A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.
Specialized hospital facilities which provide intensive care for burn patients.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.
The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.

Distribution of beta-lactamases in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates and the effect of Syn 2190 (AmpC inhibitor) on the MICs of different beta-lactam antibiotics. (1/853)

The distribution of beta-lactamases in a group of 20 epidemiologically well defined Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates and the in vitro activity of Syn 2190, a novel beta-lactamase AmpC inhibitor, were determined. Twenty-five per cent of the strains carried and expressed a TEM-type beta-lactamase, whereas 35% had an OXA-type beta-lactamase. In nine out of 11 (82%) ceftazidime-resistant and four out of 13 (30.7%) cefepime-resistant strains, the MIC of these beta-lactam antibiotics decreased when determined in the presence of Syn 2190. Thus, our results suggest that in a high percentage of A. baumannii clinical isolates the increased production of AmpC, in combination or not with other resistance mechanisms, contributes to the resistance pattern in A. baumannii to beta-lactams.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of integrons in epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Italian hospitals reveals a limited diversity of gene cassette arrays. (2/853)

Integron carriage by 36 epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected over an 11-year period from patients in six different Italian hospitals was investigated. Sixteen type 1 integron-positive isolates (44%) were found, 13 of which carried the same array of cassettes, i.e., aacC1, orfX, orfX', and aadA1a. As ribotype analysis of the isolates demonstrated a notable genetic diversity, horizontal transfer of the entire integron structure or ancient acquisition was hypothesized.  (+info)

Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii insertion derivatives generated with a transposome system. (3/853)

Acinetobacter baumannii is a metabolically versatile pathogen that causes severe infections in compromised patients. However, little is known about the genes and factors involved in its basic physiology and virulence properties. Insertion mutagenesis was used to initiate the identification and characterization of some of these factors and genes in the prototype strain 19606. The utilization of the pLOFKm suicide delivery vector, which harbors a suicide mini-Tn10 derivative, proved to be unsuccessful for this purpose. The EZ::TN Tnp transposome system available from Epicentre was then used in conjunction with electroporation to generate isogenic insertional derivatives of A. baumannii 19606. Replica plating showed that 2% of the colonies that grew after electroporation on agar plates without antibiotics also grew in the presence of 40 micro g of kanamycin per ml. DNA hybridization proved that all of the kanamycin-resistant derivatives contained the EZ::TN insertion element, which was mapped to different genomic locations. Replica plating on Simmons citrate agar and microtiter plate-plastic tube assays identified growth- and biofilm-defective derivatives, respectively. The location of the insertion in several of these derivatives was determined by self-ligation of NdeI- or EcoRI-digested genomic DNA and electroporation of Escherichia coli TransforMax EC100D (pir(+)). Sequence analysis of the recovered plasmids showed that some of the A. baumannii 19606 growth-defective derivatives contain insertions within genes encoding activities required for the generation of energy and cell wall components and for the biosynthesis of amino acids and purines. A gene encoding a protein similar to the GacS sensor kinase was interrupted in four derivatives, while another had an insertion in a gene coding for a hypothetical sensor kinase. A. baumannii 19606 derivatives with defective attachment or biofilm phenotypes had insertions within genes that appear to be part of a chaperone-usher transport system described for other bacteria. DNA hybridization experiments showed that the presence of strain 19606 genes encoding regulatory and attachment or biofilm functions is widespread among other A. baumannii clinical isolates.  (+info)

Comparison of a repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR method and clinical and microbiological methods for determining strain sources in cases of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia. (4/853)

Using a repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), we genotypically characterized strains causing nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii infections and analyzed the source of bacteremia in 67 patients from an institution in which infections by this bacterium were endemic. Six different genotypes were found, including 21, 27, 3, 9, 3, and 4 strains. The probable source of bacteremia, according to clinical and/or microbiological criteria, was known in 42 patients (63%): respiratory tract (n = 19), surgical sites (n = 12), intravascular catheters (n = 5), burns (n = 3), and urinary tract (n = 3). The definite source of bacteremia, according to REP-PCR, could be established in 30 (71%) out of the 42 patients with strains from blood and other sites; in these cases clinical and microbiological criteria for the source of bacteremia were thus confirmed. In the remaining 12 patients (29%) the probable source was refuted by the REP-PCR method. The definite sources of bacteremia according to genotype were as follows: respiratory tract in 13 patients (31%), surgical sites in 8 (19%), intravascular catheters in 4 (9%), burns in 3 (7%), and urinary tract in 2 (5%). A comparison of strains from blood cultures and other sites with regard to their REP-PCR and antimicrobial resistance profiles was also made. Taking the REP-PCR as the "gold standard," the positive predictive value of antibiotype was 77% and the negative predictive value was 42%. In summary, the utility of the diagnosis of the source of nosocomial A. baumannii bacteremia using clinical and/or microbiological criteria, including antibiotyping, is limited, as demonstrated by REP-PCR.  (+info)

Endemic carbapenem resistance associated with OXA-40 carbapenemase among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a hospital in northern Spain. (5/853)

Eighty-two carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from a single hospital in Bilbao were typed into two major clusters and several subclusters. Disk synergy tests and PCR indicated the production of a zinc-independent OXA-class carbapenemase. Sequencing identified this enzyme, OXA-40, as a variant of the OXA-24-OXA-25-OXA-26 cluster.  (+info)

Loss of a 29-kilodalton outer membrane protein in Acinetobacter baumannii is associated with imipenem resistance. (6/853)

