Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Aconitum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Sodium Channel Agonists: A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
(1/219) Synaptic transmission at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal organotypic cultures and slices.

1. Whole-cell clamp recordings of the compound synaptic current elicited by afferent stimulation of Schaffer collaterals showed that blockade of the NMDA, AMPA and GABAA receptor-mediated components by 6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl- benzo(f)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), 3-((R)-2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (R-CPP) and picrotoxin, respectively, left a small residual current in 39 out of 41 CA1 pyramidal neurones in organotypic cultures and 9 out of 16 CA1 cells in acutely prepared slices. 2. This current represented 2. 9 +/- 0.4 % of the compound evoked synaptic response in organoypic cultures and 1.4 +/- 0.5 % in slices. It was characterized by a slightly rectifying I-V curve and a reversal potential of 3.4 +/- 5. 1 mV. 3. This residual current was insensitive to blockers of GABAB, purinergic, muscarinic and 5-HT3 receptors, but it was essentially blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine (91 +/- 4 % blockade; 20 microM), and partly blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin (200 nM) and methyllycaconitine (10 nM), two antagonists with a higher selectivity for alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors (48 +/- 3 % and 55 +/- 11 % blockade, respectively). 4. The residual current was of synaptic origin, since it occurred after a small delay; its amplitude depended upon the stimulation intensity and it was calcium dependent and blocked by the sodium channel antagonist tetrodotoxin. 5. We conclude that afferent stimulation applied in the stratum radiatum evokes in some hippocampal neurones a small synaptic current mediated by activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors.  (+info)

(2/219) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors assembled from the alpha7 and beta3 subunits.

Intracellular recordings were performed in voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes upon injection with a mixture of cDNAs encoding the beta3 and mutant alpha7 (L247Talpha7) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits. The expressed receptors maintained sensitivity to methyllycaconitine and to alpha-bungarotoxin but exhibited a functional profile strikingly different from that of the homomeric L247Talpha7 receptor. The heteromeric L247Talpha7beta3 nAChR had a lower apparent affinity and a faster rate of desensitization than L247Talpha7 nAChR, exhibited nonlinearity in the I-V relationship, and was inhibited by 5-hydroxytryptamine, much like wild type alpha7 (WTalpha7) nAChR. Single channel recordings in cell-attached mode revealed unitary events with a slope conductance of 19 picosiemens and a lifetime of 5 ms, both values being much smaller than those of the homomeric receptor channel. Upon injection with a mixture of WTalpha7 and beta3 cDNAs, clear evidence was obtained for the plasma membrane assembly of heteromeric nAChRs, although ACh could not activate these receptors. It is concluded that beta3, long believed to be an orphan subunit, readily co-assembles with other subunits to form heteromeric receptors, some of which may be negative regulators of cholinergic function.  (+info)

(3/219) Effects of Delphinium alkaloids on neuromuscular transmission.

The Delphinium alkaloids methyllycaconitine (MLA), nudicauline, 14-deacetylnudicauline (14-DN), barbinine, and deltaline were investigated for their effects on neuromuscular transmission in lizards. The substituent at C14 provides the only structural difference among the alkaloids MLA, nudicauline, 14-DN, and barbinine. Deltaline lacks the N-(methylsuccinyl)anthranilic acid at C18 common to the other four alkaloids. Each alkaloid reversibly reduced extracellularly recorded compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) values for CMAP blockade were between 0.32 and 13.2 microM for the N-(methylsuccinimido)anthranoyllycacotonine-type alkaloids and varied with the C14 moiety; the IC(50) value for deltaline was 156 microM. The slopes of the concentration-response curves for CMAP blockade were similar for each alkaloid except barbinine, whose shallower curve suggested alternative or additional mechanisms of action. Each alkaloid reversibly reduced intracellularly recorded spontaneous, miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) amplitudes. Alkaloid concentrations producing similar reductions in MEPP amplitude were 0.05 microM for 14-DN, 0.10 microM for MLA, 0.50 microM for barbinine, and 20 microM for deltaline. Only barbinine altered the time constant for MEPP decay, further suggesting additional or alternative effects for this alkaloid. MLA and 14-DN blocked muscle contractions induced by exogenously added acetylcholine. All five alkaloids are likely nicotinic receptor antagonists that reduce synaptic efficacy and block neuromuscular transmission. The substituent at C14 determines the potency and possibly the mechanism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blockade for MLA, nudicauline, 14-DN, and barbinine at neuromuscular synapses. The lower potency of deltaline indicates that the N-(methylsuccinyl)anthranilic acid at C18 affects alkaloid interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.  (+info)

(4/219) Cooperative activation of action potential Na+ ionophore by neurotoxins.

