3][93] There is little evidence supporting the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation. (banishtinnitus.net)
  • The team have been working on ways to improve a method known as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and are now using their adapted version of TMS to investigate possible treatments for stroke patients or those with Parkinson s disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • So the main focus of my talk will be transcranial magnetic stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we show that the Bounce is affected by contralateral acoustic stimulation synchronised to the ipsilateral LF sound. (springer.com)
  • There has been a growing interest in the study of contralateral acoustic stimulation and its effect on the activation of the efferent auditory pathway . (bvsalud.org)
  • The activation of the auditory efferent pathways through contralateral acoustic stimulation produces alterations in response patterns of acoustic reflectance, increasing sound reflection and modifying middle ear acoustical energy transfer . (bvsalud.org)
  • We measured TEOAEs in the right ear before contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS), and then measured serial TEOAEs in the right ear at four intervals during a total of 16 minutes of continuous CAS, followed by three more recordings after termination of CAS. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study is to test the feasibility and physiological effect of low-frequency (1 Hz) acoustic stimulation delivered during nocturnal NREM sleep in epilepsy patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine the acute physiological effects of low-frequency acoustic stimulation on interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) frequency during NREM sleep in adult patients with epilepsy in an ambulatory setting. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine the feasibility of applying low-frequency acoustic stimulation in a long-term home setting in adult epilepsy patients with frequent nocturnal seizures. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Electric stimulation (CI), on the other hand, is capable of providing high-frequency information up to 8 kHz. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aided acoustic bandwidth was fixed and the low-frequency cutoff for the cochlear implant (CI) was varied systematically. (ovid.com)
  • For those who have some residual low-frequency hearing, the combination of electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) can significantly improve speech understanding in background noise. (grantome.com)
  • The broad long-term goals of the proposed research are to advance the understanding of how low-frequency acoustic stimulation combines with electric stimulation to enhance speech understanding in difficult listening situations, and to enhance EAS benefit for individuals who might otherwise receive limited or no benefit. (grantome.com)
  • Moreover, repetitive acoustic stimulation induces robust short-term habituation that can be modulated by stimulation frequency and instantaneously dishabituated through cross-modal stimulation. (pnas.org)
  • For example, training session design and stimulation frequency is predictive of the time scale of memory retention. (pnas.org)
  • Aim 2 will investigate how bottom-up low-frequency acoustic cues and top-down processing (such as the use of linguistic context and the ability to fill in missing speech information) interact to improve speech intelligibility in EAS usrs. (grantome.com)
  • The control unit determines a frequency of a first acoustic therapy signal such that a measure of coverage between the reference bandwidth around the frequency of the predetermined tone and a first bandwidth of an auditory filter with the frequency of the first acoustic therapy signal as a center frequency assumes a predetermined first value, and controls the stimulation unit such that the stimulation unit generates the first acoustic therapy signal. (justia.com)
  • If this is not done, then the acoustic stimulation with CR tones using fixed frequency ratios in comparison with f T can lead to suboptimal effects or may even be completely ineffective. (justia.com)
  • This paper provides a review of the current literature on psychophysical properties of low-frequency hearing, both before and after implantation, with a focus on frequency selectivity, nonlinear cochlear processing, and speech perception in temporally modulated maskers for bimodal listeners as well as patients with hearing preservation in the implanted ear and receiving combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). (journalofhearingscience.com)
  • Arnolder C, Helbig S, Wagenblast J et al: Electric acoustic stimulation in patients with postlingual severe high-frequency hearing loss: clinical experience. (journalofhearingscience.com)
  • These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechano-sensitivity of cells to control cell migration and to enhance the diameters of muscle fibres. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • The test and retest acoustic reflectance was conducted in the frequency range 200-6000 Hz. (bvsalud.org)
  • Objective: To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the MED-EL Electric-Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) System, for adults with residual low-frequency hearing and severe-to-profound hearing loss in the mid to high frequencies. (elsevier.com)