We analyzed the possible causes of imipenem (IPM) resistance in multidrug-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Comparison of the outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles of two genomically related strains (Ab288 [IPM sensitive] and Ab242 [IPM resistant]) indicated the conspicuous loss of a 29-kDa polypeptide in the Ab242 strain. No carbapenemase activity was detected in any of these strains. The treatment of Ab288 with sodium salicylate resulted in IPM resistance and the loss of the 29-kDa OMP. In addition, IPM-resistant clones of Ab288 which were selected by repetitive culturing in increasing concentrations of this antibiotic also showed the absence of this 29-kDa OMP.  (+info)

Genetic and functional analysis of the chromosome-encoded carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinase OXA-40 of Acinetobacter baumannii. (7/853)

Clinical isolate Acinetobacter baumannii CLA-1 was resistant to a series of antibiotic molecules, including carbapenems. Cloning and expression of the beta-lactamase gene content of this isolate in Escherichia coli DH10B identified a chromosome-encoded oxacillinase, OXA-40, that differed by one or two amino acid changes from OXA-24, -25, and -26 and an AmpC-type cephalosporinase. The OXA-40 beta-lactamase had a mainly narrow-spectrum hydrolytic profile, but it included ceftazidime and imipenem. Its activity was resistant to inhibition by clavulanic acid, tazobactam, sulbactam, and, like most of the other carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases, NaCl. OXA-40 had an FGN triad replacing a YGN motif at class D beta-lactamase (DBL) positions 144 to 146. Site-directed DNA mutagenesis leading to a Phe-to-Tyr change at DBL position 144 in OXA-40 gave a mutant enzyme with increased hydrolytic activity against most beta-lactams, including imipenem. Conversely, with a gene encoding the narrow-spectrum oxacillinase OXA-1 as the template, a nucleotide substitution leading to a Tyr-to-Phe change in the YGN motif of OXA-1 gave a mutant enzyme with decreased hydrolytic activity without an increase in carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity. Thus, the Phe residue in the FGN motif was not associated with carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity by itself but instead was associated with weak overall hydrolytic activity. Finally, this Phe residue in OXA-40 explained resistance to inhibition by NaCl whereas a Tyr residue in motif YGN was related to susceptibility to NaCl.  (+info)

Relationship between beta-lactamase production, outer membrane protein and penicillin-binding protein profiles on the activity of carbapenems against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. (8/853)

