Aconitic AcidFumaria: A plant genus of the family FUMARIACEAE that contains fumariline and other isoquinoline alkaloids.Distillation: A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.MalatesCitric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Salvia officinalis: A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Phyllanthus emblica: A plant species of the family EUPHORBIACEAE.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Aconitic AcidOxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Quinic Acid: An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.SkatoleIndiaFraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Chlorzoxazone: A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Cellophane: A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molasses: The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Aconitic AcidOsmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)LouisianaGasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
(1/23) A novel selection regime for differentiation defects demonstrates an essential role for the stumpy form in the life cycle of the African trypanosome.

A novel selection scheme has been developed to isolate bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, which are defective in their ability to differentiate to the procyclic stage. Detailed characterization of one selected cell line (defective in differentiation clone 1 [DiD-1]) has demonstrated that these cells are indistinguishable from the wild-type population in terms of their morphology, cell cycle progression, and biochemical characteristics but are defective in their ability to initiate differentiation to the procyclic form. Although a small proportion of DiD-1 cells remain able to transform, deletion of the genes for glycophosphatidyl inositol-phospholipase C demonstrated that this enzyme was not responsible for this inefficient differentiation. However, the attenuated growth of the Delta-glycophosphatidyl inositol-phospholipase C DiD-1 cells in mice permitted the expression of stumpy characteristics in this previously monomorphic cell line, and concomitantly their ability to differentiate efficiently was restored. Our results indicate that monomorphic cells retain expression of a characteristic of the stumpy form essential for differentiation, and that this is reduced in the defective cells. This approach provides a new route to dissection of the cytological and molecular basis of life cycle progression in the African trypanosome.  (+info)

(2/23) Unexpected anthracycline-mediated alterations in iron-regulatory protein-RNA-binding activity: the iron and copper complexes of anthracyclines decrease RNA-binding activity.

Anthracyclines are effective antineoplastic agents. However, the interaction of these drugs with iron (Fe) is an important cause of myocardial toxicity, limiting their therapeutic use (J Lab Clin Med 122:245-251, 1993). To overcome this limitation, it is crucial to understand how anthracyclines interact with the Fe metabolism of myocardial and neoplastic cells. Iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) play vital roles in regulating cellular Fe metabolism via their mRNA-binding activity. We showed that doxorubicin (DOX) and its analogs interfere with tumor and myocardial cell Fe metabolism by affecting the RNA-binding activity of IRPs. Unexpectedly, experiments with the free radical scavengers, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ebselen, and Mn(III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin complex, suggested that the effects of DOX on IRP-RNA-binding activity were not due to anthracycline-mediated free radical production. In contrast to previous studies, we showed that the DOX metabolite, doxorubicinol, had no effect on IRP-RNA-binding activity. Rather, the anthracycline-Fe and -copper (Cu) complexes decreased IRP-RNA-binding activity, indicating that formation of anthracycline-metal complexes may affect cellular Fe metabolism. In addition, anthracyclines prevented the response of IRPs to the depletion of intracellular Fe by chelators. This information may be useful in designing novel therapeutic strategies against tumor cells by combining chelators and anthracyclines. Interestingly, the effect of DOX on primary cultures of cardiomyocytes was similar to that observed using neoplastic cells, and particularly notable was the decrease in IRP2-RNA-binding activity. Our results add significant new information regarding the effects of anthracyclines on Fe metabolism that may lead to the design of more effective treatments.  (+info)

(3/23) Cold shock and regulation of surface protein trafficking convey sensitization to inducers of stage differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei.

