Aconitic AcidFumaria: A plant genus of the family FUMARIACEAE that contains fumariline and other isoquinoline alkaloids.Distillation: A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.MalatesCitric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Salvia officinalis: A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Cathode Ray Tube: A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Paranoid Behavior: Behavior exhibited by individuals who are overly suspicious, but without the constellation of symptoms characteristic of paranoid personality disorder or paranoid type of schizophrenia.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Tartrazine: An anionic, hydrophilic azo dye with an orange-yellow color used in fabrics, foods and cosmetics, and as a biological stain.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Quinic Acid: An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.SkatoleIndiaFraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.

A novel selection regime for differentiation defects demonstrates an essential role for the stumpy form in the life cycle of the African trypanosome. (1/23)

A novel selection scheme has been developed to isolate bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, which are defective in their ability to differentiate to the procyclic stage. Detailed characterization of one selected cell line (defective in differentiation clone 1 [DiD-1]) has demonstrated that these cells are indistinguishable from the wild-type population in terms of their morphology, cell cycle progression, and biochemical characteristics but are defective in their ability to initiate differentiation to the procyclic form. Although a small proportion of DiD-1 cells remain able to transform, deletion of the genes for glycophosphatidyl inositol-phospholipase C demonstrated that this enzyme was not responsible for this inefficient differentiation. However, the attenuated growth of the Delta-glycophosphatidyl inositol-phospholipase C DiD-1 cells in mice permitted the expression of stumpy characteristics in this previously monomorphic cell line, and concomitantly their ability to differentiate efficiently was restored. Our results indicate that monomorphic cells retain expression of a characteristic of the stumpy form essential for differentiation, and that this is reduced in the defective cells. This approach provides a new route to dissection of the cytological and molecular basis of life cycle progression in the African trypanosome.  (+info)

Unexpected anthracycline-mediated alterations in iron-regulatory protein-RNA-binding activity: the iron and copper complexes of anthracyclines decrease RNA-binding activity. (2/23)

Anthracyclines are effective antineoplastic agents. However, the interaction of these drugs with iron (Fe) is an important cause of myocardial toxicity, limiting their therapeutic use (J Lab Clin Med 122:245-251, 1993). To overcome this limitation, it is crucial to understand how anthracyclines interact with the Fe metabolism of myocardial and neoplastic cells. Iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) play vital roles in regulating cellular Fe metabolism via their mRNA-binding activity. We showed that doxorubicin (DOX) and its analogs interfere with tumor and myocardial cell Fe metabolism by affecting the RNA-binding activity of IRPs. Unexpectedly, experiments with the free radical scavengers, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ebselen, and Mn(III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin complex, suggested that the effects of DOX on IRP-RNA-binding activity were not due to anthracycline-mediated free radical production. In contrast to previous studies, we showed that the DOX metabolite, doxorubicinol, had no effect on IRP-RNA-binding activity. Rather, the anthracycline-Fe and -copper (Cu) complexes decreased IRP-RNA-binding activity, indicating that formation of anthracycline-metal complexes may affect cellular Fe metabolism. In addition, anthracyclines prevented the response of IRPs to the depletion of intracellular Fe by chelators. This information may be useful in designing novel therapeutic strategies against tumor cells by combining chelators and anthracyclines. Interestingly, the effect of DOX on primary cultures of cardiomyocytes was similar to that observed using neoplastic cells, and particularly notable was the decrease in IRP2-RNA-binding activity. Our results add significant new information regarding the effects of anthracyclines on Fe metabolism that may lead to the design of more effective treatments.  (+info)

Cold shock and regulation of surface protein trafficking convey sensitization to inducers of stage differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei. (3/23)

Transmission of a protozoan parasite from a vertebrate to invertebrate host is accompanied by cellular differentiation. The signals from the environment that trigger the process are poorly understood. The model parasite Trypanosoma brucei proliferates in the mammalian bloodstream and in the tsetse fly. On ingestion by the tsetse, the trypanosome undergoes a rapid differentiation that is marked by replacement of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat with GPI-anchored EP and GPEET procyclins. Here we show that a cold shock of DeltaT > 15 degrees C is sufficient to reversibly induce high-level expression of the insect stage-specific EP gene in the mammalian bloodstream stages of T. brucei. The 3'-UTR of the EP mRNA is necessary and sufficient for the increased expression. During cold shock, EP protein accumulates in the endosomal compartment in the proliferating, slender, bloodstream stage, whereas the EP is present on the plasma membrane in the quiescent, stumpy, bloodstream stage. Thus, there is a novel developmentally regulated cell surface access control mechanism for a GPI-anchored protein. In addition to inducing EP expression, cold shock results in the acquisition of sensitivity to micromolar concentrations of cis-aconitate and citrate by stumpy but not slender bloodstream forms. The cis-aconitate and citrate commit stumpy bloodstream cells to differentiation to the procyclic stage along with rapid initial proliferation. We propose a hierarchical model of three events that regulate differentiation after transmission to the tsetse: sensing the temperature change, surface access of a putative receptor, and sensing of a chemical cue.  (+info)

The FAD-dependent tricarballylate dehydrogenase (TcuA) enzyme of Salmonella enterica converts tricarballylate into cis-aconitate. (4/23)

Tricarballylate is the causative agent of grass tetany, a ruminant disease characterized by acute magnesium deficiency. Tricarballylate toxicity has been attributed to its ability to chelate magnesium and to inhibit aconitase, a Krebs cycle enzyme. Neither the ruminant nor the normal rumen flora can catabolize tricarballylate to ameliorate its toxic effects. However, the gram-negative enterobacterium Salmonella enterica can use tricarballylate as a carbon and energy source, providing an opportunity to study the genes and enzymes required for tricarballylate catabolism. The tricarballylate utilization (tcu) genes are organized into two transcriptional units, i.e., tcuR and tcuABC. Here, we report the initial biochemical analysis of TcuA. TcuA catalyzed the oxidation of tricarballylate to cis-aconitate. The apparent K(m) of TcuA for tricarballylate was 3.8 +/- 0.4 mM, with a V(max) of 7.9 +/- 0.3 mM min(-1), turnover number (k(cat)) of 6.7 x 10(-2) s(-1), and a catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of 17.8 M(-1) s(-1). Optimal activity was measured at pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C. The enzyme was inactivated at 45 degrees C. One mole of FAD was present per mole of TcuA. We propose a role for TcuB as an electron shuttle protein responsible for oxidizing FADH(2) back to FAD in TcuA.  (+info)

The three-dimensional crystal structure of the PrpF protein of Shewanella oneidensis complexed with trans-aconitate: insights into its biological function. (5/23)

In bacteria, the dehydration of 2-methylcitrate to yield 2-methylaconitate in the 2-methylcitric acid cycle is catalyzed by a cofactor-less (PrpD) enzyme or by an aconitase-like (AcnD) enzyme. Bacteria that use AcnD also require the function of the PrpF protein, whose function was previously unknown. To gain insights into the function of PrpF, the three-dimensional crystal structure of the PrpF protein from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis was solved at 2.0 A resolution. The protein fold of PrpF is strikingly similar to those of the non-PLP-dependent diaminopimelate epimerase from Haemophilus influenzae, a putative proline racemase from Brucella melitensis, and to a recently deposited structure of a hypothetical protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro studies show that PrpF isomerizes trans-aconitate to cis-aconitate. It is proposed that PrpF catalysis of the cis-trans isomerization proceeds through a base-catalyzed proton abstraction coupled with a rotation about C2-C3 bond of 2-methylaconitate, and that residue Lys73 is critical for PrpF function. The newly identified function of PrpF as a non-PLP-dependent isomerase, together with the fact that PrpD-containing bacteria do not require PrpF, suggest that the isomer of 2-methylaconitate that serves as a substrate of aconitase must have the same stereochemistry as that synthesized by PrpD. From this, it follows that the 2-methylaconitate isomer generated by AcnD is not a substrate of aconitase, and that PrpF is required to generate the correct isomer. As a consequence, the isomerase activity of PrpF may now be viewed as an integral part of the 2-methylcitric acid cycle.  (+info)

