Parasomnias: Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Rehabilitation Centers: Facilities which provide programs for rehabilitating the mentally or physically disabled individuals.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.New YorkMemory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Short-Wave Therapy: The use of focused short radio waves to produce local hyperthermia in an injured person or diseased body area.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Medical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diathermy: The induction of local hyperthermia by either short radio waves or high-frequency sound waves.Physical Processes: The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/6631)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (2/6631)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

The effects of d-amphetamine on the temporal control of operant responding in rats during a preshock stimulus. (3/6631)

The operant behavior of six rats was maintained by a random-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three-minute periods of noise were superimposed on this behavior, each period ending with the delivery of an unavoidable shock. Overall rates of responding were generally lower during the periods of noise than in its absence (conditioned suppression). These suppressed response rates also exhibited temporal patterning, with responding becoming less frequent as each noise period progressed. The effects of d-amphetamine on this behavioral baseline were then assessed. In four animals the relative response rates during the noise and in its absence suggested that the drug produced a dose-related decrease in the amount of conditioned suppression. However, this effect was often due to a decrease in the rates of responding in the absence of the preshock stimulus, rather than to an increase in response rates during the stimulus. Temporal patterning in response rates during the preshock stimulus was abolished, an effect that was interpreted in terms of rate-dependent effect of d-amphetamine. This study thus extends rate-dependent analyses of the effects of amphetamines to the patterns of operant behavior that occur during a preshock stimulus, and which have been discussed in terms of the disrupting effects of anxiety on operant behavior.  (+info)

Midbrain combinatorial code for temporal and spectral information in concurrent acoustic signals. (4/6631)

All vocal species, including humans, often encounter simultaneous (concurrent) vocal signals from conspecifics. To segregate concurrent signals, the auditory system must extract information regarding the individual signals from their summed waveforms. During the breeding season, nesting male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) congregate in localized regions of the intertidal zone and produce long-duration (>1 min), multi-harmonic signals ("hums") during courtship of females. The hums of neighboring males often overlap, resulting in acoustic beats with amplitude and phase modulations at the difference frequencies (dFs) between their fundamental frequencies (F0s) and harmonic components. Behavioral studies also show that midshipman can localize a single hum-like tone when presented with a choice between two concurrent tones that originate from separate speakers. A previous study of the neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent signals demonstrated that midbrain neurons temporally encode a beat's dF through spike synchronization; however, spectral information about at least one of the beat's components is also required for signal segregation. Here we examine the encoding of spectral differences in beat signals by midbrain neurons. The results show that, although the spike rate responses of many neurons are sensitive to the spectral composition of a beat, virtually all midbrain units can encode information about differences in the spectral composition of beat stimuli via their interspike intervals (ISIs) with an equal distribution of ISI spectral sensitivity across the behaviorally relevant dFs. Together, temporal encoding in the midbrain of dF information through spike synchronization and of spectral information through ISI could permit the segregation of concurrent vocal signals.  (+info)

Desynchronizing responses to correlated noise: A mechanism for binaural masking level differences at the inferior colliculus. (5/6631)

We examined the adequacy of decorrelation of the responses to dichotic noise as an explanation for the binaural masking level difference (BMLD). The responses of 48 low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs were recorded to binaurally presented noise with various degrees of interaural correlation and to interaurally correlated noise in the presence of 500-Hz tones in either zero or pi interaural phase. In response to fully correlated noise, neurons' responses were modulated with interaural delay, showing quasiperiodic noise delay functions (NDFs) with a central peak and side peaks, separated by intervals roughly equivalent to the period of the neuron's best frequency. For noise with zero interaural correlation (independent noises presented to each ear), neurons were insensitive to the interaural delay. Their NDFs were unmodulated, with the majority showing a level of activity approximately equal to the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF obtained with fully correlated noise. Partial decorrelation of the noise resulted in NDFs that were, in general, intermediate between the fully correlated and fully decorrelated noise. Presenting 500-Hz tones simultaneously with fully correlated noise also had the effect of demodulating the NDFs. In the case of tones with zero interaural phase, this demodulation appeared to be a saturation process, raising the discharge at all noise delays to that at the largest peak in the NDF. In the majority of neurons, presenting the tones in pi phase had a similar effect on the NDFs to decorrelating the noise; the response was demodulated toward the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF. Thus the effect of added tones on the responses of delay-sensitive inferior colliculus neurons to noise could be accounted for by a desynchronizing effect. This result is entirely consistent with cross-correlation models of the BMLD. However, in some neurons, the effects of an added tone on the NDF appeared more extreme than the effect of decorrelating the noise, suggesting the possibility of additional inhibitory influences.  (+info)

Corticofugal amplification of facilitative auditory responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat. (6/6631)

Recent studies on the bat's auditory system indicate that the corticofugal system mediates a highly focused positive feedback to physiologically "matched" subcortical neurons, and widespread lateral inhibition to physiologically "unmatched" subcortical neurons, to adjust and improve information processing. These findings have solved the controversy in physiological data, accumulated since 1962, of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons: inhibitory, excitatory, or both (an inhibitory effect is much more frequent than an excitatory effect). In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex each have "FM-FM" neurons, which are "combination-sensitive" and are tuned to specific time delays (echo delays) of echo FM components from the FM components of an emitted biosonar pulse. FM-FM neurons are more complex in response properties than cortical neurons which primarily respond to single tones. In the present study, we found that inactivation of the entire FM-FM area in the cortex, including neurons both physiologically matched and unmatched with subcortical FM-FM neurons, on the average reduced the facilitative responses to paired FM sounds by 82% for thalamic FM-FM neurons and by 66% for collicular FM-FM neurons. The corticofugal influence on the facilitative responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons is much larger than that on the excitatory responses of subcortical neurons primarily responding to single tones. Therefore we propose the hypothesis that, in general, the processing of complex sounds by combination-sensitive neurons more heavily depends on the corticofugal system than that by single-tone sensitive neurons.  (+info)

Effects of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus in rats. (7/6631)

The conditioned suppression technique was employed to study the ototoxic effects of chronic administration of the antibiotic, kanamycin. Lever pressing behavior for food reinforcement of rats was suppressed in the presence of an auditory stimulus (sound) or visual stimulus (light) that had been previously paired with electric shocks. Repeated administration of kanamycin at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day for more than 50 days significantly attenuated the conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus but did not attenuate the conditioned suppression to visual stimulus. This finding suggests that the attenuating effect of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus can be interpreted in terms of the selective action of the drug on the auditory system.  (+info)

Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination. (8/6631)

Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events.  (+info)

Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention ...
The book starts out with a chapter on acoustics, and the rest of the book focuses on the anatomy and physiology of the peripheral systems in a rather traditional manner: from caudal through rostral levels, ending with the descending auditory system. Note that these chapters, for the most part, review topic areas that are best considered basic research and are not translational in nature. However, the final section attempts to tie perception to the underlying physiologic responses, and chapters are parsed into stimulus factors (such as intensity, frequency, binaural stimulation, and complex sounds). ...
Physical tradeoffs may in some cases constrain the evolution of sensory systems. The peripheral auditory system, for example, performs a spectral decomposition of sound that should result in a tradeof
Background: This paper reviews the physiological correlates of arousal to develop a comprehensive and collective understanding of the physiological co..