Twenty blood isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were studied, representing eight pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and all different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns observed during 1995-97 at the University Hospital Virgen Macarena, Seville, Spain. The MIC(90)s (mg/L) of imipenem and meropenem decreased from 16 to 0.5 and from 8 to 4, respectively, in the presence of BRL 42715 (BRL) but not clavulanic acid. Hydrolysing activity (nmol/min/mg) of bacterial supernatants against cefaloridine ranged from 8.8 to 552.3 for A. baumannii type I (imipenem MICs < or = 2), which expressed only a beta-lactamase of pI > or = 9, and from 12.3 to 1543.5 for A. baumannii type II (imipenem MICs > or = 4), which expressed a beta-lactamase of pI > or = 9 and two others of pI 6.3 and 7. The hydrolysing activities of A. baumannii type II against imipenem, meropenem and oxacillin were higher than those observed for A. baumannii type I. Ten outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles (A. baumannii types I and II) were visualized on 10% SDS-PAGE gels with 6 M urea, whereas only five OMP profiles (A. baumannii types I and II) were differentiated in 12% SDS-PAGE gels. Five A. baumannii with OMP profile type B, characterized by the absence of a 22.5 kDa OMP, were resistant to meropenem and/or imipenem. Twelve penicillin-binding protein (PBP) patterns were observed. PBP patterns of A. baumannii type II were characterized by the absence of a 73.2 kDa band (PBP 2). We concluded that production of beta-lactamases of pI 6.3 and 7.0 and reduced expression of PBP 2 are the most frequently observed mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems. In some isolates, loss of a 22.5 kDa OMP is also related to resistance to carbapenems.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental exposure to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as a risk factor for patient Acquisition of A. baumannii. AU - Rosa, Rossana. AU - Arheart, Kristopher L.. AU - Depascale, Dennise. AU - Cleary, Timothy. AU - Kett, Daniel H.. AU - Namias, Nicholas. AU - Pizano, Louis. AU - Fajardo-Aquino, Yovanit. AU - Silvia Munoz-Price, L.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - We aimed to determine the association between environmental exposure to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and the subsequent risk of acquiring this organism. Patients exposed to a contaminated hospital environment had 2.77 times the risk of acquiring carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii than did unexposed patients (relative risk, 2.77 [95% confidence interval, 1.50-5.13]; P p.002).. AB - We aimed to determine the association between environmental exposure to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and the subsequent risk of acquiring this organism. Patients exposed to a contaminated hospital ...
Objectives. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strain HK302 was isolated from an outbreak of nosocomial infections in Switzerland in 1977. The aim of the present study was to assess whether this archive strain belongs to one of the known international clonal lineages of Acinetobacter baumannii and whether it harbours a genomic structure related to the AbaR1-like resistance islands.. Methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and HindIII ribotyping were used to determine the taxonomic position of HK302 at the species and subspecies (clonal) levels. The position and structure of the putative resistance island were investigated by AbaR1-based PCR mapping followed by restriction analysis and partial sequencing of amplicons. A. baumannii AYE harbouring AbaR1 was used as a positive control for PCR mapping.. Results. The MLST allelic profile (1-1-1-1-5-1-1) and HindIII ribotype of HK302 were typical of A. baumannii European (EU) clone I. In addition, an AbaR1-related region inserted into the ATPase gene ...
Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is a global problem. The purpose of this study was to elucidate current resistance mechanisms of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) in Taiwan and their correlation with patient outcomes. Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from two teaching hospitals in Taiwan were collected in 2009 and were examined by Etest for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Primers specific for carbapenemase genes and upstream regions were designed for PCR amplification. Bacterial isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Clinical presentations of patients were analysed retrospectively. Upstream insertion sequence ISAba1 was found in 34 isolates that carried bla(OXA-23), including 28 with transposon Tn2006 (ISAba1-bla(OXA-23)-ISAba1) in an AbaR4-type resistance island and 6 with Tn2008 (ISAba1-bla(OXA-23)), as well as in 8 isolates carrying ISAba1-bla(OXA-51-like). All ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this multiple-hospital study was to investigate the prevalence of integrons in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) in Eastern China, and characterize the integron-integrase genes, so as to provide evidence for the management and appropriate antibiotic use of MDRAB infections.. METHODS: A total of 425 clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected from 16 tertiary hospitals in 11 cities of four provinces (Fujian, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shandong) from January 2009 to June 2012. The susceptibility of A. baumannii isolates to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, aztreonam, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole/trimenthoprim, minocycline and imipenem was tested, and integrons and their gene cassettes were characterized in these isolates using PCR assay. In addition, integron-positive A. baumannii isolates were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) ...
Nosocomial pathogens can be associated with a variety of infections, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs) and in immunocompromised patients. Usually these pathogens are resistant to multiple drugs and pose therapeutic challenges. Among these organisms, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most frequent being encountered in the clinical setting. Carbapenems are very useful to treat infections caused by these drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli, but carbapenem resistance is increasing globally. Combination therapy is frequently given empirically for hospital-acquired infections in critically ill patients and is usually composed of an adequate beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of plazomicin against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Amikacin was used as a comparator. The activity of plazomicin in combination with several different antibiotics was tested by disk diffusion, the checkerboard method, and time-kill ...
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which is establishing as a major cause of morbidity and mortality within the healthcare community. The success of this pathogen is largely due to its ability to rapidly gain resistance to antimicrobial therapies and its capability to persist in an abiotic environment through the production of a biofilm. Our tertiary-care hospital has showed high incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates. In this study we explore both genotypic and phenotypic properties of 26 CRAB isolates: 16 isolates were collected from January 2010 to March 2011, and 10 were collected between February and May 2015. We determined that all 26 CRAB isolates possessed multiple β-lactamase genes, including genes from Groups A, C, and D. Specifically, 42% of the isolates possesses the potentially plasmid-borne genes of OXA-23-like or OXA-40-like β-lactamase. The presence of mobile gene element integron cassettes and/or integrases
