Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Aconitum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Epilepsies, Myoclonic: A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.EncyclopediasCobra Cardiotoxin Proteins: Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Delphinium: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Drama: A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.

Synaptic transmission at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal organotypic cultures and slices. (1/219)

1. Whole-cell clamp recordings of the compound synaptic current elicited by afferent stimulation of Schaffer collaterals showed that blockade of the NMDA, AMPA and GABAA receptor-mediated components by 6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl- benzo(f)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), 3-((R)-2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (R-CPP) and picrotoxin, respectively, left a small residual current in 39 out of 41 CA1 pyramidal neurones in organotypic cultures and 9 out of 16 CA1 cells in acutely prepared slices. 2. This current represented 2. 9 +/- 0.4 % of the compound evoked synaptic response in organoypic cultures and 1.4 +/- 0.5 % in slices. It was characterized by a slightly rectifying I-V curve and a reversal potential of 3.4 +/- 5. 1 mV. 3. This residual current was insensitive to blockers of GABAB, purinergic, muscarinic and 5-HT3 receptors, but it was essentially blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine (91 +/- 4 % blockade; 20 microM), and partly blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin (200 nM) and methyllycaconitine (10 nM), two antagonists with a higher selectivity for alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors (48 +/- 3 % and 55 +/- 11 % blockade, respectively). 4. The residual current was of synaptic origin, since it occurred after a small delay; its amplitude depended upon the stimulation intensity and it was calcium dependent and blocked by the sodium channel antagonist tetrodotoxin. 5. We conclude that afferent stimulation applied in the stratum radiatum evokes in some hippocampal neurones a small synaptic current mediated by activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors.  (+info)

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors assembled from the alpha7 and beta3 subunits. (2/219)

Intracellular recordings were performed in voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes upon injection with a mixture of cDNAs encoding the beta3 and mutant alpha7 (L247Talpha7) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits. The expressed receptors maintained sensitivity to methyllycaconitine and to alpha-bungarotoxin but exhibited a functional profile strikingly different from that of the homomeric L247Talpha7 receptor. The heteromeric L247Talpha7beta3 nAChR had a lower apparent affinity and a faster rate of desensitization than L247Talpha7 nAChR, exhibited nonlinearity in the I-V relationship, and was inhibited by 5-hydroxytryptamine, much like wild type alpha7 (WTalpha7) nAChR. Single channel recordings in cell-attached mode revealed unitary events with a slope conductance of 19 picosiemens and a lifetime of 5 ms, both values being much smaller than those of the homomeric receptor channel. Upon injection with a mixture of WTalpha7 and beta3 cDNAs, clear evidence was obtained for the plasma membrane assembly of heteromeric nAChRs, although ACh could not activate these receptors. It is concluded that beta3, long believed to be an orphan subunit, readily co-assembles with other subunits to form heteromeric receptors, some of which may be negative regulators of cholinergic function.  (+info)

Effects of Delphinium alkaloids on neuromuscular transmission. (3/219)

The Delphinium alkaloids methyllycaconitine (MLA), nudicauline, 14-deacetylnudicauline (14-DN), barbinine, and deltaline were investigated for their effects on neuromuscular transmission in lizards. The substituent at C14 provides the only structural difference among the alkaloids MLA, nudicauline, 14-DN, and barbinine. Deltaline lacks the N-(methylsuccinyl)anthranilic acid at C18 common to the other four alkaloids. Each alkaloid reversibly reduced extracellularly recorded compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) values for CMAP blockade were between 0.32 and 13.2 microM for the N-(methylsuccinimido)anthranoyllycacotonine-type alkaloids and varied with the C14 moiety; the IC(50) value for deltaline was 156 microM. The slopes of the concentration-response curves for CMAP blockade were similar for each alkaloid except barbinine, whose shallower curve suggested alternative or additional mechanisms of action. Each alkaloid reversibly reduced intracellularly recorded spontaneous, miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) amplitudes. Alkaloid concentrations producing similar reductions in MEPP amplitude were 0.05 microM for 14-DN, 0.10 microM for MLA, 0.50 microM for barbinine, and 20 microM for deltaline. Only barbinine altered the time constant for MEPP decay, further suggesting additional or alternative effects for this alkaloid. MLA and 14-DN blocked muscle contractions induced by exogenously added acetylcholine. All five alkaloids are likely nicotinic receptor antagonists that reduce synaptic efficacy and block neuromuscular transmission. The substituent at C14 determines the potency and possibly the mechanism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blockade for MLA, nudicauline, 14-DN, and barbinine at neuromuscular synapses. The lower potency of deltaline indicates that the N-(methylsuccinyl)anthranilic acid at C18 affects alkaloid interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.  (+info)

Cooperative activation of action potential Na+ ionophore by neurotoxins. (4/219)

Four neurotoxins that activate the action potential Na+ ionophore of electrically excitable neuroblastoma cells interact with two distinct classes of sites, one specific for the alkaloids veratridine, batrachotoxin, and aconitine, and the second specific for scorpion toxin. Positive heterotropic cooperativity is observed between toxins bound at these two classes of sites. Tetrodotoxin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of activation by each of these toxins (KI = 4-8 nM). These results suggest the existence of three functionally separable components of the action potential Na+ ionophore: two regulatroy components, which bind activating neurotoxins and interact allosterically in controlling the activity of a third ion-transport component, which binds tetrodotoxin.  (+info)

Nicotinic receptor activation in human cerebral cortical interneurons: a mechanism for inhibition and disinhibition of neuronal networks. (5/219)

Cholinergic control of the activity of human cerebral cortical circuits has long been thought to be accounted for by the interaction of acetylcholine (ACh) with muscarinic receptors. Here we report the discovery of functional nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in interneurons of the human cerebral cortex and discuss the physiological and clinical implications of these findings. The whole-cell mode of the patch-clamp technique was used to record responses triggered by U-tube application of the nonselective agonist ACh and of the alpha7-nAChR-selective agonist choline to interneurons visualized by means of infrared-assisted videomicroscopy in slices of the human cerebral cortex. Choline induced rapidly desensitizing whole-cell currents that, being sensitive to blockade by methyllycaconitine (MLA; 50 nM), were most likely subserved by an alpha7-like nAChR. In contrast, ACh evoked slowly decaying whole-cell currents that, being sensitive to blockade by dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE; 10 microM), were most likely subserved by an alpha4beta2-like nAChR. Application of ACh (but not choline) to the slices also triggered GABAergic postsynaptic currents (PSCs). Evidence is provided that ACh-evoked PSCs are the result of activation of alpha4beta2-like nAChRs present in preterminal axon segments and/or in presynaptic terminals of interneurons. Thus, nAChRs can relay inhibitory and/or disinhibitory signals to pyramidal neurons and thereby modulate the activity of neuronal circuits in the human cerebral cortex. These mechanisms, which appear to be retained across species, can account for the involvement of nAChRs in cognitive functions and in certain neuropathological conditions.  (+info)

Anti-arrhythmic effects of sophoridine and oxysophoridine. (6/219)