The present results provide behavioral evidence that stimuli can be processed by a mechanism that is selective for particular combinations of spectral and temporal modulation frequencies. We trained listeners to discriminate the depth of spectral, temporal, or upward spectrotemporal modulation and tested the generalization of their learning to the trained conditions of the other groups as well as to the depth discrimination of downward spectrotemporal modulation and the detection of upward spectrotemporal modulation. Three influences of training were dependent on the spectrotemporal characteristics of the trained stimulus. First, and most importantly, there was no generalization of training-induced improvement to the untrained depth-discrimination conditions. Learning on isolated spectral (0.5 cyc/oct; 0 Hz) or temporal (0 cyc/oct; 32 Hz) modulation did not generalize to either direction of spectrotemporal modulation (0.5 cyc/oct; ±32 Hz), even though the spectrotemporal conditions shared one ...
Our brain needs to constantly fuse sensory information detected by our multiple senses in order to produce a seamless coherentre presentation of the world. Rather than being the exception, this binding process is ubiquitous to sensory-motor integration and isimplicated in most cognitive functions. Its impairment is a cause of various pathologies, such as schizophrenia or autism. Multisensoryprocessing operates on all brain levels from primary cortices over subcortical structures up to higher associative centers, while thesmallest operational units are single multisensory neurons.. In an interdisciplinary effort, we combine optical developments, genetics and neuro-computation to obtain new insights into the activityof brain-wide neural circuits that process multisensory information. To reduce the complexity, we study the small transparent brain ofzebrafish larvae as a model system. We focus on gaze stabilization as an inherently multisensory model task that is conservedamong all vertebrates. This ...
The most comparable evidence for human tonotopy is strikingly consistent with that of the monkey: an fMRI study that quantified tonotopy using the same statistical method as Bulkin and Groh (2011) identified ∼18% of the IC as tonotopic (Ress and Chandrasekaran, 2013); other studies reported evidence of tonotopy, although they did not quantify its scope (Geniec and Morest, 1971; De Martino et al., 2013). If the human IC is only sparsely tonotopic and variable across subjects (Ress and Chandrasekaran, 2013), it will be challenging to place a single array of electrodes with any consistency in a tonotopic region. Indeed, plans for the upcoming second clinical trial include the implantation of multiple arrays of electrodes (Lim and Lenarz, 2015) and this may increase the likelihood that the electrodes span sites with a range of different BFs.. A second issue that emerged from the physiological mapping study was that tuning of IC neurons to sound frequency was quite broad. For sounds of moderate ...
May 25, 2014 Meowing can be a sweet and loving communication with you, but it can also become obnoxious. Your felines language is composed of a number of vocalizations, scent signals and body postures. Because we humans do not have a...
serge baghdassarians / boris baltschun. auditorium. auditorium is an installation consisting of several related works translating sound through illumination and animation. the led-displays of guitar pedal tuners become the surface for the projection of letters, words and sentences. these words refer to different forms of auditory activity such as tuning and memorising and point to the regulative powers of musical systems.. each word becomes a number of tone names which cannot be heard but are to be imagined.. ...
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I suppose this is self-evident to many people, but I have found that doing everything I can to focus my brain on the visual and auditory stimulation...
High performance diaphragm pump, easy-to-use solution for small benchtop desiccators. It is portable and low sound level during operation with below 45 dB(A).
Report on the Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Workshop Malcolm Slaney, Dan Ellis, Dave Rosenthal Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 19 and 20th, 1995. The first workshop on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA) was held August 19 and 20th at the 1995 IJCAI (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) in Montreal. Organized by Hiroshi Okuno and David Rosenthal, the workshop was attended by about thirty people doing work on scientific and engineering models of human audition and signal processing. Perhaps the workshop will best be remembered as the largest gathering to date of people interested in computer models of auditory scene analysis (ASA). The attendees were nearly evenly split between those that are interested in understanding human auditory perception and those that want to solve problems in auditory perception, perhaps using some of the techniques of auditory scene analysis. Al Bregman served as keynote speaker for the conference. His book, Auditory Scene ...
The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. This cortex area is the neural crux of hearing, and-in humans-language and music. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around one another, with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that neighboring cells in the cortex respond to neighboring frequencies.[23] Tonotopic mapping is preserved throughout most of the audition circuit. The primary auditory cortex receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and thus is thought to identify the fundamental elements of music, such as pitch and loudness. An evoked response study of congenitally deaf kittens used local field potentials to measure cortical plasticity in the auditory cortex. These kittens were stimulated and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. AU - Polley, Daniel B.. AU - Heiser, Marc A.. AU - Blake, David T.. AU - Schreiner, Christoph E.. AU - Merzenich, Michael M.. PY - 2004/11/16. Y1 - 2004/11/16. N2 - Since the dawn of experimental psychology, researchers have sought an understanding of the fundamental relationship between the amplitude of sensory stimuli and the magnitudes of their perceptual representations. Contemporary theories support the view that magnitude is encoded by a linear increase in firing rate established in the primary afferent pathways. In the present study, we have investigated sound intensity coding in the rat primary auditory cortex (AI) and describe its plasticity by following paired stimulus reinforcement and instrumental conditioning paradigms. In trained animals, population-response strengths in AI became more strongly nonlinear with increasing stimulus intensity. Individual AI responses became ...
We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. Cortical responses were collected during continuous stimulation by sequences of sounds with varying frequency, period, or interaural level differences. We used a set of stimuli that differ in spectral structure, but have the same periodicity and therefore evoke the same pitch percept (click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, and iterated ripple noise). These stimuli failed to reveal a consistent periodotopic map across the auditory fields imaged. Rather, gradients of period sensitivity differed for the different types of periodic stimuli. Binaural interactions were studied both with single contralateral, ipsilateral, and diotic broadband noise bursts and with sequences of broadband noise bursts with varying level presented contralaterally, ipsilaterally, or in opposite phase to both ears. Contralateral responses were generally largest and ipsilateral
In Pressl. Basura GL, Koehler S, and Shore SE. . Stimulus-timing dependence of auditory-somatosensory plasticity in auditory cortex neurons after noise induced temporary threshold shifts and tinnitus. Journal of Neurophysiology: In Press, 2015. Article featured on JNP homepage.
TY - GEN. T1 - On the synthesis of multiple frequency tone burst stimuli for efficient high frequency auditory brainstem response. AU - Ellingson, Roger M.. AU - Dille, Marilyn L.. AU - Leek, Marjorie R.. AU - Fausti, Stephen A.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - The development and digital waveform synthesis of a multiple-frequency tone-burst (MFTB) stimulus is presented. The stimulus is designed to improve the efficiency of monitoring high-frequency auditory-brainstem-response (ABR) hearing thresholds. The pure-tone-based, fractional-octavebandwidth MFTB supports frequency selective ABR audiometry with a bandwidth that falls between the conventional click and single-frequency tone-burst stimuli. The MFTB is being used to identify high frequency hearing threshold change due to ototoxic medication which most generally starts at the ultra-highest hearing frequencies and progresses downwards but could be useful in general limitedbandwidth testing applications. Included is a Mathcad® implementation and ...