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the top-ranked pathogen in the World Health Organization priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It emerged as a global pathogen due to the successful expansion of a few epidemic lineages, or international clones (ICs), producing acquired class D carbapenemases (OXA-type). During the past decade, however, reports regarding IC-I isolates in Latin America are scarce and are non-existent for IC-II and IC-III isolates. This study evaluates the molecular mechanisms of carbapenem resistance and the epidemiology of 80 non-duplicate clinical samples of A. baumannii collected from February 2014 through April 2016 at two tertiary care hospitals in Lima. Almost all isolates were carbapenem-resistant (97.5%), and susceptibility only remained high for colistin (95%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed two main clusters spread between both hospitals: cluster D containing 51 isolates (63.8%) associated with sequence type 2 (ST2) and carrying OXA-72, ...
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection has presented a global medical challenge. The antibiograms of paired colistin-susceptible and -resistant strains revealed increased susceptibility of colistin-resistant strains to most tested antibiotics, including those that are active against only gram-positive bacteria. Synergy between colistin and rifampicin was observed in the colistin-susceptible strains. The ability to form biofilm in the colistin-resistant strains was significantly lower (P , .001) than in the parent strains. Our study provides valuable information for potential expansion of our current therapeutic options against colistin-resistant A. baumannii infection.. ...
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is becoming increasingly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus in the Middle East. We examined the relationship of these bacteria and their resistance mechanisms to the diabetic disease status of patients in Saudi Arabia. Susceptibilities of 271 isolates to carbapenems, tigecycline and colistin were determined, followed by detection of carbapenemase genes. A blaVIM gene was detected in ~95 % of isolates; blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-40 genes were also prevalent. Diabetic patients were significantly more likely to carry carbapenem-resistant isolates. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii is a serious problem in diabetic patients, and molecular detection of resistance mechanisms in these isolates is required.. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Desiccation tolerance assays for acinetobacter baumannii. AU - Wang, Xun. AU - Trent, M. Stephen. AU - Davies, Bryan William. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Acinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-associated pathogen of growing importance and is a paradigm for endemic hospital contamination. Desiccation tolerance has been implicated as an important characteristic that potentiates the spread of A. baumannii in clinical settings through contaminated healthcare equipment and personnel. Desiccation is a multifaceted stress, and many physiological and environmental factors can influence its impact on bacterial survival. This chapter provides a protocol for assessing desiccation survival that facilitates comparisons among A. baumannii strains under various environmental conditions.. AB - Acinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-associated pathogen of growing importance and is a paradigm for endemic hospital contamination. Desiccation tolerance has been implicated as an important ...
Carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is most often associated with class D β-lactamases (OXA-23-like, OXA-40-like and OXA-58-like) and MBLs. OXA-type carbapenemases are predominant in A. baumannii, particularly in worldwide outbreaks of OXA-23 [24]. The molecular analysis of the isolates tested in this study revealed that 14 strains (51.8 %) carried the blaOXA-23-like gene and that two strains carried a blaOXA-24-like gene. All of the strains had a blaOXA-51-like gene, and four strains had a blaOXA-58 gene. In this study, the OXA-58 isolates presented lower MIC values for meropenem than OXA-23-like-positive isolates, which systematically exhibited higher MIC values (Table 1). The isolates with non-acquired OXA genes displayed a marked variation and included some carbapenem-resistant genes. Naturally occurring OXA carbapenemases, such as OXA-51-like enzymes (e.g., OXA 64-66, OXA 68-71, OXA 78-80, OXA-82, OXA-86, OXA-92 and OXA104-112), have been identified in A. baumannii isolates worldwide. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Variations in IS6 promoters alter the expression of carbapenem resistance in related strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. AU - Al-Hassan, Leena. AU - Opazo, Andres. AU - Lopes, Bruno S. AU - Mahallawy, Hadir El. AU - Amyes, Sebastian G B. N1 - The authors are thankful to the hospital staff at The Childrens Cancer Hospital and The National Cancer Institute (Cairo, Egypt) for providing the samples and allowing part of the work to be undertaken at their centres.. PY - 2015/3. Y1 - 2015/3. N2 - The aim of this work was to investigate the role of the IS6 family of insertion sequences present upstream of blaOXA-58 in two clonally related carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from paediatric cancer patients in Egypt. To determine their relatedness, the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the intrinsic blaOXA-51-like gene was amplified and sequenced. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to imipenem and meropenem was determined ...
Acinetobacter baumannii has been increasingly reported in the outbreak of nosocomial infections in the intensive care units, which not only prolong the length of hospital stay but result in high attributable mortality. With its intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobial agents and rapid acquirement of resistance mechanism, resistance to carbapenems, which is often accompanied with resistance to multiple drugs, has emerged worldwide. The limited treatment choice included tigecycline, colistin, and sulbactam. However, the low serum level and bacteriostatic nature of tigecycline hamper its application in blood stream infection, one of the most common presentations of A. baumannii infections. The nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity of intravenous colistin have caused great concerns in critically ill patients whereas immediate bronchospasm after inhalation and significant clinical consequences have been reported. Sulbactam has been used for decades in combination of ampicillin and well tolerated. ...
Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC ® 43498™ Designation: S2 TypeStrain=False Application: Assay of cefoperazone Assay of sulbactam Quality control of cefoperazone/sulbactam
TY - JOUR. T1 - Integron-associated imipenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from a regional hospital in Taiwan. AU - Liu, S. Y.. AU - Lin, J. Y.. AU - Chu, C.. AU - Su, L. H.. AU - Lin, T. Y.. AU - Chiu, C. H.. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - We investigated the genetic properties of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii collected from a regional hospital in Taiwan. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the isolates were genetically diverse. Polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridisation showed that the blaIMP-1 gene resided as a cassette in a plasmid-borne class 1 integron in two isolates. The majority of the resistant isolates were plasmid-less and carried no blaIMP, blaVIM or bla CFI genes, indicating that other uncharacterised metallo-β- lactamases or mechanisms other than enzyme production are involved in carbapenem resistance in this group of A. baumannii. We conclude that multidrug resistance of A. baumannii was a combined effect of ...
In February 2006, a patient colonized with a multidrug-resistant sequence type 56 Acinetobacter baumannii strain was admitted to a hospital in Madrid, Spain. This strain spread rapidly and caused a large outbreak in the hospital. Clinicians should be ...
PubMedID: 24985124 | Successful management of an outbreak due to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a neonatal intensive care unit. | European journal of pediatrics | 7/2/2014
Identifying Risk Factors for Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