Four neurotoxins that activate the action potential Na+ ionophore of electrically excitable neuroblastoma cells interact with two distinct classes of sites, one specific for the alkaloids veratridine, batrachotoxin, and aconitine, and the second specific for scorpion toxin. Positive heterotropic cooperativity is observed between toxins bound at these two classes of sites. Tetrodotoxin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of activation by each of these toxins (KI = 4-8 nM). These results suggest the existence of three functionally separable components of the action potential Na+ ionophore: two regulatroy components, which bind activating neurotoxins and interact allosterically in controlling the activity of a third ion-transport component, which binds tetrodotoxin.  (+info)

(5/219) Nicotinic receptor activation in human cerebral cortical interneurons: a mechanism for inhibition and disinhibition of neuronal networks.

Cholinergic control of the activity of human cerebral cortical circuits has long been thought to be accounted for by the interaction of acetylcholine (ACh) with muscarinic receptors. Here we report the discovery of functional nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in interneurons of the human cerebral cortex and discuss the physiological and clinical implications of these findings. The whole-cell mode of the patch-clamp technique was used to record responses triggered by U-tube application of the nonselective agonist ACh and of the alpha7-nAChR-selective agonist choline to interneurons visualized by means of infrared-assisted videomicroscopy in slices of the human cerebral cortex. Choline induced rapidly desensitizing whole-cell currents that, being sensitive to blockade by methyllycaconitine (MLA; 50 nM), were most likely subserved by an alpha7-like nAChR. In contrast, ACh evoked slowly decaying whole-cell currents that, being sensitive to blockade by dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE; 10 microM), were most likely subserved by an alpha4beta2-like nAChR. Application of ACh (but not choline) to the slices also triggered GABAergic postsynaptic currents (PSCs). Evidence is provided that ACh-evoked PSCs are the result of activation of alpha4beta2-like nAChRs present in preterminal axon segments and/or in presynaptic terminals of interneurons. Thus, nAChRs can relay inhibitory and/or disinhibitory signals to pyramidal neurons and thereby modulate the activity of neuronal circuits in the human cerebral cortex. These mechanisms, which appear to be retained across species, can account for the involvement of nAChRs in cognitive functions and in certain neuropathological conditions.  (+info)

(6/219) Anti-arrhythmic effects of sophoridine and oxysophoridine.

AIM: To compare the effects of oxysophoridine (Oxy) and sophoridine (Sop) on experimental arrhythmias and myocardial physiologic properties. METHODS: Arrhythmias were induced by drugs and myocardial ischemia. Physiologic properties were determined on isolated heart atria. RESULTS: Oxy 500 mg.kg-1 (1/6 LD50) decreased the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias induced by aconitine (P < 0.01), increased the threshold dose of ouabain-induced ventricular premature (VP, P < 0.05), ventricular tachycardia (VT, P < 0.05), ventricular fibrillation (VF, P < 0.01), and cardiac arrest, (P < 0.01). After i.v. Oxy 500 mg.kg-1 into the rats with ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery, the total numbers of ectopic beats were decreased (P < 0.05), the incidence of VF was lowered, and the duration of VT was shortened (P < 0.01). Oxy 250 mg.kg-1 (1/13 LD50) i.v. shortened the duration of arrhythmias induced by BaCl2 (P < 0.01) and delayed the onset of arrhythmias induced by chloroform-epinephrine (P < 0.05). Oxy produced dose-dependent positive inotropic effects in the isolated left atrial of guinea pigs, increased the concentration of epinephrine to elicit automaticity in left atria, decreased slightly the excitability, and prolonged the functional refractory period. Sop produced the similar effects on arrhythmias as Oxy. CONCLUSION: Oxy produced the similar anti-arrhythmic effects as Sop did at the equivalent effective dose.  (+info)

(7/219) Inhibition and disinhibition of pyramidal neurons by activation of nicotinic receptors on hippocampal interneurons.