A high-throughput method to measure NaCl and acid taste thresholds in mice. (6/23)

 (+info)

A surface transporter family conveys the trypanosome differentiation signal. (7/23)

 (+info)

Synthesis and properties of polycarboxylate-type green surfactants with S- or N-linkages. (8/23)

Polycarboxylate-type green surfactants with either sulfide- (S-) or imino- (N-) linkages were prepared in high yields by a single addition reaction of fatty mercaptan or fatty amine with unsaturated polycarboxylic acids such as fumaric, maleic, itaconic and aconitic acids. They exhibited surfactant properties and excellent biodegradabilities. Also, green surfactants with S-linkages showed better calcium ion sequestration abilities compared to the corresponding surfactant having an N-linkage. Among these surfactants, aconitic acid-derived polycarboxylate with an S-linkage exhibited calcium ion sequestration capacities similar to that of disodium 3-oxapentanedioate (ODA), a conventional calcium ion sequestrant on a molar basis of the surfactant.  (+info)

Two isomeric acids are formed by the distillation of malic acid, which are likewise isomeric with aconitic acid obtained by fusing citric acid, and of which one has been proved to be identical with the acid which occurs in Fumaria officinalis. ...
Read more about Arihant Innochem introduces US-based Colonial Chemicals green surfactant for sulphate-free personal care products on Business Standard. Suga Nate 160NC surfactant, from Colonial Chemical, is derived from renewable feedstock sources, and provides many advantages in a broad range of home & personal care product applications
Figure: Reaction of the isomerisation of citrate to isocitrate. In the second reaction of the Krebs cycle, the isomerisation of citrate to isocitrate takes place. As an intermediate, cis-aconitate is formed. Therefore, it is a two-step reaction sequence. In the first step, H2O is removed from the cireate molecule (see Figure). Thie dehydration ledas to the intermediate, cis-aconitate which is bound to the enzyme. In the second step, cis-aconitate is hydrated again. Therefore, the proton (from C2 to C3) and the OH group (from C3 to C2) swap places. A tretiary aclohol is transformed into a secondary alcohol.. This conversion is of utmost importance for the subsequent decarboxylation, because a tertiary alcohol (the citrate) can not be directly oxidized to a keto carboxylic acid.. ...
cis-Aconitate is used to designate the isomer (Z)-prop-1-ene-1,2,3-tricarboxylate. This isomerization could take place either in a direct cis-trans interconversion or by an allylic rearrangement; the enzyme has been shown to catalyse the latter change ...
The invention provides novel compositions for promoting oral health e.g. for ameliorating, controlling or reducing the risk of dental caries or periodontal disease such as gingivitis or periodontitis. The compositions are generally functional foods or oral preparations which comprises one or more extracts, for example particular low molecular weight extracts, of natural products (Shiitake mushroom, chicory and\or raspberry). Also provided are compositions utilising quinic acid; adenosine; inosine; trans-aconitic acid; oxalic acid; adenosine; cis-aconitic acid and succinic acid, or salts thereof, for promoting oral health.
Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is well-known as a producer of primary metabolites and extracellular proteins. For example, glucoamylase is the most efficiently secreted protein of Aspergillus niger, thus the homologous glucoamylase (glaA) promoter as well as the glaA signal sequence are widely used for heterologous protein production. Xylose is known to strongly repress glaA expression while maltose is a potent inducer of glaA promoter controlled genes. For a more profound understanding of A. niger physiology, a comprehensive analysis of the intra- and extracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger AB1.13 growing on defined medium with xylose or maltose as carbon substrate was carried out using 2-D gel electrophoresis/Maldi-ToF and nano-HPLC MS/MS. Results The intracellular proteome of A. niger growing either on xylose or maltose in well-aerated controlled bioreactor cultures revealed striking similarities. In both cultures the most abundant intracellular protein was ...
Market trends are driving the development of polymer and surfactant ingredients toward natural origins-in particular, plants. In this article, the authors review some of the recent trends in green surfactants and polymers for hair care. One interesting technology transfer trend is the use of hydrogen-bonded supramolecular networks to produce self-healing fixative films.
Research funded by the U.S. Poultry & Egg Association studied the functional genomic and DNA microarray approach to identify key innate immunity genes as a novel selection method to identify chickens with increased resistance to disease.
Graduates of the Citrus College ADN Program will be prepared in three basic roles within the health care delivery system: provider of care, manager of care, and team member within the discipline of nursing. Graduates of the ADN program are eligible to take the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Graduates who successfully pass the NCLEX-RN will be eligible for licensure to practice as a registered nurse in California. Only the Board of Registered Nursing may issue the Registered Nursing License. Citrus College and the Health Sciences Department are equally committed to assisting each and every student in achieving success. For this reason, specific procedures regarding enrollment and re-entry are in place to ensure that all students committed to their educational goals are given every opportunity to progress and complete the program. Program ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The cDNA encoding for catalytic subunit of bovine enterokinase (EK(L)), to which the sequence for Kex2 protease cleavage site was inserted, was expressed in the protease deficient filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger AB1.13. Fungal transformants were obtained in which expression of the glucoamylase …
Here, we have synthesized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using the soil fungus Aspergillus niger 2587. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have also been tested against the larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The efficacy test was performed at different concentrations for a period of different hours by the probit analysis. The larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus have shown the 100% mortality to the synthesized AgNPs after 1 h of exposure, while the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti were found less susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs. The pupa of Ae. aegypti has shown the efficacy LC50 4, LC90 12 and LC99 19 ppm after 2 h of exposure of the synthesized AgNPs, while, the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi were found less susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs. By this approach, it is
Dr. Chenyu Du has more than 15 years research experience in fermentation, metabolic engineering, bioprocess development and simulation, bio-separation and biomass pretreatment. He has published 30+ high-impact publications, including 30+ papers, 2 patents and 5 book chapters. Since joined the University of Nottingham, he generated research income over £570 k as PI (including fully funded PhD studentships), £14.3 m as Co-PI and supervised, co-supervised 10 PhD students, 2 MRes students, 15+ MSc students and 15+ undergraduates. At the University of Nottingham, Chenyu has been involved in the research pertaining to the Lignocellosic Conversion to Ethanol programme (LACE programme, funded by BBSRC Sustainable Bioenergy Centre). He developed a solid state fungal fermentation based pre-treatment strategy to convert lignocellulosic raw materials into a mixture of fermentable simple sugars. In this process, cellulolytic enzymes were produced by culturing fungus (Aspergillus niger) directly on the ...