  • Of those 67 subjects, 79% experienced less than a 30 dB HL low-frequency pure-tone average (250-1000 Hz) shift, and 97% were able to use the acoustic unit at 12 months postactivation. (elsevier.com)
  • An ultrasonic transducer adapted to transmit acoustic waves at a communication frequency is located in. (google.co.uk)
  • An ultrasonic transducer adapted to transmit acoustic waves at a communication frequency is located in the cavity, and a coupling surface is interposed between the ultrasonic transducer and the body tissue and is acoustically coupled with the body tissue. (google.co.uk)
  • 10. The implantable medical device of claim 1 wherein the ultrasonic transducer is adapted to receive acoustic waves at the communication frequency. (google.co.uk)
  • Sound sensitivity does not necessarily imply abnormal sensitivity to clicks: if the abnormal vestibular activation were highly frequency selective, dependent on temporal summation at one or more synapses or an indirect consequence of reflexes evoked by the sound, 6 then no abnormality would be expected in response to the very short acoustic stimulation caused by clicks. (bmj.com)
  • The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. (hindawi.com)
  • There are some patients with substantial low-frequency acoustic hearing up to 1500 Hz and severe to profound high-frequency hearing loss that do poorly with bilateral amplification who have not been considered as candidates for implantation using standard criteria [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients with high-frequency losses are able to distinguish loudness and speech pattern (due to their low-frequency acoustic hearing), but they cannot interpret spectral patterns well (which erodes their capacity to distinguish between the different consonant sounds and thus their word discrimination scores) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Sound coding with current prostheses is based on electrical stimulation of auditory neurons and has limited frequency resolution due to broad current spread within the cochlea. (jci.org)
  • In contrast, optical stimulation can be spatially confined, which may improve frequency resolution. (jci.org)
  • 609 Inducing Brain Function Plasticity by High Frequency Cortical Stimulation Permits to Increase the Extent of Resection in WHO Grade 2 and 3 Gliomas. (thejns.org)
  • Acoustic coordinated reset therapy for tinnitus with perceptually relevant frequency spacing and levels. (stanford.edu)
  • How stimulation frequency and intensity impact on the long-lasting effects of coordinated reset stimulation. (stanford.edu)
  • MicroTransponder currently is testing a vagus nerve stimulation therapy on human patients in Europe in hopes of reducing or eliminating the symptoms of tinnitus, the debilitating disorder often described as "ringing in the ears. (innovations-report.com)
  • Tinnitus is the perception of sound without actual external acoustic stimulation. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Auditory coordinated reset stimulation has a specific desynchronizing effect on tinnitus related oscillatory brain activity. (stanford.edu)
  • Validation of a Mobile Device for Acoustic Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation Tinnitus Therapy. (stanford.edu)
  • While implantation of electrodes in the brain is used to treat or diagnose several disorders, the term electric brain stimulation is limited to the treatment of tremors and as a pain-management tool for patients suffering from back problems and other chronic injuries and illnesses. (electronicsforu.com)
  • Electrical stimulation of the brain, or deep brain stimulation, is effective in treating tremors in up to 88 per cent of Parkinson's disease patients. (electronicsforu.com)
  • Computationally optimizing adaptive deep brain stimulation. (stanford.edu)
  • Pulsatile desynchronizing delayed feedback for closed-loop deep brain stimulation. (stanford.edu)
  • Closed-loop deep brain stimulation by pulsatile delayed feedback with increased gap between pulse phases. (stanford.edu)
  • The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI patients by using the EquiTest and to help answer the question of whether electrically stimulating the inner ear using a cochlear implant influences the balance system in any way. (hindawi.com)
  • 6. The medical device of claim 5 , wherein the FGFET includes a plurality of control gates electrically coupled to the floating gate, and wherein one of the control gates is configured to receive the AC electrical signal from the at least one acoustic transducer and another of the control gates is coupled to a direct current (DC) supply. (google.ca)
  • In one aspect, a method includes receiving a charge setting describing an amount of charge that is to flow during a stimulation pulse that electrically stimulates a tissue, and generating and delivering the. (google.com.au)
  • Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) were recorded from the auditory nerve trunk in response to electric pulse trains both during and after the presentation of acoustic white noise. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bilateral lesions of the ventral cochlear nucleus, which receives the primary auditory input, abolish acoustic startle. (jneurosci.org)
  • Electrical, single pulse stimulation of the ventral cochlear nucleus elicits startle-like responses with a latency of about 7 msec. (jneurosci.org)