A novel method is presented for creating a probability map from histologically defined cytoarchitectonic data, customised for the anatomy of individual fMRI volunteers. Postmortem structural and cytoarchitectonic information from a published dataset is combined with high resolution structural MR images using deformable registration of a region of interest. In this paper, we have targeted the three sub-areas of the primary auditory cortex (located on Heschls gyrus); however, the method could be applied to any other cytoarchitectonic region. The resulting probability maps show a significantly higher overlap than previously generated maps using the same cytoarchitectonic data, and more accurately span the macroanatomical structure of the auditory cortex. This improvement indicates a high potential for spatially accurate fMRI analysis, allowing more reliable correlation between anatomical structure and function. We validate the approach using fMRI data from nine individuals, taken from a published ...
The most common active mode-locking technique places a standing wave electro-optic modulator into the laser cavity. When driven with an electrical signal, this produces a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the light in the cavity. Considering this in the frequency domain, if a mode has optical frequency ν, and is amplitude-modulated at a frequency f, the resulting signal has sidebands at optical frequencies ν − f and ν + f. If the modulator is driven at the same frequency as the cavity-mode spacing Δν, then these sidebands correspond to the two cavity modes adjacent to the original mode. Since the sidebands are driven in-phase, the central mode and the adjacent modes will be phase-locked together. Further operation of the modulator on the sidebands produces phase-locking of the ν − 2f and ν + 2f modes, and so on until all modes in the gain bandwidth are locked. As said above, typical lasers are multi-mode and not seeded by a root mode. So multiple modes need to work out which phase to ...
Sound is dynamic and as such has temporal and spectral content. The auditory system extracts the spectral aspects and the temporal ones in parallel in the cochlea and auditory nerve. For frequencies below about 1.5 kHz, the spectral and temporal representations of sound are potentially redundant and both represent the pitch of speech and music. Auditory temporal processing determines our understanding of speech, our appreciation of music, being able to localize a sound source, and to listen to a person in a noisy crowd. The underlying basic capabilities of the auditory system include precise representation of sound onsets and offsets, representing gap durations in sound, and being able to code fast amplitude- and frequency- modulations of sound. The co-occurrence of such onsets and modulations of sound determine auditory objects and allow separating those from other auditory streams. Problems with precise temporal representations of sound occur in auditory neuropathy and multiple sclerosis and lead to a
Sound is dynamic and as such has temporal and spectral content. The auditory system extracts the spectral aspects and the temporal ones in parallel in the cochlea and auditory nerve. For frequencies below about 1.5 kHz, the spectral and temporal representations of sound are potentially redundant and both represent the pitch of speech and music. Auditory temporal processing determines our understanding of speech, our appreciation of music, being able to localize a sound source, and to listen to a person in a noisy crowd. The underlying basic capabilities of the auditory system include precise representation of sound onsets and offsets, representing gap durations in sound, and being able to code fast amplitude- and frequency- modulations of sound. The co-occurrence of such onsets and modulations of sound determine auditory objects and allow separating those from other auditory streams. Problems with precise temporal representations of sound occur in auditory neuropathy and multiple sclerosis and lead to a
Visual and auditory stimulation at 3 frequencies in the alpha-band range caused an analgesic effect in participants exposed to experimental pain, according
A method and device for detecting dichroic and/or birefringent narrow spectral features in a sample is described. The method includes the steps of providing a beam of light having an optical frequency bandwidth which is narrow compared to the width of the narrow spectral feature and having a center frequency ωc which lies near the narrow spectral feature, polarization phase modulating a beam of light with a single RF frequency to provide a pure FM spectrum having upper and lower sidebands in which either the carrier and sidebands have been polarized with respect to one another, exposing the sample containing the narrow spectral feature to the polarized modulated light so that the FM sidebands probe the narrow spectral feature, polarization analyzing and then photodetecting the light emerging from the sample to detect a RF beat at the specific RF frequency used for the polarization phase modulation, and electronically monitoring the amplitude of the RF beat signal to indicate the strength of the narrow
A method for providing broad-band antireflective surface layers on a chemically durable borosilicate glass which comprises phase-separating the glass by heat treatment at 630 -660 C., removing a siliceous surface layer from the glass, and treating the glass in an aqueous solution containing both H+ ions and F- ions for a time sufficient to produce the antireflective surface layer, is described. Antireflective surface layers exhibiting reflectances as low as 0.5% throughout the wavelength range from about 0.4-2.0 microns have been produced.
BPSK signals in this modem design are demodulated synchronously, and synchronous detectors require a reference carrier for phase determination. Since the BPSK transmitter suppresses its carrier in its balanced modulator, there is no clearly defined reference present in a BPSK signal. The demodulator must therefore synthesize a BPSK reference carrier from sideband components present in the composite BPSK signal. If viewed in the time domain, the carrier of a signal whose phase shifts by 180 degree intervals may be extracted by taking the absolute value of the BPSK waveform voltage and filtering the result. A full-wave rectifier can be used to perform the absolute value function. The rectification process yields a waveform of constant phase and frequency twice that of the BPSK suppressed carrier. In the frequency domain, the rectifier may be thought of as being a non-linear circuit that mixes the upper and lower BPSK sidebands producing the algebraic sum of those sidebands. Dividing the frequency ...
Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee..………………Clear!..................... KA-CHUNK!!!!!!!...... Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep………………… You know what this sounds like. You know exactly what this sounds like. Youve heard it on practically every hospital TV show, every movie in which someone is rescued near death in a spaceship with a sickbay…over, and over, and over. And its…
Personally everything anyone needs to know about BFS has already been researched and written up in BFS in a Nutshell. And that document has been stickied and prominently posted here on this very website for nearly ten years. I just find it rather silly that people are still seeking answers and still pushing for more research when we all know *beep* well they are going to find what every oldtimer here already knows. That is why I choose not to participate, and why I am guessing a lot of people choose not to participate. The #1 rule when you truly do accept your BFS is stop self testing and researching and obsessing so much about neurology! So by very definition participating in a study like this is such a backwards slide for most of us that I would consider it to be emotionally and mentally damaging. In any case, you are asking why people choose not to participate and that is why for a lot of us. I already know why I have BFS. I already know what BFS is. And I choose not to go back into the ...
Need metronome for music practice. Use Best Metronome online. Its a free metronome and its online so there is no need to install anything. Its precise, user friendly and natural. Get it now.
Functions and Calculus, an essential link between Algebra and Number, is one of the strands of the Project Maths Course in the Irish curriculum.
Debbie, what you are describing sounds very much like what most BFSers call "exercise intolerance". It is very common with BFS. Some of your other symptoms may or may not be related to BFS. I have seen many posts where people describe exactly what you have with ALL of your symptoms and were diagnosed with BFS. If you havent seen a neurologist yet, go see one so you can have peace of mind and KNOW that its only BFS once and for all. Guessing will only keep youre mind going in circles and yes, time is on your side with BFS but how long do you want to guess and wonder "what if"...? I am in that boat and have been for almost 2 years now and I can tell you, it sucks. There are no good neuros where I live and I am just a big baby and am too scared to go. Its aguy thing... we are ALWAYS sicker than you girls, whether its the flu, a cold, a stomach ache or anything... all men are whiners and I am the biggest one! Ha-ha!! I drive my wife nuts when I am sick with my whining and complaining... dont ...