Transmission of a protozoan parasite from a vertebrate to invertebrate host is accompanied by cellular differentiation. The signals from the environment that trigger the process are poorly understood. The model parasite Trypanosoma brucei proliferates in the mammalian bloodstream and in the tsetse fly. On ingestion by the tsetse, the trypanosome undergoes a rapid differentiation that is marked by replacement of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat with GPI-anchored EP and GPEET procyclins. Here we show that a cold shock of DeltaT > 15 degrees C is sufficient to reversibly induce high-level expression of the insect stage-specific EP gene in the mammalian bloodstream stages of T. brucei. The 3'-UTR of the EP mRNA is necessary and sufficient for the increased expression. During cold shock, EP protein accumulates in the endosomal compartment in the proliferating, slender, bloodstream stage, whereas the EP is present on the plasma membrane in the quiescent, stumpy, bloodstream stage. Thus, there is a novel developmentally regulated cell surface access control mechanism for a GPI-anchored protein. In addition to inducing EP expression, cold shock results in the acquisition of sensitivity to micromolar concentrations of cis-aconitate and citrate by stumpy but not slender bloodstream forms. The cis-aconitate and citrate commit stumpy bloodstream cells to differentiation to the procyclic stage along with rapid initial proliferation. We propose a hierarchical model of three events that regulate differentiation after transmission to the tsetse: sensing the temperature change, surface access of a putative receptor, and sensing of a chemical cue.  (+info)

(4/23) The FAD-dependent tricarballylate dehydrogenase (TcuA) enzyme of Salmonella enterica converts tricarballylate into cis-aconitate.

Tricarballylate is the causative agent of grass tetany, a ruminant disease characterized by acute magnesium deficiency. Tricarballylate toxicity has been attributed to its ability to chelate magnesium and to inhibit aconitase, a Krebs cycle enzyme. Neither the ruminant nor the normal rumen flora can catabolize tricarballylate to ameliorate its toxic effects. However, the gram-negative enterobacterium Salmonella enterica can use tricarballylate as a carbon and energy source, providing an opportunity to study the genes and enzymes required for tricarballylate catabolism. The tricarballylate utilization (tcu) genes are organized into two transcriptional units, i.e., tcuR and tcuABC. Here, we report the initial biochemical analysis of TcuA. TcuA catalyzed the oxidation of tricarballylate to cis-aconitate. The apparent K(m) of TcuA for tricarballylate was 3.8 +/- 0.4 mM, with a V(max) of 7.9 +/- 0.3 mM min(-1), turnover number (k(cat)) of 6.7 x 10(-2) s(-1), and a catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of 17.8 M(-1) s(-1). Optimal activity was measured at pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C. The enzyme was inactivated at 45 degrees C. One mole of FAD was present per mole of TcuA. We propose a role for TcuB as an electron shuttle protein responsible for oxidizing FADH(2) back to FAD in TcuA.  (+info)

(5/23) The three-dimensional crystal structure of the PrpF protein of Shewanella oneidensis complexed with trans-aconitate: insights into its biological function.

In bacteria, the dehydration of 2-methylcitrate to yield 2-methylaconitate in the 2-methylcitric acid cycle is catalyzed by a cofactor-less (PrpD) enzyme or by an aconitase-like (AcnD) enzyme. Bacteria that use AcnD also require the function of the PrpF protein, whose function was previously unknown. To gain insights into the function of PrpF, the three-dimensional crystal structure of the PrpF protein from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis was solved at 2.0 A resolution. The protein fold of PrpF is strikingly similar to those of the non-PLP-dependent diaminopimelate epimerase from Haemophilus influenzae, a putative proline racemase from Brucella melitensis, and to a recently deposited structure of a hypothetical protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro studies show that PrpF isomerizes trans-aconitate to cis-aconitate. It is proposed that PrpF catalysis of the cis-trans isomerization proceeds through a base-catalyzed proton abstraction coupled with a rotation about C2-C3 bond of 2-methylaconitate, and that residue Lys73 is critical for PrpF function. The newly identified function of PrpF as a non-PLP-dependent isomerase, together with the fact that PrpD-containing bacteria do not require PrpF, suggest that the isomer of 2-methylaconitate that serves as a substrate of aconitase must have the same stereochemistry as that synthesized by PrpD. From this, it follows that the 2-methylaconitate isomer generated by AcnD is not a substrate of aconitase, and that PrpF is required to generate the correct isomer. As a consequence, the isomerase activity of PrpF may now be viewed as an integral part of the 2-methylcitric acid cycle.  (+info)

(6/23) A high-throughput method to measure NaCl and acid taste thresholds in mice.

 (+info)

(7/23) A surface transporter family conveys the trypanosome differentiation signal.

 (+info)

(8/23) Synthesis and properties of polycarboxylate-type green surfactants with S- or N-linkages.