  • The data suggest that a primary acoustic startle circuit in the rat consists of auditory nerve, ventral cochlear nucleus, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, spinal interneuron, lower motor neuron, and muscles. (jneurosci.org)
  • An electric brain stimulation tremor-control device used in treating people suffering from Parkinson's may interfere with or be affected by cardiac pacemakers and other medical equipment. (electronicsforu.com)
  • Patients with an implanted electric brain stimulation tremor-control device may experience headaches, disequilibrium (disturbance of the sense of balance), burning or tingling of skin or partial paralysis. (electronicsforu.com)
  • Research has also highlighted that electrical brain stimulation could have favourable effects on humans, but some companies are selling such devices online, leading to calls to regulate the technology. (electronicsforu.com)
  • What is even more worrisome is that people are increasingly making DIY brain stimulation kits themselves. (electronicsforu.com)
  • Multisite delayed feedback for electrical brain stimulation. (stanford.edu)
  • Electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) is the use of a hearing aid and a cochlear implant together in the same ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Electric stimulation of the auditory system via cochlear implant is a commonly used technique for individuals with a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss, as well as for those adults and children with some residual hearing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of combining simultaneous electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) for the purposes of better hearing was first described by C. von Ilberg and J. Kiefer, from the Universitätsklinik Frankfurt, Germany, in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) uses acoustic amplification and cochlear implant technology (electric stimulation) together in the same ear. (medel.com)
  • Methods and systems for modifying the parameters of at least one hearing device for a patient with residual hearing provide needed orchestration of acoustic and electric stimulation of patients wearing such devices. (patents.com)
  • and delivering the electric and acoustic stimulation parameters and patterns to the at least one hearing device. (patents.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein: assessing electric and acoustic stimulation parameters and patterns based on the stimulation data includes assessing the proper sequencing of acoustic and electric events for at least one of a hearing aid and the acoustic elements of an electric-acoustic processor and at least one of a cochlear implant speech processor and the electric elements of an electric-acoustic processor. (patents.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein: assessing electric and acoustic stimulation parameters and patterns based on the stimulation data includes assessing the proper sequencing of acoustic and electric events for a hearing aid and a cochlear implant speech processor. (patents.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein: assessing electric and acoustic stimulation parameters and patterns based on the stimulation data includes assessing the proper sequencing of acoustic and electric events for a hearing aid and the electric elements of an electric-acoustic processor. (patents.com)
  • The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of electric and acoustic overlap for speech understanding in typical listening conditions using semidiffuse noise. (ovid.com)
  • In conclusion, EAS patients may derive more benefit from greater acoustic and electric overlap than given in current software fitting recommendations, which are based solely on audiometric threshold. (ovid.com)
  • In all commercial cochlear implant (CI) devices, the electric stimulation is performed with a rectangular pulse that generally has two phases of opposite polarity. (nature.com)
  • For those who have some remaining hearing in the low frequencies, however, the combination of electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) can significantly improve speech understanding in noise. (grantome.com)
  • The benefit of combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) for speech and pitch perception has been demonstrated in a number of previous studies. (grantome.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to identify factors that underlie benefit of combined electric and acoustic stimulation in cochlear-implant users and to investigate methods that could enhance speech recognition performance in these users. (grantome.com)
  • functional electrical stimulation (FES) the application of an electric current by means of a prosthesis to stimulate and restore partial function to a muscle disabled by neurologic lesions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The patients associated with TMPRSS3 mutations are good candidates for electric acoustic stimulation. (cdc.gov)
  • Three of the 5 patients received electric acoustic stimulation (EAS), which showed good results. (cdc.gov)
  • Von Ilberg C, Kiefer J, Tillein J et al: Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. (journalofhearingscience.com)
  • Gstoettner W, Kiefer J, BaumgartnerWD et al: Hearing preservation in cochlear implantation for electric acoustic stimulation. (journalofhearingscience.com)
