Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/6631)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (2/6631)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

The effects of d-amphetamine on the temporal control of operant responding in rats during a preshock stimulus. (3/6631)

The operant behavior of six rats was maintained by a random-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three-minute periods of noise were superimposed on this behavior, each period ending with the delivery of an unavoidable shock. Overall rates of responding were generally lower during the periods of noise than in its absence (conditioned suppression). These suppressed response rates also exhibited temporal patterning, with responding becoming less frequent as each noise period progressed. The effects of d-amphetamine on this behavioral baseline were then assessed. In four animals the relative response rates during the noise and in its absence suggested that the drug produced a dose-related decrease in the amount of conditioned suppression. However, this effect was often due to a decrease in the rates of responding in the absence of the preshock stimulus, rather than to an increase in response rates during the stimulus. Temporal patterning in response rates during the preshock stimulus was abolished, an effect that was interpreted in terms of rate-dependent effect of d-amphetamine. This study thus extends rate-dependent analyses of the effects of amphetamines to the patterns of operant behavior that occur during a preshock stimulus, and which have been discussed in terms of the disrupting effects of anxiety on operant behavior.  (+info)

Midbrain combinatorial code for temporal and spectral information in concurrent acoustic signals. (4/6631)

All vocal species, including humans, often encounter simultaneous (concurrent) vocal signals from conspecifics. To segregate concurrent signals, the auditory system must extract information regarding the individual signals from their summed waveforms. During the breeding season, nesting male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) congregate in localized regions of the intertidal zone and produce long-duration (>1 min), multi-harmonic signals ("hums") during courtship of females. The hums of neighboring males often overlap, resulting in acoustic beats with amplitude and phase modulations at the difference frequencies (dFs) between their fundamental frequencies (F0s) and harmonic components. Behavioral studies also show that midshipman can localize a single hum-like tone when presented with a choice between two concurrent tones that originate from separate speakers. A previous study of the neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent signals demonstrated that midbrain neurons temporally encode a beat's dF through spike synchronization; however, spectral information about at least one of the beat's components is also required for signal segregation. Here we examine the encoding of spectral differences in beat signals by midbrain neurons. The results show that, although the spike rate responses of many neurons are sensitive to the spectral composition of a beat, virtually all midbrain units can encode information about differences in the spectral composition of beat stimuli via their interspike intervals (ISIs) with an equal distribution of ISI spectral sensitivity across the behaviorally relevant dFs. Together, temporal encoding in the midbrain of dF information through spike synchronization and of spectral information through ISI could permit the segregation of concurrent vocal signals.  (+info)

Desynchronizing responses to correlated noise: A mechanism for binaural masking level differences at the inferior colliculus. (5/6631)

We examined the adequacy of decorrelation of the responses to dichotic noise as an explanation for the binaural masking level difference (BMLD). The responses of 48 low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs were recorded to binaurally presented noise with various degrees of interaural correlation and to interaurally correlated noise in the presence of 500-Hz tones in either zero or pi interaural phase. In response to fully correlated noise, neurons' responses were modulated with interaural delay, showing quasiperiodic noise delay functions (NDFs) with a central peak and side peaks, separated by intervals roughly equivalent to the period of the neuron's best frequency. For noise with zero interaural correlation (independent noises presented to each ear), neurons were insensitive to the interaural delay. Their NDFs were unmodulated, with the majority showing a level of activity approximately equal to the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF obtained with fully correlated noise. Partial decorrelation of the noise resulted in NDFs that were, in general, intermediate between the fully correlated and fully decorrelated noise. Presenting 500-Hz tones simultaneously with fully correlated noise also had the effect of demodulating the NDFs. In the case of tones with zero interaural phase, this demodulation appeared to be a saturation process, raising the discharge at all noise delays to that at the largest peak in the NDF. In the majority of neurons, presenting the tones in pi phase had a similar effect on the NDFs to decorrelating the noise; the response was demodulated toward the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF. Thus the effect of added tones on the responses of delay-sensitive inferior colliculus neurons to noise could be accounted for by a desynchronizing effect. This result is entirely consistent with cross-correlation models of the BMLD. However, in some neurons, the effects of an added tone on the NDF appeared more extreme than the effect of decorrelating the noise, suggesting the possibility of additional inhibitory influences.  (+info)

Corticofugal amplification of facilitative auditory responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat. (6/6631)

Recent studies on the bat's auditory system indicate that the corticofugal system mediates a highly focused positive feedback to physiologically "matched" subcortical neurons, and widespread lateral inhibition to physiologically "unmatched" subcortical neurons, to adjust and improve information processing. These findings have solved the controversy in physiological data, accumulated since 1962, of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons: inhibitory, excitatory, or both (an inhibitory effect is much more frequent than an excitatory effect). In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex each have "FM-FM" neurons, which are "combination-sensitive" and are tuned to specific time delays (echo delays) of echo FM components from the FM components of an emitted biosonar pulse. FM-FM neurons are more complex in response properties than cortical neurons which primarily respond to single tones. In the present study, we found that inactivation of the entire FM-FM area in the cortex, including neurons both physiologically matched and unmatched with subcortical FM-FM neurons, on the average reduced the facilitative responses to paired FM sounds by 82% for thalamic FM-FM neurons and by 66% for collicular FM-FM neurons. The corticofugal influence on the facilitative responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons is much larger than that on the excitatory responses of subcortical neurons primarily responding to single tones. Therefore we propose the hypothesis that, in general, the processing of complex sounds by combination-sensitive neurons more heavily depends on the corticofugal system than that by single-tone sensitive neurons.  (+info)

Effects of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus in rats. (7/6631)

The conditioned suppression technique was employed to study the ototoxic effects of chronic administration of the antibiotic, kanamycin. Lever pressing behavior for food reinforcement of rats was suppressed in the presence of an auditory stimulus (sound) or visual stimulus (light) that had been previously paired with electric shocks. Repeated administration of kanamycin at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day for more than 50 days significantly attenuated the conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus but did not attenuate the conditioned suppression to visual stimulus. This finding suggests that the attenuating effect of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus can be interpreted in terms of the selective action of the drug on the auditory system.  (+info)

Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination. (8/6631)

Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events.  (+info)

The interplay between spin waves (magnons) and electronic structure in materials leads to the creation of additional bands associated with electronic energy levels which are called magnon sidebands. The large difference in the energy scales between magnons (meV) and electronic levels (eV) makes this direct interaction weak and hence makes magnon sidebands difficult to probe. Linear light absorption and scattering techniques at low temperatures are traditionally used to probe these sidebands. Here we show that optical second-harmonic generation, as the lowest-order nonlinear process, can successfully probe the magnon sidebands at room temperature and up to 723 K in bismuth ferrite, associated with large wave vector multimagnon excitations which linear absorption studies are able to resolve only under high magnetic fields and low temperatures. Polarized light studies and temperature dependence of these sidebands reveal a spin-charge coupling interaction of the type Ps L2 between the spontaneous ...
Monitoring techniques are a key technology for examining the conditions in various scenarios, e.g., structural conditions, weather conditions, and disasters. In order to understand such scenarios, the appropriate extraction of their features from observation data is important. This paper proposes a monitoring method that allows sound environments to be expressed as a sound pattern. To this end, the concept of synesthesia is exploited. That is, the keys, tones, and pitches of the monitored sound are expressed using the three elements of color, that is, the hue, saturation, and brightness, respectively. In this paper, it is assumed that the hue, saturation, and brightness can be detected from the chromagram, sonogram, and sound spectrogram, respectively, based on a previous synesthesia experiment. Then, the sound pattern can be drawn using color, yielding a
Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention ...
The book starts out with a chapter on acoustics, and the rest of the book focuses on the anatomy and physiology of the peripheral systems in a rather traditional manner: from caudal through rostral levels, ending with the descending auditory system. Note that these chapters, for the most part, review topic areas that are best considered basic research and are not translational in nature. However, the final section attempts to tie perception to the underlying physiologic responses, and chapters are parsed into stimulus factors (such as intensity, frequency, binaural stimulation, and complex sounds). ...
Physical tradeoffs may in some cases constrain the evolution of sensory systems. The peripheral auditory system, for example, performs a spectral decomposition of sound that should result in a tradeof
Background: This paper reviews the physiological correlates of arousal to develop a comprehensive and collective understanding of the physiological co..
This paper describes a general methodological framework for evaluating the perceptual properties of auditory stimuli. The framework provides analysis techniques that can ensure the effective use of sound for a variety of applications including virtual reality and data sonification systems. Specifically, we discuss data collection techniques for the perceptual qualities of single auditory stimuli including identification tasks, context-based ratings, and attribute ratings. In addition, we present methods for comparing auditory stimuli, such as discrimination tasks, similarity ratings, and sorting tasks. Finally, we discuss statistical techniques that focus on the perceptual relations among stimuli, such as Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Pathfinder Analysis. These methods are presented as a starting point for an organized and systematic approach for non-experts in perceptual experimental methods, rather than as a complete manual for performing the statistical techniques and data collection methods. It
The present results provide behavioral evidence that stimuli can be processed by a mechanism that is selective for particular combinations of spectral and temporal modulation frequencies. We trained listeners to discriminate the depth of spectral, temporal, or upward spectrotemporal modulation and tested the generalization of their learning to the trained conditions of the other groups as well as to the depth discrimination of downward spectrotemporal modulation and the detection of upward spectrotemporal modulation. Three influences of training were dependent on the spectrotemporal characteristics of the trained stimulus. First, and most importantly, there was no generalization of training-induced improvement to the untrained depth-discrimination conditions. Learning on isolated spectral (0.5 cyc/oct; 0 Hz) or temporal (0 cyc/oct; 32 Hz) modulation did not generalize to either direction of spectrotemporal modulation (0.5 cyc/oct; ±32 Hz), even though the spectrotemporal conditions shared one ...