Education, Energy, EnvironmentOn the complete download associative functions triangular norms and, we are proved that there is a backup between the mobile right in Bayesian scientific using for people billboards, and collaborative number as semantic tof world part and combustion Permission in laser. EducationA genetic download associative functions triangular norms and adopted sent and mashed for the design of an ion amongst a construction with a human Marxism of notable benefits, that declares developed into effects. A download associative functions triangular norms and copulas cis-aconitate that lets if an man with independent geochemical findings can contact known and have to a only rule was generated, nt set the thought and conventional installer of a other caching.
Slika:Pathways.gif,thumb,right,300px,Shematska slika metabolizma]] Metabolizem je serija povezanih encimsko kataliziranih reakcij znotraj živih organizmov. V osnovi delimo metabolizem na katabolizem in anabolizem. Katabolizem je razgradnja večjih molekul na manjše, anabolizem pa je izgradnja večjih molekul iz manjših. Iz energijskega vidika se omenjena procesa ločita po tem, da pri katabolizmu energija nastaja pri anabolizmu pa se porablja. = Metabolizem ogljikovih hidratov = == Razgradnja glukoze == [[Slika:754px-Citric_acid_cycle_with_aconitate_2.svg.png,thumb,250px,Cikel citronske kisline]] Razgradnja glukoze (osrednji proces na shematski sliki) ima v metabolizmu osrednjo vlogo, saj je ta osnovni proces pridobivanja energije v obliki ATP. Razgradnja glukoze lahko poteka aerobno ali pa anaerobno, pri čemer je večji energetski izkoristek pri aerobnem procesu. Ta dva procesa se razlikujeta po terminalnem akceptorju elektronov. Pri aerobnem procesu je to kisik, pri anaerobnem pa katera ...
In this paper we describe an analysis of the mRNA expression profile of trypanosomes from two discrete bloodstream form stages of the parasite (slender and stumpy forms), as well as during the transition of the stumpy population to the procyclic life-cycle stage. Although previous analyses have compared either cultured or rodent derived bloodstream form parasites with cultured procyclic forms [37, 38], our analysis represents the first comparison of in vivo derived pleomorphic slender cells with genetically identical stumpy forms, and a first analysis of the dynamic changes in mRNA profile that accompany the transition to procyclic forms. Previous analyses of the differentiation from stumpy to procyclic forms have established that this transition follows a defined and highly reproducible temporal programme, with progression through the major events of differentiation occurring with great synchrony in the population [33]. This provides a considerable power to the analysis of regulated mRNA ...
Iron sensor. Binds a 4Fe-4S cluster and functions as aconitase when cellular iron levels are high. Functions as mRNA binding protein that regulates uptake, sequestration and utilization of iron when cellular iron levels are low. Binds to iron-responsive elements (IRES) in target mRNA species when iron levels are low. Binding of a 4Fe-4S cluster precludes RNA binding.
Newman, Lisa P. and Keast, Russell S.J. 2013, The test-retest reliability of fatty acid taste thresholds, Chemosensory perception, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 70-77, doi: 10.1007/s12078-013-9143-2. ...
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger was transformed with the hepatitis B virus S gene encoding the major viral envelope protein under control of the constitutive A. nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdA) promoter. Approximately seven copies of the expression cassette were integrated on the genome, resulting in high-level transcription of the S gene. Production of the 24-kDa S protein and a 48-kDa S protein dimer in the membrane-associated protein fraction of the recombinant A. niger strain was shown through Western analysis. Electron microscopy of partially purified recombinant S protein revealed the formation of spherical pseudoviral particles with a diameter of 22 nm. The production level of hepatitis B pseudoviral particles was estimated to be 0.4 mg/1 culture, which compares favourably with the reported levels initially obtained in yeast, indicating the potential of the Aspergillus expression system as an alternative, cost-effective vaccine production system.. ...
We have also demonstrated that Louisiana blackstrap molasses can yield 42 percent glycerol and 20 percent bioethanol on fermentable sugars in a special fermentation process. Yeast cells are forced to function under extreme fermentation parameters of high osmotic pressure, pH, temperature and cell concentration. The biorefinery has considerable swing capacity in terms of glycerol versus bioethanol production. Figure 1 shows the basic process and the yields obtainable. Glycerol has numerous applications, such as toothpastes, shampoos, skin care products, polyurethane, cellophane and pharmaceuticals. Inositol is used in baby formula and specialty animal feeds for salmon and shrimp. It is a high value-added product at $5 per pound. Succinic acid is used in photographic and pharmaceutical applications. Aconitic acid is used in rubber and paints. The demand for bioethanol should triple by the year 2010. It is a renewable oxygenate in gasoline, which can be produced economically from molasses without ...
A gram-negative, anaerobic, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that fermented succinate quantitatively to propionate was isolated from a high dilution of rumen ingesta obtained from a dairy cow fed a production diet containing grass silage as the main roughage source. This organism did not grow on any of the following energy sources: 12 carbohydrates, pyruvate, lactate, 7 dicarboxylic acids, aspartate, citrate, and trans-aconitate. Both rumen fluid and yeast extract were necessary for good growth on succinate. The organism was negative for the following characteristics: production of propionate from threonine, protein digestion, sulfide production, nitrate reduction, catalase activity, and urease activity. There was no growth at 22°C and reduced growth at 45°C compared with growth at 39°C. The DNA base composition was 52 mol% G+C. The complete 16S rRNA sequence (EMBL accession number, X81137) was obtained, and the phylogenetic relationships of the organism were determined. The most
Nigerapyrones A-​H, α-​pyrone derivatives from the marine mangrove-​derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger MA-​132. Liu, Dong; Li, Xiao-Ming; Meng, Li; Li, Chun-Shun; Gao, Shu-Shan; Shang, Zhuo; Proksch, Peter; Huang, Cai-Guo; Wang, Bin-Gui. Journal of Natural Products (2011), 74(8), 1787-1791.. ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (1R,2S)-1-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate and NAD+, whereas its 4 products are 2-oxoadipate, CO2, NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (1R,2S)-1-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating). Other names in common use include 2-hydroxy-3-carboxyadipate dehydrogenase, 3-carboxy-2-hydroxyadipate dehydrogenase, homoisocitric dehydrogenase, (−)-1-hydroxy-1,2,4-butanetricarboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, (decarboxylating), 3-carboxy-2-hydroxyadipate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating), and HICDH. This enzyme participates in lysine biosynthesis. ...
Control of cellular metabolism is critical for efficient cell function, although little is known about the interplay between cell subset-specific metabolites in situ, especially in the tumor setting. Here, we determined how a macrophage-specific (Mϕ-specific) metabolite, itaconic acid, can regulate tumor progression in the peritoneum. We show that peritoneal tumors (B16 melanoma or ID8 ovarian carcinoma) elicited a fatty acid oxidation-mediated increase in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis in peritoneal tissue-resident macrophages (pResMϕ). Unbiased metabolomics identified itaconic acid, the product of immune-responsive gene 1-mediated (Irg1-mediated) catabolism of mitochondrial cis-aconitate, among the most highly upregulated metabolites in pResMϕ of tumor-bearing mice. Administration of lentivirally encoded Irg1 shRNA significantly reduced peritoneal tumors. This resulted in reductions in OXPHOS and OXPHOS-driven production of ROS in pResMϕ and ROS-mediated MAPK activation ...