AIM: To compare the effects of oxysophoridine (Oxy) and sophoridine (Sop) on experimental arrhythmias and myocardial physiologic properties. METHODS: Arrhythmias were induced by drugs and myocardial ischemia. Physiologic properties were determined on isolated heart atria. RESULTS: Oxy 500 mg.kg-1 (1/6 LD50) decreased the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias induced by aconitine (P < 0.01), increased the threshold dose of ouabain-induced ventricular premature (VP, P < 0.05), ventricular tachycardia (VT, P < 0.05), ventricular fibrillation (VF, P < 0.01), and cardiac arrest, (P < 0.01). After i.v. Oxy 500 mg.kg-1 into the rats with ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery, the total numbers of ectopic beats were decreased (P < 0.05), the incidence of VF was lowered, and the duration of VT was shortened (P < 0.01). Oxy 250 mg.kg-1 (1/13 LD50) i.v. shortened the duration of arrhythmias induced by BaCl2 (P < 0.01) and delayed the onset of arrhythmias induced by chloroform-epinephrine (P < 0.05). Oxy produced dose-dependent positive inotropic effects in the isolated left atrial of guinea pigs, increased the concentration of epinephrine to elicit automaticity in left atria, decreased slightly the excitability, and prolonged the functional refractory period. Sop produced the similar effects on arrhythmias as Oxy. CONCLUSION: Oxy produced the similar anti-arrhythmic effects as Sop did at the equivalent effective dose.  (+info)

Inhibition and disinhibition of pyramidal neurons by activation of nicotinic receptors on hippocampal interneurons. (7/219)

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in the hippocampus, and their functional roles are beginning to be delineated. The effect of nAChR activation on the activity of both interneurons and pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region was studied in rat hippocampal slices. In CA1 stratum radiatum with muscarinic receptors inhibited, local pressure application of acetylcholine (ACh) elicited a nicotinic current in 82% of the neurons. The majority of the ACh-induced currents were sensitive to methyllycaconitine, which is a specific inhibitor of alpha7-containing nAChRs. Methyllycaconitine-insensitive nicotinic currents also were present as detected by a nonspecific nAChR inhibitor. The ACh-sensitive neurons in the s. radiatum were identified as GABAergic interneurons by their electrophysiological properties. Pressure application of ACh induced firing of action potentials in approximately 70% of the interneurons. The ACh-induced excitation of interneurons could induce either inhibition or disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. The inhibition was recorded from the pyramidal neuron as a burst of GABAergic synaptic activity. That synaptic activity was sensitive to bicuculline, indicating that GABA(A) receptors mediated the ACh-induced synaptic currents. The disinhibition was recorded from the pyramidal neuron as a reduction of spontaneous GABAergic synaptic activity when ACh was delivered onto an interneuron. Both the inhibition and disinhibition were sensitive to either methyllycaconitine or mecamylamine, indicating that activation of nicotinic receptors on interneurons was necessary for the effects. These results show that nAChRs are capable of regulating hippocampal circuits by exciting interneurons and, subsequently, inhibiting or disinhibiting pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Two distinct classes of functional 7-containing nicotinic receptor on rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. (8/219)

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha Bgt) were studied on isolated rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques. Rapid application of ACh onto the soma of voltage clamped neurons evoked a slowly desensitizing current that was reversibly blocked by alpha Bgt (50 nM). The toxin-sensitive current constituted on average about half of the peak whole-cell response evoked by ACh. Nanomolar concentrations of methyllycaconitine blocked the alpha Bgt-sensitive component of the ACh-evoked current as did intracellular dialysis with an anti-alpha 7 monoclonal antibody. The results indicate that the slowly reversible toxin-sensitive response elicited by ACh arises from activation of an unusual class of alpha 7-containing receptor (alpha 7-nAChR) similar to that reported previously for rat intracardiac ganglion neurons. A second class of functional alpha 7-nAChR was identified on some SCG neurons by using rapid application of choline to elicit responses. In these cases a biphasic response was obtained, which included a rapidly desensitizing component that was blocked by alpha Bgt in a pseudo-irreversible manner. The pharmacology and kinetics of the responses resembled those previously attributed to alpha 7-nAChRs in a number of other neuronal cell types. Experiments measuring the dissociation rate of 125I-labelled alpha Bgt from SCG neurons revealed two classes of toxin-binding site. The times for toxin dissociation were consistent with those required to reverse blockade of the two kinds of alpha Bgt-sensitive response. These results indicate that rat SCG neurons express two types of functional alpha 7-nAChR, differing in pharmacology, desensitization and reversibility of alpha Bgt blockade.  (+info)