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in the hippocampus, and their functional roles are beginning to be delineated. The effect of nAChR activation on the activity of both interneurons and pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region was studied in rat hippocampal slices. In CA1 stratum radiatum with muscarinic receptors inhibited, local pressure application of acetylcholine (ACh) elicited a nicotinic current in 82% of the neurons. The majority of the ACh-induced currents were sensitive to methyllycaconitine, which is a specific inhibitor of alpha7-containing nAChRs. Methyllycaconitine-insensitive nicotinic currents also were present as detected by a nonspecific nAChR inhibitor. The ACh-sensitive neurons in the s. radiatum were identified as GABAergic interneurons by their electrophysiological properties. Pressure application of ACh induced firing of action potentials in approximately 70% of the interneurons. The ACh-induced excitation of interneurons could induce either inhibition or disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. The inhibition was recorded from the pyramidal neuron as a burst of GABAergic synaptic activity. That synaptic activity was sensitive to bicuculline, indicating that GABA(A) receptors mediated the ACh-induced synaptic currents. The disinhibition was recorded from the pyramidal neuron as a reduction of spontaneous GABAergic synaptic activity when ACh was delivered onto an interneuron. Both the inhibition and disinhibition were sensitive to either methyllycaconitine or mecamylamine, indicating that activation of nicotinic receptors on interneurons was necessary for the effects. These results show that nAChRs are capable of regulating hippocampal circuits by exciting interneurons and, subsequently, inhibiting or disinhibiting pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

(8/219) Two distinct classes of functional 7-containing nicotinic receptor on rat superior cervical ganglion neurons.

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha Bgt) were studied on isolated rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques. Rapid application of ACh onto the soma of voltage clamped neurons evoked a slowly desensitizing current that was reversibly blocked by alpha Bgt (50 nM). The toxin-sensitive current constituted on average about half of the peak whole-cell response evoked by ACh. Nanomolar concentrations of methyllycaconitine blocked the alpha Bgt-sensitive component of the ACh-evoked current as did intracellular dialysis with an anti-alpha 7 monoclonal antibody. The results indicate that the slowly reversible toxin-sensitive response elicited by ACh arises from activation of an unusual class of alpha 7-containing receptor (alpha 7-nAChR) similar to that reported previously for rat intracardiac ganglion neurons. A second class of functional alpha 7-nAChR was identified on some SCG neurons by using rapid application of choline to elicit responses. In these cases a biphasic response was obtained, which included a rapidly desensitizing component that was blocked by alpha Bgt in a pseudo-irreversible manner. The pharmacology and kinetics of the responses resembled those previously attributed to alpha 7-nAChRs in a number of other neuronal cell types. Experiments measuring the dissociation rate of 125I-labelled alpha Bgt from SCG neurons revealed two classes of toxin-binding site. The times for toxin dissociation were consistent with those required to reverse blockade of the two kinds of alpha Bgt-sensitive response. These results indicate that rat SCG neurons express two types of functional alpha 7-nAChR, differing in pharmacology, desensitization and reversibility of alpha Bgt blockade.  (+info)