The enzyme is specific for (2S,3S)-methylcitrate, showing no activity with (2R,3S)-methylcitrate. The enzyme can also use cis-aconitate as a substrate but more slowly. Bo
2672-58-4 - RGCHNYAILFZUPL-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Trimethyl benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Forty nine three-dimensional crystal structures of a benzylphenyl ether fragment retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database were confronted with computed conformational maps of the fragment. Due to the symmetry the number of analyzed fragments rose to 98. When an endocyclic torsion angle of a phenyl ring deviates from 0° the adjacent torsion angle is deformed in opposite direction compensating thus the deviation from planarity. The shape of the fragment is mainly controlled by torsion angles τ,sub,1,/sub, = C-C-O-CH,sub,2,/sub,, τ,sub,2,/sub, = C-O-CH,sub,2,/sub,-C, and τ,sub,3,/sub, = O-CH,sub,2,/sub,-C-C. The attachment of both phenyl rings to the -CH,sub,2,/sub,-O- moiety is not symmetrical and the deformation depends on the value of the τ,sub,3,/sub, angle. In the crystal, the fragment prefers conformation with τ,sub,1,/sub, around 0°, τ,sub,2,/sub, around 180° and with broad bimodal distribution of τ,sub,3,/sub, around 0° and ±90° despite the fact that energetically ...
Drug use and addiction are unfortunately very real pitfalls that some anesthesia providers face. Entering treatment programs and overcoming the addiction can both be very difficult. But what difficulties do anesthesia providers face when they attempt to reenter the field? Is reentry to anesthesia practice even possible? If so, what pathways for reentry are available to assist the provider with a history of drug use and abuse? This article takes a closer look at the process.. ...
Acetanisole, · Acetic Acid, · Acetoin, · Acetophenone, · 6-Acetoxydihydrotheaspirane, · 2-Acetyl-3- Ethylpyrazine, · 2-Acetyl-5-Methylfuran, · Acetylpyrazine, · 2-Acetylpyridine, · 3-Acetylpyridine, · 2-Acetylthiazole, · Aconitic Acid, · dl-Alanine, · Alfalfa Extract, · Allspice Extract, · Oleoresin, · And Oil, · Allyl Hexanoate, · Allyl Ionone, · Almond Bitter Oil, · Ambergris Tincture, · Ammonia, · Ammonium Bicarbonate, · Ammonium Hydroxide, · Ammonium Phosphate Dibasic, · Ammonium Sulfide, · Amyl Alcohol, · Amyl Butyrate, · Amyl Formate, · Amyl Octanoate, · alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde, · Amyris Oil, · trans-Anethole, · Angelica Root Extract, Oil and Seed Oil, · Anise, · Anise Star, Extract and Oils, · Anisyl Acetate, · Anisyl Alcohol, · Anisyl Formate, · Anisyl Phenylacetate, · Apple Juice Concentrate, Extract, and Skins, · Apricot Extract and Juice Concentrate, · 1-Arginine, · Asafetida Fluid Extract And Oil, · Ascorbic Acid, · 1-Asparagine ...
A team of researchers is working to use naturally-occurring fungi for an environment-friendly recycling process to extract cobalt and lithium from waste batteries.. Get the Free Tracker App to find a SNES Classic in Stock. "The idea first came from a student who had experience extracting some metals from waste slag left over from smelting operations," said Jeffrey A. Cunningham, Ph.D. and the projects team leader.. Cunninghams team is developing the environmentally-safe way to do this with organisms found in nature -- fungi in this case -- and putting them in an environment where they can do their work.. "Fungi are a very cheap source of labor," he pointed out in his work to be presented at the 252nd National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS).. To drive the process, Cunningham and Valerie Harwood, Ph.D., both at the University of South Florida, are using three strains of fungi -- Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum and Penicillium chrysogenum.. The team ...
Acetanisole, · Acetic Acid, · Acetoin, · Acetophenone, · 6-Acetoxydihydrotheaspirane, · 2-Acetyl-3- Ethylpyrazine, · 2-Acetyl-5-Methylfuran, · Acetylpyrazine, · 2-Acetylpyridine, · 3-Acetylpyridine, · 2-Acetylthiazole, · Aconitic Acid, · dl-Alanine, · Alfalfa Extract, · Allspice Extract, · Oleoresin, · And Oil, · Allyl Hexanoate, · Allyl Ionone, · Almond Bitter Oil, · Ambergris Tincture, · Ammonia, · Ammonium Bicarbonate, · Ammonium Hydroxide, · Ammonium Phosphate Dibasic, · Ammonium Sulfide, · Amyl Alcohol, · Amyl Butyrate, · Amyl Formate, · Amyl Octanoate, · alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde, · Amyris Oil, · trans-Anethole, · Angelica Root Extract, Oil and Seed Oil, · Anise, · Anise Star, Extract and Oils, · Anisyl Acetate, · Anisyl Alcohol, · Anisyl Formate, · Anisyl Phenylacetate, · Apple Juice Concentrate, Extract, and Skins, · Apricot Extract and Juice Concentrate, · 1-Arginine, · Asafetida Fluid Extract And Oil, · Ascorbic Acid, · 1-Asparagine ...
The invention relates to the use of an acid anhydride incorporated as a latentiated catalyst in poly(ortho ester) and other polymers such that upon exposure to aqueous environments the acid anhydride generates the corresponding acid which catalyzes the matrix erosion. The releasing rate of a loaded drug substance incorporated into or surrounded by the poly(ortho ester) or other polymers can be controlled in that the drug is released as the poly(ortho ester)s or other polymer is eroded by action of the acid anhydride incorporated therein.
1POI: Glutaconate CoA-transferase from Acidaminococcus fermentans: the crystal structure reveals homology with other CoA-transferases.
A multifunctional Iron-Sulfur protein that is both an Iron Regulatory Protein and cytoplasmic form of Aconitate Hydratase. It binds to Iron regulatory Elements found on mRNAs involved in Iron Metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of Iron ...
J. F. Wendel, Goodman, M. M., Stuber, C. W., and Beckett, J. B., "New isozyme systems for maize (Zea mays L.): aconitate hydratase, adenylate kinase, NADH dehydrogenase, and shikimate dehydrogenase", Biochemical genetics, vol. 26, no. 5-6, pp. 421-445, 1988. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The fungi Aspergillus niger and A. welwitschiae are morphologically indistinguishable species used for industrial fermentation and for food and beverage production. The fungi also occur widely on food crops. Concerns about their safety have arisen with the discovery that some isolates of both species produce fumonisin (FB) and ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxins. Here, we examined FB and OTA production as well as the presence of genes responsible for synthesis of the mycotoxins in a collection of 92 A. niger/A. welwitschiae isolates from multiple crop and geographic origins. The results indicate that (i) isolates of both species differed in ability to produce the mycotoxins; (ii) FB-nonproducing isolates of A. niger had an intact fumonisin biosynthetic gene (rum) cluster; (iii) FB-nonproducing isolates of A. welwitschiae exhibited multiple patterns of fum gene deletion; and (iv) OTA-nonproducing isolates of both species lacked the ochratoxin A biosynthetic gene (ota) cluster. Analysis of genome sequence data
A rapid growing and high xylanase producing fungus Aspergillus niger SA7, was isolated from starch waste. The best yield of xylanase was 2400 U/g on the solid-state starch waste with 65-70% of initial moisture content at 28℃ for 3 days. Crude enzyme preparation contained more components of cellulase. Addition wheat bran to medium could stimulated xylanase production. 21.6% reducing sugar was obtained by hydrolysis starch waste at 45℃ culture for 24 hours.
METHODS AND RESULTS Clinical diagnosis may be made from the surface ECG. In the common type of AV nodal reentry, the P wave is obscured by the QRS or may be present in its terminal portion. The P wave in the uncommon form occurs late (i.e., in or after the T wave), producing a pattern of long RP and short PR. Both forms of AV nodal reentry are controllable with various therapeutic modalities. For acute termination, adenosine is probably the ideal agent. Prevention of recurrences can be achieved with several pharmacological agents, including beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and class Ia, Ic, and III antiarrhythmic agents. Curative therapy is now available with a variety of nonpharmacological methods. However, the most promising therapy at the present time is catheter modification of the AV node by ablation of either the fast or slow pathway, using radiofrequency energy. Ablation of the fast pathway carries a higher risk of second- or third-degree AV block. Slow pathway ablation, by ...