Our brain needs to constantly fuse sensory information detected by our multiple senses in order to produce a seamless coherentre presentation of the world. Rather than being the exception, this binding process is ubiquitous to sensory-motor integration and isimplicated in most cognitive functions. Its impairment is a cause of various pathologies, such as schizophrenia or autism. Multisensoryprocessing operates on all brain levels from primary cortices over subcortical structures up to higher associative centers, while thesmallest operational units are single multisensory neurons.. In an interdisciplinary effort, we combine optical developments, genetics and neuro-computation to obtain new insights into the activityof brain-wide neural circuits that process multisensory information. To reduce the complexity, we study the small transparent brain ofzebrafish larvae as a model system. We focus on gaze stabilization as an inherently multisensory model task that is conservedamong all vertebrates. This ...
The most comparable evidence for human tonotopy is strikingly consistent with that of the monkey: an fMRI study that quantified tonotopy using the same statistical method as Bulkin and Groh (2011) identified ∼18% of the IC as tonotopic (Ress and Chandrasekaran, 2013); other studies reported evidence of tonotopy, although they did not quantify its scope (Geniec and Morest, 1971; De Martino et al., 2013). If the human IC is only sparsely tonotopic and variable across subjects (Ress and Chandrasekaran, 2013), it will be challenging to place a single array of electrodes with any consistency in a tonotopic region. Indeed, plans for the upcoming second clinical trial include the implantation of multiple arrays of electrodes (Lim and Lenarz, 2015) and this may increase the likelihood that the electrodes span sites with a range of different BFs.. A second issue that emerged from the physiological mapping study was that tuning of IC neurons to sound frequency was quite broad. For sounds of moderate ...
May 25, 2014 Meowing can be a sweet and loving communication with you, but it can also become obnoxious. Your felines language is composed of a number of vocalizations, scent signals and body postures. Because we humans do not have a...
serge baghdassarians / boris baltschun. auditorium. auditorium is an installation consisting of several related works translating sound through illumination and animation. the led-displays of guitar pedal tuners become the surface for the projection of letters, words and sentences. these words refer to different forms of auditory activity such as tuning and memorising and point to the regulative powers of musical systems.. each word becomes a number of tone names which cannot be heard but are to be imagined.. ...
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I suppose this is self-evident to many people, but I have found that doing everything I can to focus my brain on the visual and auditory stimulation...
Big new collab 12 from Parris & Call Super, bringing out the best in each others sound and treating us to this gem of a platter. Glassy melodics and floor ready beats fused together creating this ever so slightly wonky, dubwise club record which demands repeated play and is sure to nice up the dance. […]
I take a lot of photos, and also collect a lot of clippings. I think I am similar to some DJs who collect vinyl records and other sound bytes. Most times I collect these clips and wont use them until later unless I am doing a project that is site specific, then I will intentionally grab photos that feed into that given context.. ...
I have an issue with a gear drive on a ball mill. 2XGM is rising and i have sidebands at 107cpm and I dont know why they are at 107 (not relevant to any turning speeds ect.) I checked the root clearance a week ago and the inboard is about a .066 smaller than the outboard. The pinion is 24 long and has 24 teeth. It is obvious i have misalignment.And there is obvious spalling on the gear faces .... ...
High performance diaphragm pump, easy-to-use solution for small benchtop desiccators. It is portable and low sound level during operation with below 45 dB(A).
The following charts display the octaves of each note per size. A good amount of Crystal Singing Bowls range around the 4th octave, with many Clear Crystal Singing Bowls delving into the 3rd octave. With each octave beginning on a C Note, a 3rd octave C Note is extremely rare in Crystal Singing Bowls while the 4th octave C Note is very common.. ...
Report on the Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Workshop Malcolm Slaney, Dan Ellis, Dave Rosenthal Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 19 and 20th, 1995. The first workshop on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA) was held August 19 and 20th at the 1995 IJCAI (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) in Montreal. Organized by Hiroshi Okuno and David Rosenthal, the workshop was attended by about thirty people doing work on scientific and engineering models of human audition and signal processing. Perhaps the workshop will best be remembered as the largest gathering to date of people interested in computer models of auditory scene analysis (ASA). The attendees were nearly evenly split between those that are interested in understanding human auditory perception and those that want to solve problems in auditory perception, perhaps using some of the techniques of auditory scene analysis. Al Bregman served as keynote speaker for the conference. His book, Auditory Scene ...
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The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. This cortex area is the neural crux of hearing, and-in humans-language and music. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around one another, with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that neighboring cells in the cortex respond to neighboring frequencies.[23] Tonotopic mapping is preserved throughout most of the audition circuit. The primary auditory cortex receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and thus is thought to identify the fundamental elements of music, such as pitch and loudness. An evoked response study of congenitally deaf kittens used local field potentials to measure cortical plasticity in the auditory cortex. These kittens were stimulated and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. AU - Polley, Daniel B.. AU - Heiser, Marc A.. AU - Blake, David T.. AU - Schreiner, Christoph E.. AU - Merzenich, Michael M.. PY - 2004/11/16. Y1 - 2004/11/16. N2 - Since the dawn of experimental psychology, researchers have sought an understanding of the fundamental relationship between the amplitude of sensory stimuli and the magnitudes of their perceptual representations. Contemporary theories support the view that magnitude is encoded by a linear increase in firing rate established in the primary afferent pathways. In the present study, we have investigated sound intensity coding in the rat primary auditory cortex (AI) and describe its plasticity by following paired stimulus reinforcement and instrumental conditioning paradigms. In trained animals, population-response strengths in AI became more strongly nonlinear with increasing stimulus intensity. Individual AI responses became ...
We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. Cortical responses were collected during continuous stimulation by sequences of sounds with varying frequency, period, or interaural level differences. We used a set of stimuli that differ in spectral structure, but have the same periodicity and therefore evoke the same pitch percept (click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, and iterated ripple noise). These stimuli failed to reveal a consistent periodotopic map across the auditory fields imaged. Rather, gradients of period sensitivity differed for the different types of periodic stimuli. Binaural interactions were studied both with single contralateral, ipsilateral, and diotic broadband noise bursts and with sequences of broadband noise bursts with varying level presented contralaterally, ipsilaterally, or in opposite phase to both ears. Contralateral responses were generally largest and ipsilateral
In Pressl. Basura GL, Koehler S, and Shore SE. . Stimulus-timing dependence of auditory-somatosensory plasticity in auditory cortex neurons after noise induced temporary threshold shifts and tinnitus. Journal of Neurophysiology: In Press, 2015. Article featured on JNP homepage.
Auditory working memory weakness can cause problems in the classroom. Here are my top 10 strategies for managing these weaknesses.
TY - GEN. T1 - On the synthesis of multiple frequency tone burst stimuli for efficient high frequency auditory brainstem response. AU - Ellingson, Roger M.. AU - Dille, Marilyn L.. AU - Leek, Marjorie R.. AU - Fausti, Stephen A.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - The development and digital waveform synthesis of a multiple-frequency tone-burst (MFTB) stimulus is presented. The stimulus is designed to improve the efficiency of monitoring high-frequency auditory-brainstem-response (ABR) hearing thresholds. The pure-tone-based, fractional-octavebandwidth MFTB supports frequency selective ABR audiometry with a bandwidth that falls between the conventional click and single-frequency tone-burst stimuli. The MFTB is being used to identify high frequency hearing threshold change due to ototoxic medication which most generally starts at the ultra-highest hearing frequencies and progresses downwards but could be useful in general limitedbandwidth testing applications. Included is a Mathcad® implementation and ...
A novel method is presented for creating a probability map from histologically defined cytoarchitectonic data, customised for the anatomy of individual fMRI volunteers. Postmortem structural and cytoarchitectonic information from a published dataset is combined with high resolution structural MR images using deformable registration of a region of interest. In this paper, we have targeted the three sub-areas of the primary auditory cortex (located on Heschls gyrus); however, the method could be applied to any other cytoarchitectonic region. The resulting probability maps show a significantly higher overlap than previously generated maps using the same cytoarchitectonic data, and more accurately span the macroanatomical structure of the auditory cortex. This improvement indicates a high potential for spatially accurate fMRI analysis, allowing more reliable correlation between anatomical structure and function. We validate the approach using fMRI data from nine individuals, taken from a published ...
The basic morphological aspects of auditory cortex organization in different orders of eutherian mammals are considered in the present review. The modern data describing a partitioning of mammalian auditory cortex into subfields are presented. A detailed observation of the structural organization of primary auditory cortex is given, as well as a review of recent morphological data about secondary auditory areas. Another section describes the system of auditory cortical projections. The data are considered from the perspective of possible homologies existing between the auditory cortices in different mammalian species.
The most common active mode-locking technique places a standing wave electro-optic modulator into the laser cavity. When driven with an electrical signal, this produces a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the light in the cavity. Considering this in the frequency domain, if a mode has optical frequency ν, and is amplitude-modulated at a frequency f, the resulting signal has sidebands at optical frequencies ν − f and ν + f. If the modulator is driven at the same frequency as the cavity-mode spacing Δν, then these sidebands correspond to the two cavity modes adjacent to the original mode. Since the sidebands are driven in-phase, the central mode and the adjacent modes will be phase-locked together. Further operation of the modulator on the sidebands produces phase-locking of the ν − 2f and ν + 2f modes, and so on until all modes in the gain bandwidth are locked. As said above, typical lasers are multi-mode and not seeded by a root mode. So multiple modes need to work out which phase to ...