The anti-tumor effect of aconitine in melanoma cell line B16 has been studied in this paper. We found that B16 cells showed significantly reduced growth rates and increased apoptotic effects in the presence of aconitine. Furthermore, aconitine inhibited the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thus regulating the levels of protein and mRNA of PCNA and apoptotic related signaling molecules. Above all, we found that aconitine showed an anti-melanoma effect in suppressing tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, we show that aconitine may be a useful anticancer drug in the future.
Bone pain is a common and severe symptom in cancer patients. The present study employed a mouse model of leukemia bone pain by injection K562 cells into tibia of mouse to evaluate the analgesic effects of lappacontine. Our results showed that the lappaconitine treatment at day 15, 17 and 19 could effectively reduce the spontaneous pain scoring values, restore reduced degree in the inclined-plate test induced by injection of K562 cells, as well as restore paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency induced by injection of K562 cells to the normal levels. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of lappaconitines analgesic effects may be related to affect the expression levels of endogenous opioid system genes (POMC, PENK and MOR), as well as apoptosis-related genes (Xiap, Smac, Bim, NF-κB and p53). Our present results indicated that lappaconitine may become a new analgesic agent for leukemia bone pain management.
Epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant association between arrhythmias and air pollution exposure. Sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia has been employed to examine the factors that increase the risk of such dysfunction. We used aconitine to test whether a single exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) would increase the risk of arrhythmia being triggered in hypertensive rats. We hypothesised that DE exposure increases the risk of arrhythmia due to sensory irritation during and after inhalation. Spontaneously hypertensive rats surgically implanted with radiotelemeters were exposed to 150 μg/m3 of DE or filtered air for 4 h. Arrhythmogenesis was assessed 24 h later in urethane-anaesthetised animals by continuous intravenous infusion of aconitine while heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored. Rats exposed to DE had lower HR when compared to air-exposed animals. Exposure to DE resulted in significantly shorter PR intervals, and significantly prolonged corrected QT ...
Aconitine (ACO), a highly toxic diterpenoid alkaloid, is recognized to have effects on cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channels. However, it remains unknown whether it has any effects on K+ currents. The effects of ACO on ion currents in differentiated clonal cardiac (H9c2) cells and in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were investigated in this study. In H9c2 cells, ACO suppressed ultrarapid-delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur) in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. The IC50 value for ACO-induced inhibition of IKur was 1.4μM. ACO could accelerate the inactivation of IKur with no change in the activation time constant of this current. Steady-state inactivation curve of IKur during exposure to ACO could be demonstrated. Recovery from block by ACO was fitted by a single-exponential function. The inhibition of IKur by ACO could still be observed in H9c2 cells preincubated with ruthenium red (30μM). Intracellular dialysis with ACO (30μM) had no effects on IKur. IKur elicited by ...
George Henry Lamson (8 September 1852 - 28 April 1882) was an American doctor and murderer. In his early career he had been a volunteer surgeon in Romania and Serbia, and decorated for his work. He returned to England and practised in Bournemouth. He became addicted to morphine and his financial situation grew desperate. In 1881 he visited his 18-year-old brother-in-law Percy John, a hemiplegic, at his boarding school and gave him a slice of Dundee cake. He also gave him a capsule from a batch that were later tested and found to contain the poison aconitine, as recorded in the case history at Old Bailey Online. Lamson was tried in March 1882 with Montagu Williams acting for his defence: he was found guilty of murdering Percy in order to secure a share of the family inheritance. He had poisoned his victim with aconitine in the cake, a substance which Lamson had learnt about from Professor Robert Christison in university. Christison had taught that aconitine was undetectable but forensic science ...
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Listing of the answers to the question: What trees will grow under pine trees? I understand that many plants wont survive under pine trees due to the oils in the needles. Which sorts of trees can thrive? Particularly in the Northeast US.
Acetylbenzoylaconin, aconite root, aconiti frus, Aconiti Herba, aconiti lateralis preparata, aconiti tuber, aconitine, aconitknollen, aconito, Aconitum angustius, Aconitum anthoroideum, Aconitumartemisiifolium, Aconitum austroyunnanense, Aconitum balfourii, Aconitum barbatum, Aconitumbrachypodum, Aconitum brunneum, Aconitum carmichaelii, Aconitum chasmanthum, Aconitumchilienshanicum, Aconitum columbianum, Aconitum coreanum, Aconitum episcopale, Aconitumferox, Aconitum flavum, Aconitum gymnandrum, Aconitum hemsleyanum, Aconitum japonicum, Aconitum karakolicum, Aconitum kongboense, Aconitum kusnezoffii, Aconitum longilobum, Aconitum moldavicum, Aconitum nagarum, Aconitum napellus, Aconitum naviculare, Aconitum ouvrardianum, Aconitum paniculigerum, Aconitum pendulum, Aconitum polyschistum, Aconitum pomeense, Aconitum pterocaule, Aconitum racemulosum, Aconitum richardsonianum, Aconitum rotundifolium, Aconitum scaposum, Aconitum sczukinii, Aconitum sessiliflorum, Aconitum sinomantanum Nakai, Aconitum ...
ILO: International Labour Organization - The International Labour Organization is the UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights
Aconitum spp is a genus of over 250 flowering plants including Monkshood, Wolfs bane, Aconite, Leopards bane, mousebane, blue rocket, and queen of poisons. In the United States, most poisonous flower ingestions are accidental ingestions by children and account for roughly 2% of all toxic exposures; aconitum is not a commonly ingested flower in the United States, though is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally, most cases of adult ingestion of toxic flowers that lead to significant symptoms are suicidal attempts. A recent increase in aconitum poisoning has been reported secondary to an increase in available herbal medications utilizing the plant. All parts of Aconitum are toxic, with the roots being most toxic. Toxicity is due to Aconite alkaloids bind to open voltage-gated sodium channels, producing a hyperpolarized state, with permanent activation of the channels. Most herbal preparations undergo decoction process where plant is boiled to hydrolize ...
The ubiquitously present higenamine is a low-toxic,[20] water-soluble alkaloid that can act on the cardiac system. It is a type of β-adrenergic receptor agonist and its effect is mainly distributed in the skeletal muscle, the vascular smooth muscle of the liver and the heart in the human body due to β-adrenergic receptors.[21] Therefore, higenamine can effectively increase the heart rate by stimulating β-adrenergic receptors, increase cardiac output, inhibit thrombosis, and at the same time, shrink blood vessels to some extent, and increase hypertension. Although the monoester alkaloids (benzoylaconitine, benzoylmesaconine, etc.) formed by the degradation of diester alkaloids during usage of aconite also has a certain activity, the basis of cardiac function of aconite is higenamine. Long-term usage of higenamine can cause activity similar to aconite, and this activity is exclusively cardiac. In addition, other fuzi-based and aconite-based Chinese patent medicines, such as Jinguishenqi Pill ...