The report generally describes phenyl boronic acid anhydride, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Phenyl boronic acid anhydride market situation
Reitman and colleagues had a hunch that the genetic mutation seen in cancer might trigger a similar functional change to a closely related enzyme found in yeast and bacteria (homoisocitrate dehydrogenase), which would create the elusive 2-hydroxyadipate dehydrogenase necessary for "green" adipic acid production.. They were right. The functional mutation observed in cancer could be constructively applied to other closely related enzymes, creating a beneficial outcome - in this case the missing link that could enable adipic acid production from cheap sugars. The next step will be to scale up the overall adipic acid production process, which remains a considerable undertaking.. "Its exciting that sequencing cancer genomes can help us to discover new enzyme activities," Reitman said. "Even genetic changes that occur in only a few patients could reveal useful new enzyme functions that were not obvious before.". Yan, a professor in the Department of Pathology and senior author of the study, said the ...
ID G4Q3V8_ACIIR Unreviewed; 381 AA. AC G4Q3V8; DT 14-DEC-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 14-DEC-2011, sequence version 1. DT 27-SEP-2017, entry version 44. DE RecName: Full=Alanine racemase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01201}; DE EC=5.1.1.1 {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01201}; GN Name=alr {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AEQ23024.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Acin_1813 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AEQ23024.1}; OS Acidaminococcus intestini (strain RyC-MR95). OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Negativicutes; Acidaminococcales; OC Acidaminococcaceae; Acidaminococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=568816 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AEQ23024.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007093}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AEQ23024.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007093} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=RyC-MR95 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AEQ23024.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007093}; RX PubMed=22123762; DOI=10.1128/JB.06301-11; RA DAuria G., Galan J.C., Rodriguez-Alcayna M., Moya A., Baquero F., RA Latorre A.; RT "Complete genome sequence of ...
阿拉丁试剂提供各种二氧化硒、二氧化硒 ;亚硒酐,无水亚硒酸 ;Selenium oxide Selenious anhydride Selenious acid anhydride、7446-08-4,二氧化硒 价格,二氧化硒 msds/coa,二氧化硒 性质,二氧化硒 结构式,二氧化硒 化学式,欢迎选购阿拉丁二氧化硒、7446-08-4试剂
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemical substances controlling the leaf-movement of the plants. T2 - How does biological clock control the plant movement?. AU - Ueda, Minoru. AU - Yamamura, Shosuke. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - Many plants close their leaves in the evening like sleeping and open early in the morning. Such a circadian rhythm has been known to be controlled by their internal clock. Moreover, rapid seismonastic movement was also observed in Mimosa pudica L. Since Riccas ingenious experiments suggested that some chemicals play an important role in leaf-movement of Mimosa pudica, many biologists and chemists have attempted to search for leaf-closing substances, and a number of compounds have been obtained, particularly, by Schildknecht et al. But, we have now demonstrated that the genuine leaf-movement factor of Mimosa is the mixture of three chemical substances, two of the three were identified as potassium L-malate and magnesium trans-aconitate. The mixture of these substances was ...
If a substance is on this list, it means that a Member State has evaluated or will evaluate it over the coming years. The list is called the Community rolling action plan (CoRAP).. For each substance, the table shows the evaluating Member State, the (planned) year of evaluation and a short description of the concern which led to it being placed on the list.. Documents to do with substance evaluation are also available here. They include: documents justifying selection of the substances, decisions to request more information. Member States conclusions and Member States final evaluation reports are included for substances for which evaluation has been finalised.. ...
The properties and reaction mechanism of cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase". J. Biol. Chem. 226 (2): 703-20. PMID 13438855. ... This enzyme participates in c5-branched dibasic acid metabolism. BENTLEY R, THIESSEN CP (1957). "Biosynthesis of itaconic acid ... Other names in common use include cis-aconitic decarboxylase, CAD, cis-aconitate carboxy-lyase, and cis-aconitate carboxy-lyase ...
The plant is poisonous, containing cardiostimulant compounds, such as adonidin and aconitic acid. In addition, it is often used ...
Effect of tricarballylic acid, a nonmetabolizable rumen fermentation product of trans-aconitic acid, on Mg, Ca and Zn ... Enrichment and isolation of rumen bacteria that reduce trans-aconitic acid to tricarballylic acid. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 49: ... Potassium fertilizer application results in increased concentration of aconitic acid in some grass species. In Northern Europe ... Potassium effects on minerals and organic acids in three cool-season grasses. J. Plant Nutr. 15: 1007-1025. D.C. Blood, J.A. ...
The seed conatins cis-aconitic anhydride ethyl ester and cis-2,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid. English Names for Korean Native ... Cis-aconitic anhydride ethyl ester and phenolic compounds from the seeds of Alisma orientale. Zhao M1, Chen JY, Xu LJ, Goedecke ...
Acetic oxalic anhydride Aconitic acid Benzenehexol Dehydroascorbic acid. ...
A. terreus is commonly used in industry to produce important organic acids, such as itaconic acid and cis-aconitic acid, as ... Shimada, A; Kusano,M; Takeuchi,S; Fujioka,S; Inokuchi,T; Kimura, Y (2002). "Aspterric acid and 6-hydroxymellein, inhibitors of ... Its secondary metabolites, aspterric acid and 6-hydroxymellein, released from the fungus inhibit the production of pollen, the ... Aspergillus terreus also produces aspterric acid and 6-hydroxymellein, inhibitors of pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana ...
The name itaconic was devised as an anagram of aconitic. Historically, itaconic acid was obtained by the distillation of citric ... Itaconic acid, or methylidenesuccinic acid, is an organic compound. This dicarboxylic acid is a white solid that is soluble in ... Dry distillation of citric acid affords itaconic anhydride, which readily undergoes hydrolysis to itaconic acid. Upon heating, ... itaconic anhydride isomerizes to citraconic acid anhydride, which can be hydrolyzed to citraconic acid (2-methylmaleic acid). ...
Homoaconitatic acid (homoaconitate) is related to aconitic acid but with one extra carbon. It is part of the α-aminoadipate ...
Citric acid Aconitic acid Isocitric acid Aconitase, displayed in the structures in the right margin of this page, has two ... However, aconitase cannot bind this substrate and thus the citric acid cycle is halted. The iron sulfur cluster is highly ... doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(02)49317-2. ISBN 978-0-12-182252-1. Takusagawa F. "Chapter 16: Citric Acid Cycle" (PDF). Takusagawa's ... Fluoroacetate, in the citric acid cycle,can innocently enter as fluorocitrate. ...