The traditional markerless gene deletion technique based on overlap extension PCR has been used for generating gene deletions in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the method is time-consuming because it requires restriction digestion of the PCR products in DNA cloning and the con …
Acinetobactin is a major siderophore utilized by the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. The rapid acquisition of drug resistance by A. baumannii has garnered concern globally. Herein, acinetobactin and systematically generated analogues were prepared and characterized; the binding and cellular delivery of Fe(III) by the analogues were evaluated. This investigation not only led to the clarification of the physiologically relevant acinetobactin structure but also revealed several key structural elements for its functionality as a siderophore.. ...
Acinetobacter baumannii is nowadays a relevant nosocomial pathogen characterized by multidrug resistance (MDR) and concomitant difficulties to treat infections. OmpA is the most abundant A. baumannii outer membrane (OM) protein, and is involved in virulence, host-cell recognition, biofilm formation, regulation of OM stability, permeability and antibiotic resistance. OmpA members are two‐domain proteins with an N‐terminal eight‐stranded β‐barrel domain with four external loops (ELs) interacting with the environment, and a C‐terminal periplasmic domain binding non‐covalently to the peptidoglycan. Here, we combined data from genome sequencing, phylogenetic and multilocus sequence analyses from 975 strains/isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ACB), 946 from A. baumannii, to explore ompA microevolutionary divergence. Five major ompA variant groups were identified (V1 to V5) in A. baumannii, encompassing 52 different alleles coding for 23 different ...
Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia is becoming more prevalent and is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality. Escalating antibacterial resistance further contributes to therapeutic dilemmas, enhanced infection control support and poorer outcomes in patients infected with these bacteria. A retrospective analysis of patients whose blood cultures produced A. baumannii from January 2007 through January 2013 was performed. Data regarding the epidemiologic features, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcomes of patients with A. baumannii bacteremia were collected and analyzed. Sixty A. baumannii isolates each from a different patient were identified. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (≥3) was the greatest among patients with multi-drug resistance (MDR) compared to intermediate drug resistance (IDR) and pan-sensitive (PS) A. baumannii. The mean APACHE II scores for MDR, IDR and PS A. baumannii bacteremia were 21, 15 and 11, respectively (P < 0.05, MDR v. PS). Seventy-three percent of the isolates were
Acinetobacter baumannii causes severe nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis with high mortality rates. This organism represents an increasing danger for immunocompromised adults, especially since there are an increasing number of resistances against antibiotics. Until now, scientific investigation was mainly focused on taxonomy and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The goal of this project was to analyse the interaction between clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and human cells in order to address the molecular mechanisms causing pathogenicity. Adherence is the first step in colonization of human tissue, and therefore a key event in pathogenesis. To demonstrate the adhesion of bacteria to human cells, a colony counting assay has been established. These experiments used the the type strain of A. baumannii ATCC 19606, as well as clinical isolates. All A. baumannii strains investigated showed adhesion to the lung epithelial cells A549, but the adhesion capacity was ...
Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC ® 19606D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Acinetobacter baumannii strain 2208 TypeStrain=True Application: Food testing
Fig. 1. (a) PFGE analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. (b) Plasmid identification by digestion with S1 nuclease. (c) Hybridization with blaNDM-1 probe. Lanes: 1, A. baumannii AB-I1; 2, AB-I2; 3, AB-I3; 4, AB-I4; 5, AB-I5. Lanes 6 to 8, A. baumannii European clones EC-I (strain RUH-875), EC-II (strain RUH-134), and EC-III (strain RUH-5875), respectively. Bands with white arrows indicate the presence of plasmids without signal hybridization with the blaNDM-1 probe; black arrow indicates the chromosomal position with positive hybridization with the blaNDM-1 probe. ...
Acinetobacter baumannii is currently one of the key nosocomial pathogens causing severe infections; of special concern is its resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and carbapenems, often associated with the few so-called European clones (6, 7, 19). It has two natural -lactamases, an AmpC-like enzyme (Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase [ADC]) (10) and a carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D -lactamase (CHDL; the OXA-51 type) (15), which affect susceptibility upon increased expression due to ISAba1 insertion upstream of their genes (9, 18). Moreover, acquired -lactamases, including metallo-lactamases (MBLs) and four CHDL types, the OXA-23, OXA-24/40, OXA-58, and OXA-143 types, are observed (15). Knowledge of A. baumannii in Poland has been limited to single isolates (9, 14, 21); our aim was to analyze a bigger group of A. baumannii strains. (Part of this work was presented at the 22nd European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, London, United Kingdom, 31 March to 3
To understand the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and define individual risk factors for MDR, we used epidemiologic methods, performed organism typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and conducted a matched case-control retrospective study. We investigated 118 patients, on 27 wards, in whom MDR A. baumannii was isolated from clinical cultures. Each case-patient had a control without MDR A. baumannii and was matched for hospital length of stay, ward, and calendar time. The epidemiologic investigation found small clusters of up to 6 patients each with no common identified source. Ten different PFGE clones were found, of which 2 dominated. The PFGE pattern differed within temporospatial clusters, and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns varied within and between clones. Multivariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors: male sex, cardiovascular disease, having undergone mechanical ventilation, and having been treated with
Hospital-acquired infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii have become problematic because of high rates of drug resistance. A. baumannii is usually harmless, but it causes sepsis resulting in a high mortality rate in compromised hosts. Therefore, we must consider its interaction with host cells to understand diseases resulting from A. baumannii infection. Neutrophils play a critical role in infective protection against the extracellular growth of bacteria. However, their interactions with A. baumannii remain largely unknown. Recently, a new biological defense mechanism called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been attracting attention. In the present study, we investigated the responsiveness of human neutrophils to A. baumannii focusing on NET formation. The results demonstrated that infective protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa via NETs formation was observed, but for A. baumannii NETs formation did not occur. It seems that the innate infective protection against A. baumannii ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preclinical advantages of intramuscularly administered peptide A3-APO over existing therapies in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections. AU - Ostorhazi, Eszter. AU - Rozgonyi, Ferenc. AU - Sztodola, Andras. AU - Harmos, Ferenc. AU - Kovalszky, Ilona. AU - Szabo, Dora. AU - Knappe, Daniel. AU - Hoffmann, Ralf. AU - Cassone, Marco. AU - Wade, John D.. AU - Bonomo, Robert A.. AU - Otvos, Laszlo. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Objectives: The designer antibacterial peptide A3-APO is efficacious in mouse models of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii systemic infections. Here we compare the efficacy of the peptide with that of imipenem and colistin in A. baumannii wound infections after burn injury. Methods: CD-1 mice were inflicted with burn wounds and different inocula of A. baumannii, isolated from an injured soldier, were placed into the wound sites. The antibiotics were given intramuscularly (im) one to five times. Available free peptide in the blood and the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Danielle M Stacy, Michael A Welsh, Philip N Rather, Helen E Blackwell].
Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii is opportunistic in debilitated hospitalised patients. Because information from some South American countries was previously lacking, this study examined the emergence of multi-resistant A. baumannii in three hospitals in Cochabamba, Bolivia, from 2008 to 2009. Methodology: Multiplex PCR was used to identify the main resistance genes in 15 multi-resistant A. baumannii isolates. RT-PCR was used to measure gene expression. The genetic environment of these genes was also analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for key antibiotics and some were determined in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, 1-(1-napthylmethyl) piperazine. Results: Fourteen strains were found to be multi-resistant. Each strain was found to have the bla(OXA-58) gene with the ISAba3-like element upstream, responsible for over-expression of the latter and subsequent carbapenem resistance. Similarly, ISAba1, upstream of the bla(ADC) ...
Acinetobacter baumannii is a strain of bacteria in the Acinetobacter genus. This genome was published to the ATCC Genome Portal on 2020-08-03
Construction of Integrated Analytic Platform for Acinetobacter Baumannii in Taiwan-Network Analysis and Comparative Genomics Study on Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolates from Taiwan(2/3 ...
Objective To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of tigecycline and other 13 common antimicrobial agents, alone or in combination, against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.MethodsAn in vitro susceptibility test of 101 Acinetobacter baumannii was used to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). A mouse lung infection model of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii,established by the ultrasonic atomization method, was used to define in vivo antimicrobial activities.Results Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii showed high sensitivity to tigecycline (98% inhibition), polymyxin B (78.2% inhibition), and minocycline (74.2% inhibition). However, the use of these antimicrobial agents in combination with other antimicrobial agents produced synergistic or additive effects. In vivo data showed that white blood cell (WBC) counts in drug combination groups C (minocycline + amikacin) and D (minocycline + rifampicin) were significantly higher than in groups A
Patients with AB bacteremia receiving antimicrobial therapy are eligible for this multicenter study. Antimicrobial agents are decided at the discretion of the attending clinical team. Clinical data to be collected include patient demographics (age, gender, underlying diseases, Pitt Bacteremia Score [20], duration of ICU stay and hospitalization before the day of first positive blood culture, central venous catheterization), antimicrobial agents on the day of bacteremia, regimens and durations of combination therapy after enrollment, and outcomes (sequential quantification change of blood A. baumannii polymerase chain reaction [PCR], survival at day 30 after enrollment, and adverse drug reactions of antimicrobial agents). Blood sample will be collected on the day of enrollment (Day 0), Day 1, 2, 3 and 7 for PCR quantification of A. baumannii and for genospecies identification. Primary end points are the interval from study enrollment to negative blood A. baumannii PCR and blood sterilization. ...
In recent years, the number of nosocomial infections caused byAcinetobacter baumannii has increased significantly (4). Many outbreaks have been reported, especially among patients confined to hospital intensive care units, where the widespread use of antibiotics may select multidrug-resistant strains. The difficulty of treating A. baumannii nosocomial infection is associated with the high resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents frequently observed in this species (8). Often, imipenem remains one of the few therapeutic alternatives. Fortunately, imipenem resistance is relatively rare among Acinetobacter clinical isolates. Carbapenem resistance can arise by a decrease in expression of an outer membrane protein (3) or by alteration in penicillin-binding proteins (5). In general, the emergence of carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes has been limited compared to the prevalence of other β-lactamases (1). However, in 1985 in Scotland, anA. baumannii strain that produced a plasmid-mediated ...
Background & objective: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is an important nosocomial pathogen which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in high-risk populations. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) methylation are two important mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtD), and the AME genes [aac(6′)-Ib, aac(3)-I, ant(3′′)-I, aph(3′)-I and aac(6)-Id], among clinical isolates of A. baumannii in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Between November 2015 to July 2016, a total of 110 clinical strains of A. baumannii were isolated from patients in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The presence of genes encoding the AMEs and16S rRNA methylases responsible for resis-tance was investigated by
Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County, California, USA
This unit describes basic protocols for infecting mice through intranasal and intraperitoneal routes with Acinetobacter baumannii to induce associated pneumonia and sepsis, the two most common manifestations of clinical infections with this pathogen
Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, responsible for infection outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this bacterium is mainly due to its multidrug-resistance and ability to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces, which facilitate long-term persistence in the hospital setting. Given the crucial role of iron in A. baumannii nutrition and pathogenicity, iron metabolism has been considered as a possible target for chelation-based antibacterial chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of iron restriction on A. baumannii growth and biofilm formation using different iron chelators and culture conditions. We report substantial inter-strain variability and growth medium-dependence for biofilm formation by A. baumannii isolates from veterinary and clinical sources. Neither planktonic nor biofilm growth of A. baumannii was affected by exogenous chelators. Biofilm formation was either stimulated by iron or not responsive to iron in the majority of isolates tested, ...
Acinetobacter baumannii outer membrane protein A targets the nucleus and induces cytotoxicity.: Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen re
Title:Prevalence of Metallo-β-Lactamases in Acinetobacter Baumannii in Iran: A Review and Meta-Analysis. VOLUME: 19 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Bashir Mohammadpour*, Samaneh Rouhi, Masoud Moradi, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Ebrahim Saniyi, Sairan Zandi and Himen Salimizand. Affiliation:Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Lung Diseases and Allergy Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Vice Chancellor for Research and Technology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resource, Gorgan, Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Liver and Digestive Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj. Keywords:Metallo-β-Lactamases, Acinetobacter baumannii, Iran, ...