Brown leather wallet holding nine vials of medicinal tablets. Each vial has cork stopper and a printed label stating name and address of manufacturer and the contents which include strychnine Gm. 0.001, aconitine Gm. 0.0005, calomel Gm. 0.01, morphine sulphate Gm. 0.005, hyoscyamine Gm. 0.00025, digitalin Gm. 0.001, glonoin Gm. 0.00025, anti-constpation formula and anodyne formula for infants. Name and address of manufacturer is printed in gold lettering on interior surface of lid flap.. ...
Boiron Aconitum Napellus Helps Relieve Sudden Onset Fevers Accompanied by Dry SkinBoirons Aconitum Napellus 200CK, derived from wolfs bane, is formulated to help relieve a suddenly onset fever that coincides...
Synonyms for Aconitic in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Aconitic. 11 words related to aconite: Aconitum, genus Aconitum, Aconitum napellus, helmet flower, monkshood, helmetflower, Aconitum lycoctonum, wolfbane, wolfs bane.... What are synonyms for Aconitic?
106h. Aconitum hemsleyanum var. lasianthum W. T. Wang & L. Q. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25: 29. 1987. 毛萼瓜叶乌头 mao e gua ye wu tou Leaves cordate at base, distal ones without bulbils. Bracteoles and sepals pubescent on both surfaces. Upper sepal with indistinct abaxial hairs. Petals glabrous; spur more than 1.5 mm. Persistent style ca. 2.5 mm.. * Scrub; 3200--3300 m. W Sichuan (Muli Zang Zu Zizhixian).. ...
Aconitum anthora (Yellow monkshood). This species is an upright perennial. The leaves are rounded, deeply lobed and dark green. The flowers are produced in mid and late summer; racemes of pale yellow blooms.
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Aconitum delphiniifolium image
description - heterophyllum- Roots biennial, paired, tuberous; whitish or grey. Stem erect, simple or branched, from 15-20 cm high. glabrous below, finely crispo-pubescent in the upper par
FeverUses:Main Indication: High fever of sudden onset with dry skinCommon Name: MonkshoodWarnings:Stop use and ask a doctor if symptoms persist for more than 3 days or worsen.If pregnant or breast-feeding,...
The letters HPUS indicate that this ingredient is officially included in the Homeopathic Pharmacopœia of the United States.. ...
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Looking for Aconitum? Find out information about Aconitum. or any of several species of the genus Aconitum of the family Ranunculaceae , hardy perennial plants of the north temperate zone, growing wild or cultivated... Explanation of Aconitum
Aconitum napellus (Aconitum possibly from the greek for cone, napellus turnip) is known as the queen of the poisons, with the toxins aconite and aconitine present throughout the plant - the effects of which, which, in an interesting twist of poison counteracting poison, can be treated with atropine from Deadly Nightshade. Monkshood was often used as poison on arrows in Ancient Rome and China, and it is a close relative of the equally poisonous Aconitum Lycotonum, or Wolfsbane (so named for its ability to kill wolves). Death occurs within several hours of poisoning, with vomiting and nausea being early symptoms before death usually occurs by arrythmias. Despite their highly toxic nature, monkshood is popular as a garden plant, and if I have learned nothing else from this post its that the sanity of horticulturalist should probably be questioned ...
Presented by M di-T. ACONITINUM.. Aconitine (C27 H40 NO10) is obtained from the roots and stems of Aconitum napellus, L.. This must not be confounded with Morsons (English) Aconitine (same as Nepalin of Fl ckiger, or Napellin of Wigger, or Pseudo-aconitine of Huebschmann), which is obtained from Aconitum ferox.. Authorities. 1, Schroff; t, Toxicological, from Bird an others.. MIND. ► Intellect most perfect, and even vivid, [t]. ► Thought slow; long thinking impossible; all attention disturbed, [1]. ► Loss of sense, [1].. HEAD. ► Vertigo, [1]. ► Confusion of head very great, [1]. ► Headache, [t]. ► Pain in head and face more intense after the slightest mental exertion, [1].. EYES. ► Pupil dilated (both from internal and local use), [t]. ► Dimness of vision, [t].. EARS. ► Sense of pressure in ears, [1]. [10.] ► Roaring in ears, [1].. FACE. ► A peculiar drawing, pressive sensation in the cheeks on upper jaw, the forehead (region of nervus trigeminus), increase in ...
Species: Aconitum kusnezoffii. Common Name: Bei Wu Tou. Habitat: Aconitum kusnezoffii is native to E. Asia - N. China, N. Japan in Kamtschatka, Korea and Siberia. It grows on grassy slopes, grasslands, forests, forest margins, by streams at elevations of 2200 - 2400 metres.. Description:. Aconitum kusnezoffii is a perennial plant growing to 1.5 m (5ft). usually branched, glabrous, with leaves equally arranged along stem.Root stocks are conical or carrot-shaped, 2.5-5 cm, 7-12 mm in diam. Proximal cauline leaves withered at anthesis, middle ones shortly to long petiolate; petiole 3-11 cm, glabrous; leaf blade pentagonal, 9-16 × 10-20 cm, papery or subleathery, abaxially glabrous, adaxially sparsely retrorse pubescent, base cordate, 3-sect; central segment rhombic, apex acuminate, subpinnately divided or lobed; lateral segments obliquely flabellate, unequally 2-parted. Inflorescence terminal, 9-22-flowered; rachis and pedicels glabrous; proximal bracts 3-fid, others oblong or linear. Proximal ...
1-Naphthylamine, 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Abnormalities, Drug-Induced, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Aconitine, Acoustic Stimulation, Actins, Acute Disease, Acyltransferases, Adaptation, Physiological, Adenylate Cyclase, Adiponectin, Adipose Tissue, Administration, Cutaneous, Administration, Oral, Adolescent, Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists, Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists, Adult, Aerosols, Affect, Age Factors, Age of Onset, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging, Air Pollutants, Alcohol Deterrents, Alcohol Drinking, Alcoholism, Alkaloids, Allosteric Regulation, alpha-Methyltyrosine, Alzheimer Disease, Amino Acids, Amino Acids, Branched-Chain, Amphetamine, Amygdala, Anabasine, Anal Canal, Analgesics, Analysis of Variance, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Animals, Suckling, Anthelmintics, Anti-Anxiety Agents, Anti-HIV Agents, Anticonvulsants, Antidepressive Agents, Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal, Antioxidants, Antipsychotic Agents, ...
5. Aconitum columbianum Nuttall in J. Torrey & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 34. 1838. Roots tuberous, tuber distally not obviously bulblike, to 60 × 15 mm, parent tuber producing 1 (rarely 2) daughter tubers with connecting rhizome very short, i.e., tubers ±contiguous. Stems erect and stout to twining and reclining, 2-30 dm. Cauline leaves: blade deeply 3-5(-7)-divided, usually with more than 2 mm leaf tissue between deepest sinus and base of blade, 5-15 cm wide, segment margins variously cleft and toothed. Inflorescences open racemes or panicles. Flowers commonly blue, sometimes white, cream colored, or blue tinged at sepal margins, 18-50 mm from tips of pendent sepals to top of hood; pendent sepals 6-16 mm; hood conic-hemispheric, hemispheric, or crescent-shaped, 11-34mm from receptacle to top of hood, 6-26 mm wide from receptacle to beak apex.. Subspecies 2 (2 in the flora): moist areas, primarily in w North America, sporadic in e U.S.. Available information suggests that Aconitum columbianum ...
Aconitum, Monkshood available now at American Meadows. We provide creative gardeners with Aconitum, Monkshood and the highest quality perennials for the confidence they need to succeed. Place your order today and we guarantee 100% satisfaction. American Meadows, satisfying gardeners since 1981
This poisonous perennial graces many flower borders because of the beautiful, hooded, deep blue flowers borne on spikes in mid to late summer. Foliage is m
To the Editor -. We have read with great interest the paper by Leung et al. published in European Respiratory Journal [1], the correspondence by Russo et al. [2] and also the subsequent comment by the first group [3]. Both research teams are reporting increased ACE-2 expression in airways of current smokers and those with COPD with important implications for COVID-19 patients. Since ACE-2 has been shown to be the main receptor utilised by SARS-CoV-2 to enter the host cells [2], the authors conclude that nicotine is a risk factor for COVID-19 pandemic. Russo et al. [2] have shown that nicotine up-regulates ACE-2 through alpha7 nAChRs which are present in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Leung et al. [3] provided further evidence in support of this hypothesis and propose the repurposing of alpha7-nAChR antagonists for the pandemic (e.g. methyllycaconitine, alpa-conotoxin), expecting that such treatment will alter ACE-2 expression and prevent SARS-CoV-2 entry.. While this hypothesis is based on ...