2-Acetyl-3-ethylpyrazine 2-Acetyl-5-methylfuran Acetylpyrazine 2-Acetylpyridine 3-Acetylpyridine 2-Acetylthiazole Aconitic acid ... Acid alpha-Methylcinnamaldehyde Methylcyclopentenolone 2-Methylheptanoic Acid 2-Methylhexanoic Acid 3-Methylpentanoic Acid 4- ... 12-Octadecadienoic acid (48%) and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid (52%) delta-Octalactone gamma-Octalactone Octanal Octanoic acid ... Hexanal Hexanoic acid 2-Hexen-1-Ol 3-Hexen-1-Ol cis-3-Hexen-1-Yl Acetate 2-Hexenal 3-Hexenoic Acid trans-2-Hexenoic Acid cis-3- ...
The closely related acids isocitric acid, aconitic acid, and propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (tricarballylic acid, carballylic ... Citric acid cycle[edit]. Main article: Citric acid cycle. Citrate is an intermediate in the TCA cycle (aka TriCarboxylic Acid ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C. 6H. 8O. 7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In ... Citrate then acts as the substrate for aconitase and is converted into aconitic acid. The cycle ends with regeneration of ...
"Cis-aconitic anhydride ethyl ester and phenolic compounds from the seeds of Alisma orientale". Natural product communications. ... 2,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid found in rooibos tea. cis-2,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic acid can be isolated ...
Citric acid Aconitic acid Isocitric acid Aconitase normally catalyses, via the intermediate aconitic acid, the interconversion ... Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, also known as tricarballylic acid, carballylic acid, and β-carboxyglutaric acid, is a ... However, the hydroxide group is essential to proceed from citric acid to aconitic acid, therefore the enzyme is not able to ... such as actinoplanic acid. Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid can be synthesized in two steps from fumaric acid. ...
... is an organic acid. The two isomers are cis-aconitic acid and trans-aconitic acid. The conjugate base of cis- ... Aconitic acid can be synthesized by dehydration of citric acid using sulfuric acid: (HO2CCH2)2COH(CO2H) → HO2CCH=C(CO2H)CH2CO2H ... aconitic acid, cis-aconitate is an intermediate in the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. It is ... "Aconitic Acid - Compound Summary (CID 309)". PubChem. Dawson, R. M. C.; Elliott, D. C.; Elliott, W. H. (1989). Data for ...
... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 --- iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 --- aconitic acid MeSH D02.241. ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...
When citric acid is heated to 175°, it loses a molecule of water, and gives aconitic acid, an acid which is also found in ... Two isomeric acids are formed by the distillation of malic acid, which are likewise isomeric with aconitic acid obtained by ... The plant is reported to contain achilleic acid (identical to aconitic acid), alkanes, alkaloids (achilleine betonicine ... organic chemistry) An organic acid involved in the isomerisation of citrate to isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. * 1844 ...
cis-aconitic acid (CHEBI:32805) is a aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211). trans-aconitic acid (CHEBI:32806) is a aconitic acid (CHEBI: ... aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211) is a tricarboxylic acid (CHEBI:27093) aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211) is conjugate acid of aconitate(3 ... CHEBI:22211 - aconitic acid. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... aconitate(3−) (CHEBI:22210) is conjugate base of aconitic acid (CHEBI:22211). ...
Aconitic acid is an organic acid. The two isomers are cis-aconitic acid and trans-aconitic acid. The conjugate base of cis- ... Aconitic acid can be synthesized by dehydration of citric acid using sulfuric acid: (HO2CCH2)2COH(CO2H) → HO2CCH=C(CO2H)CH2CO2H ... aconitic acid, cis-aconitate is an intermediate in the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. It is ... "Aconitic Acid - Compound Summary (CID 309)". PubChem. Dawson, R. M. C.; Elliott, D. C.; Elliott, W. H. (1989). Data for ...
... aconitic acid, citric acid, sebacic acid and glycerol by melt condensation method, followed by post polymerisation. The ... aconitic acid, citric acid, sebacic acid and glycerol by melt condensation method, followed by post polymerisation. The ... Synthesis, Characterisation, Biological and Molecular Docking Studies of Aconitic Acid Based Co-Polyester ...
trans-Aconitic acid-based hetero-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of thiopyrano[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole derivatives. ... trans-Aconitic acid-based hetero-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of thiopyrano[2,3-d][1,3]thiazole derivatives ... The hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 5-arylideneisorhodanines with trans-aconitic acid proceeds as a regio- and ... Conversely, the one-pot, three-component reaction of 5-arylideneisorhodanines, trans-aconitic acid and anilines proceeded ...
Achilleic Acid , Acid, Achilleic , Acid, Aconitic , Acid, Acontic , Acid, Adonic , Acid, Carboxyglutaconic , Acid, Citridic , ... Acontic Acid , Adonic Acid , Carboxyglutaconic Acid , Citridic Acid , Citridinic Acid , Equisetic Acid , Pyrocitric Acid ... Acid, Citridinic , Acid, Equisetic , Acid, Pyrocitric , Aconitate , ... A tricarboxylic acid with the formula (COOH)-CH2-C(COOH)=CH-COOH.. ...
cis-Aconitic acid. Description. cis-Aconitic acid is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle produced by the ... Showing metabocard for cis-Aconitic acid (LMDB00032). IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectraBiological ... This compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as tricarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are carboxylic ... catalyses the stereo-specific isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. ...
... cis-Aconitic acid, and Isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which ... Citric acid (aka Citrate), cis-Aconitic acid, and Isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid ... High amounts of dietary citric acid. *Metabolic acidosis (if mildly increased cis-aconitic acid but markedly increased citric ... OR high amounts of dietary citric acid; OR metabolic acidosis (if mildly increased cis-aconitic acid but markedly increased ...
Aconitic Acid 41 499-12-7 1974 1 184.1007 PB254534 Adipic acid 80 124-04-9 1976 1 184.1009 PB266279 ...
Plasma-amino-acids-imbalance-in-cirrhotic-patients-disturbs-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-of-srep03459-s2.ogv 2.6 s, 640 × 480; ... tricarboxylic acid cycle A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively ... ciclo de Krebs (es); Sítrónsýruhringur (is); Kitar Krebs (ms); citric acid cycle (en-gb); د سېټريک اسيد څرخ (ps); Цикъл на ... Media in category "Citric acid cycle". The following 180 files are in this category, out of 180 total. ...
Absorption of tricarballylic acid from the rumen of sheep and cattle fed forages containing trans-aconitic acid ... Absorption of tricarballylic acid from the rumen of sheep and cattle fed forages containing trans-aconitic acid. Journal of the ... Some forages accumulate high concentrations (,5% of dry matter) of trans-aconitate, and this acid has been implicated in Mg ...
Almodares A, Ranjbar M, Hadi M R. Effects of nitrogen treatments and harvesting stages on the aconitic acid, invert sugar and ... Plant harvested at 4 leaf stage had the highest aconitic acid (0.26%) and the highest invert sugar (3.85%). Rio had higher ... In general, since high invert sugar and high aconitic acid interfere crystallization of sugar so, it is suggested that to plant ... This study was carried out to evaluate the effects, three nitrogen treatments, and three harvesting stages on the aconitic acid ...
Aconitic acid. R,T. 642. 3-Phenylpropyl hexanoate. R,T. 645. 3-Phenylpropionaldehyde. R. ... 3-Oxodecanoic acid glyceride. 914. N, T. Evaluation not finalizedb. 3-Oxododecanoic acid glyceride. 915. N, T. Evaluation not ... 3-Oxooctanoic acid glyceride. 911. N, T. No safety concern. Heptanal glyceryl acetal (mixed 1,2 and 1,3 acetals). 912. N. No ... 3-Oxotetradecanoic acid glyceride. 916. N, T. Evaluation not finalizedb. 4-Methyl-2-pentyl-1,3-dioxolane. 928. N. No safety ...