White Noise and Ear Buds/Headphones: Blocking out distractions is HUGE. After using white noise with ear buds for so many years, youd think Id remember just how effective it is in helping me focus, but no. I tend to not use them for weeks, then plug in the ear buds out of desperation, and discover that WOW, I just had a monumentally productive writing session! My favorite white noise app (and website) is Simply Noise. They have three types of white noise (in addition to rain and other sounds): white, pink, and brown. For my ear, brown is the soothing one, while white and pink are grating. Everyone is different. I like setting the high oscillation feature, which turns the volume up and down in a wave-like pattern. Somehow that aids in concentrating too. The app has a timer, too, so you can set the white noise to run for, say 30 minutes, and then shut off. Thats been very helpful in keeping me from staying so deep into the rabbit hole that I forget carpool duty or other crucial things ...
With powerful JBL Signature Sound, a sleek, contemporary look and smart, touch-control features, the JBL LIVE 500BT is perfect for any on-the-go lifestyle. Prepare to hit the streets with an innovative listening experience, optimized for Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa, as well as Ambient Aware and TalkThru technologies. With TalkThru, music temporarily pauses at the touch of a button, lowering speech and amplifying sound to make it easy to chat with a friend without removing the headphones. In Ambient Aware mode, listeners can control the amount of background noise they want to let in, to stay keyed into their surroundings when its needed most, such as walking in a busy intersection, dodging through a crowd of people or having an ear out for the family dog playing in the park.
With powerful JBL Signature Sound, a sleek, contemporary look and smart, touch-control features, the JBL LIVE 500BT is perfect for any on-the-go lifestyle. Prepare to hit the streets with an innovative listening experience, optimized for Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa, as well as Ambient Aware and TalkThru technologies. With TalkThru, music temporarily pauses at the touch of a button, lowering speech and amplifying sound to make it easy to chat with a friend without removing the headphones. In Ambient Aware mode, listeners can control the amount of background noise they want to let in, to stay keyed into their surroundings when its needed most, such as walking in a busy intersection, dodging through a crowd of people or having an ear out for the family dog playing in the park.
We research how listeners use sounds in order to learn about, and interact with their surroundings. Our work is based on behavioral methods (psychophysics), eye tracking and functional brain imaging (MEG, EEG and fMRI). We are based at the Ear Institute. MEG and fMRI scanning is conducted at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. We are also affiliated with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.. By studying how brain responses unfold in time, we explore how representation that are useful for behaviour arise from sensory input and dissociate automatic ,stimulus-driven, processes from those that are affected by the perceptual state, task and goals of the listener. Examples of the questions we address in our experiments are: How do listeners detect the appearance or disappearance of new auditory objects (sound sources) in the environment? What makes certain events pop-out and grab listeners attention even when it is focused elsewhere while the detection of other events requires directed ...
Das BfS steht im Fokus der Öffentlichkeit. Medien berichten häufig über die Arbeit des BfS. Eine kleine, nicht repräsentative Auswahl an Zeitungsartikeln, die sich mit der Arbeit des BfS auseinandersetzen und Aspekte sachlich und anschaulich darstellen, haben wir Ihnen hier zusammengestellt.. ...
Gel intech anatomic * Twist Gel Heart * Designed to follow the bio-mechanical movements of the rider * Special anatomically shaped wing section attached to the padding that eliminates all the excess of fabric in the pedalling area. No stitching on the surface * Enhanced comfort with any kind of saddle Tracemyworld bibshorts: Disel cut, DIESEL semicircle sideband lower front Thigh band, LYCRA NEWPORT base fabric LYCRA MONICA sideband fabric LYCRA NEWPORT bibs Padding Gel Intech Anatomic, white mesh bibs, Unisex
Is multisensory instruction EFFECTIVE? Is it good for ALL Kids? Learn what the research says about multisensory instruction and multisensory learning.
The Korg TM50 is a perfect pitch and rhythm training device allowing use of the metronome and tuner simultaneously The Korg TM50 allows you to use the tuner and metronome simultaneously Since this single unit is all you need for both pitch and rhythm tra
Reverse My Tinnitus Review - Discover How To get Rid Of Tinnitus Naturally Tinnitus is the sensation of hearing certain noises for example ringing, buzzing or any other sounds in a continual or intermittent type, and in a different range of loudness, if you find no actual real audio to listen for. The sounds are usually heard once the background .... Read More » ...
Ernst, M.O., Bresciani, J.-P., & Drewing, K., 2004. Feeling what you hear: Auditory signals can modulate the perception of tactile taps. Perception, 33(Suppl. 1), p 143-143 ...
Tonotopy, the orderly representation of sound frequency is a fundamental organizing principle of the auditory system. However, the mechanisms by which precise t...
WASHINGTON, March 24, 2009 - The Federal Communications Commission on Tuesday outlined the procedures by which parties wishing to provide written or oral
in front of a sound name, such as "^weapons/explode3.wav" tells the sound engine that it is a distance based sound. The left channel of the .wav is the near sound that will play when the sound originates close to you, and the right channel is the far sound that will play when the sound originates far from you. If the ^ mark is not used in the soundscript the sound is treated as stereo with no directionality or distance. This is a different feature than the sndlvl entry to control attenuation. This distant variant feature allows you to play two different sounds (but using only one file) and cross-fading between the two depending on how far away the sound originates. Currently the fade distances are hardcoded to begin at 20 feet (240 world units) and end at 110 feet (1320 world units) and cannot be changed in a mod. ...
... ,Crystal Metronome 1.4.6 is Tempo markings. Measures. Subdivisions including eighth notes and triplets
Combines the Real and Imaginary data sets to one array for exporting to the Simepr.exe program. You must use this feature to Optimize or Tune an FT spectrum. This feature has no meaning for a CW spectrum. Only a symmetric spectrum which is centered in the data array will produce a Fourier transform which is purely either Real or Imaginary depending on the harmonic with the exception of noise. A first derivative CW spectrum will produce a purely Imaginary display after an FFT+1. To simulate the FT of non-symmetric and/or non-centered spectra, this feature has been added. Because the spectral information is compressed into the low frequency region of an FT by the exponential linewidth function, the high frequency region may be discarded. This now empty space of the Imaginary array is used to hold the low frequency information of the Real array. You will be prompted for n, the frequency value (data point) for combination. This number should be above the region of significant low frequency spectral ...
Beloved masters, there is a Light Path that will lead you out of the density into the LIGHTNESS OF THE SPIRITUAL REALMS. The key that allows you to traverse this sacred path is within you, and it is called your Energy Signature or your Soul Song. Your vibrational patterns or energetic signature has resonance, cadence, tones and vibrancy, just like a song; and your original Soul Song was in perfect harmony with the Celestial Soul Song of the universe. Each dimension has a unique resonance and an identifiable harmonic sound pattern. Your physical existence is a reality focused on harmony and balance or the lack thereof; and the further you move into density, the more discordant your vibrational patterns become. In your material plane reality you habitually focus on tangible things which have substance or density, a time/space orientation of cause and effect. That each of you is the creator of your own reality is gradually permeating the mass consciousness belief patterns. As you refine your ...
Im an artist experimenting with cross-sensory perception and the uncharted territories of the senses. Im exploring the sense of smell along with new technologies. raewynturner.co.nz ...