Methyllycaconitine (MLA, 1) is a novel, potent probe for mammalian and insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and displays remarkable selectivity toward neuronal [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha BgTX) binding sites that correspond to alpha 7-type nAChR in mammalian brain. We have shown that, among a number of selected norditerpenoid alkaloids, elatine (2) and nudicauline (3) are equipotent with, or better than, MLA (1) in binding to brain [125I]-alpha BgTX binding sites, with IC50 values of 6.1, 1.7, and 7.6 nM, respectively. The 2-((S)-methylsuccinimido)benzoyl moiety of these ligands is crucial for high-affinity binding, whereas structural modifications to the norditerpenoid core of the ligand can be tolerated without loss of activity or selectivity. In addition to MLA (1), elatine (2), and nudicauline (3), we have examined lycoctonine (4), inuline (6), lappaconitine (7), N-desacetyllappaconitine (8), delsoline (10), delcorine (11), deltaline (12), condelphine (13), and karacoline (14). This
The extremely potent and selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine, MLA, and related norditerpene alkaloids are finding increasing use as neurochemical probes and as targets for structure-activity relationship studies. In this work, an assay procedure for MLA which utilises ion suppression reverse-phase HPLC with UV absorbance detection at 270 nm is described. The method detected 280 ng MLA on column.
Aconite has been understood as a poison from ancient times, and is frequently represented as such in fiction. In Greek mythology, the goddess Hecate is said to have invented aconite,[39] which Athena used to transform Arachne into a spider.[40] Also, Medea attempted to poison Theseus with a cup of wine poisoned with wolfs bane.[41] The kyōgen (traditional Japanese comedy) play Busu (附子, "Dried aconite root"),[42] which is well-known and frequently taught in Japan, is centered on dried aconite root used for traditional Chinese medicine. Taken from Shasekishu, a 13th-century anthology collected by Mujū, the story describes servants who decide that the dried aconite root is really sugar, and suffer unpleasant though nonlethal symptoms after eating it.[43] Shakespeare, in Henry IV Part II Act 4 Scene 4 refers to aconite, alongside rash gunpowder, working as strongly as the "venom of suggestion" to break up close relationships. In BBC drama Shakespeare and Hatherway, series 2, episode 9, a ...
The genus Aconitum in the flora of Slovakia is represented by subgenera Aconitum, Lycoctonum and Anthora. Among them the subgenus Aconitum is the richest and includes sections Aconitum and Cammarum DC., as well as nothosection Acomarum Starmühl. (sect. Aconitum × sect. Cammarm). It includes next taxa: 1) A. firmum Rchb. (subsp. firmum,subsp. moravicum Skalický, as well as it should includes contraversive subsp. maninense (Skalický) Starmühl. in Starmühl. & Mitka and nsubsp. paxii Starmühl. in Starmühl. & Mitka); 2) A. ×cammarum L. em. Fries; 3) A. variegatum L. subsp. variegatum; 4) A. lasiocarpum (Rchb.) Gáyer (subsp. lasiocarpum and subsp. kotulae (Pawł.) Starmühl. & Mitka); 5) A. degenii Gáyer subsp. degenii.. The second subgenus Lycoctonum (DC.) Peterm. is represented by: 1) A. moldavicum Hacq. (subsp. moldavicum, subsp. hosteanum (Schur) Graebn. & P. Graebn., subsp. simonkaianum (Gáyer) Starmühl.); 2) A. lycoctonum L. em. Koelle subsp. vulparia (Rchb.) Nyman; 3) controversive ...
Aconite (Aconitum Napellus) is a natural homeopathic remedy.In homeopathy, aconite is used for fear, anxiety, and restlessness, fever symptoms from exposure to dry, cold weather or very hot weather; tingling, coldness, and numbness; influenza or colds with congestion; and headaches.
Propecia horror stories - Consult your doctor if you are unable to assume caregiving role of antidysrhythmics pharmacologic blockade sodium potassium calcium class channels channels sodium channel openers aconitine andromedotoxin ciguatoxin veratridine restores the sinus node is regulated by controlling its absorption from the family that promotes the development of a serious illness childbirth stopping the oral bioavailability greater than 80 years of age reported annually to us poison centersmon name botanical name african violet willow species elderberry sanguinaria, bloodroot umbrella tree black mustard cabbage cactus caladium crown ower tea, green tea renal, carcinogenic neurologic cardiac cardiac, neurologic oxytocic, cardiovascular gastrointestinal hepatic. If your symptoms need urgent assessment in hospital. Studies in several organs.
Botanical Name : Aconitum violaceum Family : Ranunculaceae Genus : Aconitum Tibetan Common Name:: bdud rtsi lo ma, bong nga nag po (Amrita leaves, black
Fired Earth Aconite Yellow Matt Emulsion Paint 2.5L - B&Q for all your home and garden supplies and advice on all the latest DIY trends
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Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The BMJ.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
These flowering perennials are Deciduous: Cut back stems close to ground level from late February through to the end of March. Cut stems can be left on border as natural mulch or composted.. ...
Homoeopathy is all about finding the most similar remedy, and we are here to introduce everybody to the complex science and essential concepts of complementary health practice through homeopathy.
Flower bilateral; sepals 5, petal-like, upper 1 , others, hooded, generally enclosing upper 2 petals and stamens, tip generally rounded to beaked; petals 2 5, upper 2 clawed, blades generally inflated, tip spurred, lower 3 ,, sepals, scale-like, or 0; pistils generally ...
18-O-2-(2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-quinazoline-3-yl)benzoyllycoctonine: alkaloid from the roots of Aconitum pseudo-laeve var. erectum; structure in first source
How to Cite an Article in MLA Style. Citations let your readers know exactly where to find the sources youve used for an academic paper. If youre writing a paper for a literature or humanities class, chances are youll be using the MLA...
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Eric Yarnell, ND, RH(AHG) is a graduate of Bastyr University. He completed a two-year residency with Silena Heron, ND, and served as chair of botanical medicine at SCNM. He is past senior editor of the Journal of Naturopathic Medicine. Dr. Yarnell is a founding member and current president of the Botanical Medicine Academy and author of numerous textbooks and articles, including Naturopathic Urology and Mens Health, Naturopathic Gastroenterology and Clinical Botanical Medicine. His area of clinical focus is urology and mens health. He is assistant professor in botanical medicine at Bastyr University.. References. Bensky D et al: Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica, revised ed, Seattle, 1993, Eastland Press.. Chan TY et al: Herb-induced aconitine poisoning presenting as tetraplegia, Vet Hum Toxicol 36:133-4, 1994.. Felter HW: Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sandy, 1922, reprinted 1998, Eclectic Medical Publications.. Friese J et al: Aconitum sp. alkaloids: The ...
Homeopathic Aconite - EARS indications, uses & symptoms from 12 cross linked materia medicas. Available 3X-30X, 2C-30C, 200C, 1M-100M
... (DHP) is a molecule based upon pyridine, and the parent of a class of molecules that have been semi-saturated with two substituents replacing one double bond. They are particularly well known in pharmacology as L-type calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension. Compared with certain other L-type calcium channel blockers (for example those of the phenylalkylamine class such as verapamil) that have significant action at the heart, they are relatively vascular selective in their mechanism of action in lowering blood pressure. ...
... (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...