  • Gantz BJ, Turner CW, Gfeller KE: Acoustic plus electric speech processing: preliminary results of a multicenter clinical trial of the Iowa/Nucleus Hybrid implant. (journalofhearingscience.com)
  • Kiefer J, Pok M, Adunka O et al: Combined electric and acoustic stimulation of the auditory system: results of a clinical study. (journalofhearingscience.com)
  • Acoustic and electric loudness matching was possible because the patient evidenced a 25 dB HL threshold at 250 Hz in his nonimplanted ear. (elsevier.com)
  • These data, in concert with the very limited data from previous studies, provide a rationale for using a logarithmic transformation of acoustic to electric intensity in signal processors for cochlear implants. (elsevier.com)
  • Intervention: Subjects were fit postoperatively with an audio processor, combining electric stimulation and acoustic amplification. (elsevier.com)
  • A remote transmitter allowed these patients to trigger electric stimulation to relieve their symptoms on an as-needed basis. (electronicsforu.com)
  • Effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials evoked by electric pulse trains. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric pulse trains. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effect of the acoustic masker on the electric probe was greatest at the onset of the acoustic stimulus and it was followed by a partial recovery of the ECAP amplitude. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Following cessation of the acoustic noise, ECAP amplitude recovered over a period of approximately 100-200 ms. The effects of the acoustic noise were more prominent at lower electric pulse rates (interpulse intervals of 3 ms and higher). (biomedsearch.com)
  • At higher pulse rates, the ECAP adaptation to the electric pulse train alone was larger and the acoustic noise, when presented, produced little additional effect. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The observed effects of noise on ECAP were the greatest at high electric stimulus levels and, for a particular electric stimulus level, at high acoustic noise levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A CI device delivers electric information to the ear, whereas a HA amplifies the acoustic information coming to the ear. (cnrs-mrs.fr)
  • The aim of this project is to investigate if and how the different (electric and acoustic) information from the two devices (CI and HA) is fused together, and if the fusion is actually contributing to better speech understanding. (cnrs-mrs.fr)
  • Binaural Electric-Acoustic Fusion: Speech Perception under Dichotic Stimulation A majority of hearing impaired people suffers from social isolation because they face difficulties understanding speech in noisy environment, for instance in a busy street or in a restaurant full of talkative people. (cnrs-mrs.fr)
  • The present invention uses electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve to treat epilepsy with minimized or no effect on the heart. (google.com)
  • The heart rate information from the sensor can be used to determine whether the vagus nerve stimulation is adversely affecting the heart. (google.com)
  • Once threshold parameters are met, the vagus nerve stimulation may be stopped or adjusted. (google.com)
  • In an alternative embodiment, the invention may include a modified pacemaker to maintain the heart in desired conditions during the vagus nerve stimulation. (google.com)
  • In the event that the vagus nerve is being stimulated, the modified pacemaker may control the heart to maintain it within desired conditions during the vagus nerve stimulation. (google.com)
  • c) means for processing the signal to determine whether the vagus nerve is being stimulated, whereby the pacemaker may control the heart during vagus nerve stimulation. (google.com)
  • In a related paper, UT Dallas neuroscientists showed that they could alter the speed at which the brain works in laboratory animals by pairing stimulation of the vagus nerve with fast or slow sounds. (innovations-report.com)
  • To test the hypothesis, they paired the vagus nerve stimulation with movements of the forelimb in two groups of rats. (innovations-report.com)
  • Since vagus nerve stimulation has an excellent safety record in human patients with epilepsy, the technique provides a new method to treat brain conditions in which the timing of brain responses is abnormal, including dyslexia and schizophrenia. (innovations-report.com)
  • In another paper in the journal Experimental Neurology, Kilgard led a team that paired vagus nerve stimulation with audio tones of varying speeds to alter the rate of activity within the rats' brains. (innovations-report.com)
  • The unique non-invasive method is the transcutaneous transthoracic electrical stimulation. (nature.com)
  • transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS) electrical stimulation of nerves for relief of pain by delivering a current through the skin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • amplitude exceeded pre- acoustic amplitudes at 1 kHz, 1.5 kHz, and 2 kHz. (bvsalud.org)
  • 9. The system of claim 8 , wherein the converter is configured to calculate a duration of the stimulation pulse based on a pulse amplitude of the stimulation pulse. (google.com.au)
  • Simultaneously presented acoustic noise produced a decrease in ECAP amplitude. (biomedsearch.com)