*  George Henry Lamson
He also gave him a capsule from a batch that were later tested and found to contain the poison aconitine, as recorded in the ... He had poisoned his victim with aconitine in the cake, a substance which Lamson had learnt about from Professor Robert ... Christison had taught that aconitine was undetectable but forensic science had improved since Lamson's student days. Lamson's ...
*  Aconitine
In China, aconitine is also used in small doses as an analgesic and blood coagulant. Aconitine was previously used as an ... Aconitine is also soluble in mixtures of alcohol and water if the concentration of alcohol is high enough. Aconitine is very ... If aconitine is heated in its dry state, it undergoes a pyrolysis to form pyroaconitine((1α,3α,6α,14α,16β)-20-Ethyl-3,13- ... The binding of aconitine to the channel also leads to the channel to change conformation from the inactive state to the active ...
*  Pristane
Toxicity of pristane alleviated by aconitine. "pristane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for ...
*  Eranthis
South Korea aconitum aconitine Schipcz, O. in Fl. U.S.S.R.,7 : 60 (1937). The Smaller Bulbs Mathew, Brian, pub. Batsford 1987 ...
*  Aconitum carmichaelii
Lin CC, Chan TY, Deng JF (May 2004). "Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning". Ann Emerg Med. 43 ... Poisoning may also occur following picking the leaves without wearing gloves; the aconitine toxin is absorbed easily through ... Treatment is similar to poisoning caused by oral ingestion.[citation needed] Aconitine is a potent neurotoxin that opens ... 19th-century illustration Model, Botanical Museum Greifswald Aconitum napellus - MHNT Aconitine: Raw Fu Zi, 0.004%; prepared Fu ...
*  Aconitum coreanum
Lin CC, Chan TY, Deng JF (May 2004). "Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning". Ann Emerg Med. 43 ... Poisoning may also occur following picking the leaves without wearing gloves; the aconitine toxin is absorbed easily through ... Treatment is similar to poisoning caused by oral ingestion.[citation needed] Aconitine is a potent neurotoxin that opens ... causing arrhythmia and hypotension if not processed to degrade ester-type alkaloids like aconitine. Caffeoyl derivatives from ...
*  Aconitum napellus
Aconitine is a potent neurotoxin that opens tetrodotoxin sensitive sodium channels. It increases influx of sodium through these ... "Toxicology in the Old Testament: Did the High Priest Alcimus Die of Acute Aconitine Poisoning?" Authors: Moog F.P.1; Karenberg ... Lin CC, Chan TY, Deng JF (May 2004). "Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning". Ann Emerg Med. 43 ... Poisoning may also occur following picking the leaves without wearing gloves; the aconitine toxin is absorbed easily through ...
*  History of general anesthesia
The active ingredients in tsūsensan are scopolamine, hyoscyamine, atropine, aconitine and angelicotoxin. When consumed in ...
*  Philipp Lorenz Geiger
With Ludwig Hesse, he isolated the alkaloids atropine, aconitine, colchicine and hyoscyamine. In 1831 he was the first to ...
*  Hanaoka Seishū
The active ingredients in tsūsensan were scopolamine, hyoscyamine, atropine, aconitine and angelicotoxin. When consumed in ...
*  List of traditional Chinese medicines
... the highly toxic alkaloid aconitine. Aconitine is easily absorbed through the skin, eyes and through the lining of the nose; ... Not because of an overdose The Chinese also used aconitine both for hunting and for warfare. Birthworts (family ...
*  Bane (plant)
In medieval Europe, the toxic entheogen Aconitine was believed to prevent werewolves from undergoing their dire transformations ...
*  Alkaloid
Extracts from plants containing toxic alkaloids, such as aconitine and tubocurarine, were used since antiquity for poisoning ...
*  Chhaang
... including aconitine and pseudaconitine. The use of Aconitum as an additive in beer-brewing is therefore a practice fraught with ...
*  William Marwood
Dr George Henry Lamson, who poisoned Percy Johns (his crippled brother-in-law) with aconitine at Wimbledon so his wife could ...
*  Batrachotoxin
Veratridine, aconitine and grayanotoxin-like batrachotoxin-are lipid-soluble poisons which similarly alter the ion selectivity ...
*  Delphinine
It is related in structure and has similar effects to aconitine, acting as an allosteric modulator of voltage gated sodium ... In general, the pharmacology of delphinine seems to resemble that of aconitine, although the acute toxicity of delphinine ... appears to be lower than that of aconitine in test animals. Phytochemical Dictionary. J. B. Harbourne and H. Baxter (Eds.) ( ...
*  Aconite
... may refer to: Aconitum, a plant genus containing the monkshoods Aconitine, a toxin derived from some of the Aconitum ...