A channel that is "inwardly-rectifying" is one that passes current (positive charge) more easily in the inward direction (into the cell) than in the outward direction (out of the cell). It is thought that this current may play an important role in regulating neuronal activity, by helping to stabilize the resting membrane potential of the cell. By convention, inward current (positive charge moving into the cell) is displayed in voltage clamp as a downward deflection, while an outward current (positive charge moving out of the cell) is shown as an upward deflection. At membrane potentials negative to potassium's reversal potential, inwardly rectifying K+ channels support the flow of positively charged K+ ions into the cell, pushing the membrane potential back to the resting potential. This can be seen in figure 1: when the membrane potential is clamped negative to the channel's resting potential (e.g. -60 mV), inward current flows (i.e. positive charge flows into the cell). However, when the ...
... has anticonvulsive properties, attenuating vascular smooth muscle contraction through interactions with voltage-dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels.[1] How this effect is mediated and to what extent this mechanism is involved in the anxiolytic and analgesic effects of kavalactones on the central nervous system is unknown. Kavain's pharmacological activities have not been sufficiently investigated, and neither its effect as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor nor its monoamine (norepinephrine) uptake inhibitions and activation of NMDA receptors have been confirmed. The mechanism behind the psychotropic, sedative, and anxiolytic actions of kavain and related kavalactones is still debated. Direct binding to the benzodiazepine/flumazenil binding site of the GABA-A receptor does not occur with kavain enantiomers.[2] Many studies involved kava extracts from different plant parts and are, therefore, not applicable to kavain itself. In 2016, kavain was shown to bind at the α4β2δ GABAA receptor and ...
... has a potential for drug interactions; caution should be used in combining other medicines with it, including other antiepileptics and mood stabilizers.[12] Lower levels of carbamazepine are seen when administrated with phenobarbital, phenytoin, or primidone, which can result in breakthrough seizure activity. Carbamazepine, as a CYP450 inducer, may increase clearance of many drugs, decreasing their concentration in the blood to subtherapeutic levels and reducing their desired effects.[19] Drugs that are more rapidly metabolized with carbamazepine include warfarin, lamotrigine, phenytoin, theophylline, and valproic acid.[12] Drugs that decrease the metabolism of carbamazepine or otherwise increase its levels include erythromycin,[20] cimetidine, propoxyphene, and calcium channel blockers.[12] Carbamazepine also increases the metabolism of the hormones in birth control pills and can reduce their effectiveness, potentially leading to unexpected pregnancies.[12] As a drug that induces ...
... has several uses including the treatment of abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias, chronic pain, and myotonia. In general when treating arrhythmias, mexiletine is reserved for use in dangerous heart rhythm disturbances such as ventricular tachycardia.[2] It is of particular use when treating arrhythmias caused by long QT syndrome.[3] The LQT3 form of long QT syndrome is amenable to treatment with mexiletine as this form is caused by defective sodium channels that continue to release a sustained current rather than fully inactivating, however other forms of long QT syndrome can also be treated with this medication.[3] Mexiletine has been used to treat chronic pain and may also be used to treat muscle stiffness resulting from myotonic dystrophy (Steinert's disease) or nondystrophic myotonias such as myotonia congenita (Thomsen syndrome or Becker syndrome).[4][5] ...
... is available as a generic medication and usually not too expensive.[7] Wholesale it costs between US$0.003 and US$0.15 per dose.[8] A month of treatment is about US$30 in the United States.[2] Since September 2012, the marketing licence in the UK has been held by Flynn Pharma Ltd, of Dublin, Ireland, and the product, although identical, has been called Phenytoin Sodium xxmg Flynn Hard Capsules. (The xxmg in the name refers to the strength-for example "Phenytoin sodium 25 mg Flynn Hard Capsules").[49] The capsules are still made by Pfizer's Goedecke subsidiary's plant in Freiburg, Germany and they still have Epanutin printed on them.[50] After Pfizer's sale of the UK marketing licence to Flynn Pharma, the price of a 28-pack of 25 mg phenytoin sodium capsules marked Epanutin rose from 66p (about $0.88) to £15.74 (about $25.06). Capsules of other strengths also went up in price by the same factor-2384%,[51] costing the UK's National Health Service an extra £43 million (about $68.44 ...
Toxicity of pristane alleviated by aconitine. "pristane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for ...
South Korea aconitum aconitine Schipcz, O. in Fl. U.S.S.R.,7 : 60 (1937). The Smaller Bulbs Mathew, Brian, pub. Batsford 1987 ...
Lin CC, Chan TY, Deng JF (May 2004). "Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning". Ann Emerg Med. 43 ... Poisoning may also occur following picking the leaves without wearing gloves; the aconitine toxin is absorbed easily through ... Treatment is similar to poisoning caused by oral ingestion.[citation needed] Aconitine is a potent neurotoxin that opens ... 19th-century illustration Model, Botanical Museum Greifswald Aconitum napellus - MHNT Aconitine: Raw Fu Zi, 0.004%; prepared Fu ...
Lin CC, Chan TY, Deng JF (May 2004). "Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning". Ann Emerg Med. 43 ... Poisoning may also occur following picking the leaves without wearing gloves; the aconitine toxin is absorbed easily through ... Treatment is similar to poisoning caused by oral ingestion.[citation needed] Aconitine is a potent neurotoxin that opens ... causing arrhythmia and hypotension if not processed to degrade ester-type alkaloids like aconitine. Caffeoyl derivatives from ...
Aconitine is a potent neurotoxin that opens tetrodotoxin sensitive sodium channels. It increases influx of sodium through these ... "Toxicology in the Old Testament: Did the High Priest Alcimus Die of Acute Aconitine Poisoning?" Authors: Moog F.P.1; Karenberg ... Lin CC, Chan TY, Deng JF (May 2004). "Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning". Ann Emerg Med. 43 ... Poisoning may also occur following picking the leaves without wearing gloves; the aconitine toxin is absorbed easily through ...
Lin CC, Chan TY, Deng JF (May 2004). "Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning". Ann Emerg Med. 43 ... Aconitine is a potent neurotoxin and cardiotoxin that causes persistent depolarization of neuronal sodium channels in ... Monkshood and other members of the genus Aconitum contain substantial amounts of the highly toxic aconitine and related ... Successful use of charcoal hemoperfusion has been claimed in patients with severe aconitine poisoning.[26] ...
The active ingredients in tsūsensan are scopolamine, hyoscyamine, atropine, aconitine and angelicotoxin. When consumed in ...
With Ludwig Hesse, he isolated the alkaloids atropine, aconitine, colchicine and hyoscyamine. In 1831 he was the first to ...
The active ingredients in tsūsensan were scopolamine, hyoscyamine, atropine, aconitine and angelicotoxin. When consumed in ...
... the highly toxic alkaloid aconitine. Aconitine is easily absorbed through the skin, eyes and through the lining of the nose; ... Not because of an overdose The Chinese also used aconitine both for hunting and for warfare. Birthworts (family ...
He also gave him a capsule from a batch that were later tested and found to contain the poison aconitine, as recorded in the ... He had poisoned his victim with aconitine in the cake, a substance which Lamson had learnt about from Professor Robert ... Christison had taught that aconitine was undetectable but forensic science had improved since Lamson's student days. Lamson's ...
For example, the poison aconitine has no known antidote. Aconitine is a very poisonous toxin that comes from the Aconitum plant ...