  • E ) Light-on-tone masking assessed as the change in P1-N1 aABR amplitude with simultaneous μLED stimulation. (jci.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that: (i) the amplitude of the N1m response and (ii) its decrement during rapid stimulation are associated with the cortical neurochemistry as determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The level of the electrical stimulus in microamperes required for a balance of loudness grew linearly with equal increments in decibels for the acoustic stimulus. (elsevier.com)
  • The inner ear functions as the sensorineural receptor organ of the auditory system, converting an acoustic waveform into an electrochemical stimulus that can be transmitted to the CNS. (medscape.com)
  • A burst of white noise is usually used as the acoustic startle stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 70 dB HL) above 1 kHz can be beyond the range of amplification possible via acoustic stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical stimulation of these nuclei elicits startle-like responses with a latency of about 6 msec. (jneurosci.org)
  • All organisms, from protozoa to humans, use nonassociative habituation learning as a means to update behavioral responses to sensory input based on recent stimulation history ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Optogenetic stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) activated the auditory pathway, as demonstrated by recordings of single neuron and neuronal population responses. (jci.org)
  • Virus-mediated expression of a ChR2 variant with greater light sensitivity in SGNs reduced the amount of light required for responses and allowed neuronal spiking following stimulation up to 60 Hz. (jci.org)
  • We found that the SON contains a heterogeneous mixture of response patterns to acoustic stimulation and that in most neurons these responses are modulated by both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory inputs. (physiology.org)
  • Ultrasonographic observations of blink-startle responses to vibroacoustic stimulation are first elicited at 24 to 25 weeks of gestation, and are consistently present after 28 weeks, indicating maturation of the auditory pathways of the central nervous system. (aappublications.org)
  • Their goals are to develop a neuro-functional understanding of acoustic injury, an animal model that correlates to human auditory mechanisms and physiological responses to noise and blast events, and a more robust system for evaluating HPDs across a broad range of intensities and frequencies observed in real-world exposures. (army.mil)
  • The arguments for using a ramped shape pulse stimulation strategy rely on two features of the spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) and on diffusion in an aqueous media. (nature.com)
  • Within-subject crossover cohort with intervention, acoustic stimulation delivered in phase with the anticipated trough of EEG slow wave oscillation, and 0 dB stimulation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • cutaneous stimulation in the nursing interventions classification , a nursing intervention defined as stimulation of the skin and underlying tissues for the purpose of decreasing undesirable signs and symptoms such as pain, muscle spasm, or inflammation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mothers will receive the intervention which includes an education session about newborn care, training in multisensory stimulation with the intervention ATVV and two domiciliary visits to follow up the mother and her premature infant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We assessed time -dependent change in the suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) by the medial efferent acoustic reflex over a relatively long period. (bvsalud.org)
  • Various programming techniques are described for medical devices that deliver electrical stimulation therapy that may include mapping between discrete electrical stimulation parameters and a graphical view of the electrical stimulation representing a stimulation zone generated by the parameters. (google.co.uk)
  • 8. The system of claim 1 , further comprising a converter configured to convert the stored charge setting value into one or more stimulation parameters characterizing aspects of the stimulation pulse that is to be delivered to the tissue, wherein the waveform generator is configured to generate the stimulation pulse in accordance with the stimulation parameters. (google.com.au)
  • 10. The system of claim 8 , further comprising a data compilation storing predetermined charge setting values and corresponding predetermined stimulation pulse durations and amplitudes, wherein the converter is configured to access the data compilation to convert the stored charge setting value into the one or more stimulation parameters. (google.com.au)
  • The stimulation threshold was determined in 10 different ex vivo hearts and different clinically relevant electrical effects such as consecutive stimulations of different heart chambers with a single ultrasonic probe, continuous pacing or the inducibility of ventricular tachycardia were shown. (nature.com)
  • Using ultrasonic contrast agent, consistent cardiac stimulation was achievable in vivo for up to 1 hour sessions in 4 different animals. (nature.com)
  • The spatial and temporal distribution of acoustic waves directed to the treatment area via the ultrasonic transducers and the modal converter may be controlled. (google.es)