Polycarboxylate-type green surfactants with either sulfide- (S-) or imino- (N-) linkages were prepared in high yields by a single addition reaction of fatty mercaptan or fatty amine with unsaturated polycarboxylic acids such as fumaric, maleic, itaconic and aconitic acids. They exhibited surfactant properties and excellent biodegradabilities. Also, green surfactants with S-linkages showed better calcium ion sequestration abilities compared to the corresponding surfactant having an N-linkage. Among these surfactants, aconitic acid-derived polycarboxylate with an S-linkage exhibited calcium ion sequestration capacities similar to that of disodium 3-oxapentanedioate (ODA), a conventional calcium ion sequestrant on a molar basis of the surfactant.  (+info)

*  Aconitic acid
... is an organic acid. The two isomers are cis-aconitic acid and trans-aconitic acid. The conjugate base of cis- ... Aconitic acid can be synthesized by dehydration of citric acid using sulfuric acid: (HO2CCH2)2COH(CO2H) → HO2CCH=C(CO2H)CH2CO2H ... aconitic acid, cis-aconitate is an intermediate in the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. It is ... "Aconitic Acid - Compound Summary (CID 309)". PubChem. Dawson, R. M. C.; Elliott, D. C.; Elliott, W. H. (1989). Data for ...
*  Aconitate decarboxylase
The properties and reaction mechanism of cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase". J. Biol. Chem. 226 (2): 703-20. PMID 13438855. ... This enzyme participates in c5-branched dibasic acid metabolism. BENTLEY R, THIESSEN CP (1957). "Biosynthesis of itaconic acid ... Other names in common use include cis-aconitic decarboxylase, CAD, cis-aconitate carboxy-lyase, and cis-aconitate carboxy-lyase ...
*  Adonis vernalis
The plant is poisonous, containing cardiostimulant compounds, such as adonidin and aconitic acid. In addition, it is often used ...
*  Homoaconitic acid
Homoaconitatic acid (homoaconitate) is related to aconitic acid but with one extra carbon. It is part of the α-aminoadipate ...
*  Grass tetany
Effect of tricarballylic acid, a nonmetabolizable rumen fermentation product of trans-aconitic acid, on Mg, Ca and Zn ... Enrichment and isolation of rumen bacteria that reduce trans-aconitic acid to tricarballylic acid. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 49: ... Potassium fertilizer application results in increased concentration of aconitic acid in some grass species. In Northern Europe ... Potassium effects on minerals and organic acids in three cool-season grasses. J. Plant Nutr. 15: 1007-1025. D.C. Blood, J.A. ...
*  C6H6O6
Acetic oxalic anhydride Aconitic acid Benzenehexol Dehydroascorbic acid. ...
*  Aspergillus terreus
A. terreus is commonly used in industry to produce important organic acids, such as itaconic acid and cis-aconitic acid, as ... Shimada, A; Kusano,M; Takeuchi,S; Fujioka,S; Inokuchi,T; Kimura, Y (2002). "Aspterric acid and 6-hydroxymellein, inhibitors of ... Its secondary metabolites, aspterric acid and 6-hydroxymellein, released from the fungus inhibit the production of pollen, the ... Aspergillus terreus also produces aspterric acid and 6-hydroxymellein, inhibitors of pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana ...
*  Aconitase
Citric acid Aconitic acid Isocitric acid Aconitase, displayed in the structures in the right margin of this page, has two ... However, aconitase cannot bind this substrate and thus the citric acid cycle is halted. The iron sulfur cluster is highly ... doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(02)49317-2. ISBN 978-0-12-182252-1. Takusagawa F. "Chapter 16: Citric Acid Cycle" (PDF). Takusagawa's ... Fluoroacetate, in the citric acid cycle,can innocently enter as fluorocitrate. ...
*  List of additives in cigarettes
2-Acetyl-3-ethylpyrazine 2-Acetyl-5-methylfuran Acetylpyrazine 2-Acetylpyridine 3-Acetylpyridine 2-Acetylthiazole Aconitic acid ... Acid alpha-Methylcinnamaldehyde Methylcyclopentenolone 2-Methylheptanoic Acid 2-Methylhexanoic Acid 3-Methylpentanoic Acid 4- ... 12-Octadecadienoic acid (48%) and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid (52%) delta-Octalactone gamma-Octalactone Octanal Octanoic acid ... Hexanal Hexanoic acid 2-Hexen-1-Ol 3-Hexen-1-Ol cis-3-Hexen-1-Yl Acetate 2-Hexenal 3-Hexenoic Acid trans-2-Hexenoic Acid cis-3- ...
*  Alisma orientale
The seed conatins cis-aconitic anhydride ethyl ester and cis-2,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid. English Names for Korean Native ... Cis-aconitic anhydride ethyl ester and phenolic compounds from the seeds of Alisma orientale. Zhao M1, Chen JY, Xu LJ, Goedecke ...
*  Itaconic acid