*  Milang tribe
... the source of the powerful poison aconitine, which the Milang historically used on their spears and arrows during battle.The ...
*  Bernard Fantus
Acetophenetidin Acetaminosalol Cocaine Heroin Aspirin Aconitine Anaesthesin Antimony potassium tartrate Antipyrine Apomorphine ...
*  Sodium channel opener
Examples include toxins, such as aconitine, batrachotoxin, atracotoxin, robustoxin, versutoxin and ciguatoxins), and ...
*  Pseudaconitine
Aconitine Aconitum ferox Rahman, A, et al, New Norditerpenoid Alkoids from Aconitum falceroni, 2000 Cash,J.T.,Dunstan,W.R., The ... Pharmacology of Pseudaconitine and Japaconitine considered in relation to that of Aconitine, 1901 Tsudaan Y., Marion L., ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
... aconitine MeSH D02.455.849.291.075 --- aphidicolin MeSH D02.455.849.291.162 --- atractyloside MeSH D02.455.849.291.206 --- ...
*  Antidote
For example, the poison aconitine - a highly poisonous alkaloid derived from various aconite species - has no antidote, and as ...
*  Sodium channel
The following naturally produced substances persistently activate (open) sodium channels: Alkaloid-based toxins aconitine ...
Molecules | Free Full-Text | In Vitro and in Vivo Anticancer Activity of Aconitine on Melanoma Cell Line B16  Molecules | Free Full-Text | In Vitro and in Vivo Anticancer Activity of Aconitine on Melanoma Cell Line B16
Furthermore, aconitine inhibited the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thus regulating the levels of protein and ... Above all, we found that aconitine showed an anti-melanoma effect in suppressing tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, we show ... We found that B16 cells showed significantly reduced growth rates and increased apoptotic effects in the presence of aconitine ... that aconitine may be a useful anticancer drug in the future. ... The anti-tumor effect of aconitine in melanoma cell line B16 ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/18/1/757
Time-Dependent Block of Ultrarapid-Delayed Rectifier K+ Currents by Aconitine, a Potent Cardiotoxin, in Heart-Derived H9c2...  Time-Dependent Block of Ultrarapid-Delayed Rectifier K+ Currents by Aconitine, a Potent Cardiotoxin, in Heart-Derived H9c2...
Keywords: aconitine; ultrarapid-delayed rectifier K+ current; action potential; H9c2 cell; neonatal rat ventricular myocyte; ... Aconitine (ACO), a highly toxic diterpenoid alkaloid, is recognized to have effects on cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channels. ... Aconitine (ACO), a highly toxic diterpenoid alkaloid, is recognized to have effects on cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channels. ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/toxsci/kfn189
Aconite (Aconitum napellus) - Real Food Market & Deli  Aconite (Aconitum napellus) - Real Food Market & Deli
Historically, a 1.3% aconitine topical liniment has been used.. *. Taking 1-5 drops of a tincture of the fresh leaf by mouth ... Aconitine may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. ... Aconitine may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood pressure. Also ... Aconitine may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients ...
more infohttp://www.realfoodstore.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?StoreID=A23ATS5R38S92L980G03N0ET959GCSTA&DocID=bottomline-aconite
Aconitum | Article about Aconitum by The Free Dictionary  Aconitum | Article about Aconitum by The Free Dictionary
The drug aconite, the active principle of which is the alkaloid aconitine, is used as a sedative, e.g., for neuralgia and ... A toxic drug obtained from the dried tuberous root of Aconitum napellus; the principal alkaloid is aconitine. ... Most of the aconite species are poisonous; they contain alkaloids such as aconitine and zongorine. Many aconite species are ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Aconitum
08 Increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia in rats exposed to diesel exhaust air pollution is mediated by the nociceptive...  08 Increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia in rats exposed to diesel exhaust air pollution is mediated by the nociceptive...
We used aconitine to test whether a single exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) would increase the risk of arrhythmia being ... Sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia has been employed to examine the factors that increase the risk of such dysfunction ... Sensitivity to arrhythmia was measured as the threshold dose of aconitine required to produce ventricular premature beats (VPB ... and VF at significantly lower doses of aconitine than air-exposed animals. Pre-exposure treatment of rats exposed to DE with a ...