"ACONITINE - National Library of Medicine HSDB Database". toxnet.nlm.nih.gov.. *^ LD50 for various snakes Archived 2012-02-01 at ... Aconitine main alkaloid in Aconitum napellus and related species rat, intraveneous 80 µg/kg 0.000080 [81]. ...
Aconitine, PsudoAco.. , ALIGN=LEFT VALIGN=TOP , रूक्ष, तीक्ष्ण, लघु, व्यवायी, विकासी , ALIGN=LEFT VALIGN=TOP , मधुर , ALIGN= ...
In medieval Europe, the toxic entheogen Aconitine was believed to prevent werewolves from undergoing their dire transformations ...
Extracts from plants containing toxic alkaloids, such as aconitine and tubocurarine, were used since antiquity for poisoning ...
... including aconitine and pseudaconitine. The use of Aconitum as an additive in beer-brewing is therefore a practice fraught with ...
Dr George Henry Lamson, who poisoned Percy Johns (his crippled brother-in-law) with aconitine at Wimbledon so his wife could ...
Lin CC, Chan TY, Deng JF (May 2004). "Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning". Ann Emerg Med. 43 ... Aconitine is a potent neurotoxin and cardiotoxin that causes persistent depolarization of neuronal sodium channels in ... Monkshood and other members of the genus Aconitum contain substantial amounts of the highly toxic aconitine and related ... Successful use of charcoal hemoperfusion has been claimed in patients with severe aconitine poisoning.[26] ...
Historically, a 1.3% aconitine topical liniment has been used.. *. Taking 1-5 drops of a tincture of the fresh leaf by mouth ... Aconitine may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. ... Aconitine may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood pressure. Also ... Aconitine may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients ...
The drug aconite, the active principle of which is the alkaloid aconitine, is used as a sedative, e.g., for neuralgia and ... A toxic drug obtained from the dried tuberous root of Aconitum napellus; the principal alkaloid is aconitine. ... Most of the aconite species are poisonous; they contain alkaloids such as aconitine and zongorine. Many aconite species are ...
aconitina; Finlandia. Descriptores (secundarios). efectos cardiol gicos; absorci n cut nea; etiquetado; limitaci n de la ...
In China, aconitine is also used in small doses as an analgesic and blood coagulant. Aconitine was previously used as an ... Aconitine is also soluble in mixtures of alcohol and water if the concentration of alcohol is high enough. Aconitine is very ... If aconitine is heated in its dry state, it undergoes a pyrolysis to form pyroaconitine((1α,3α,6α,14α,16β)-20-Ethyl-3,13- ... The binding of aconitine to the channel also leads to the channel to change conformation from the inactive state to the active ...
a) control; b)1 µM aconitine; c) 5 µM aconitine; d) 10 µM aconitine. ... Effect of aconitine on APD in rat ventricular myocytes. A. a) Representative recordings of APD. b) Effect of aconitine on APD50 ... Effects of aconitine on intracellular [Ca2+]i. Aconitine (1 μM) has no effect on the resting level of FI in the presence or ... 2, aconitine accelerated the activation of ICa-L and delayed the inactivation of ICa-L. So aconitine increased Ca2+ influx ...
Find out information about aconitine. C34H47O11N A poisonous, white, crystalline alkaloid compound obtained from aconites such ... aconitine. Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia. aconitine. [ə′kän·ə‚tēn] (pharmacology) C34H47O11N A poisonous, white ... Aconitine , Article about aconitine by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/aconitine ... Aconitine is contained in the roots of aconite, a blue or yellow flower with green leaves related to the buttercup. ...
Furthermore, aconitine inhibited the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thus regulating the levels of protein and ... Above all, we found that aconitine showed an anti-melanoma effect in suppressing tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, we show ... We found that B16 cells showed significantly reduced growth rates and increased apoptotic effects in the presence of aconitine ... that aconitine may be a useful anticancer drug in the future. ... The anti-tumor effect of aconitine in melanoma cell line B16 ...
"Aconitine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Aconitine" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Aconitine" by people in Profiles. ...
The analytical reference, aconitine, was quantified at 238 nm. The retention time of aconitine was about 42.54 min. The linear ... The developed HPLC method is accurate and precise and it can be successfully applied for the determination of aconitine in ... μg/mL for aconitine with respect to peak area. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were found to be 0.03 μg ... method has been developed and validated for the analysis of aconitine in marketed ayurvedic taila (oil) formulations containing ...
Barium chloride/aconitine was intraperitoneally injected to induce ventricular arrhythmias. Normal saline was administered to ... In the barium chloride/aconitine-induced ventricular arrhythmia model, terfenadine and amiodarone did not only similarly delay ... Comparative study of the protective effects of terfenadine and amiodarone on barium chloride/aconitine-induced ventricular ... the onset time of arrhythmias induced by barium chloride (all P,0.05), but also increased the cumulative dosage of aconitine ...
... - AHPRA Registered Chinese Medicine Practitioner, Acupuncture, Chinese Herbal Medicine, Remedial Massage, Chinese ... 其中以aconitine(烏頭鹼)毒性最強,0.2mg能使人中毒,3~4mg可致死亡。 ... 其中有毒為aconitine(烏頭鹼)、mesaconitine(中烏頭鹼
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Aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids are highly poisonous cardio-toxins and neurotoxins present in all parts of the plants of ... In Asia, aconitine poisoning is common because of the continued use of aconite roots in traditional medicine as an analgesic, ... Aconitine binds to sodium channels and prolongs their open state, favoring Na+ influx into the cytosol. The associated increase ... Aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids fall within the categories of highly poisonous cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. They are ...
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Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning.. Ann Emerg Med. . 2004. ;. 43. :. 574. -. 9. .. 3. ... Keywords: aconite, aconitine herb, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia, overdose, cardiotoxic INTRODUCTION. Aconitum plant ... Aconitine binds to the sodium channel with high affinity and causes the channel to remain in an active state. This results in ... Aconitine and similar alkaloids bind to the open state of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in excitable tissue, such as the ...
We are Professional Manufacturer of What Is The Use Of Aconitine company, Factory & Exporters specialize in What Is The Use Of ... Find What Is The Use Of Aconitine Manufacturers & Suppliers from China. ... mass of aconitine the history of aconitine action of aconitine aconite vs aconitine aconite aconitine synthesis of aconitine ... mass of aconitine the history of aconitine action of aconitine aconite vs aconitine aconite aconitine synthesis of aconitine ...
Aconitine is used in China as an analgesic and blood coagulant. However, aconitine contains high cardiotoxicity which could ... Tags: aconitine, calcium regulatory, Chinese medicine, glucyrrhetinic acid, goodhealth, goodmedicine, goodscience, healing ... A team of researchers from Zhejiang Chinese Medical University in China studied whether the active components - aconitine, ... More news on aconitine Licorice root for heart health? When combined with other herbal compounds, it regulates calcium proteins ...
Dihydropyridine (DHP) is a molecule based upon pyridine, and the parent of a class of molecules that have been semi-saturated with two substituents replacing one double bond. They are particularly well known in pharmacology as L-type calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension. Compared with certain other L-type calcium channel blockers (for example those of the phenylalkylamine class such as verapamil) that have significant action at the heart, they are relatively vascular selective in their mechanism of action in lowering blood pressure. ...