The name itaconic was devised as an anagram of aconitic. Historically, itaconic acid was obtained by the distillation of citric ... Itaconic acid, or methylidenesuccinic acid, is an organic compound. This dicarboxylic acid is a white solid that is soluble in ... Dry distillation of citric acid affords itaconic anhydride, which readily undergoes hydrolysis to itaconic acid. Upon heating, ... itaconic anhydride isomerizes to citraconic acid anhydride, which can be hydrolyzed to citraconic acid (2-methylmaleic acid). ...
*  Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
Citric acid Aconitic acid Isocitric acid Aconitase normally catalyses, via the intermediate aconitic acid, the interconversion ... Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, also known as tricarballylic acid, carballylic acid, and β-carboxyglutaric acid, is a ... However, the hydroxide group is essential to proceed from citric acid to aconitic acid, therefore the enzyme is not able to ... such as actinoplanic acid. Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid can be synthesized in two steps from fumaric acid. ...
*  2,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic acid
"Cis-aconitic anhydride ethyl ester and phenolic compounds from the seeds of Alisma orientale". Natural product communications. ... 2,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid found in rooibos tea. cis-2,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic acid can be isolated ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 --- iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 --- aconitic acid MeSH D02.241. ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...
aconitic acid - Wiktionary  aconitic acid - Wiktionary
When citric acid is heated to 175°, it loses a molecule of water, and gives aconitic acid, an acid which is also found in ... Two isomeric acids are formed by the distillation of malic acid, which are likewise isomeric with aconitic acid obtained by ... The plant is reported to contain achilleic acid (identical to aconitic acid), alkanes, alkaloids (achilleine betonicine ... organic chemistry) An organic acid involved in the isomerisation of citrate to isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. * 1844 ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/aconitic_acid
aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211)  aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211)
cis-aconitic acid (CHEBI:32805) is a aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211). trans-aconitic acid (CHEBI:32806) is a aconitic acid (CHEBI: ... aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211) is a tricarboxylic acid (CHEBI:27093) aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211) is conjugate acid of aconitate(3 ... CHEBI:22211 - aconitic acid. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... aconitate(3−) (CHEBI:22210) is conjugate base of aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211). ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=22211
Aconitic acid - Wikipedia  Aconitic acid - Wikipedia
Aconitic acid is an organic acid. The two isomers are cis-aconitic acid and trans-aconitic acid. The conjugate base of cis- ... Aconitic acid can be synthesized by dehydration of citric acid using sulfuric acid: (HO2CCH2)2COH(CO2H) → HO2CCH=C(CO2H)CH2CO2H ... aconitic acid, cis-aconitate is an intermediate in the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. It is ... "Aconitic Acid - Compound Summary (CID 309)". PubChem. Dawson, R. M. C.; Elliott, D. C.; Elliott, W. H. (1989). Data for ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitic_acid
Aconitic Acid | CTD  Aconitic Acid | CTD
Achilleic Acid , Acid, Achilleic , Acid, Aconitic , Acid, Acontic , Acid, Adonic , Acid, Carboxyglutaconic , Acid, Citridic , ... Acontic Acid , Adonic Acid , Carboxyglutaconic Acid , Citridic Acid , Citridinic Acid , Equisetic Acid , Pyrocitric Acid ... Acid, Citridinic , Acid, Equisetic , Acid, Pyrocitric , Aconitate , ... A tricarboxylic acid with the formula (COOH)-CH2-C(COOH)=CH-COOH.. ...
more infohttp://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D000156
trans-Aconitic acid-based hetero-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of thiopyrano[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole derivatives - Enamine  trans-Aconitic acid-based hetero-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of thiopyrano[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole derivatives - Enamine