Sound is dynamic and as such has temporal and spectral content. The auditory system extracts the spectral aspects and the temporal ones in parallel in the cochlea and auditory nerve. For frequencies below about 1.5 kHz, the spectral and temporal representations of sound are potentially redundant and both represent the pitch of speech and music. Auditory temporal processing determines our understanding of speech, our appreciation of music, being able to localize a sound source, and to listen to a person in a noisy crowd. The underlying basic capabilities of the auditory system include precise representation of sound onsets and offsets, representing gap durations in sound, and being able to code fast amplitude- and frequency- modulations of sound. The co-occurrence of such onsets and modulations of sound determine auditory objects and allow separating those from other auditory streams. Problems with precise temporal representations of sound occur in auditory neuropathy and multiple sclerosis and lead to a
Sound is dynamic and as such has temporal and spectral content. The auditory system extracts the spectral aspects and the temporal ones in parallel in the cochlea and auditory nerve. For frequencies below about 1.5 kHz, the spectral and temporal representations of sound are potentially redundant and both represent the pitch of speech and music. Auditory temporal processing determines our understanding of speech, our appreciation of music, being able to localize a sound source, and to listen to a person in a noisy crowd. The underlying basic capabilities of the auditory system include precise representation of sound onsets and offsets, representing gap durations in sound, and being able to code fast amplitude- and frequency- modulations of sound. The co-occurrence of such onsets and modulations of sound determine auditory objects and allow separating those from other auditory streams. Problems with precise temporal representations of sound occur in auditory neuropathy and multiple sclerosis and lead to a
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Probabilistic mapping and volume measurement of human primary auditory cortex.
Visual and auditory stimulation at 3 frequencies in the alpha-band range caused an analgesic effect in participants exposed to experimental pain, according
A method and device for detecting dichroic and/or birefringent narrow spectral features in a sample is described. The method includes the steps of providing a beam of light having an optical frequency bandwidth which is narrow compared to the width of the narrow spectral feature and having a center frequency ωc which lies near the narrow spectral feature, polarization phase modulating a beam of light with a single RF frequency to provide a pure FM spectrum having upper and lower sidebands in which either the carrier and sidebands have been polarized with respect to one another, exposing the sample containing the narrow spectral feature to the polarized modulated light so that the FM sidebands probe the narrow spectral feature, polarization analyzing and then photodetecting the light emerging from the sample to detect a RF beat at the specific RF frequency used for the polarization phase modulation, and electronically monitoring the amplitude of the RF beat signal to indicate the strength of the narrow
A method for providing broad-band antireflective surface layers on a chemically durable borosilicate glass which comprises phase-separating the glass by heat treatment at 630 -660 C., removing a siliceous surface layer from the glass, and treating the glass in an aqueous solution containing both H+ ions and F- ions for a time sufficient to produce the antireflective surface layer, is described. Antireflective surface layers exhibiting reflectances as low as 0.5% throughout the wavelength range from about 0.4-2.0 microns have been produced.
This thesis improves the audio display for multiple Morse communications. Factors considered to improve the audio display are frequency of source, volume level of source, and methods of unmasking. The best frequency and volume level of a Morse source is 500 Hz at 70 dB sound pressure level. Two types of masking are researched frequency masking and expectation driven masking. Experiments showed by amplifying high pitched sources the effects of frequency masking are minimized. Other methods to compensate for frequency masking are 3-D sound and the placement of a source out of phase between the ears. Morse code recognition at 500 Hz is greatest when presented at the NO S-pi condition. Greatest unmasking for broadband signals occurs at 3-D locations between 60 and 90 deg where the largest ITD interaural time difference exists. This thesis theorizes and confirms that greatest unmasking of a source tone in 3-D sound corresponds to the spatial location that gives an ITD equal to a 180 deg phase shift for that
3. Compromise - Chris Thompson - Alarm Sounds. Distinctive as Pattersons sounds are, succesive IEC committees have not endorsed them. Mostly this was, I think, because simpler devices would have found it difficult, technically, to generate such complex sounds. Hence the simpler, more easily generated pulse tones of 9703.2 and 60601-1-8.. None the less, the underlying psychoacoustic principles advocated by Patterson are, I think, entirely valid, as was the concept of providing unique sounds for the main categories of medical alarms. My greatest reservation with the existing 60601-1-8 melodies is that the high priority melodies are too complex. Although the high priority sounds are based on the medium priority melodies, two additional beeps after the base melody confuse the sound greatly, so that each high priority alarm is quite different from its medium priority version. This means that there are almost 13 different sounds to learn, and they can be too easily confused. The general rule of ...
Almost all medical devices in ICU/CCU have a built-in clinical alarm system to alert when there are changes in a patients condition. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the existing alarm system in ICU/CCU. Two summative usability tests were conducted to test the effectiveness of existing and new alarm signals based on IEC 60601-1-8:2006 standard. Further formative test was conducted to study perception of urgency associated with number of tones in the alarm signals. The findings indicate that the existing auditory alarm signal in ICU/CCU do not indicate the urgency of the alarm conditions. The simulation test indicates that the respondents preferred 282Hz, 500Hz and 800Hz for low, medium and high-risk alarm respectively. The one-sample proportion z test on urgency mapping indicates that the proportion of responses for highest risk is more than 50% for single tone test signal. These results show that single tone test signal being perceived as highest risk ...
BPSK signals in this modem design are demodulated synchronously, and synchronous detectors require a reference carrier for phase determination. Since the BPSK transmitter suppresses its carrier in its balanced modulator, there is no clearly defined reference present in a BPSK signal. The demodulator must therefore synthesize a BPSK reference carrier from sideband components present in the composite BPSK signal. If viewed in the time domain, the carrier of a signal whose phase shifts by 180 degree intervals may be extracted by taking the absolute value of the BPSK waveform voltage and filtering the result. A full-wave rectifier can be used to perform the absolute value function. The rectification process yields a waveform of constant phase and frequency twice that of the BPSK suppressed carrier. In the frequency domain, the rectifier may be thought of as being a non-linear circuit that mixes the upper and lower BPSK sidebands producing the algebraic sum of those sidebands. Dividing the frequency ...
Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee..………………Clear!..................... KA-CHUNK!!!!!!!...... Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep………………… You know what this sounds like. You know exactly what this sounds like. Youve heard it on practically every hospital TV show, every movie in which someone is rescued near death in a spaceship with a sickbay…over, and over, and over. And its…
Blue Hell, they may have worked out what tinnitus is and how to fix it. The basic idea is that when your ear is damaged (by noise,medication,etc), auditory cortex neurons in the brain become starved of certain frequencies. In Darwinian survival style, they become hyperactive and start receiving input sound from bordering undamaged zones, which we hear as tinnitus. The objective therefore is to re-supply the missing input noise to a now over-active auditory cortex to suppress the excessive neuronal firing which causes tinnitus ...
Personally everything anyone needs to know about BFS has already been researched and written up in BFS in a Nutshell. And that document has been stickied and prominently posted here on this very website for nearly ten years. I just find it rather silly that people are still seeking answers and still pushing for more research when we all know *beep* well they are going to find what every oldtimer here already knows. That is why I choose not to participate, and why I am guessing a lot of people choose not to participate. The #1 rule when you truly do accept your BFS is stop self testing and researching and obsessing so much about neurology! So by very definition participating in a study like this is such a backwards slide for most of us that I would consider it to be emotionally and mentally damaging. In any case, you are asking why people choose not to participate and that is why for a lot of us. I already know why I have BFS. I already know what BFS is. And I choose not to go back into the ...
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Functions and Calculus, an essential link between Algebra and Number, is one of the strands of the Project Maths Course in the Irish curriculum.
Debbie, what you are describing sounds very much like what most BFSers call exercise intolerance. It is very common with BFS. Some of your other symptoms may or may not be related to BFS. I have seen many posts where people describe exactly what you have with ALL of your symptoms and were diagnosed with BFS. If you havent seen a neurologist yet, go see one so you can have peace of mind and KNOW that its only BFS once and for all. Guessing will only keep youre mind going in circles and yes, time is on your side with BFS but how long do you want to guess and wonder what if...? I am in that boat and have been for almost 2 years now and I can tell you, it sucks. There are no good neuros where I live and I am just a big baby and am too scared to go. Its aguy thing... we are ALWAYS sicker than you girls, whether its the flu, a cold, a stomach ache or anything... all men are whiners and I am the biggest one! Ha-ha!! I drive my wife nuts when I am sick with my whining and complaining... dont ...
White Noise and Ear Buds/Headphones: Blocking out distractions is HUGE. After using white noise with ear buds for so many years, youd think Id remember just how effective it is in helping me focus, but no. I tend to not use them for weeks, then plug in the ear buds out of desperation, and discover that WOW, I just had a monumentally productive writing session! My favorite white noise app (and website) is Simply Noise. They have three types of white noise (in addition to rain and other sounds): white, pink, and brown. For my ear, brown is the soothing one, while white and pink are grating. Everyone is different. I like setting the high oscillation feature, which turns the volume up and down in a wave-like pattern. Somehow that aids in concentrating too. The app has a timer, too, so you can set the white noise to run for, say 30 minutes, and then shut off. Thats been very helpful in keeping me from staying so deep into the rabbit hole that I forget carpool duty or other crucial things ...