My Answer: The highly specialized nature of eukaryotic cells limit its ability to survive elsewhere independently. Most specialized cells belong to particular part of an organism where what they need to survive on is in abundance (erythrocytes + iron in bloodstream) whereas prokaryotic cells can thrive independently because they dont require particular substances to live. Eukaryotic cells on the contrary are highly competent cells that are performing many higher level functions such as reasoning(neurons) and the breakdown of ethanol after alcohol consumption by hepatocytes (liver cells) ...
Open competition for the establishment of a multi-party framework agreement for the provision of audio-visual equipment and services in three lots:1) Supply and
Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. ORL 61:334-340. B. J. Gantz, C. Turner, and K. E. Gfeller, "Acoustic plus ... The concept of combining simultaneous electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) for the purposes of better hearing was first ... The stimulation can also be done anywhere along the optic signal's path way. The optical nerve can be stimulated in order to ... Sacral nerve stimulation for treatment of refractory urinary urge incontinence. Sacral nerve study group. J Urol 1999 Aug;16(2 ...
Hoffman, H. S; Fleshler, M (1963). "Startle Reaction: Modification by Background Acoustic Stimulation". Science. 141 (3584): ... A burst of white noise is usually used as the acoustic startle stimulus. Typical durations are 20 ms for prepulse and 40 ms for ... Swerdlow, N R; Paulsen, J; Braff, D L; Butters, N; Geyer, M A; Swenson, M R (1995). "Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic ... Filion, Diane L; Dawson, Michael E; Schell, Anne M (1993). "Modification of the acoustic startle-reflex eyeblink: A tool for ...
Pinette MG, Blackstone J, Wax JR, Cartin A (June 2005). "Using fetal acoustic stimulation to shorten the biophysical profile". ... Fetal heart rate Fetal breathing Fetal movement Fetal tone Amniotic fluid volume Use of vibroacoustic stimulation to accelerate ...
Hilali, S.; Whitfield, I. C. (October 1953). "Responses of the trapezoid body to acoustic stimulation with pure tones". The ... which had varying phases according to stimulation frequency. This phenomenon was interpreted as the result of a second harmonic ...
"A primary acoustic startle circuit: lesion and stimulation studies" (Free full text). Journal of Neuroscience. 2 (6): 791-805. ... The acoustic startle reflex is thought to be caused by an auditory stimulus greater than 80 decibels. The reflex is typically ... A reflex from hearing a sudden loud noise will happen in the primary acoustic startle reflex pathway consisting of three main ... The role of the BNST in the acoustic startle reflex may be attributed to specific areas within the nucleus responsible for ...
Visser, G.H.A.; Mulder, H.H.; Wit, H.P.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Prechtl, H.F.R. (1989). "Vibro-acoustic stimulation of the human fetus ... Vibroacoustic stimulation is a technique involving the repetitive stimulation of the fetus, by applying a vibroacoustic ... Stimulation trials continue into the neonatal period (first 28 days after birth) by presenting the same auditory stimulus, to ... Both auditory and vibroacoustic stimulation have been used in habituation. ...
... are sounds that are heard without any external acoustic stimulation. Endaural means "in the ear". Phenomena ...
... following acoustic stimulation. Using acoustic stimuli to activate the MOC reflex pathway, recordings have been made from ... Cody and Johnstone (1982) and Rajan and Johnstone (1988a; 1988b) showed that constant acoustic stimulation (which evokes a ... Acoustic stimulation of the inner hair cells sends a neural signal to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN), and the axons ... electrical stimulation of neurons other than MOCS fibres. Therefore, electrical stimulation of the MOCS may not give an ...
Townsend GL, Cody DTR (1971). The averaged inion response evoked by acoustic stimulation: its relation to the saccule. Ann Otol ... Rosengren SM, Todd NPM, Colebatch JG (2005). Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials produced by stimulation with bone- ... bone vibration and short duration electrical stimulation. It is likely that both air-conducted and bone-conducted stimuli ... Vestibulocollic reflexes evoked by short-duration galvanic stimulation in man. J Physiol 513(2):587-97. Curthoys IS, Kim J, ...
This is based on the acoustic radiation force which causes particles to be attracted to either the nodes or anti-nodes of the ... This physical stimulation appears to enhance the cell-repair effects of the inflammatory response. Effectiveness of therapeutic ... Acoustic tweezers is an emerging tool for contactless separation, concentration and manipulation of microparticles and ... Long-duration therapeutic ultrasound called sustained acoustic medicine is a daily slow-release therapy that can be applied to ...
... a comparison of fetal acoustic stimulation with acid-base determinations". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 155: 726-728. doi:10.1016/s0002 ... Vibroacoustic stimulation can wake the fetus, and is sometimes used to speed up the test or to facilitate further evaluation of ...
The Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD) is an acoustic hailing device developed by LRAD Corporation to send messages and warning ... PERSONNEL HALTING and STIMULATION RESPONSE (PHaSR) Fact Sheet, Air Force Research Laboratory, Office of Public Affairs, April ... Long Range Acoustic device mounted on police vehicle, 2004 Republican National Convention, New York City Swedish police in riot ... The personnel halting and stimulation response rifle (PHASR) is a prototype non-lethal laser dazzler developed by the Air Force ...
Electric Acoustic Stimulation in Children W: Van de Heyning P, Kleine Punte A (eds): Cochlear Implants and Hearing Preservation ...
Phonemic Restoration with Simulations of Cochlear Implants and Combined Electric-Acoustic Stimulation". Journal of the ... It is believed that humans and other vertebrates have evolved the ability to complete acoustic signals that are critical but ... "Dynamic cortical representations of perceptual fulling-in for missing acoustic rhythm". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 17536. doi: ...
These include cochlear implants, middle ear implants, bone conduction hearing implants, electric acoustic stimulation hearing ...
In humans vestibular evoked myogenic potentials occur in response to loud, low frequency acoustic stimulation in patients with ... There is evidence that the vestibular system of mammals has retained some of its ancestral acoustic sensitivity and that this ... response to an elicited acoustic startle reflex is larger in the presence of loud, low frequency sounds that are below the ... In mice sensation of acoustic information via the vestibular system has been demonstrated to have a behaviourally relevant ...
Besides their hearing impairment, Black Swiss mice also are hypersensitive to acoustic stimulation, reacting with seizures ( ... GIPC3 is thought to be important for acoustic signal acquisition and propagation in hair cells of the mammalian cochlea. The ...
Brånemark sought an acoustic way to evaluate osseointegration. A patient with implants in the jaws was fitted with a bone ... When tested, the patient experienced very loud sound even at low stimulation levels, indicating sound could propagate very well ...
Due to this mechanism, for example, incoming acoustic stimuli can be processed with astonishing speed as when comprehending ... how automatic predictions about upcoming auditory events can be generated on the basis of regular environmental stimulation. ...
"Studies of the neural basis of evasive flight behavior in response to acoustic stimulation in Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: ...
One use of the traditional ABR is site-of-lesion testing and it has been shown to be sensitive to large acoustic tumors. ... In 1991, Cohen and colleagues learned that by presenting at a higher rate of stimulation than 40 Hz (>70 Hz), the response was ... Both use acoustic stimuli delivered through inserts (preferably). Both can be used to estimate threshold for patients who ... With the intent of screening for and detecting the presence of small (less than or equal to 1 cm) acoustic tumors, the Stacked ...