more infohttp://heart.bmj.com/content/97/1/e2.4
An Honest Drug: How To Grow Your Own Poison Garden  An Honest Drug: How To Grow Your Own Poison Garden
... with the toxins aconite and aconitine present throughout the plant - the effects of which, which, in an interesting twist of ...
more infohttp://scenesfromthecuttingroomfloor.blogspot.com/2013/06/how-to-grow-your-own-poison-garden.html
Aconitic synonyms, Aconitic antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com  Aconitic synonyms, Aconitic antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Synonyms for Aconitic in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Aconitic. 11 words related to aconite: Aconitum, genus Aconitum, Aconitum napellus, helmet flower, monkshood, helmetflower, Aconitum lycoctonum, wolfbane, wolf's bane.... What are synonyms for Aconitic?
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/Aconitic
Aconitine - Wikipedia  Aconitine - Wikipedia
In China, aconitine is also used in small doses as an analgesic and blood coagulant. Aconitine was previously used as an ... Aconitine is also soluble in mixtures of alcohol and water if the concentration of alcohol is high enough. Aconitine is very ... If aconitine is heated in its dry state, it undergoes a pyrolysis to form pyroaconitine((1α,3α,6α,14α,16β)-20-Ethyl-3,13- ... The binding of aconitine to the channel also leads to the channel to change conformation from the inactive state to the active ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitine
Aconitine | Article about aconitine by The Free Dictionary  Aconitine | Article about aconitine by The Free Dictionary
Find out information about aconitine. C34H47O11N A poisonous, white, crystalline alkaloid compound obtained from aconites such ... aconitine. Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia. aconitine. [ə′kän·ə‚tēn] (pharmacology) C34H47O11N A poisonous, white ... Aconitine , Article about aconitine by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/aconitine ... Aconitine is contained in the roots of aconite, a blue or yellow flower with green leaves related to the buttercup. ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/aconitine
Arrhythmogenesis Toxicity of Aconitine Is Related to Intracellular Ca2+ Signals  Arrhythmogenesis Toxicity of Aconitine Is Related to Intracellular Ca2+ Signals
a) control; b)1 µM aconitine; c) 5 µM aconitine; d) 10 µM aconitine. ... Effect of aconitine on APD in rat ventricular myocytes. A. a) Representative recordings of APD. b) Effect of aconitine on APD50 ... Effects of aconitine on intracellular [Ca2+]i. Aconitine (1 μM) has no effect on the resting level of FI in the presence or ... 2, aconitine accelerated the activation of ICa-L and delayed the inactivation of ICa-L. So aconitine increased Ca2+ influx ...
more infohttp://www.medsci.org/v10p1242.htm
Development and Validation of Selective High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method Using Photodiode Array Detection for...  Development and Validation of Selective High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method Using Photodiode Array Detection for...
The analytical reference, aconitine, was quantified at 238 nm. The retention time of aconitine was about 42.54 min. The linear ... The developed HPLC method is accurate and precise and it can be successfully applied for the determination of aconitine in ... μg/mL for aconitine with respect to peak area. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were found to be 0.03 μg ... method has been developed and validated for the analysis of aconitine in marketed ayurvedic taila (oil) formulations containing ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cri/2012/157916/abs/
Comparative study of the protective effects of terfenadine and amiodarone on barium chloride/aconitine-induced ventricular...  Comparative study of the protective effects of terfenadine and amiodarone on barium chloride/aconitine-induced ventricular...
Barium chloride/aconitine was intraperitoneally injected to induce ventricular arrhythmias. Normal saline was administered to ... In the barium chloride/aconitine-induced ventricular arrhythmia model, terfenadine and amiodarone did not only similarly delay ... Comparative study of the protective effects of terfenadine and amiodarone on barium chloride/aconitine-induced ventricular ... the onset time of arrhythmias induced by barium chloride (all P,0.05), but also increased the cumulative dosage of aconitine ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Comparative-study-protective-effects-terfenadine/25322793.html
Aconitine  Aconitine