trans-Aconitic acid-based hetero-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of thiopyrano[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole derivatives. ... trans-Aconitic acid-based hetero-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of thiopyrano[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole derivatives ... The hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 5-arylideneisorhodanines with trans-aconitic acid proceeds as a regio- and ... Conversely, the one-pot, three-component reaction of 5-arylideneisorhodanines, trans-aconitic acid and anilines proceeded ...
more infohttps://enamine.net/research/publications/842-trans-aconitic-acid-based-hetero-diels-alder-reaction-in-the-synthesis-of-thiopyrano-2-3-d-1-3-thiazole-derivatives
Livestock Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for cis-Aconitic acid (LMDB00032)  Livestock Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for cis-Aconitic acid (LMDB00032)
cis-Aconitic acid. Description. cis-Aconitic acid is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle produced by the ... Showing metabocard for cis-Aconitic acid (LMDB00032). IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectraBiological ... This compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as tricarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are carboxylic ... catalyses the stereo-specific isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. ...
more infohttp://lmdb.ca/metabolites/LMDB00032
SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)  SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)
Aconitic Acid 41 499-12-7 1974 1 184.1007 PB254534 Adipic acid 80 124-04-9 1976 1 184.1009 PB266279 ...
more infohttps://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fdcc/?set=SCOGS
ANNEX 4 (JECFA Food Additives Series 48)  ANNEX 4 (JECFA Food Additives Series 48)
Aconitic acid. R,T. 642. 3-Phenylpropyl hexanoate. R,T. 645. 3-Phenylpropionaldehyde. R. ... 3-Oxodecanoic acid glyceride. 914. N, T. Evaluation not finalizedb. 3-Oxododecanoic acid glyceride. 915. N, T. Evaluation not ... 3-Oxooctanoic acid glyceride. 911. N, T. No safety concern. Heptanal glyceryl acetal (mixed 1,2 and 1,3 acetals). 912. N. No ... 3-Oxotetradecanoic acid glyceride. 916. N, T. Evaluation not finalizedb. 4-Methyl-2-pentyl-1,3-dioxolane. 928. N. No safety ...
more infohttp://inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v48je24.htm
1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, trimethyl ester  1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, trimethyl ester
3-Methoxycarbonyl-pent-2-enedioic acid dimethyl ester; Trimethyl 1-propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylate; Aconitic acid, trimethyl ester ... 1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, trimethyl ester. *Formula: C9H12O6 ... Other names: Trimethyl aconitate; 1,2,3-Propenetricarboxylic acid, trimethyl ester; ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C9H12O6/c1-13-7
Cis-aconitate | definition of cis-aconitate by Medical dictionary  Cis-aconitate | definition of cis-aconitate by Medical dictionary
Synonym(s): cis-aconitic acid. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit ... Dehydration product of citrate; an enzyme-bound intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cis-aconitate
1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, tributyl ester  1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, tributyl ester
... trans aconitic acid, tributyl ester ... 1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, tributyl ester. *Formula: C ... Other names: Tributyl aconitate; Tri-n-butyl aconitate; 1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, tris(N.-butyl ester); 1,2,3- ... Propenetricarboxylic acid, tributyl ester; Tributyl (1z)-1-propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylate; tributyl prop-1-ene-1,2,3- ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C18H30O6/c1-4-7-10-22-16
dehydro-ar-ionene   30364-38-6  dehydro-ar-ionene 30364-38-6
aconitic acid. FL. cinnamyl butyrate. FL/FR. methyl nonanoate. FL/FR. valeraldehyde. FL/FR. ...
more infohttp://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/data/rw1513131.html
US7413684B2 - Poly(arylene ether)/polyamide composition 
        - Google Patents  US7413684B2 - Poly(arylene ether)/polyamide composition - Google Patents
... fumaric acid; glycidyl acrylate, itaconic acid; aconitic acid; maleimide; maleic hydrazide; reaction products resulting from a ... t-ethylacrylic acid, pentenoic acid); decenoic acids, undecenoic acids, dodecenoic acids, linoleic acid, etc.); esters, acid ... maleic acid amide; unsaturated dicarboxylic acids (e.g., acrylic acid, butenoic acid, methacrylic acid, ... Suitable polycarboxylic acids include, for example, citric acid, malic acid, agaricic acid; including the various commercial ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US7413684B2/en