Physical stimulation of the external acoustic meatus innervated by the auricular nerve elicits a cough, much like the other ... Wang Z, Zhou X, Sheng X, Yu L, Jiang H (2015). "Unilateral low-level transcutaneous electrical vagus nerve stimulation: A novel ... published "Far field potentials from the brain stem after transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation" and in 2007 Kraus et al. did ... Rarely, on introduction of speculum in the external ear, patients have experienced syncope due to the stimulation of the ...
1970). Acoustic studies on sharks: Rangiroa Atoll, July 1969. ONR Technical Report 2, No. N00014-68-C-0138. Yano, K.; H. Mori; ... the mechanical stimulation from the moving amphipods are thought to have evoked this behavior through their similarity to ... The whitetip reef shark is highly responsive to the olfactory, acoustic, and electrical cues given off by potential prey, while ... "Behavioral response of sharks to electric stimulation". Bulletin of Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute. 78: 13-30. ...
1970). Acoustic studies on sharks: Rangiroa Atoll, July 1969. ONR Technical Report 2, No. N00014-68-C-0138. Yano, K.; H. Mori; ... "Behavioral response of sharks to electric stimulation". Bulletin of Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute. 78: 13-30. ... acoustic, and electrical cues given off by potential prey. Its visual system is attuned more to movement and/or contrast than ...
Electromyography, Acoustic reflex testing (formerly the gold standard), MRI, CT scanning, transcranial magnetic stimulation, ... The stimulation as well as the recording are carried out by disc electrodes taped to the skin, and the technician may use ... A variety of stimulation locations may also be employed, to get the best possible results. Audiologists aim to get the most ... The stimulation electrode is located at the stylomastoid foramen and the recording electrode is located near the nasolabial ...
Outer hair cells serve as acoustic amplifiers for stimulation of the inner hair cells. Outer hair cells respond primarily to ... eds.). Cochlear Blood Flow Changes With Short Sound Stimulation. Scientific basis of noise-induced hearing loss. New York ... When this boost occurs, an acoustic reflex mechanism triggers and acts as a defense against these sounds. This mechanism seeks ... A metronome was used as part of a technique to test the effects of musical and rhythmic stimulation in physical rehabilitation ...
... above 1 kHz can be beyond the range of amplification possible via acoustic stimulation. Electric stimulation (CI), on the other ... Electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) is the use of a hearing aid and a cochlear implant together in the same ear. The hearing ... This acoustic stimulation proves to be particularly effective in the low frequencies, though a severe hearing loss (> 70 dB HL ... Gstoettner W., Helbig S., Maier N., Kiefer J., Radeloff A., Adunka O. (2006). Ipsilateral Electric Acoustic Stimulation of the ...
Experimental: Acoustic 1Hz Stimulation 1 Hz acoustic stimulation applied via headphones and downloadable phone application ... Other: Acoustic 1Hz Stimulation 1Hz acoustic pulses delivered during sleep via headphones ... Acoustic Stimulation for Seizure Suppression. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... The objective of this study is to test the feasibility and physiological effect of low-frequency (1 Hz) acoustic stimulation ...
A primary acoustic startle circuit: lesion and stimulation studies. M Davis, DS Gendelman, MD Tischler and PM Gendelman ... A primary acoustic startle circuit: lesion and stimulation studies Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... abolish acoustic startle. Electrical stimulation of these nuclei elicits startle-like responses with a latency of about 6 msec ... abolish acoustic startle. Electrical stimulation of these points elicits startle-like responses with a latency of about 5 msec ...
Other: Acoustic stimulation (65db) up-slope of EEG with QST Acoustic stimulation (65 db) synchronized in-phase with the up- ... Other: Acoustic stimulation (65db) down-slope of EEG with QST 65 dB acoustic stimulation synchronized with the down-slope of ... Acoustic stimulation (65db) up-slope of EEG with QST Other: Acoustic stimulation (65db) down-slope of EEG with QST Other: 0 db ... acoustic stimulation delivered in phase with the anticipated trough of EEG slow wave oscillation, and 0 dB stimulation. ...
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI ... Investigation of Balance Function Using Dynamic Posturography under Electrical-Acoustic Stimulation in Cochlear Implant ... Only under the static conditions are significantly poorer scores achieved when stimulation is applied. It may be that the ...
The patient was divided into 3 groups: 1) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation group, 2) Rehabilitation group, 3) Neurumusculer ... electrical stimulation + Rehabilitation group. Affected and unaffected side biceps and gastrocnemius, ARFI elastography ... To evaluate the gastrocnemius/soleus and biceps brachii muscle stiffness by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) ... 1) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (NMES): Neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied on the biceps and ...
The Electric Acoustic Stimulation hearing system combines acoustic amplification and cochlear implant technology for hearing ... Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) uses acoustic amplification and cochlear implant technology (electric stimulation) together ... Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) EAS combines a cochlear implant with hearing aid technology. This solution is for ... EAS provides acoustic stimulation that supports a persons natural residual hearing by amplifying the low frequencies. For ...
... least one hearing device for a patient with residual hearing provide needed orchestration of acoustic and electric stimulation ... stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. [0023] In another ... electric stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. 13. The ... stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. At step 606, a ...
... least one hearing device for a patient with residual hearing provide needed orchestration of acoustic and electric stimulation ... electric stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. At step ... electric stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor, and acoustic stimulation to the electric-acoustic processor. ... US7561920B2 - Electric and acoustic stimulation fitting systems and methods - Google Patents. Electric and acoustic stimulation ...
... based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery, Brain and Behavior" on DeepDyve ... Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery. ... Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery. ... Acoustic (loudspeaker) facial electromyographic monitoring: Part 1. Evoked electromyographic activity during acoustic neuroma ...
Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation With Hearing Preservation: Effect of Cochlear Implant Low-Frequency Cutoff on Speech ... and bilateral-aided electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS; CI + bilateral hearing aid). Low-frequency cutoffs both below and ... The aided acoustic bandwidth was fixed and the low-frequency cutoff for the cochlear implant (CI) was varied systematically. ... The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of electric and acoustic overlap for speech understanding in ...
Thirteen participants 60-84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random ... Thirteen participants 60-84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random ... The aim of this study was to use acoustic stimulation to increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. ... The aim of this study was to use acoustic stimulation to increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. ...
Acoustic Stimulation.. Sound-induced mechanical responses were obtained by exposing the animals to periodic chirp sounds (100- ... The particle velocity u of the acoustic stimulus was monitored at the position of the antenna by using an Emkay (Itasca, IL) NR ... Resonant fluctuations at corresponding frequencies occurred in the absence of acoustic stimuli (Fig. 5). Yet, fluctuation power ... 19). Cross-calibration against a Brüel & Kjaer Instruments (Naerum, Denmark) 4138 pressure microphone under acoustic far field ...
Acoustic stimulations induced behavioral seizures only in GEPR-9 rats; the seizures were associated with electrographic ... Acoustic stimulations induced behavioral seizures only in GEPR-9 rats; the seizures were associated with electrographic ... Acoustic stimulations induced behavioral seizures only in GEPR-9 rats; the seizures were associated with electrographic ... Acoustic stimulations induced behavioral seizures only in GEPR-9 rats; the seizures were associated with electrographic ...