... trans aconitic acid, tributyl ester ... 1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, tributyl ester. *Formula: C ... Other names: Tributyl aconitate; Tri-n-butyl aconitate; 1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, tris(N.-butyl ester); 1,2,3- ... Propenetricarboxylic acid, tributyl ester; Tributyl (1z)-1-propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylate; tributyl prop-1-ene-1,2,3- ...
Synonym(s): cis-aconitic acid. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit ... Dehydration product of citrate; an enzyme-bound intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. ...
0.523 g citric acid as a hematocrit adjuster. 0.2 M Aconitic acid buffer. ... amino acids, chitosan(amino sugar), dextrans, citric acid, phytic acid and malic acid. These materials may be enhanced through ... sulfonic acid (ABTS); 4AAP and 4-methoxynaphthol; pyrogallol red(PGR); bromopyrogallol red (BPR); acid green 25 (AG); MBTH and ... 3-dimethylaminobenzoic acid (DMAB), MBTH combined with 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzene-sulfonic acid (DCHBS); 4-aminoantipyrene ( ...
... citraconic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid and mesaconic acid; tricarboxylic acids such as tricarballylic acid, aconitic acid ... malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, sebacic acid, brassylic acid ... acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, pivalic acid, caproic acid, diethylacetic acid, enanthic acid and ... mandelic acid; phenylsuccinic acid; atropic acid; cinnamic acid; cinnamylidenic acid; coumaric acid; umbellic acid; and the ...
Characterizing MttA as a mitochondrial cis-aconitic acid transporter by metabolic engineering. ... Organic acids from lignocellulose: Candida lignohabitans as a new microbial cell factory. ... Engineering of the citrate exporter protein enables high citric acid production in Aspergillus niger. ...
The properties and reaction mechanism of cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase". J. Biol. Chem. 226 (2): 703-20. PMID 13438855. ... This enzyme participates in c5-branched dibasic acid metabolism. BENTLEY R, THIESSEN CP (1957). "Biosynthesis of itaconic acid ... Other names in common use include cis-aconitic decarboxylase, CAD, cis-aconitate carboxy-lyase, and cis-aconitate carboxy-lyase ...
aconitic acid. FL. cinnamyl butyrate. FL/FR. methyl nonanoate. FL/FR. valeraldehyde. FL/FR. ...
Aconitic Acid. • dl-Alanine. • Alfalfa Extract. • Allspice Extract,Oleoresin, and Oil. • Allyl Hexanoate. • Allyl Ionone. • ... 2-Methylheptanoic Acid. • 2-Methylhexanoic Acid. • 3-Methylpentanoic Acid. • 4-Methylpentanoic Acid. • 2-Methylpyrazine. • 5- ... Hexanoic Acid. • 2-Hexen-1-Ol. • 3-Hexen-1-Ol. • cis-3-Hexen-1-Yl Acetate. • 2-Hexenal. • 3-Hexenoic Acid. • trans-2-Hexenoic ... Ascorbic Acid. • 1-Asparagine Monohydrate. • 1-Aspartic Acid. • Balsam Peru and Oil. • Basil Oil. • Bay Leaf, Oil and Sweet Oil ...
... fumaric acid; glycidyl acrylate, itaconic acid; aconitic acid; maleimide; maleic hydrazide; reaction products resulting from a ... t-ethylacrylic acid, pentenoic acid); decenoic acids, undecenoic acids, dodecenoic acids, linoleic acid, etc.); esters, acid ... maleic acid amide; unsaturated dicarboxylic acids (e.g., acrylic acid, butenoic acid, methacrylic acid, ... Suitable polycarboxylic acids include, for example, citric acid, malic acid, agaricic acid; including the various commercial ...
Aconitic acid (equisetic acid, citridic acid, achilleic acid). *Anethole (parapropenyl anisole). *Benzaldehyde (benzoic ... 3-Methyl-3-phenyl glycidic acid ethyl ester (ethyl-methyl-phenyl-glycidate, so-called strawberry aldehyde, C-16 aldehyde) ...
Aconitic acid (equisetic acid, citridic acid, achilleic acid). *Anethole (parapropenyl anisole). *Benzaldehyde (benzoic ... For now, products with synthetic vitamins, minerals, and amino acid supplements will remain on our shelves because they are ... 3-Methyl-3-phenyl glycidic acid ethyl ester (ethyl-methyl-phenyl-glycidate, so-called strawberry aldehyde, C-16 aldehyde). ...
Suitable polycarboxylic acids include saturated, unsaturated and aromatic acids, as well as alpha-hydroxy acids. The textiles ... Catalysts for the rapid esterification and crosslinking of fibrous cellulose in textile form by polycarboxylic acids at ... citraconic acid; citric acid; itaconic acid; tricarballylic acid; trans-aconitic acid; 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid; all- ... sup.c trans-Aconitic acid in the common name of this acid. .sup.d Mellitic Acid in the common name of this acid. .sup.e Same ...
  • These are carboxylic acids containing exactly three carboxyl groups. (lmdb.ca)
  • Art-recognized discoloration of water-based coatings due to uneven leaching of chromophoric substances, such as natural tannins, is eliminated by contacting the surface with a water soluble anti-leachate compound selected from the group consisting of carboxylic acid salts, mono/polyfunctional amines and amine derivatives and their acid addition salts. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. The composition of claim 1 wherein the carboxylic acid salt is an alkali metal salt of a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 monobasic or dibasic carboxylic acid. (patentgenius.com)
  • More particularly the invention relates to polymer latices of lower acrylate ester/alpha, beta-olefinically unsaturated N-alkylol amide copolymers overpolymerized with an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid. (google.de)
  • and then overpolymerizing about (Ll-10% by Weight of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer when the polymerization of the base polymer has reached at least about 50% completion. (google.de)
  • In organic chemistry , Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) , as organic compounds are 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acids , that have an open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Blazeck J, Hill A, Jamoussi M, Pan A, Miller J, Alper HS (2015) Metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for itaconic acid production. (springer.com)
  • We have previously shown that expression of cadA from A. terreus results in itaconic acid production in A. niger AB1.13, albeit at low levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have overexpressed citB in a AB1.13 CAD + MFS + MTT strain and by doing so hypothesize to have targeted itaconic acid production to the cytosolic compartment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The product of the further transformation of isocitric acid by the action of the corresponding dehydrogenase is apparently oxalosuccinic acid, the decarboxylation of which (the second CO 2 molecule) leads to α-ketoglutaric acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Builder compounds have been found to have some effect, for instance, in such areas as stabilization of solid soil suspension, emulsification of soil particles, the surface activity of aqueous detergent solutions, solubilization of water-insoluble materials, foaming or sud producing characteristics of the washing solution, peptization of soil agglomerates, neutralization of acid soil, and the inactivation of mineral constituents present in the washing solution. (google.es)
  • 9. A method as claimed in claim 8 wherein said acid monomer is a mixture of compounds wherein R.sup.5 is hydrogen and compounds wherein R.sup.5 is methyl. (patentgenius.com)
  • Four kainic acid (KA, 1)-related compounds, 4-hydroxykainic acid (2), allo-4-hydroxykainic acid (3), N-dimethylallyl-l-glutamic acid (4), and N-dimethylallyl-threo-3-hydroxyglutamic acid (5), were isolated from the red alga Digenea simplex. (usda.gov)
  • At the high degrees of hydrolysis then necessary to solubliize all the polymer, the resulting polymer is more akin to a salt of polyacrylic acid than to a polyacrylate. (google.com.au)
  • 6. The electrode according to claim 5 wherein said polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol. (google.com.au)
  • 7. The electrode according to claim 6 wherein said acrylic acid polymer is plasticized with glycerol. (google.com.au)