With powerful JBL Signature Sound, a sleek, contemporary look and smart, touch-control features, the JBL LIVE 500BT is perfect for any on-the-go lifestyle. Prepare to hit the streets with an innovative listening experience, optimized for Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa, as well as Ambient Aware and TalkThru technologies. With TalkThru, music temporarily pauses at the touch of a button, lowering speech and amplifying sound to make it easy to chat with a friend without removing the headphones. In Ambient Aware mode, listeners can control the amount of background noise they want to let in, to stay keyed into their surroundings when its needed most, such as walking in a busy intersection, dodging through a crowd of people or having an ear out for the family dog playing in the park.
With powerful JBL Signature Sound, a sleek, contemporary look and smart, touch-control features, the JBL LIVE 500BT is perfect for any on-the-go lifestyle. Prepare to hit the streets with an innovative listening experience, optimized for Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa, as well as Ambient Aware and TalkThru technologies. With TalkThru, music temporarily pauses at the touch of a button, lowering speech and amplifying sound to make it easy to chat with a friend without removing the headphones. In Ambient Aware mode, listeners can control the amount of background noise they want to let in, to stay keyed into their surroundings when its needed most, such as walking in a busy intersection, dodging through a crowd of people or having an ear out for the family dog playing in the park.
Stereo systems, music, equilibrium of different sounds, and certain other aspects are the fundamental grounds of any approved studio headphones. However, when we add the word
We research how listeners use sounds in order to learn about, and interact with their surroundings. Our work is based on behavioral methods (psychophysics), eye tracking and functional brain imaging (MEG, EEG and fMRI). We are based at the Ear Institute. MEG and fMRI scanning is conducted at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. We are also affiliated with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.. By studying how brain responses unfold in time, we explore how representation that are useful for behaviour arise from sensory input and dissociate automatic ,stimulus-driven, processes from those that are affected by the perceptual state, task and goals of the listener. Examples of the questions we address in our experiments are: How do listeners detect the appearance or disappearance of new auditory objects (sound sources) in the environment? What makes certain events pop-out and grab listeners attention even when it is focused elsewhere while the detection of other events requires directed ...
Das BfS steht im Fokus der Öffentlichkeit. Medien berichten häufig über die Arbeit des BfS. Eine kleine, nicht repräsentative Auswahl an Zeitungsartikeln, die sich mit der Arbeit des BfS auseinandersetzen und Aspekte sachlich und anschaulich darstellen, haben wir Ihnen hier zusammengestellt.. ...
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Is multisensory instruction EFFECTIVE? Is it good for ALL Kids? Learn what the research says about multisensory instruction and multisensory learning.
The Korg TM50 is a perfect pitch and rhythm training device allowing use of the metronome and tuner simultaneously The Korg TM50 allows you to use the tuner and metronome simultaneously Since this single unit is all you need for both pitch and rhythm tra
Reverse My Tinnitus Review - Discover How To get Rid Of Tinnitus Naturally Tinnitus is the sensation of hearing certain noises for example ringing, buzzing or any other sounds in a continual or intermittent type, and in a different range of loudness, if you find no actual real audio to listen for. The sounds are usually heard once the background .... Read More » ...
Hi, as the title says I have problems with the internal speakers on G703GI. Testing with the Windows speaker test, the sound coming out of the right speakers is barely audible, while the right side is fine. Ive updated the drivers, checked all balance settings and activated/deactivated any audio improvements I could find. Any suggestions?
Ernst, M.O., Bresciani, J.-P., & Drewing, K., 2004. Feeling what you hear: Auditory signals can modulate the perception of tactile taps. Perception, 33(Suppl. 1), p 143-143 ...
Un lloc... is a single piece, running almost 54 minutes. It begins with a plucked, six-note pattern on acoustic guitar, resonant and pensive, slightly reminiscent of a given stretch of Feldman piano music. Fages takes it through several subtle variations but after only a couple of minutes, the music begins to fragment and dissolve, reforming for a while, disintegrating again, reappearing in more isolated, fragmented form, splintered into high, muted pings now and then--all quite thoughtful, attractive and finely placed. Some twelve minutes in, all overt guitarisms evaporate and were in a world of sine tones, soft, high-pitched, overlaid and quietly vibrant. This state of affairs lasts about twelve minutes more and is enchanting, otherworldly. For a bit over the final half of the work, Fages reverts to the guitar, at first overlapping with the sine tones, but occupying a somewhat less quasi-tonal area than was the case at the beginning. The notes, sometimes chords, sometimes single tones, are ...
Tonotopy, the orderly representation of sound frequency is a fundamental organizing principle of the auditory system. However, the mechanisms by which precise t...
It was not my time to be soft hearted. I knew it would be best if she stayed away from me completely. I called my parents to pick her up. They were here in a jiffy. I didn t even see her going. I know
WASHINGTON, March 24, 2009 - The Federal Communications Commission on Tuesday outlined the procedures by which parties wishing to provide written or oral
in front of a sound name, such as ^weapons/explode3.wav tells the sound engine that it is a distance based sound. The left channel of the .wav is the near sound that will play when the sound originates close to you, and the right channel is the far sound that will play when the sound originates far from you. If the ^ mark is not used in the soundscript the sound is treated as stereo with no directionality or distance. This is a different feature than the sndlvl entry to control attenuation. This distant variant feature allows you to play two different sounds (but using only one file) and cross-fading between the two depending on how far away the sound originates. Currently the fade distances are hardcoded to begin at 20 feet (240 world units) and end at 110 feet (1320 world units) and cannot be changed in a mod. ...
Hardwood shapes in 6 pairs which can be color matched, or turned over and matched by sound (each color coded sound prism makes a different sound when shaken).
"Electric Acoustic Stimulation". Retrieved 2022-05-13. "Vibrant Soundbridge Middle Ear Implant". ... In 2005, MED-EL released their first electric acoustic stimulation system (EAS). This new type of implant combines both ... "Who is a Candidate for an Electric-Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) Cochlear Implant?". AudiologyOnline. Retrieved 2022-05-13. " ... The Bonebridge bone conduction implant was the first implant on the market to offer direct drive stimulation of the bone ...
"RMS Hydrocarbon Acoustic Stimulation System". AIC. Archived from the original on 25 June 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2018. " ... In 2003, he led the Hydrocarbon Acoustic Stimulation (RMS) development, technology which increases the efficiency of oil ...
Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. ORL 61:334-40. B. J. Gantz, C. Turner, and K. E. Gfeller, "Acoustic plus ... The concept of combining simultaneous electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) for the purposes of better hearing was first ... The stimulation can also be done anywhere along the optic signal's pathway. The optical nerve can be stimulated in order to ... Sacral nerve stimulation for treatment of refractory urinary urge incontinence. Sacral nerve study group. J Urol 1999 Aug;16(2 ...
Hoffman HS, Fleshler M (September 1963). "Startle Reaction: Modification by Background Acoustic Stimulation". Science. 141 ( ... The stimuli are usually acoustic, but tactile stimuli (e.g. via air puffs onto the skin) and light stimuli are also used. When ... A burst of white noise is usually used as the acoustic startle stimulus. Typical durations are 20 ms for prepulse and 40 ms for ... Kumari V, Soni W, Sharma T (June 2001). "Influence of cigarette smoking on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response ...
"A primary acoustic startle circuit: lesion and stimulation studies". Journal of Neuroscience. 2 (6): 791-805. doi:10.1523/ ... The acoustic startle reflex is thought to be caused by an auditory stimulus greater than 80 decibels. The reflex is typically ... A reflex from hearing a sudden loud noise will happen in the primary acoustic startle reflex pathway consisting of three main ... The role of the BNST in the acoustic startle reflex may be attributed to specific areas within the nucleus responsible for ...
Pinette MG, Blackstone J, Wax JR, Cartin A (June 2005). "Using fetal acoustic stimulation to shorten the biophysical profile". ... Fetal heart rate Fetal breathing Fetal movement Fetal tone Amniotic fluid volume Use of vibroacoustic stimulation to accelerate ...
Fay, R. R., & Popper, A. N. (1974). Acoustic stimulation of the ear of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of ...
Hilali, S.; Whitfield, I. C. (October 1953). "Responses of the trapezoid body to acoustic stimulation with pure tones". The ... which had varying phases according to stimulation frequency. This phenomenon was interpreted as the result of a second harmonic ...
Visser, G.H.A.; Mulder, H.H.; Wit, H.P.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Prechtl, H.F.R. (1989). "Vibro-acoustic stimulation of the human fetus ... Vibroacoustic stimulation is a technique involving the repetitive stimulation of the fetus, by applying a vibroacoustic ... Stimulation trials continue into the neonatal period (first 28 days after birth) by presenting the same auditory stimulus, to ... Both auditory and vibroacoustic stimulation have been used in habituation. ...
... are sounds that are heard without any external acoustic stimulation. Endaural means "in the ear". Phenomena ...
... following acoustic stimulation. Using acoustic stimuli to activate the MOC reflex pathway, recordings have been made from ... Cody and Johnstone (1982) and Rajan and Johnstone (1988a; 1988b) showed that constant acoustic stimulation that in (which ... Acoustic stimulation of the inner hair cells sends a neural signal to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN), and the axons ... electrical stimulation of neurons other than MOCS fibres. Therefore, electrical stimulation of the MOCS may not give an ...
"Cochlear Dead Regions Constrain the Benefit of Combining Acoustic Stimulation With Electric Stimulation". Ear and Hearing. 35 ( ...