Acoustic stimulation. The system used for stimulus generation and sound delivery as well as the calibration procedure have been ... 2004) Information content of auditory cortical responses to time-varying acoustic stimuli. J Neurophysiol 91:301-313. ... Precise spike timing to the onset of an acoustic feature is thought to support many auditory percepts, including discrimination ... A similar trend was observed with broadband noise burst stimulation (data not shown): although responses to 50 ms stimuli are ...
Actual Causes of Acoustic Impedance Change in Human Ear during Ipsilateral Sound Stimulation ... acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, ...
The stimulation threshold was determined in 10 different ex vivo hearts and different clinically relevant electrical effects ... Using ultrasonic contrast agent, consistent cardiac stimulation was achievable in vivo for up to 1 hour sessions in 4 different ... such as consecutive stimulations of different heart chambers with a single ultrasonic probe, continuous pacing or the ... Here we described an extracorporeal cardiac stimulation device and study its efficacy and safety. We conducted experiments ex ...
... an acoustic transducer configured to convert an acoustic signal into an electrical signal, a signal detector configured to ... Leadless cardiac stimulation systems. US20060122667. 21 Jul 2005. 8 Jun 2006. Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.. Systems and methods for ... The acoustic wake-up circuit can be connected to an acoustic transducer, which converts an acoustic wake-up signal received ... until the signal is received by the acoustic transducer 82. Upon excitation by the acoustic waves, the acoustic transducer 82 ...
... an acoustic transducer configured to convert an acoustic signal into an electrical signal, a signal detector configured to ... Leadless cardiac stimulation systems. US20070010742 *. 25 May 2005. 11 Jan 2007. General Electric Company. Method and system ... The acoustic wake-up circuit can be connected to an acoustic transducer, which converts an acoustic wake-up signal received ... until the signal is received by the acoustic transducer 82. Upon excitation by the acoustic waves, the acoustic transducer 82 ...
Acoustic Stimulation. Frequency responses were calibrated for the headphones. Acoustic stimuli were generated digitally, ... The mean effect size was higher for monaural auditory stimulations (E0, 0.42; 0E/0I, 0.65), whereas for binaural stimulation ... Light Stimulation. An optic fiber (Thorlabs Multimode Optical Fiber, 0.39 NA, Ø = 200 μm Core, HighOH) was inserted into a ... The most important stimulation parameter was pulse duration and to some degree it can be utilized to compensate for variations ...
Understanding the Benefits of Electric-acoustic Stimulation Dorman, Michael F. Brown, Christopher Leslie Arizona State ... The broad long-term goals of the proposed research are to advance the understanding of how low-frequency acoustic stimulation ... Understanding the benefits of electric-acoustic stimulation. Bacon, Sid P. / Arizona State University-Tempe Campus. $376,111. ... Understanding the benefits of electric-acoustic stimulation. Bacon, Sid P. / Arizona State University-Tempe Campus. $369,938. ...
3F). Dishabituation to acoustic stimulation via dark-flash stimulation may be unlikely, given that the dark-flash-induced O- ... repetitive acoustic stimulation induces robust short-term habituation that can be modulated by stimulation frequency and ... followed by a final acoustic stimulus. Larvae dishabituated to the acoustic stimulus via cross-modal, tactile stimulation. ... Repetitive Acoustic Stimulation Decreases Short-Latency C-Start Responses.. We next asked whether larval zebrafish also exhibit ...
An ultrasonic transducer adapted to transmit acoustic waves at a communication frequency is located in the cavity, and a ... Header adapter for an implantable cardiac stimulation device. US5704352. 22 Nov 1995. 6 Jan 1998. Tremblay; Gerald F.. ... the acoustic transducer 54 sends and receives acoustic signals at a frequency of about 40 kiloHertz. The acoustic transducer 54 ... If desired, the acoustic transducers 54 can include casings 70. Such an arrangement allows the acoustic transducer 54 to act in ...
Illuminating an open tissue wound and bone fracture site with these acoustic modes enhances and promotes angiogenesis and the ... The spatial and temporal distribution of acoustic waves directed to the treatment area via the ultrasonic transducers and the ... Webster, D.F.et al., "The Role of Ultrasound-Induced Cavitation in the In Vitro Stimulation of Collagen Synthesis in Human ... thereby facilitating the transfer of acoustic energy into specific acoustic modes upon incidence of the acoustic waves at the ...
Electric-Acoustic Stimulation Outcomes in Children. Park, Lisa R.; Teagle, Holly F. B.; Gagnon, Erika; More ... Effects of Phantom Electrode Stimulation on Vocal Production in Cochlear Implant Users. Caldwell, Meredith T.; Jiradejvong, ...
  • Bilateral lesions of the ventral cochlear nucleus, which receives the primary auditory input, abolish acoustic startle. (jneurosci.org)
  • The data suggest that a primary acoustic startle circuit in the rat consists of auditory nerve, ventral cochlear nucleus, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, spinal interneuron, lower motor neuron, and muscles. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ludvig, N & Moshé, SL 1989, ' Different behavioral and electrographic effects of acoustic stimulation and dibutyryl cyclic AMP injection into the inferior colliculus in normal and in genetically epilepsy-prone rats ', Epilepsy Research , vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 185-190. (elsevier.com)
  • All organisms, from protozoa to humans, use nonassociative habituation learning as a means to update behavioral responses to sensory input based on recent stimulation history ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • While previous studies have examined the acoustic characteristics, behavioral context, geographical variation, and seasonality of advertisement boatwhistle sound production, there is limited information on the grunt or other non-advertisement vocalizations in this species. (springer.com)
  • In this technique, a short-duration (0.1 - 0.5 ms) high-intensity (spatial peak pulse average = 1400 W/cm 2 , spatial peak temporal average = 0.7 W/cm 2 ) acoustic "pushing pulse" (acoustic radiation force) is used to displace tissue (displacement of ~10 - 20 μm) in the normal direction, i.e. perpendicular to the surface. (scirp.org)
  • Effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials evoked by electric pulse trains. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric pulse trains. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) were recorded from the auditory nerve trunk in response to electric pulse trains both during and after the presentation of acoustic white noise. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Following cessation of the acoustic noise, ECAP amplitude recovered over a period of approximately 100-200 ms. The effects of the acoustic noise were more prominent at lower electric pulse rates (interpulse intervals of 3 ms and higher). (biomedsearch.com)
  • At higher pulse rates, the ECAP adaptation to the electric pulse train alone was larger and the acoustic noise, when presented, produced little additional effect. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, the worms can adapt to the ultrasound stimulation with a lower acoustic pulse duration of stimulation. (rsc.org)
  • In one aspect, a method includes receiving a charge setting describing an amount of charge that is to flow during a stimulation pulse that electrically stimulates a tissue, and generating and delivering the. (google.com.au)
  • a waveform generator configured to generate and deliver the stimulation pulse in a manner such that an amount of charge delivered to tissue during the stimulation pulse is equal to the stored charge setting value. (google.com.au)
  • 4. The system of claim 1 , wherein the waveform generator is configured to generate a stimulation waveform that includes the stimulation pulse and a secondary pulse, the secondary pulse to reduce accumulation of charge at an electrode that has delivered the stimulation pulse. (google.com.au)
  • 8. The system of claim 1 , further comprising a converter configured to convert the stored charge setting value into one or more stimulation parameters characterizing aspects of the stimulation pulse that is to be delivered to the tissue, wherein the waveform generator is configured to generate the stimulation pulse in accordance with the stimulation parameters. (google.com.au)