... - AHPRA Registered Chinese Medicine Practitioner, Acupuncture, Chinese Herbal Medicine, Remedial Massage, Chinese ... 其中以aconitine(烏頭鹼)毒性最強,0.2mg能使人中毒,3~4mg可致死亡。 ... 其中有毒為aconitine(烏頭鹼)、mesaconitine(中烏頭鹼
more infohttps://www.wellenergypractice.com/aconitine
Aconitine Intoxication Misdiagnosed as Acute Myocardial Infarction  Aconitine Intoxication Misdiagnosed as Acute Myocardial Infarction
Aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids are highly poisonous cardio-toxins and neurotoxins present in all parts of the plants of ... In Asia, aconitine poisoning is common because of the continued use of aconite roots in traditional medicine as an analgesic, ... Aconitine binds to sodium channels and prolongs their open state, favoring Na+ influx into the cytosol. The associated increase ... Aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids fall within the categories of highly poisonous cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. They are ...
more infohttps://www.e-arrhythmia.org/journal/view.php?number=274
Aconitine [302-27-2]Chengdu Biopurify Phytochemicals Ltd.  Aconitine [302-27-2]Chengdu Biopurify Phytochemicals Ltd.
Chengdu Biopurify offers Aconitine [302-27-2] - Synonym name: Catalogue No.: BP0121 Cas No.:... Customizes high quality ...
more infohttp://www.biopurify.com/aconitine-p-4055.html
Licorice root for heart health? When combined with other herbal compounds, it regulates calcium proteins to protect your heart...  Licorice root for heart health? When combined with other herbal compounds, it regulates calcium proteins to protect your heart...
Aconitine is used in China as an analgesic and blood coagulant. However, aconitine contains high cardiotoxicity which could ... Tags: aconitine, calcium regulatory, Chinese medicine, glucyrrhetinic acid, goodhealth, goodmedicine, goodscience, healing ... A team of researchers from Zhejiang Chinese Medical University in China studied whether the active components - aconitine, ... More news on aconitine Licorice root for heart health? When combined with other herbal compounds, it regulates calcium proteins ...
more infohttps://www.naturalnews.com/2018-01-14-protect-your-heart-with-licorice-root-study-found-when-combined-with-other-herbal-compounds-it-regulates-calcium-proteins-protecting-heart-cells-from.html
Overexpression of M3 Muscarinic Receptor Is a Novel Strategy for Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death in Transgenic Mice | Springer...  Overexpression of M3 Muscarinic Receptor Is a Novel Strategy for Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death in Transgenic Mice | Springer...
Arrhythmic Model Induced by Aconitine in Mice. Aconitine (5 mg/mL, 2 µg/10 g mice; Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) was pumped at a ... Aconitine is a highly poisonous alkaloid derived from various aconite species and is used for creating models of cardiac ... E) Mortality after experimental myocardial I/R. *P , 0.05, **P , 0.01 versus WT I/R. (F) Survival time after aconitine-induced ... Aco, aconitine (5 mg/mL, 2 µg/10 g mice). The average data were presented as mean ± SEM. ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.2119%2Fmolmed.2011.00093
Carbamazepine - Wikipedia  Carbamazepine - Wikipedia
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tegretol
Inward-rectifier potassium channel - Wikipedia  Inward-rectifier potassium channel - Wikipedia
A channel that is "inwardly-rectifying" is one that passes current (positive charge) more easily in the inward direction (into the cell) than in the outward direction (out of the cell). It is thought that this current may play an important role in regulating neuronal activity, by helping to stabilize the resting membrane potential of the cell. By convention, inward current (positive charge moving into the cell) is displayed in voltage clamp as a downward deflection, while an outward current (positive charge moving out of the cell) is shown as an upward deflection. At membrane potentials negative to potassium's reversal potential, inwardly rectifying K+ channels support the flow of positively charged K+ ions into the cell, pushing the membrane potential back to the resting potential. This can be seen in figure 1: when the membrane potential is clamped negative to the channel's resting potential (e.g. -60 mV), inward current flows (i.e. positive charge flows into the cell). However, when the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inward-rectifier_potassium_ion_channel
Beta-lactam  Beta-lactam