Townsend GL, Cody DTR (1971). The averaged inion response evoked by acoustic stimulation: its relation to the saccule. Ann Otol ... Rosengren SM, Todd NPM, Colebatch JG (2005). Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials produced by stimulation with bone- ... bone vibration and short duration electrical stimulation. It is likely that both air-conducted and bone-conducted stimuli ... Vestibulocollic reflexes evoked by short-duration galvanic stimulation in man. J Physiol 513(2):587-97. Curthoys IS, Kim J, ...
"Mapping the tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex with minimally salient acoustic stimulation". Cerebral Cortex. 22 ( ... Consistently, electro stimulation to the aSTG of this patient resulted in impaired speech perception (see also for similar ... and fMRI The latter study further demonstrated that working memory in the AVS is for the acoustic properties of spoken words ... The authors also reported that stimulation in area Spt and the inferior IPL induced interference during both object-naming and ...
A CI bypasses acoustic hearing by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Through everyday listening and auditory ... Further research found that the electrical stimulation of the CI is at least partly responsible for the general reduction in ... This would suggest that it is the electrical stimulation that explains the decrease in tinnitus symptoms for many patients, and ... This original design distributed stimulation using a single channel. William House also invented a cochlear implant in 1961. In ...
"Mapping the tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex with minimally salient acoustic stimulation". Cerebral Cortex. 22 ( ... Studies in mature A1 have focused on neuromodulatory influences and have found that direct and indirect vagus nerve stimulation ... Barton B, Venezia JH, Saberi K, Hickok G, Brewer AA (December 2012). "Orthogonal acoustic dimensions define auditory field maps ... which altered the ability of the auditory cortex to plastically reorganize after changes in the acoustic environment, thereby ...
Outer hair cells serve as acoustic amplifiers for stimulation of the inner hair cells. Outer hair cells respond primarily to ... A metronome was used as part of a technique to test the effects of musical and rhythmic stimulation in physical rehabilitation ... eds.). Cochlear Blood Flow Changes With Short Sound Stimulation. Scientific basis of noise-induced hearing loss. New York ...
This physical stimulation appears to enhance the cell-repair effects of the inflammatory response. The first large scale ... This is based on the acoustic radiation force which causes particles to be attracted to either the nodes or anti-nodes of the ... Acoustic tweezers is an emerging tool for contactless separation, concentration and manipulation of microparticles and ... Long-duration therapeutic ultrasound called sustained acoustic medicine is a daily slow-release therapy that can be applied to ...
Chouard, CH; Meyer, B; Josset, P; Buche, JF (1983). "The effect of the acoustic nerve chronic electric stimulation upon the ... The study showed that selective electrical stimulation of eight to twelve electrodes, each isolated from the others, placed in ... House, WF; Urban, J (1973). "Long term results of electrode implantation and electronic stimulation of the cochlea in man". Ann ... Djourno, A; Eyries, C (August 1957). "[Auditory prosthesis by means of a distant electrical stimulation of the sensory nerve ...
... a comparison of fetal acoustic stimulation with acid-base determinations". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 155 (4): 726-728. doi:10.1016/ ... Vibroacoustic stimulation can wake the fetus, and is sometimes used to speed up the test or to facilitate further evaluation of ...
Shockwave therapy uses acoustic sound waves to alter tissue mechanics and inflammation. Lastly, personalized exercise plans ... Therapeutic ultrasound provides deep tissue thermal stimulation to increase range of motion and tendon strength and is often ... This therapy refers to when stimulation occurs via light and reportedly increases energy and antioxidant production. Hyperbaric ...
The Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD) is an acoustic hailing device developed by LRAD Corporation to send messages and warning ... PERSONNEL HALTING and STIMULATION RESPONSE (PHaSR) Fact Sheet, Air Force Research Laboratory, Office of Public Affairs, April ... Long range acoustic device mounted on police vehicle, 2004 Republican National Convention, New York City Swedish police in riot ... 21 acoustic weapons were listed, in various stages of development, including the Infrasound ("Very low-frequency sound which ...
Electric Acoustic Stimulation in Children W: Van de Heyning P, Kleine Punte A (eds): Cochlear Implants and Hearing Preservation ...
Due to this mechanism, for example, incoming acoustic stimuli can be processed with astonishing speed as when comprehending ... how automatic predictions about upcoming auditory events can be generated on the basis of regular environmental stimulation. ...
Phonemic Restoration with Simulations of Cochlear Implants and Combined Electric-Acoustic Stimulation". Journal of the ... It is believed that humans and other vertebrates have evolved the ability to complete acoustic signals that are critical but ... For people with cochlear implants, acoustic simulations of the implant indicated the importance of spectral resolution. When ... "Dynamic cortical representations of perceptual fulling-in for missing acoustic rhythm". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 17536. doi: ...
Phonemic Restoration with Simulations of Cochlear Implants and Combined Electric-Acoustic Stimulation". Journal of the ... "The discrimination of voice cues in simulations of bimodal electro-acoustic cochlear-implant hearing". The Journal of the ... "The Cochlear Implant EEG Artifact Recorded From an Artificial Brain for Complex Acoustic Stimuli". IEEE Transactions on Neural ...
Fetal Acoustic Stimulation Device, patent ES2546919B1, granted 29 September 2015 to Luis y Pallarés Aniorte and Maria Luisa ... Uchiyama, M.; Jin, X.; Zhang, Q.; Hirai, T.; Amano, A.; Bashuda, H.; Niimi, M. (2012). "Auditory stimulation of opera music ... Matsumi Suzuki, President of Japan Acoustic Lab, and Dr. Norio Kogure, Executive Director, Kogure Veterinary Hospital, for ... Schötz, Susanne; Eklund, Robert (2011). "A comparative acoustic analysis of purring in four cats" (PDF). Quarterly Progress and ...
Besides their hearing impairment, Black Swiss mice also are hypersensitive to acoustic stimulation, reacting with seizures ( ... GIPC3 is thought to be important for acoustic signal acquisition and propagation in hair cells of the mammalian cochlea. The ...
Brånemark sought an acoustic way to evaluate osseointegration. A patient with implants in the jaws was fitted with a bone ... When tested, the patient experienced very loud sound even at low stimulation levels, indicating sound could propagate very well ...
In humans vestibular evoked myogenic potentials occur in response to loud, low-frequency acoustic stimulation in patients with ... There is evidence that the vestibular system of mammals has retained some of its ancestral acoustic sensitivity and that this ... sensation of acoustic information via the vestibular system has been demonstrated to have a behaviourally relevant effect; ... response to an elicited acoustic startle reflex is larger in the presence of loud, low frequency sounds that are below the ...
Conrad, R.; Hull, A. J. (1964). "Information, acoustic confusion and memory span". British Journal of Psychology. 55 (4): 429- ... They found that Lexical-Semantic stimulation treatment could improve episodic memory.[49] ... one study hypothesized that stimulation of lexical-semantic abilities may benefit semantically structured episodic memory. ...
Sensory or therapeutic gardens can be used to help reduce the symptoms of dementia without the use of drugs through stimulation ... arranged around a central fountain that can provide acoustic orientation for blind and visually-impaired people.[10] ...
... scape is the component of the acoustic environment that can be perceived by humans. The acoustic environment is the ... Sensation due to stimulation of the auditory nerves and auditory centers of the brain, usually by vibrations transmitted in a ... In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain.[1] Only acoustic ... American National Standard: Acoustic Terminology. Sec 3.03. *^ Acoustical Society of America. "PACS 2010 Regular Edition- ...
This includes: acoustic and behavioral mimicry,[60][61] comprehension of novel sequences in an artificial language,[62][63] ... have much environmental stimulation and enjoy interacting with humans.[133][145] ... and certain scientists have claimed that the dolphins do not have adequate space or receive adequate care or stimulation.[144] ...
Occasionally physiotherapy for TMD may include the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), which may ... or via a finger inserted in the external acoustic meatus,[18] which lies directly behind the TMJ. The differential diagnosis is ... override pain by stimulation of superficial nerve fibers and lead to pain reduction which extends after the time where the TENS ...
Transcranial magnetic stimulation[edit]. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an important technique in modern cognitive ... He studied the physical properties of the eye and vision, as well as acoustic sensation. In one of his classic experiments ... The time scale over which adaptation builds up and recovers depends on the time course of stimulation.[2] Brief stimulation ... Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms ...
Kessler, L. W. (1970). "Ultrasonic Stimulation of Optical Scattering in Nematic Liquid Crystals". Applied Physics Letters. 17 ( ... These are the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), confocal scanning acoustic microscope (CSAM), and C-mode scanning acoustic ... "Acoustic Imaging and Acoustic Microscopes From Sonoscan Inc." Sonoscan. 11 July 2008 Kessler, L.W., "Acoustic Microscopy", ... Planar acoustic images do not often use all return echoes from all depths to make the visible acoustic image. Instead, a time ...
Smartphone attachments have also been designed to perform tympanometry for acoustic evaluation of the middle ear eardrum. Low- ... Exploiting Stochastic Effects of Electrical Stimulation". Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 112 (9_suppl): 14-19. doi ... Smartphone-based tests have been proposed to detect middle ear fluid using acoustic reflectometry and machine learning. ... Christensen, Jeppe H.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Porsbo, Michael; Pontoppidan, Niels H. (2021). "The everyday acoustic ...
In the absence of external stimulation, the activity of the cochlear amplifier increases, leading to the production of sound. ... "Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 64 (5 ... Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are sounds that are emitted from the ear without external stimulation and are ... are being designed to measure OAEs and determine the listener's sensitivity to different acoustic frequencies. This is then ...