PRODUCTS WITH ORAL HEALTH BENEFITS - UCL BUSINESS PLC  PRODUCTS WITH ORAL HEALTH BENEFITS - UCL BUSINESS PLC
... trans-aconitic acid; oxalic acid; adenosine; cis-aconitic acid and succinic acid, or salts thereof, for promoting oral health. ... Also provided are compositions utilising quinic acid; adenosine; inosine; ... quinic acid; adenosine; inosine; trans- aconitic acid; oxalic acid; adenosine; cis-aconitic acid; succinic acid; shikimic acid ... quinic acid; adenosine; inosine; trans-aconitic acid; oxalic acid; adenosine; cis-aconitic acid and succinic acid, or a salt ...
more infohttp://www.sumobrain.com/patents/wipo/Products-with-oral-health-benefits/WO2012001347.html
Genetic Determinants of the Network of Primary Metabolism and Their Relationships to Plant Performance in a Maize Recombinant...  Genetic Determinants of the Network of Primary Metabolism and Their Relationships to Plant Performance in a Maize Recombinant...
... cis-aconitic acid; m27, cis-caffeic acid; m28, citric acid; m29, dehydroascorbic acid; m30, fumaric acid; m31, galactonic acid ... lactic acid; m36, malic acid; m37, malic acid, 2-methyl; m38, nicotinic acid; m39, pyruvic acid; m40, quinic acid; m41, quinic ... acid-3-caffeoyl-, cis; m42, quinic acid-3-caffeoyl-, trans; m43, succinic acid; m44, threonic acid; m45, trans-caffeic acid; ... and amino acids and cover multiple pathways including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and amino acid metabolism ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/27/7/1839.full
Petco Nutrition Standards for Dog and Cat Food  Petco Nutrition Standards for Dog and Cat Food
Aconitic acid (equisetic acid, citridic acid, achilleic acid). *Anethole (parapropenyl anisole). *Benzaldehyde (benzoic ... For now, products with synthetic vitamins, minerals, and amino acid supplements will remain on our shelves because they are ... 3-Methyl-3-phenyl glycidic acid ethyl ester (ethyl-methyl-phenyl-glycidate, so-called strawberry aldehyde, C-16 aldehyde). ...
more infohttps://www.petco.com/shop/en/petcostore/c/betternutrition
Petco Nutrition Standards for Dog and Cat Food  Petco Nutrition Standards for Dog and Cat Food
Aconitic acid (equisetic acid, citridic acid, achilleic acid). *Anethole (parapropenyl anisole). *Benzaldehyde (benzoic ... For now, products with synthetic vitamins, minerals, and amino acid supplements will remain on our shelves because they are ... 3-Methyl-3-phenyl glycidic acid ethyl ester (ethyl-methyl-phenyl-glycidate, so-called strawberry aldehyde, C-16 aldehyde). ...
more infohttps://www.petco.com/shop/en/petcostore/c/betternutrition?cm_mmc=CJ-_-PTC_P_WEB_CJ_FY16_2470763-_-8158840-_-11030085&AID=11030085&PID=8158840&cjevent=373801a5771e11e98011014b0a240613&utm_config=tad9f4sof&utm_campaign=8158840&utm_advertiserid=CJ&utm_source=cj
Patent US6544474 - Device for determination of an analyte in a body fluid using small sample sizes - Google Patents  Patent US6544474 - Device for determination of an analyte in a body fluid using small sample sizes - Google Patents
0.523 g citric acid as a hematocrit adjuster. 0.2 M Aconitic acid buffer. ... amino acids, chitosan(amino sugar), dextrans, citric acid, phytic acid and malic acid. These materials may be enhanced through ... sulfonic acid (ABTS); 4AAP and 4-methoxynaphthol; pyrogallol red(PGR); bromopyrogallol red (BPR); acid green 25 (AG); MBTH and ... 3-dimethylaminobenzoic acid (DMAB), MBTH combined with 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzene-sulfonic acid (DCHBS); 4-aminoantipyrene ( ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6544474?dq=6978253
Skatole Manufacturers, Suppliers & Exporters in India  Skatole Manufacturers, Suppliers & Exporters in India
Deals in Skatole, Aconitic Acid, Indole. Send Inquiry *: Business Type. *Manufacturer / Exporters / Wholesale Suppliers ... Deals in Skatole, 2 3 dimethyl indole, Indole 3 Acetic Acid, 5 bromoindole, indole 3 aldehyde, indole 3 butyric acid, 5 ... Deals in Natural Hair Colors, Guar Gum Powder, Cake Gel, Lauric Acid, skatole, seed coating polymer, Soyabean Oil, Calcium ... Deals in Safflower Oil, cashew nutshell liquid, Cottonseed Oil, Imidacloprid, Sesame Oil, Oleic Acid, Mustard Oil, Palm Oil, ...
more infohttp://www.indianyellowpages.com/india/manufacturers/s/skatole.htm
  • The ADI was withdrawn because the specifications for tartaric, acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol, mixed, were combined with those of diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol under the latter name at the fifty-first meeting (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 891, 2000). (inchem.org)