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...
Because of the popularity of beta-lactam drugs, certain bacteria have been able to develop counter-measures to traditional drug therapies. An enzyme called beta-lactamase is present in many different types of bacteria, which serves to break the beta lactam ring, which effectively nullifies the antibiotics effectiveness. An example such enzyme is the NDM-1 discovered in 2009.. As a response to bacterial resistance to beta-lactam drugs, there are drugs, such as Augmentin/CLA, that are designed to disable the beta-lactamase enzyme. Augmentin/CLA (FGP) is made of amoxicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The clavulanic acid is designed to overwhelm all beta-lactamase enzymes, bind irreversibly to them, and effectively serve as an antagonist so that the amoxicillin is not affected by the beta-lactamase enzymes.. Full article ▸. ...
The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, which are involved in absorption and secretion. They line cavities that are exposed to the external environment and internal organs. They are at several places continuous with skin: at the nostrils, the mouth, the lips, the eyelids, the ears, the genital area, and the anus. The sticky, thick fluid secreted by the mucous membranes and glands is termed mucus. The term mucous membrane refers to where they are found in the body and not every mucous membrane secretes mucus.. The glans penis (head of the penis) and glans clitoridis, along with the inside of the prepuce (foreskin) and the clitoral hood, are mucous membranes. The urethra is also a mucous membrane. The secreted mucus traps the pathogens in the body, preventing any further activities of diseases.. ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
Pharmaceuticals, medical and veterinary preparations; sanitary preparations for medical purposes; dietetic food and substances adapted for medical or veterinary use, food for babies; dietary supplements for humans and animals; plasters, materials for dressings; material for stopping teeth, dental wax; disinfectants; preparations for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides ...
Unigenes annotated as possible rate-determining steps of an aconitine-type biosynthetic pathway were highly expressed in the ... Unigenes identified in this study are strong candidates for aconitine-type diterpene alkaloid biosynthesis, and will serve as ... carmichaelii has shown accumulation of numerous bioactive metabolites including aconitine and aconitine-type diterpene ... carmichaelii has shown accumulation of numerous bioactive metabolites including aconitine and aconitine-type diterpene ...
  • Aconitine is a well-known arrhythmogenic toxin and induces triggered activities through cardiac voltage-gated Na + channels. (medsci.org)
  • The major toxin in these plants is aconitine, which interacts with the voltage-gated sodium channels. (e-arrhythmia.org)
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  • In Hong Kong, aconitine is responsible for the majority of serious poisonings from Chinese herbal preparations. (poison.org)
  • The toxicology service that was consulted suspected aconitine poisoning based on the patient's clinical presentation. (smj.org.sg)
  • A third cohort of rats in each exposure group was challenged with aconitine to assess sensitivity to arrhythmogenic challenge. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interestingly, LF gavage significantly reduced sensitivity to aconitine challenge and caused a significant increase in adrenaline levels relative to the HF gavage and vehicle. (epa.gov)
  • Aconitine can interact with the voltage-dependent sodium-ion channels, which are proteins in the cell membranes of excitable tissues, such as cardiac and skeletal muscles and neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • To better understand the cardiac toxicities of aconitine, it is of paramount importance to explore the underlying mechanisms of the arrhythmogenic effects caused by aconitine. (medsci.org)
  • The acetoxyl group at the c8 position can readily be replaced by a methoxy group, by heating aconitine in methanol, to produce a 8-deacetyl-8-o-methyl derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wright, S.N. (2002) Comparison of aconitine-modified human heart (hH1) and rat skeletal ( m 1) muscle Na + channels: an important role for external Na + ions. (murraystate.edu)
  • At higher concentrations (5 µM and 10 µM), aconitine induced triggered activities and delayed after-depolarizations (6 of 8 cases), which were inhibited by verapamil. (medsci.org)
  • However, in the clinic, Ca 2+ channel antagonists, such as verapamil, have been observed to have better therapeutic effects on aconitine-induced VTs rather than Na + channel antagonists, such as quinidine [ 13 , 14 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The myocardial cells were randomly divided into 12 groups - control, aconitine, nine different dose groups of orthogonal combined with aconitine, liquiritin, and glucyrrhetinic acid, and verapamil. (naturalnews.com)
  • My research has focused on the modification of sodium channel kinetics by Site 2 neurotoxins such as aconitine, lappaconitine, and batrachotoxin, as well as the block of sodium channels by a variety of local anesthetics and aminoglycosides. (murraystate.edu)
  • A team of researchers from Zhejiang Chinese Medical University in China studied whether the active components - aconitine, liquiritin, and glycyrrhetinic acid - found in Radix aconiti carmichaeli and licorice could lead to the regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis and calcium cycling, which could affirm their therapeutic properties. (naturalnews.com)
  • Aconitine is also soluble in mixtures of alcohol and water if the concentration of alcohol is high enough. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, aconitine increased the cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] i by accelerating I Ca-L and changing the expression of NCX and SERCA2a. (medsci.org)
  • In conclusion, we show that aconitine may be a useful anticancer drug in the future. (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, the results indicate that aconitine with liquiritin and glycyrrhetinic acid may regulate the expression of calcium-regulated proteins to defend myocardial cells from damage. (naturalnews.com)
  • The research team found that aconitine damaged the myocardial cell, reduced the survival rate and expression of NA + Ca 2+ exchangers and dihydropteridine reducta-?1, and enhanced the expression of ryanodine receptor type2. (naturalnews.com)
  • The orthogonal combination of aconitine with liquiritin and glycyrrhetinic acid may regulate the expression of calcium regulatory proteins to inhibit the cytotoxicity of myocardial induced by aconitine, enhance the calcium regulatory adaption of myocardial cells, maintain the function of heart diastole and systole, and whence achieve the effect of toxicity reducing and efficacy enhancing," the researchers wrote. (naturalnews.com)
  • Aconitine can interact with voltage-dependent Na + channels and suppress the conformational change of Na + channels from the active state to the inactive state so that the membrane remains depolarized [ 1 , 9 , 10 ]. (medsci.org)
  • This compound group is defined by the SMILES string '[Rh]' and subsequently filtered to remove substances containing '[C]'. For more information on SMILES, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simplified_molecular-input_line-entry_system . (pharosproject.net)
  • In neurons, aconitine increases the permeability of the membrane for sodium ions, resulting in a huge sodium influx in the axon terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining aconitine with liquiritin and glycyrrhetinic acid increases efficiency and reduces toxicity, according to traditional Chinese medicine. (naturalnews.com)
  • Unigenes annotated as possible rate-determining steps of an aconitine-type biosynthetic pathway were highly expressed in the root, in accordance with previous reports describing the root as the accumulation site for these metabolites. (mdpi.com)
  • The effectiveness of the combination of aconitine, liquiritin, and glycyrrhetinic acid depends on the dosage. (naturalnews.com)