Because of the popularity of beta-lactam drugs, certain bacteria have been able to develop counter-measures to traditional drug therapies. An enzyme called beta-lactamase is present in many different types of bacteria, which serves to 'break' the beta lactam ring, which effectively nullifies the antibiotic's effectiveness. An example such enzyme is the NDM-1 discovered in 2009.. As a response to bacterial resistance to beta-lactam drugs, there are drugs, such as Augmentin/CLA, that are designed to disable the beta-lactamase enzyme. Augmentin/CLA (FGP) is made of amoxicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The clavulanic acid is designed to overwhelm all beta-lactamase enzymes, bind irreversibly to them, and effectively serve as an antagonist so that the amoxicillin is not affected by the beta-lactamase enzymes.. Full article ▸. ...
more infohttp://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Beta-lactam.html
  • At higher concentrations (5 µM and 10 µM), aconitine induced triggered activities and delayed after-depolarizations (6 of 8 cases), which were inhibited by verapamil. (medsci.org)
  • However, in the clinic, Ca 2+ channel antagonists, such as verapamil, have been observed to have better therapeutic effects on aconitine-induced VTs rather than Na + channel antagonists, such as quinidine [ 13 , 14 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The myocardial cells were randomly divided into 12 groups - control, aconitine, nine different dose groups of orthogonal combined with aconitine, liquiritin, and glucyrrhetinic acid, and verapamil. (naturalnews.com)
  • This was an unusual case of aconitine intoxication that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. (e-arrhythmia.org)
  • Here, I report an unusual case of acute aconitine intoxication manifesting as chest tightness and ST-segment elevation that mimicked acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (e-arrhythmia.org)
  • The orthogonal combination of aconitine with liquiritin and glycyrrhetinic acid may regulate the expression of calcium regulatory proteins to inhibit the cytotoxicity of myocardial induced by aconitine, enhance the calcium regulatory adaption of myocardial cells, maintain the function of heart diastole and systole, and whence achieve the effect of toxicity reducing and efficacy enhancing," the researchers wrote. (naturalnews.com)
  • A team of researchers from Zhejiang Chinese Medical University in China studied whether the active components - aconitine, liquiritin, and glycyrrhetinic acid - found in Radix aconiti carmichaeli and licorice could lead to the regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis and calcium cycling, which could affirm their therapeutic properties. (naturalnews.com)
  • In neurons, aconitine increases the permeability of the membrane for sodium ions, resulting in a huge sodium influx in the axon terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining aconitine with liquiritin and glycyrrhetinic acid increases efficiency and reduces toxicity, according to traditional Chinese medicine. (naturalnews.com)
  • The effectiveness of the combination of aconitine, liquiritin, and glycyrrhetinic acid depends on the dosage. (naturalnews.com)
  • However, the effects of aconitine on intracellular Ca 2+ signals were previously unknown. (medsci.org)
  • We found that B16 cells showed significantly reduced growth rates and increased apoptotic effects in the presence of aconitine. (mdpi.com)
  • The acetoxyl group at the c8 position can readily be replaced by a methoxy group, by heating aconitine in methanol, to produce a 8-deacetyl-8-o-methyl derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aconitine suppresses the conformational change in the sodium-ion channel from the active state to the inactive state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of aconitine to the channel also leads to the channel to change conformation from the inactive state to the active state at a more negative voltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A feather, previously dipped in aconitine , was used by the physician to tickle his throat to induce vomiting and save Claudius from the attempted mushroom poisoning. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aconitine is also soluble in mixtures of alcohol and water if the concentration of alcohol is high enough. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.9989 in the concentration range of 15 to 90 μ g/mL for aconitine with respect to peak area. (hindawi.com)
  • Aconitine binds to the receptor at the neurotoxin binding site 2 on the alpha-subunit of the channel protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, aconitine is known to injure both the heart and central nervous system [ 5 - 7 ] and its toxicities are lethal. (medsci.org)
  • Aconitine (1 µM) increased the expression of NCX, while SERCA2a expression was reduced. (medsci.org)