  • These results suggest that the acoustic sensitivity of free-ranging animals was not negatively affected by the soundscape they experienced in the wild. (springer.com)
  • Periodic flashing' coordinated reset stimulation paradigm reduces sensitivity to ON and OFF period durations. (stanford.edu)
  • Studies have shown that the introduction of simultaneous stimulation in the contralateral ear generates alterations in auditory response patterns. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we described an extracorporeal cardiac stimulation device and study its efficacy and safety. (nature.com)
  • The latency of the acoustic startle reflex in the rat is 8 msec, measured from tone onset to the beginning of the electromyographic response in the hindleg. (jneurosci.org)
  • A ) Following careful cochleostomy and positioning of a μLED, regular and light-masked acoustic thresholds were estimated by application of tone bursts of varying sound pressure levels (SPLs) and frequencies in the absence of optical stimulation (black) or following the cessation of an oABR that occurred at the onset of a concomitant 40-ms light stimulation (red). (jci.org)
  • Anti-kindling induced by two-stage coordinated reset stimulation with weak onset intensity. (stanford.edu)
  • In contrast, lesions of the dorsal cochlear nuclei, vestibular nuclei, nucleus reticularis pontis oralis, nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis, and dorsal regions of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis fail to abolish acoustic startle. (jneurosci.org)
  • Galvanic stimulation was used as a complementary method of examining the excitability of vestibular reflexes. (bmj.com)
  • In view of the potential importance of our initial finding we have investigated a series of patients with Tullio phenomenon using clicks as well as galvanic vestibular stimulation, the second to assess the excitability of vestibular pathways proximal to the receptors. (bmj.com)
  • However, the loss of residual acoustic hearing following cochlear implantation is an important clinical consideration when determining the most appropriate options for patients with severe hearing losses [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cochlear prostheses, or cochlear implants, produce sensations of sound in deaf or partially-deaf patients by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. (google.com)
  • UT Dallas researchers recently demonstrated how nerve stimulation paired with specific experiences, such as movements or sounds, can reorganize the brain. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Much of the work in this area has focused on the effects of mechanical stimulation upon bone cells. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Very little has been done to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation on other cell types. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, could mechanical stimulation be used to accelerate the wound healing process? (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Could mechanical stimulation be used to encourage muscle cell growth? (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5 and 20 minutes) on wound/scratch assays, the mean cell migration distance (µm), actin and vinculin organisation, cell viability, muscle fibre diameters and the effects of temperature were investigated. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of LL24 and L929 cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Also, we developed a novel acoustic tweezing cytometry (ATC) technique that utilizes ultrasound excitation of membrane-bound gaseous microbubbles to generate controllable subcellular mechanical stimulations to live single cells and simultaneously probe intracellular contractile forces and rheological cell properties. (umass.edu)
  • Improving survival of disassociated human embryonic stem cells by mechanical stimulation using acoustic tweezing cytometry. (umass.edu)
  • Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for future applications of cochlear optogenetics in auditory research and prosthetics. (jci.org)
  • Ludvig, N & Moshé, SL 1989, ' Different behavioral and electrographic effects of acoustic stimulation and dibutyryl cyclic AMP injection into the inferior colliculus in normal and in genetically epilepsy-prone rats ', Epilepsy Research , vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 185-190. (elsevier.com)
  • EAS provides acoustic stimulation that supports a person's natural residual hearing by amplifying the low frequencies. (medel.com)
  • Here, we used animal models to characterize optogenetic stimulation, which is the optical stimulation of neurons genetically engineered to express the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). (jci.org)
  • To test the feasibility of wearing an earphone system delivering acoustic stimulation during a night of sleep in adult epilepsy patients monitored in an inpatient unit. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this manuscript we present a purely extracorporeal approach to perform contactless cardiac stimulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). (nature.com)
  • A device for stimulation of a patient with acoustic stimulation signals includes a stimulation unit for generating acoustic stimulation signals and a control unit for controlling the stimulation unit. (justia.com)