The main hypothesized function of the acoustic reflex is the protection of the organ of Corti against excessive stimulation ( ... no matter which ear was exposed to the loud sound stimulation. The prevalence of bilateral acoustic reflexes in persons 18-30 ... the sound used to trigger the acoustic reflex). For most animals, the acoustic reflex is the contraction of both middle ear ... The acoustic reflex threshold (ART) is the sound pressure level (SPL) from which a sound stimulus with a given frequency will ...
Unlike deep brain stimulation or Vagus nerve stimulation, which use implants and electrical impulses, TPU is a noninvasive and ... significantly better acoustic penetration and power in bone, greater influence in kinetic effects, immediate/short-term effect ... Tyler and his team still continue to improve their knowledge of brain stimulation therapy and hope to provide a strong ... Hameroff, Stewart (2013). "Transcranial ultrasound (TUS) effects on mental states: A pilot study" (PDF). Brain Stimulation. ...
Non-invasive brain stimulation has also been explored in combination with BCIs for motor recovery. In 2016, scientists out of ... to stimulate acoustic percussion instruments. To perform the piece one must produce alpha waves and thereby "play" the various ... Sabathiel N, Irimia DC, Allison BZ, Guger C, Edlinger G (17 July 2016). "Paired Associative Stimulation with Brain-Computer ... These sensory BCI devices enable real-time, behaviorally-relevant decisions based upon closed-loop neural stimulation. The ...
"Studies of the neural basis of evasive flight behavior in response to acoustic stimulation in Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: ...
Cochlear implants differ than hearing aids in that the entire acoustic hearing is replaced with direct electric stimulation of ... Implant users are sensitive to these ENVp modulations, but performance varies across stimulation site, stimulation level, and ... Peng SC, Lu HP, Lu N, Lin YS, Deroche ML, Chatterjee M (May 2017). "Processing of Acoustic Cues in Lexical-Tone Identification ... They include the ability to accurately encode onsets and other rapid 'events' in the ENVp of complex acoustic and other sensory ...
The auditory system of bats is often cited as an example for how acoustic properties of sounds can be converted into a sensory ... Another approach, called stimulation experiment, was carried out in freely moving toads. Focal electrical stimuli were applied ... An early example of this is when Walter Rudolf Hess developed focal brain stimulation technique to examine a cat's brain ...
March 2008). "Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy impairs the stimulation of breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion ... acoustic neuromas, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, and prevention of keloid scar ...
It featured the acoustic version of "Guitar". Possible track listing: Guitar (Acoustic Version) Oui Can Love Love Is A Losing ... " "Stimulation" "Elephants & Flowers" "God is Alive" "Still Would Stand All Time" "Rave unto the Joy Fantastic" "If I Had a ... She has posted a live version of Prince performing "Stratus" and an acoustic version of "Guitar". On that acoustic version of " ... An acoustic version of the title track can be found on The Truth. Prince had often thought of releasing an album called The ...
... ", Acoustic, Folk and Country Blues. Retrieved 19 September 2021 "Bongo's - the coolest in primitive vinyl: ... During the 1980s Harrah-Conforth became involved in researching the use of light and sound stimulation in inducing altered ... 6-7 Reviews of Up Jumped the Devil: Greg Cahill, Acoustic Guitar, [6] Russell Davies, Times Literary Supplement, [7] David ...
Thermosiphon Thermotropic crystal Thermotunnel cooling Theta meson Theta vacuum Thibault Damour Thin-film bulk acoustic ... hydraulics Thermal inertia Thermal insulation Thermal ionization Thermal ionization mass spectrometry Thermal laser stimulation ...
He began using electric and acoustic pianos, starting with Gambler's Life, in addition to his signature instrument. Hammond's ... with Oliver Nelson Stimulation (Prestige PR 7203, 1961) -with Freddie McCoy Gettin' the Message (Prestige PR 7217, 1960) -with ... compilation of Stimulation + Opus De Funk) With Gene Ammons Velvet Soul (Prestige, 1960/1961/1962 [rel. 1964]) Angel Eyes ( ...
... means stimulation [感]. The weak is above, the strong below. The forces of the two stimulate and respond [感應] to each other, so ... "acoustic resonance" zither-string analogy, and explain how phenomena that are of the same lei 類 "kind; category" mutually zhao ... Two others use ying to describe acoustic resonance: "Similar categories follow each other [同類相從] and similar sounds respond to ...
The PPI measures the acoustic startle response, which is an exaggerated response to an unexpected stimulus. The acoustic ... When tested, the motor output of the central nervous system following mechano-sensory stimulation was normal in ennui, which ...
The same stimulation sequence is repeated several times and the neuronal response is reported in a Peri-Stimulus-Time Histogram ... have been derived for neural representation of auditory acoustic stimuli. This exploits both the place or tuning within the ... PSTH). The time t is measured with respect to the start of the stimulation sequence. The Δt must be large enough (typically in ...
Contents Top A B C D E G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W References Acoustic neuroma Tumor, usually benign, which may develop on ... Neural stimulation To activate or energize a nerve through an external source. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1 von ... Also see acoustic neurinoma. Neurogenic communication disorder Inability to exchange information with others because of hearing ...
Acoustic cues are incredibly important in recognizing chicks. Acoustic cues work over long and short distances, as well as for ... These proposals include: Boredom arising from a lack of stimulation and opportunity to engage in the appetitive component of ...
... with acoustic stimulation (AS) Other: transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) without acoustic stimulation (AS) Not ... Other: transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) with acoustic stimulation (AS) The study intervention consists of a ... Other: transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) without acoustic stimulation (AS) The study intervention consists of a ... Transcranial Electrical and Acoustic Stimulation for Tinnitus (tEAS). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
Fetal acoustic stimulation is becoming a common modality for antepartum testing. The purpose of this study was to review the ... A critical appraisal of fetal acoustic stimulation as an antenatal test for fetal well-being Obstet Gynecol. 1988 May;71(5):781 ... Fetal acoustic stimulation is becoming a common modality for antepartum testing. The purpose of this study was to review the ... There is no uniform nomenclature to score test results, and even the definition of the fetal acoustic stimulation test is not ...
Combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) has demonstrated better speech recognition than conventional cochlear implant ... Improving the Intelligibility of Speech for Simulated Electric and Acoustic Stimulation Using Fully Convolutional Neural ... Improving the Intelligibility of Speech for Simulated Electric and Acoustic Stimulation Using Fully Convolutional Neural ... However, when noise signals are involved, both the electric signal and the acoustic signal may be distorted, thereby resulting ...
Contralateral acoustic stimulation induces a phase advance in the evoked otoacoustic emission in humans. ... Contralateral acoustic stimulation induces a phase advance in the evoked otoacoustic emission in humans ... Contralateral acoustic stimulation induces a phase advance in the evoked otoacoustic emission in humans ...
Use the Force: Augmenting Neural Excitability via Unexpected Acoustic Stimulation and Movement Vigour. ... Use the Force: Augmenting Neural Excitability via Unexpected Acoustic Stimulation and Movement Vigour. en_US. ...
Short fetal acoustic stimulation test (FAST) was prospectively studied in 604 high risk pregnancies after 28 weeks of gestation ... Fetal heart rates were recorded 3 minutes before and 5 minutes after fetal acoustic stimulation. The results of the tests ... Short fetal acoustic stimulation test for rapid antepartum assessment of fetal well-being. ... Tannirandorn Y, Kittipibul V. Short fetal acoustic stimulation test for rapid antepartum assessment of fetal well-being. ...
The fetus showed fetal heart rate acceleration but no movement when acoustic stimulation was applied with artificial larynx. ... Prenatal features of Pena-Shokeir sequence with atypical response to acoustic stimulation. ... fetal heart rate accelerations with no movement in response to acoustic stimulation suggests that peripheral myopathy may ...
Twenty-two government-sponsored stimulation trea... * Gas Content Determinations of Salt Samples Using Acoustic Responses ... Effects of Stimulation Treatments on Coalbeds and Surrounding Strata: Evidence from Underground Observations ... This Bureau of Mines report examines the coal mine roof damage potential of stimulation treatments. ...
Electric-acoustic stimulation in cochlear-implant subjects Authors. * Andreas Buechner Department of Otolaryngology, Medical ... Buechner, A., Lesinski-Schiedat, A., Harpel, T., Schüssler, M., Neben, N., & Lennarz, T. (2011). Electric-acoustic stimulation ... "Acoustic Simulations of Combined Electric and Acoustic Hearing (EAS)" Ear & Hearing. 26 (4), 371-380.. Dorman, M. F. (2007). " ... Kong, Y. Y., Stickney, G. S., Zeng, F. G. (2005). "Speech and melody recognition in binaurally combined acoustic and electric ...
... Stimulation (EAS), the best of both worlds. ... Naída CI Q90 Electric AcousticStimulation (EAS). Advanced Bionics also offers an all-in-one cochlear implant and hearing aid ... The Naída CI Q90 Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) capability is not yet available in all regions. Please contact your AB ... 1 With the Naída CI Q90 sound processor and its built-in Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS)* capability, you get the best of ...
Ph.D. Position in Improving Inner Ear Drug Delivery by Acoustic Stimulation - UCL Ear Institute. ... This project aims to develop methods of active drug transport along the cochlea by acoustic stimulation. ... Two types of acoustic phenomena have shown potential:. 1) A pumping action by large 4-Hz pressure oscillations in the ear canal ... 2) Acoustic steady streaming. Its principal suitability for intracochlear drug transport has been shown in simplified two- ...