  • 9. The system of claim 8 , wherein the converter is configured to calculate a duration of the stimulation pulse based on a pulse amplitude of the stimulation pulse. (google.com.au)
  • 10. The system of claim 8 , further comprising a data compilation storing predetermined charge setting values and corresponding predetermined stimulation pulse durations and amplitudes, wherein the converter is configured to access the data compilation to convert the stored charge setting value into the one or more stimulation parameters. (google.com.au)
  • Important factors for preserving residual hearing are: Special atraumatic soft electrodes Smallest possible acoustic trauma due to cochleostomy drilling Smallest possible mechanical trauma due to drilling and electrode insertion Avoidance of inflammatory and fibrotic reactions (contamination with blood, bone dust, middle ear bacteria, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects were adult guinea pigs, implanted with a minimally invasive electrode to preserve acoustic sensitivity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effects of Phantom Electrode Stimulation on Vocal Production in Cochlear Implant Users. (amedeo.com)
  • In this manuscript we present a purely extracorporeal approach to perform contactless cardiac stimulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). (nature.com)
  • In this paper, we present an ultrasound neuro-modulation chip, capable of initiating reversal behaviour and activating neurons of C. elegans under the stimulation of a single-shot, short-pulsed ultrasound. (rsc.org)
  • About 85.29% ± 6.17% of worms respond to the ultrasound stimulation exhibiting reversal behaviour. (rsc.org)
  • In vivo calcium imaging shows that the activity of ASH, a polymodal sensory neuron in C. elegans , can be directly evoked by the ultrasound stimulation. (rsc.org)
  • On the other hand, AFD, a thermal sensitive neuron, cannot be activated by the ultrasound stimulation using the same parameter and the temperature elevation during the stimulation process is relatively small. (rsc.org)
  • With the advantages of confined acoustic energy on the surface, compatible with standard calcium imaging, this neuro-modulation chip could be a powerful tool for revealing the molecular mechanisms of ultrasound neuro-modulation. (rsc.org)
  • Also, we developed a novel acoustic tweezing cytometry (ATC) technique that utilizes ultrasound excitation of membrane-bound gaseous microbubbles to generate controllable subcellular mechanical stimulations to live single cells and simultaneously probe intracellular contractile forces and rheological cell properties. (umass.edu)
  • In contrast, the temporal response properties of AI neurons are better suited for representing slow temporal modulations in the acoustic environment. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that the SON contains a heterogeneous mixture of response patterns to acoustic stimulation and that in most neurons these responses are modulated by both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory inputs. (physiology.org)
  • These data, in concert with the very limited data from previous studies, provide a rationale for using a logarithmic transformation of acoustic to electric intensity in signal processors for cochlear implants. (elsevier.com)
  • Presented here is a protocol for the fabrication of iron oxide nanoparticle-shelled microbubbles (NSMs) through self-assembly, synergizing magnetic, acoustic, and optical responsiveness in one nanotherapeutic platform for magnetic hyperthermia and photothermal combination cancer therapy. (jove.com)
  • Here, we fabricate iron oxide nanoparticle shelled microbubbles (NSMs) through self-assembly, synergizing magnetic, acoustic, and optical responsiveness in one nanotherapeutic platform. (jove.com)
  • In this protocol, the synthesis and characterization of NSMs including structural, chemical, magnetic and acoustic properties were performed. (jove.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that: (i) the amplitude of the N1m response and (ii) its decrement during rapid stimulation are associated with the cortical neurochemistry as determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This paper presents a new imaging logging technique based on magnetic-acoustic Tomography with Magnetic Induction (MAT-MI), introduces its ' logging principle, gives detailed experimental system, makes a simple copper coil experiment and verifies the feasibility of the technique. (psu.edu)
  • Ultrasonographic observations of blink-startle responses to vibroacoustic stimulation are first elicited at 24 to 25 weeks of gestation, and are consistently present after 28 weeks, indicating maturation of the auditory pathways of the central nervous system. (aappublications.org)
  • Gentle sound stimulation using pink noise, synchronized to the rhythm of brain wave may significantly enhance deep sleep in older adults and improve their ability to recall words. (medindia.net)
  • The new study used sound stimulation that significantly enhanced deep sleep in older individuals and their scores on a memory test. (medindia.net)
  • Periodic flashing' coordinated reset stimulation paradigm reduces sensitivity to ON and OFF period durations. (stanford.edu)
  • By systematically challenging sleep with realistic and varied acoustic disruption, we found that sleepers exhibited markedly greater sensitivity to sounds during moments of elevated alpha expression. (plos.org)
  • Hearing preservation and speech perception outcomes with electric-acoustic stimulation after 12 months of listening experience. (unc.edu)
  • The latency of the acoustic startle reflex in the rat is 8 msec, measured from tone onset to the beginning of the electromyographic response in the hindleg. (jneurosci.org)
  • Anti-kindling induced by two-stage coordinated reset stimulation with weak onset intensity. (stanford.edu)
  • Binaural Electric-Acoustic Fusion: Speech Perception under Dichotic Stimulation A majority of hearing impaired people suffers from social isolation because they face difficulties understanding speech in noisy environment, for instance in a busy street or in a restaurant full of talkative people. (cnrs-mrs.fr)
  • Influence of test condition on speech perception with Electric-Acoustic Stimulation. (unc.edu)
  • The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration can enhance cell migration, wound healing in LL24 and L929 cells and possible increase muscle fibre diameters although there was no significance, the trends were repeatable. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the effect of acoustic stimulation on neurones in the rat VCN using in vivo intracellular recordings and dye-filling. (edu.au)
  • Stable impalements were made from 37 neurones classified as having a Primary-like (n=13), Primary-like with notch (n=4) and Chopper (n=20) response to acoustic stimulation (50 ms pure tones, 5 ms r/f time, 0.2 Hz repetition). (edu.au)
  • Despite its central role in these pathways, the nature of acoustic response properties or inhibitory signaling within the SON has not been thoroughly investigated. (physiology.org)
  • After five days of stimulation and movement pairing, the researchers examined the brain activity in response to the stimulation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Exposure of adults to excessive noise results in: (1) noise-induced hearing loss that shows a clear dose-response relationship between its incidence and the intensity of exposure and (2) noise-induced stimulation of the autonomic nervous system, which reportedly results in high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease (reviewed by Kam et al 2 ). (aappublications.org)
  • Using the phase-locked-loop method to precisely target acoustic stimulation to the upstate of sleep slow oscillations, we were able to enhance SWA and improve sleep-dependent memory storage in older adults, which strengthens the theoretical link between sleep and age-related memory integrity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Closed-loop acoustic stimulation has previously been shown to enhance slow oscillations and spindle activity during sleep and improve verbal associative memory. (mpg.de)
  • The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of electric and acoustic overlap for speech understanding in typical listening conditions using semidiffuse noise. (ovid.com)
  • Clinical applicability is also difficult to assess because small animal models artificially circumvent technical difficulties such as the limited acoustic window (acoustic reflection/absorption by the rib cage and the lungs) or respiratory and cardiac motions. (nature.com)