  • SOAEs are narrowband acoustic signals which are spontaneously emitted by the inner ear in the absence of acoustic stimulation. (springer.com)
  • Computer-aided electronic auscultatory devices have been developed that acquire, record, and analyze the acoustic signals of the heart. (aetna.com)
  • Meanwhile, hearing aid send an amplified acoustic signals to the outer hair cells (cochlear), and spiral ganglion cells which then convert acoustic signals into electrical signals and it go through the auditory system to the brain. (myhealth.gov.my)
  • Nowadays, the current frontiers in implantation involve strategies to preserve residual acoustic hearing and the development of algorithms to combine electrical and acoustic hearing. (hindawi.com)
  • So when we have successful cortical stimulation we then see sort of movement of the thing or the area that we stimulate here. (nih.gov)
  • The pulses were aimed at the motor cortex that controls muscle response, because effects on the motor cortex can be objectively measured by recording the amount of electrical muscle response to stimulation. (innovations-report.com)
  • To evaluate the gastrocnemius/soleus and biceps brachii muscle stiffness by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in the hemiplegia patients , sixty patients with hemiplegia after stroke were recruited. (scirp.org)
  • Galvanic stimulation produced a normal pattern of body sway in four of the five patients tested. (bmj.com)
  • Professor Rothwell says: "Now that we have improved the technique, we can use it to explore whether stimulation of damaged areas in stroke patients brains can help speed up their recovery. (innovations-report.com)
  • Zargis Medical Corporation (Princeton, NJ) has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance to market Zargis Acoustic Cardioscan, a computer-aided electronic auscultatory device intended to support physicians in analyzing heart sounds in patients. (aetna.com)
  • Although the suppressive effect of the medial efferent acoustic reflex is well known, the time course of this effect over prolonged periods has yet to be fully evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • The present results show the existence of the medial efferent acoustic reflex and demonstrate the time course that TEOAE suppressions present initially after CAS, showing fatigue over time . (bvsalud.org)
  • In contrast, the temporal response properties of AI neurons are better suited for representing slow temporal modulations in the acoustic environment. (jneurosci.org)
  • threshold increase upon light indicates masking due to a preceding optogenetic stimulation of the same population of neurons. (jci.org)
  • Acoustic startle is being used as a model system for studying habituation, sensitization, prepulse inhibition, classical conditioning, fear or anxiety, and drug effects on behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • To explore whether memory enhancement effects were task specific and dependent on nocturnal sleep, in a second experiment with 19 healthy subjects, we aimed to replicate a previous study that used closed-loop acoustic stimulation to enhance memory for word pairs. (mpg.de)
  • Evaluating the effects of acoustic stimulation on fibroblast cell migration and muscle fibre formation. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • In the latest issue of the journal Neuron, Professor John Rothwell and colleagues from UCL s Institute of Neurology discovered ways to improve TMS to produce effects on the brain that last for more than an hour after only 40 seconds of stimulation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Thus, by adjusting the length of stimulation, they could choose between stimulating or suppressive effects on the brain. (innovations-report.com)
  • Initial tests performed to assess the safety of TMS showed that there were no long-lasting or side effects from these stimulations. (innovations-report.com)
  • Stable impalements were made from 37 neurones classified as having a Primary-like (n=13), Primary-like with notch (n=4) and Chopper (n=20) response to acoustic stimulation (50 ms pure tones, 5 ms r/f time, 0.2 Hz repetition). (edu.au)
  • Despite its central role in these pathways, the nature of acoustic response properties or inhibitory signaling within the SON has not been thoroughly investigated. (physiology.org)
  • After five days of stimulation and movement pairing, the researchers examined the brain activity in response to the stimulation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Exposure of adults to excessive noise results in: (1) noise-induced hearing loss that shows a clear dose-response relationship between its incidence and the intensity of exposure and (2) noise-induced stimulation of the autonomic nervous system, which reportedly results in high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease (reviewed by Kam et al 2 ). (aappublications.org)
  • Early Acoustic Evoked Potentials. (indigo.ca)
  • Illuminating an open tissue wound and bone fracture site with these acoustic modes enhances and promotes angiogenesis and the biological endostial or periostial healing phases, or both, of the bone fracture healing process. (google.es)
  • Inhibition in the auditory brainstem enhances signal representation and regulates gain in complex acoustic environments. (nih.gov)
  • Our study presents the first physiological data on CI-stimulation with ramped pulse shapes. (nature.com)