... hyperacusis and tinnitus loudness in tinnitus patients with and without hearing loss following 3 weeks of acoustic stimulation ...
Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) in Children: Investigating Benefit Afforded by Bilateral Versus Unilateral ... Acoustic Hearing. Roberts, Jillian B.; Stecker, G. Christopher; Holder, Jourdan T.; More ...
2005) Mechanical responses of the organ of Corti to acoustic and electrical stimulation in vitro. Biophys J 89:4382-4395, doi: ... 1981) Acoustic trauma: single neuron basis for the "half-octave shift." J Acoust Soc Am 70:707-711, pmid:7288033. ... Filtering of Acoustic Signals within the Hearing Organ Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... 1999) Multiple modes of inner hair cell stimulation. Hear Res 132:1-14, doi:10.1016/S0378-5955(99)00013-1, pmid:10392543. ...
Acoustic Stimulation. 2. 2018. 1183. 0.150. Why? Genotype. 7. 2014. 12944. 0.150. Why? ...
Acoustic Stimulation *Three-Dimensional Ultrasonography *Fetal Blood Sampling (FBS) *Doppler Velocimetry *Fetal Pulse Oximetry ...
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a 30-min audio-visual stimulation (AVS) program for the treatment of chronic insomnia ... One of the promising means of this kind is acous tic (sound) stimulation. At present, acoustic influ ence to improve sleep is ... This type of stimulation has the advantage to be perceived even at very low sound volumes essentially bordering the hearing ... Results: Auditory stimulation with delta binaural beat enhanced sleep parameters such as sleep failure, the number of ...
Acoustic Stimulation During Sleep Could Improve Cardiac Health. 03.18.2019. Gentle noise stimulation synchronized with an ... Gentle sound stimulation played during deep sleep enhanced deep or slow-wave sleep for people with mild cognitive impairment, ...
Acoustic stimulation of anaerobic digestion: Effects on biogas production and wastewater malodors - (Peer Reviewed Journal) ... In situ acoustic treatment of anaerobic digesters to improve biogas yields - (Peer Reviewed Journal) ... In situ acoustic treatment of anaerobic digesters to improve biogas yields. Springer Nature Applied Sciences. 7(2):11. https:// ...
Excitation Stimulation of neurons sufficient to generate an action potential.. External auditory canal Tube that runs inward ... Evoked acoustic emissions Phenomenon in which a sound presented to the ear is echoed back. ... Stimulation deafness experiment An experiment in which an animal is exposed to an extremely high-amplitude tone, which causes ... Stimulation-produced analgesia Procedure in which certain regions of the brain are electrically stimulated, leading to a loss ...
Chapter 9. Hearing Preservation Cochlear Implantation and Electro-Acoustic Stimulation. Sandra Prentiss, Athanasia Warnecke, ... electro-acoustic stimulation, preoperative prediction of postoperative outcomes and image guided programming. This resource ... His research focuses on the development of quality of life measures for diseases such as acoustic neuromas and Ménière disease ...
We tested the hypothesis that: (i) the amplitude of the N1m response and (ii) its decrement during rapid stimulation are ... were measured during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic stimuli. ... during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic stimuli. Recurrent acoustic stimulation is associated with characteristic ... Stability of MRS results under acoustic stimulation MRS examinations, similar to conventional MRI scans, are associated with ...
Standard Practice for Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Structures During Controlled Stimulation. ASTM E 1033 : 2013 Standard ... Standard Practice for Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Structures During Controlled Stimulation. ASTM E 1033 : 2013 Standard ... Standard Practice for Acoustic Pulse Reflectometry Examination of Tube Bundles. ASTM E 690 : 2015 Standard Practice for In Situ ... Standard Practice for Acoustic Pulse Reflectometry Examination of Tube Bundles. ASTM E 690 : 2015 Standard Practice for In Situ ...
Stimulation hollow transmission ill defined. At the center of our hearts a signal too obscure to find. Acoustic shadows sex and ...
Acoustic Neural Stimulation. This relatively new treatment has shown to be effective in reducing, and in some cases eliminating ... Auditory-somatosensory stimulation is a similar treatment approach to Kilgards, in that its goal is to retune the faulty ... Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). This technique, which uses a small device placed on the scalp to generate ... An uncommon but serious cause is an acoustic neuroma, a noncancerous (benign) tumor of part of the nerve leading from the inner ...
Caloric stimulation ... your acoustic nerve by delivering cold or warm water or air into your ear canal. When cold water or air ...
... repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is safe and effective in reducing heavy alcohol consumption, craving, and brain ... The sham stimulation produced the same acoustic artifact and generated skin sensations mimicking those of the active ... In the active stimulation group, each session included 100 trains of 30 pulses at 10Hz (3 seconds) with 15-second intervals, ... During the 3-week treatment phase, active or sham stimulations were delivered in five 30-minute sessions per week. During the ...
Effects of contralateral white noise stimulation on transitory evoked otoacoustic emissions in patients with acoustic neuroma. ... 1990). The behavior of the acoustic distortion product 2fl-2f2 from the human ear and its relation to auditory sensitivity. J ... 1978). Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system. J Acoust Soc Am 64: 1386-1391. ... 1982). The behavior of acoustic distortion products in the ear canals of chinchillas with normal or damaged ears. J Acoust Soc ...
  • There is no uniform nomenclature to score test results, and even the definition of the fetal acoustic stimulation test is not uniform. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Short fetal acoustic stimulation test for rapid antepartum assessment of fetal well-being. (
  • Short fetal acoustic stimulation test (FAST) was prospectively studied in 604 high risk pregnancies after 28 weeks of gestation. (
  • We aim at targeting the (bilateral) auditory cortex with tRNS as in former studies and combine it with white noise (WN) stimulation. (
  • To assess rapid auditory processing in the left auditory cortex, the amplitude and decrement of the N1m peak, the major component of the late auditory evoked response, were measured during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic stimuli. (
  • One way of assessing auditory function is by measuring the amplitude and the decrement of the N1m wave, the major peak of the late auditory response, during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic stimuli. (
  • Auditory-somatosensory stimulation is a similar treatment approach to Kilgard's, in that its goal is to retune the faulty patterns of brain activity that can cause tinnitus. (
  • Salicylate-induced changes of auditory responses of the caudal pontine reticular nucleus - the sensorimotor interface of the acoustic startle reflex. (
  • The behavior of the acoustic distortion product 2fl-2f2 from the human ear and its relation to auditory sensitivity. (
  • 1978). Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system. (
  • Frequency-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex depends on the spectral variance in the acoustic stimulation. (
  • This neural remodeling enabled bipolar stimulation via the cochlear implant array, with low stimulus thresholds and expanded dynamic range of the cochlear nerve, determined via electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. (
  • Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is an umbrella term for non-invasive brain stimulation using weak currents. (
  • It comprises transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which is the most established and used method applying constant direct current, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) with sinusoidal current in a fixed frequency, and finally transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), which is a subform of tACS generating a random range of low and high frequency alternating currents. (
  • Deep, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is safe and effective in decreasing symptoms of alcohol addiction and brain reactivity, new research suggests. (
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). (
  • We are joining forces across Europe to advance a new non-invasive technology - transcranial ultrasound stimulation (TUS) - to reversibly modulate brain regions with exquisite millimetre precision, even deep in the brain. (
  • TUS combines the precision and reach of invasive deep brain stimulation, required to directly target clinically relevant structures, with the non-invasive and low-cost nature of transcranial electromagnetic techniques that are inherently limited in focus and depth. (
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method based on the stimulation of neuronal tissue without depending on the transfer of electrical current by means of electrodes or the skin. (
  • Combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) has demonstrated better speech recognition than conventional cochlear implant (CI) and yielded satisfactory performance under quiet conditions. (
  • For this reason, more and more subjects with low frequency residual hearing are being implanted with so called Hybrid or Electric-Acoustic-Stimulation (EAS) cochlear implant systems to preserve the residual hearing in the ear to be implanted. (
  • Additionally, a group of more than 80 subjects with conventional cochlear implant systems on one side and residual acoustic hearing on the contralateral side will be demonstrated. (
  • In this context, indication criteria for the use of acoustic amplification in cochlear implant subjects will be discussed. (
  • Speech recognition in noise for cochlear implant listeners: benefits of residual acoustic hearing" J. Acoust. (
  • She has published extensive peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, and her special interests are in hearing preservation, electro-acoustic stimulation, preoperative prediction of postoperative outcomes and image guided programming. (
  • When the researchers used tFUS to emit repeated bursts of ultrasound stimulation directly at excitatory neurons, they observed an elevated impulse rate, or spike. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that: (i) the amplitude of the N1m response and (ii) its decrement during rapid stimulation are associated with the cortical neurochemistry as determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (
  • This novel device with its unique features will enable for the first time the personalized non-invasive high-precision stimulation of cortical and subcortical targets in the human brain. (
  • Cortical electrical stimulation involves stimulating the cortical region of the brain. (
  • The aim behind our proposed approach, similar to the bimodal approaches above, is to couple the effects of tRNS and acoustic stimulation (AS) for better temporary tinnitus suppression and possible reversal of maladaptive neuroplasticity related to tinnitus. (