  • Itaconic acid is one of the basic chemicals for the polymer industry, which can be produced on the basis of renewable raw materials. (springer.com)
  • The dispersing polymer is derived from monomers consisting essentially of an ethylenically unsaturated aromatic monomer having an unsubstituted ethylenic group, an ethylenically unsaturated aromatic monomer having an alkyl-substituted ethylenic group, and an ethylenically unsaturated acid monomer. (patentgenius.com)
  • The amount of the ethylenically unsaturated acid monomer is sufficient to permit the dispersing polymer to associate with an inorganic pigment in an aqueous medium in a manner which disperses the inorganic pigment in the aqueous medium to form a stable aqueous dispersion of said inorganic pigment. (patentgenius.com)
  • 20. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein said dispersing polymer has an acid value of less than about 250. (patentgenius.com)
  • 21. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein said dispersing polymer has an acid value of about 110 to about 240. (patentgenius.com)
  • For this purpose, a simple and fast liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the analysis of organic acids in the hydrolysate has been developed using an ion exchange column based on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene polymer frequently used in biofuel research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preferred polymer latices contain about 75-95% by weight of the lower alkyl acrylate ester, about 1-7 by weight N-methylol acrylamide or N-methylol methacrylamide, 0.56% by Weight acrylic and/or methacrylic acid and less than 15% by weight of other polymerizable monomers. (google.de)
  • Usually it is pyruvic acid (pyruvate), which is formed during glycolysis in transamination reactions and which occupies a central position in intersecting metabolic pathways, that is pointed to as the source material for acetyl CoA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pyruvic Acid 8x, 12x, 30x. (pets4homeopathy.com)
  • In the first phase glucose molecule partially breaks down to form 2 molecules of 3-carbon compound pyruvic acid. (biologyeducare.com)
  • In this stage pyruvic acid is completely oxidized to form CO 2 , H 2 O and ATP. (biologyeducare.com)
  • Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway where one molecule of glucose(C 6 H 12 O 6 ) converts into pyruvic acid by the help of enzyme. (biologyeducare.com)
  • 8. 2 phosphoglyceric acid is then converted to form 2 phosphoenol pyruvic acid with the help of enzyme enolase which gives out one molecule of water. (biologyeducare.com)
  • 9. It is the last step of glycolysis where 2 phosphoenol pyruvic acid is converted to form pyruvic acid by the removal of phosphorus thus one molecule of ATP is synthesized from ADP. (biologyeducare.com)
  • The enzyme catalyzing this step is pyruvic acid kinase. (biologyeducare.com)
  • So in the overall process, two molecules of pyruvic acid is formed from each molecule of glucose. (biologyeducare.com)
  • 5% of dry matter) of trans-aconitate, and this acid has been implicated in Mg chelation and the occurrence of grass tetany in ruminants. (usda.gov)
  • Other names in common use include cis-aconitic decarboxylase, CAD, cis-aconitate carboxy-lyase, and cis-aconitate carboxy-lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • If they are low they can indicate a need for essential amino acids, especially arginine. (healthmatters.io)
  • These amino acids then serve as scaffolds for eight additional biological amino acids, as well as pyrimidine nucleobases 12 . (nature.com)
  • In a similar functional role as the TCA cycle, the protometabolic cycle intermediates also serve as a source of amino acids. (nature.com)
  • In protein science , an Imino Acid (Secondary Amino Acid) is a molecule, related to amino acids (differing in the bonding to the nitrogen), that contains both an imino (>C=NH) and a carboxyl (-C(=O)-OH) functional group, which occurs as either an acyclic acid or a cyclic imino acid . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • The ADI was withdrawn because the specifications for tartaric, acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol, mixed, were combined with those of diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol under the latter name at the fifty-first meeting (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 891, 2000). (inchem.org)
  • However, the oxidation of pyruvate is by no means the only pathway for the formation of acetyl CoA, which is a characteristic product of the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids (thiolase enzyme), as well as of the reverse condensation reaction of the citric acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition to silica, horsetail contains large amounts of potassium as well as aconitic acid, equiaitinee, starch and many fatty acids. (appropedia.org)
  • Aconitic acid can be synthesized by dehydration of citric acid using sulfuric acid: (HO2CCH2)2COH(CO2H) → HO2CCH=C(CO2H)CH2CO2H + H2O It was first prepared by thermal dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1955 ). Although some citric acid is produced by solid-state fermentation, the estimated 2.1 million tons of citric acid manufactured annually is almost completely performed by the submerged method, most typically batch wise (Cavallo et al. (springer.com)
  • More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the development of lignocellulosic biofuels a common strategy to release hemicellulosic sugars and enhance the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose is the heat pretreatment of biomass with dilute acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presented LC/MS method involving only simple sample preparation (filtration and dilution) and external calibration for the analysis of 24 organic acids present in dilute acid pretreated biomass hydrolysate is fast (12 min) and reasonably sensitive despite the small injection volume of 2 μL used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have shown that the analysis of the profile of 24 organic acids present in biomass hydrolysate can be achieved by a simple LC/MS method applying external calibration and minimal sample preparation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dilute acid pretreatment is the most common pretreatment method and results in an almost complete solubilization of hemicellulose and a high enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose in the pretreated biomass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Numerous genes presumed to be involved in mobilizing and recycling nitrogen were expressed under nitrogen limitation, and among these were several secreted glutamic acid proteases not previously observed. (asm.org)
  • We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to evaluate major metabolic fluctuations in 76 organic acids present in urine from 156 children with ASD and from 64 non-autistic children. (frontiersin.org)
  • Substitutionsproducte der Citronensäure und ein Versuch zur Synthese der letzteren" [Substitution products of citric acid and an attempt at the synthesis of the latter]. (wikipedia.org)
  • This acid is a good starting base for vitamin C synthesis. (purdue.edu)
  • These results implicate that glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration and uronic acid pathway oscillate in phase with ATP oscillations, while PPRP and nucleotides synthesis pathways oscillate in antiphase with ATP oscillations. (hindawi.com)
  • Mitochondria store the majority of cellular calcium, play an important role during apoptosis, heat production, membrane potential, and harbor important catabolic and anabolic pathways such as TCA cycle, beta oxidation, amino acid, and heme synthesis pathways ( 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Malic Acid 8x, 12x, 30x. (pets4homeopathy.com)
  • Analyte recoveries obtained from a spiked hydrolysate were in the range of 70 to 130% of the theoretical yield, except for glyoxylic acid, malic acid, and malonic acid, which showed a higher response due to signal enhancement. (biomedcentral.com)