  • Analyte recoveries obtained from a spiked hydrolysate were in the range of 70 to 130% of the theoretical yield, except for glyoxylic acid, malic acid, and malonic acid, which showed a higher response due to signal enhancement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aconitic acid is an organic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this process, fermentation inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, phenolics, and organic acids are formed and released into the so-called hydrolysate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phenolic inhibitors have been studied fairly extensively, but fewer studies have focused on the analysis of the organic acids profile. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For this purpose, a simple and fast liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the analysis of organic acids in the hydrolysate has been developed using an ion exchange column based on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene polymer frequently used in biofuel research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presented LC/MS method involving only simple sample preparation (filtration and dilution) and external calibration for the analysis of 24 organic acids present in dilute acid pretreated biomass hydrolysate is fast (12 min) and reasonably sensitive despite the small injection volume of 2 μL used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Relative standard deviations for the organic acids ranged from 0.4 to 9.2% (average 3.6%) for the intra-day experiment and from 2.1 to 22.8% (average 8.9%) for the inter-day (three-day) experiment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have shown that the analysis of the profile of 24 organic acids present in biomass hydrolysate can be achieved by a simple LC/MS method applying external calibration and minimal sample preparation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The organic acids eluted within only 12 min by isocratic elution, enabling high sample throughput. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Repeatability (precision and accuracy) and recovery were sufficiently accurate for most of the organic acids tested, making the method suitable for their fast determination in hydrolysate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We envision that this method can be further expanded to a larger number of organic acids, including phenolic acids such as p -coumaric acid and ferulic acid and other molecules depending on the researchers' needs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alkali metal salts of phytic acid, e.g., sodium phytate, are also suitable as organic builders. (google.es)
  • Builder compounds have been found to have some effect, for instance, in such areas as stabilization of solid soil suspension, emulsification of soil particles, the surface activity of aqueous detergent solutions, solubilization of water-insoluble materials, foaming or sud producing characteristics of the washing solution, peptization of soil agglomerates, neutralization of acid soil, and the inactivation of mineral constituents present in the washing solution. (google.es)
  • Catalytic actions of alkaline salts in reactions between 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and cellulose: II. (deepdyve.com)
  • 3-Methyl-3-phenyl glycidic acid ethyl ester (ethyl-methyl-phenyl-glycidate, so-called strawberry aldehyde, C-16 aldehyde). (petco.com)
  • For the development of lignocellulosic biofuels a common strategy to release hemicellulosic sugars and enhance the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose is the heat pretreatment of biomass with dilute acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dilute acid pretreatment is the most common pretreatment method and results in an almost complete solubilization of hemicellulose and a high enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose in the pretreated biomass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PrpD is required for propionate catabolism, catalysing the third step of the 2-methylcitric acid cycle [ PMID: 11782506 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Substitutionsproducte der Citronensäure und ein Versuch zur Synthese der letzteren" [Substitution products of citric acid and an attempt at the synthesis of the latter]. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. A method of claim 3 wherein the cleavable link is formed using disulfide, cis-aconitic acid, cis-carboxylic alkadiene, cis-carboxylic alkatriene or poly-maleic anhydride. (google.com)
  • Measurement and analysis of the relationship between ammonia, acid gases, and fine particles in eastern North Carolina. (biomedsearch.com)