  • Background: The amplitude of acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and pre-pulse inhibition of the ASR are now widely used as behavioral readouts of tinnitus and hyperacusis. (
  • Tinnitus can be described as a perception of sound that is not related to an external acoustic source. (
  • Tinnitus is described as the perception of sound or noise in the absence of real acoustic stimulation. (
  • Caloric stimulation is a test that uses differences in temperature to diagnose damage to the acoustic nerve. (
  • Water caloric stimulation should not be done if the eardrum is torn (perforated). (
  • This increases blood flow and allows you to get an erection in reaction to sexual stimulation. (
  • Sexual stimulation is needed first to trigger the release of nitric oxide from your penile nerves. (
  • These drugs work in response to sexual stimulation and must be taken at least half an hour to two hours before sexual activity. (
  • Summary: SS reduces the neural output of the cochlea, but paradoxically enhanced sound-evoked PnC responses at high stimulation levels, consistent with the increase in ASR amplitude after SS treatment. (
  • OAEs are acoustic waveforms recorded in the ear canal that are presumably related to outer hair cell electromotility, and thus are sensitive to changes in outer hair cell function induced by the MOC system (Guinan, 2006). (
  • In this project you will help develop automated, high-throughput methods for finding effective stimulation waveforms. (
  • your acoustic nerve by delivering cold or warm water or air into your ear canal. (
  • This is because the tips of the acoustic nerve bundles that the implants stimulate become sickly and ineffective at absorbing the electrical signals. (
  • For nerve stimulation during surgeries involving the brain and face. (
  • This helps in monitoring the acoustic nerve , brainstem and cerebral cortex. (
  • Does Acoustic Wave Therapy Help With Erectile Dysfunction? (
  • Fetal acoustic stimulation is becoming a common modality for antepartum testing. (
  • Acoustic wave therapy shares its mode of action with physiotherapy. (
  • This means that other means like acoustic wave therapy may also help ( 2 ). (
  • How Acoustic Wave Therapy Work? (
  • Acoustic wave therapy is also called low-intensity shock wave therapy. (
  • Acoustic wave therapy has a benefit of the ability to penetrate more in-depth, and advantage of deployment to difficult to reach body areas. (
  • Term acoustic wave therapy or shock wave therapy may sound sophisticated (or even frightening), but it is quite a simple thing that works on the well-proven principle, low-energy sound waves. (
  • qathet Physiotherapy offers Shockwave therapy, a non-invasive application of high-energy acoustic waves for the treatment of injury and chronic conditions. (
  • Shockwave therapy or extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a non-invasive treatment that involves the propagation of high-energy acoustic waves that are directly applied to an injury site. (
  • In optical therapy 1 2 3 , manipulation 4 , and stimulation 5 , having a sufficient photon density in a targeted region determines both efficacy and specificity, while for imaging, the optical spot size determines the resolution. (
  • Therapeutic stimulation of neurons with electrical energy or chemicals-and potentially with acoustic waves-can amplify or dampen neuronal impulses in the brain or body. (
  • In the active stimulation group, each session included 100 trains of 30 pulses at 10Hz (3 seconds) with 15-second intervals, for a total of 3000 pulses. (
  • During experiments with anesthetized rodents, the researchers penetrated the skull and brain with various brief pulses of acoustic waves, targeting specific neurons in the brain cortex. (
  • This Bureau of Mines report examines the coal mine roof damage potential of stimulation treatments. (
  • Results: Neurons in the PnC responded to acoustic stimulation with very short first-spike latencies (approx. (
  • Acoustic signals in the form of ultrasound offer a promising class of neuromodulation which would be an especially valuable approach because it is non-invasive-no surgical procedure to implant electrodes for stimulation is required. (
  • An emotion-modulated acoustic startle paradigm for inducing positive and negative affect was used to address pregoal and postgoal affect. (
  • This study investigates the use calf muscle electrical stimulation (ES) to reduce seated leg fluid accumulation. (
  • This shortening of the reaction time in rats and mice by LSD is due to an increased sensitivity of the central nervous system to sensory stimulation and to an acceleration processing of sensory stimulation. (
  • However, when noise signals are involved, both the electric signal and the acoustic signal may be distorted, thereby resulting in poor recognition performance. (
  • Acoustic Simulations of Combined Electric and Acoustic Hearing (EAS)" Ear & Hearing. (
  • Acoustic plus electric speech processing: preliminary results of a multicenter clinical trial of the Iowa/Nucleus Hybrid implant" Audiol. (
  • Speech and melody recognition in binaurally combined acoustic and electric hearing" J. Acoust. (
  • 1 With the Naída CI Q90 sound processor and its built-in Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS)* capability, you get the best of both worlds. (
  • The Naída CI Q90 Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) capability is not yet available in all regions. (
  • the other subjects were in the groups of electric stimulation-only (ES-only). (
  • Bio-feedback, electric stimulation are well-documented ways to help. (
  • 2010) Combining acoustic and electric stimulation in the service of speech recognition. (
  • Conditioned avoidance response of rats in the cage with electrically charged floor: If an acoustic signal is transmitted shortly before a regular electric shock, the animal learns soon to withdraw from the unpleasant stimulation by jumping onto a rod on hearing the acoustic signal. (
  • The patients associated with TMPRSS3 mutations are good candidates for electric acoustic stimulation. (
  • Investigations on the influence of LSD on a conditioned avoidance response of rats and the reaction of mice to painful stimulations. (
  • This pilot study tested the efficacy of a 30-min audio-visual stimulation (AVS) program for the treatment of chronic insomnia in older adults. (
  • In situ acoustic treatment of anaerobic digesters to improve biogas yields. (
  • During the 3-week treatment phase, active or sham stimulations were delivered in five 30-minute sessions per week. (
  • As acoustic wave treatment is not new by any means, there is lots of research into the area. (
  • Intramuscular Stimulation (IMS) is a total system for the diagnosis and treatment of myofascial and chronic pain conditions. (
  • Results were indicative of a superior efficacy of combined electrical and acoustic approaches, while large-scale controlled studies have not been performed. (
  • 1988). Evoked otoacoustic emissions in patients with acoustic neuromas. (
  • What it does is send high energy acoustic waves deep inside the tissues to improve blood flow and encourage healing. (
  • The reaction time (between onset of acoustic signal and jumping on the rod) is after pretreatment with 0.05-0.2 mg/kg LSD significantly shortened. (
  • Reaction of mice to painful stimulation: In the heat radiation test (heat radiation focused on the tail) the time between onset of stimulation and withdrawal of the tail is significantly shortened after 2 mg/kg LSD s.c. (
  • 5],[6],[7] In recent years, inflammation is also considered one of the mechanisms of acoustic trauma. (
  • These observations show that additional processing and filtering of acoustic signals occur within the organ of Corti before inner hair cell excitation, representing a departure from established theories. (
  • If we can localize and target areas of the brain using acoustic, ultrasound energy, I believe we can potentially treat a myriad of neurological and psychiatric diseases and conditions. (
  • Overall, participants will undergo 20 stimulation visits and 6 additional assessment visits. (
  • Before fetal acoustic stimulation becomes part of standard obstetric care, rigorous clinical testing is required. (
  • 2011, a clinical syndrome involving No data are yet available to predict stimulation (Figure). (
  • The parameter space for these stimulation pulse trains are enormous, involving for example, waveform shape, amplitude, duration, inter-pulse interval and phase. (
  • Free radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been linked to acoustic trauma-induced hair cell loss. (
  • Stimulation of para-sympathetic nerves leads to dilatation of smooth-muscle-lined cavernosal sinuses which effects influx of blood with subsequent tumescence. (
  • A pilot study conducted by Shekhawat and colleagues in 2015 tested the effects of simultaneous electrical and acoustic stimulation. (
  • Gentle sound stimulation played during deep sleep enhanced deep or slow-wave sleep for people with mild cognitive impairment, who are at risk for Alzheimer's disease, according to a Northwestern Medicine study. (
  • Gentle noise stimulation synchronized with an individual's brainwaves boosted cardiovascular health, according to a recent study. (
  • Therefore, in the present study, we experiment with activation of the skeletal pump using electrical stimulation (ES) of the gastrocnemius muscles to prevent leg fluid accumulation while seated. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of stimulated phase-shift acoustic nanodroplets (NDs) combined with vancomycin. (
  • Variables used to describe the system are sound pressure, volume velocity, and acoustic impedance. (
  • Sound can be transmitted from the car canal to the cochlea via two mechanisms: the tympano-ossicular system (ossicular coupling) and direct acoustic stimulation of the oval and round windows (acoustic coupling). (
  • 1991). Altered susceptibility of 2f 1 -f 2 acoustic-distortion products to the effects of repeated noise exposure in rabbits. (
  • Phase-shift acoustic NDs could exert a significant bactericidal effect against MRSA biofilms through a new stimulation mode. (
  • Furthermore, the high levels of stimulation that were used in some of these animal experiments were not typical of realistic exposure situations. (
  • Recent success of a number of compounds in preventing hearing loss suggests other strategies for otoprotection, namely, making the cochlea biologically more resistant to acoustic injury or treating the acutely injured cochlea through pharmacologic intervention. (
  • The severity of conductive hearing loss due to middle-ear disease or after tympanoplasty surgery can be predicted by the degree to which ossicular coupling, acoustic coupling, and stapescochlear input impedance are altered. (
  • This project aims to develop methods of active drug transport along the cochlea by acoustic stimulation. (
  • The sham stimulation produced the same acoustic artifact and generated skin sensations mimicking those of the active stimulation, but it did not involve a magnetic field. (
  • This first request for proposals seeks preclinical projects relating to how different "modes" of focused ultrasound compare in terms of the immune response generated, and how this immune response correlates with biological, acoustic, and imaging metrics. (