Since their identification in bacteria 30 years ago, MITEs have been reported in a multitude of species, displaying significant diversity in their nucleotide sequence and functional properties (44). In this study, a novel MITE was identified in environmental and clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species, including A. baumannii, one of the leading bacterial organisms threatening human health (2). This novel element lacked any CDS that could produce a functional transposase, inferring that like other MITEs, MITEAba12 is activated in trans. Given the high similarity between the TIR sequences of MITEAba12 and those of ISAba12 (Fig. 2D), we propose the transposase from ISAba12 elements were responsible for MITEAba12 mobilization in the A. baumannii ΔygiW strain. Whether ISAba12, or another IS with a TIR similar to that of MITEAba12 (Table 2), can mobilize MITEAba12 will need to be experimentally examined.. With the addition of MITEAba12, the list of nonautonomous elements reported in Acinetobacter ...
Management of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings, 2006. 2007. Kluytmans-Vandenbergh, MF, Kluytmans, JA, Voss, A. Dutch guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of highly resistant microorganisms (HRMO). Infection. vol. 33. 2005. pp. 309-13. Peleg, AY, Seifert, H, Paterson, DL. Acinetobacter baumannii: emergence of a successful pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev. vol. 21. 2008. pp. 538-82. Dijkshoorn, L, Nemec, A, Seifert, H. An increasing threat in hospitals: multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Nat Rev Microbiol. vol. 5. 2007. pp. 939-51. Nemec, A, Krízová, L, Maixnerová, M, Diancourt, L, van der Reijden, TJ, Brisse, S, van den Broek, P, Dijkshoorn, L. Emergence of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii in the Czech Republic is associated with the spread of multidrug-resistant strains of European clone II. J Antimicrob Chemother. vol. 62. 2008. pp. 484-9. Higgins, PG, Dammhayn, C, Hackel, M, Seifert, H. Global spread of carbapenem-resistant ...
The present study aimed to perform a deep phenotypic and genotypic analysis of 15 clinical carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) strains isolated in Madagascar between 2008 and 2016 from diverse sources. CRAb isolates collected from the Clinical Biology Centre of the Institut Pasteur of Madagascar, from the neonatal unit of Antananarivo military hospital, and from intensive care units of Mahajanga Androva and Antananarivo Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (HJRA) hospitals were subjected to susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing allowed us to assess the presence of antibiotic-resistance determinants, insertion sequences, integrons, genomic islands and potential virulence factors in all strains. The structure of the carO porin gene and deduced protein (CarO) were also assessed in CRAb isolates. All isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant strains. Antibiotic-resistance genes against six classes of antimicrobial agents were described. The four carbapenem-resistance genes: blaOXA
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing various nosocomial infections. The spread of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and the genetic support of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates collected from Saint-Georges Hospital in Lebanon. Between January and August 2016, 31 A. baumannii isolates were collected from sputum samples of patients infected with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and treated with colistin-carbapenem combination therapy. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. Carbapenemases, extended spectrum β-lactamases encoding genes and mcr-1/2 genes were investigated by RT-PCR and standard PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the strains was studied using MLST analysis. Most of the isolates exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes. All the isolates were carbapenem-resistant and among them, 30 carried the class D
Journal Article: Small-Molecule Transport by CarO, an Abundant Eight-Stranded beta-Barrel Outer Membrane Protein from Acinetobacter Baumannii ...
Objective: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB) is an emerging cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Combination therapy may be the only viable option until new antibiotics become available. The objective of this study is to identify potential antimicrobial combinations against CR-AB isolated from our local hospitals. Methods: AB isolates from all public hospitals in Singapore were systematically collected between 2006 and 2007. MICs were determined according to CLSI guidelines. All CR-AB isolates were genotyped using a PCR-based method. Clonal relationship was elucidated. Time-kill studies (TKS) were conducted with polymyxin B, rifampicin and tigecycline alone and in combination using clinically relevant (achievable) unbound concentrations. Results: 31 CR AB isolates were identified. They are multidrug-resistant, but are susceptible to polymyxin B. From clonal typing, 8 clonal groups were identified and 11 isolates exhibited clonal diversity. In single TKS, polymyxin B, ...
OmpA Binding Mediates the Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 on Acinetobacter baumannii. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH) notified of Acinetobacter outbreak in September, 2010 Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH) notified of Acinetobacter outbreak in September, cases initially reported 66 cases initially reported Assistance requested from KDPH Assistance requested from KDPH New Infection Preventionist New Infection Preventionist Reported gaps in infection control process Reported gaps in infection control process Hand hygiene Hand hygiene Lacked comprehensive environmental cleaning protocols Lacked comprehensive environmental cleaning protocols 3
Acinetobacter baumannii has been associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, even in pediatric patients. Therapeutic options are limited, especially when the strain is multidrug resistant. Clinical and microbiological analyses of 4 cases of systemic infections caused by multi drug resistant A. baumannii treated with colistin/vancomycin combination at a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit were performed in order to explore the potential synergistic activity of colistin plus vancomycin. All the patients were treated with colistin, meropenem and vancomycin. Four severe infections due to MDR A. baumannii were observed. All patients treated with colistin/vancomycin combination had a positive outcome with no infection relapses. Most importantly, no significant adverse events related to the simultaneous administration of COL plus VAN were observed. In our in-vitro experiments, the synergistic effect of the combination COL plus VAN showed an early bactericidal activity even at VAN concentration of 16 mg/L,
Clinical features and outcomes of Acinetobacter species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Presented at the 46th Interscience infections due buy Xanax tablets online UK multidrug resistant baumannii Ab bloodstream infections BSI. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 200751376 378 391 Fournier PE. Clin Infect Dis 1996221026 1032 Carey RB, Banerjee SN. baumannii correlated with an increased 1999 Marmara earthquake. Surveillance cultures and duration of carriage of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter. Seasonal variation of Acinetobacter infections Clin Microbiol Rev 200619257. J Clin Microbiol 2006443623 3627 of resistance to tigecycline has. Crit Care Med 2005331136 1140 of broad spectrum antibiotics. References Schreckenberger PC, Daneshvar with multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Presented at the 46th Interscience outbreaks of acinetobacter infections, most even more limited. PLoS Genet 20062e7 e7 of Acinetobacter spp. Source Information From Medical for nonsusceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii. 79 An ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Acinetobacter species as model microorganisms in environmental microbiology. T2 - current state and perspectives. AU - Jung, Jaejoon. AU - Park, Woojun. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. N2 - Acinetobacter occupies an important position in nature because of its ubiquitous presence in diverse environments such as soils, fresh water, oceans, sediments, and contaminated sites. Versatile metabolic characteristics allow species of this genus to catabolize a wide range of natural compounds, implying active participation in the nutrient cycle in the ecosystem. On the other hand, multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii causing nosocomial infections with high mortality has been raising serious concerns in medicine. Due to the ecological and clinical importance of the genus, Acinetobacter was proposed as a model microorganism for environmental microbiological studies, pathogenicity tests, and industrial production of chemicals. For these reasons, Acinetobacter has attracted significant ...
outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infection occurred in a hospital in New York City. Subsequently, numerous other hospitals in the United States and South America have had outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. The incidence of infections with A. baumannii among military personnel from the United States and Canada has increased since 2002; 102 patients had bloodstream infections at facilities treating U.S. military personnel injured in Iraq or Afghanistan from January 1, 2002, through August 31, 2004. An epidemiologic investigation revealed that A. baumannii could be grown from environmental sites in field hospitals and that the environmental strains were closely related genotypically to clinical isolates. A. baumannii strains from injured military personnel from the United States and the United Kingdom were also genotypically related; this finding provided further evidence that A. baumannii was being acquired in field hospitals.. ...
War wound infection and osteomyelitis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter species have been prevalent during the 2003-2005 military operations in Iraq. Twenty-three soldiers wounded in Iraq and subsequently admitted to our facility from March 2003 to May 2004 had wound cultures positive for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex. Eighteen had osteomyelitis, 2 burn infection, and 3 deep wound infection. Primary therapy for these infections was directed antimicrobial agents for an average of 6 weeks. All soldiers initially improved, regardless of the specific type of therapy. Patients were followed up to 23 months after completing therapy, and none had recurrent infection with Acinetobacter species. Despite the drug resistance that infecting organisms demonstrated in this series, a regimen of carefully selected extended antimicrobial-drug therapy appears effective for osteomyelitis caused by MDR Acinetobacter spp.
REQUIMTE- Microbiology Research Group Goals Goals Epidemiology study of antibiotic resistant bacteria in order to implement containment measures, methodologies for their detection, and design of new compounds Hospitals Food and animal production environment Humans community Environment VRE, Enterobacteriaceae- PL/TEM-52; PL/CTX-M-15, Pseudomonas-VIM Enterococcus gentaR, Tn1546 PL/CTX-M-14; PL/CTX-M-15 (Enterobacteriaceae) VRE-CC17 Acinetobacter OXA-23 Salmonella-intI1 OXA-30, sul3 Enterobacteriaceae- PL/TEM-52 Salmonella-intI1MDR, Enterobacteriaceae- PL/TEM-52 Strategies Characterization of bacteria, genes and mobile genetic elements from different ecological niches AAC :1001 JAC (In press) AAC :1545 CMI :1131 JAC :297 CMI :1047 JAC :1139 EID :1985 AAC :836 AAC : AAC :451 JAC :1370 AAC :3613 AEM :3743 AAC :2140 AEM :3364 CMI :755 AAC :3220 Main Achievements (1) Emergence and International dissemination of MDR strains: VRE, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas and
Infection with antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter spp. is an increasing problem in critical care environments worldwide. Acinetobacter spp. are known to produce an insulin-cleaving protease. We hypothesized that infection with Acinetobacter spp. was associated with the acquisition of glucose intolerance in burn patients. Data were collected prospectively on all 473 patients admitted to the Burns Centre between January 2002 and March 2003. A total of 3.4% of patients acquired glucose intolerance during admission. Patients with Acinetobacter spp. infection were 9.8 times more likely to develop glucose intolerance than those without the infection (P | .0001). The association persisted after controlling for TBSA (P | .001). In patients with deep Acinetobacter spp. infection, 47% had glucose intolerance, compared with 12% in those with infection of the burn only (P = .03). In patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus, 27% developed Acinetobacter spp. infection compared with only 8.5% of patients without
Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is common in hospitals and impacts patient survival. We determined the incidence of MDR-AB VAP in critical care units and examined the predictors of 14-day mortality in these patients. Methodology: A retrospective case series study was conducted at a tertiary referral teaching hospital in north Jordan. A list of patients with a positive culture of A. baumannii between January 2007 and June 2013 was retrieved using computerized hospital databases. Medical records of all these patients were reviewed, and cases of VAP infected with MDR-AB were identified. Predictors of 14-day mortality were determined using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for possible confounders. Results: Out of 121 A. baumannii-VAP cases, 119 (98.3%) were caused by MDR-AB. The incidence rate of MDR-AB VAP was 1.59 cases per 100 critical care unit admissions. The mortality of A. baumannii-VAP cases in critical
title: In Vitro Interactions of Antibiotic Combinations of Colistin, Tigecycline, and Doripenem Against Extensively Drug-Resistant and Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, doi: 10.3343/alm.2016.36.2.124, category: Article
Sayer refers to an example from the Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology titled, Black raspberry root polyphenols exhibit antibacterial activity against drug resistant bacteria. He notes that the root-not the berry-of the black raspberry plant contains polyphenols which are lethal to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), and Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax). The roots contain these polyphenols because they dig into soil, a potentially hostile environment, while the berries dont have it because they serve as food for animals that help spread the black raspberry seed.. The fauna and flora of Gaia-our earth, our home-have learned over eons how to survive. Yet medicine presumes to know better. Antibiotics were first used in wars because the most common means of death in war isnt wounds, but the infections that develop from them. For this purpose, antibiotics worked brilliantly. But it must be noted that wholesale war is a ...
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The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as essential parts of nucleotides. There are two different phases in the pathway. One is irreversible oxidative phase in which glucose-6P is converted to ribulose-5P by oxidative decarboxylation, and NADPH is generated [MD:M00006]. The other is reversible non-oxidative phase in which phosphorylated sugars are interconverted to generate xylulose-5P, ribulose-5P, and ribose-5P [MD:M00007]. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) formed from ribose-5P [MD:M00005] is an activated compound used in the biosynthesis of histidine and purine/pyrimidine nucleotides. This pathway map also shows the Entner-Doudoroff pathway where 6-P-gluconate is dehydrated and then cleaved into pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3P [MD:M00008 ...
tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase; Catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine at the wobble position 34 of tRNA(Arg2); Belongs to the cytidine and deoxycytidylate deaminase family (158 aa ...
Cytosine/purine/uracil/thiamine/allantoin permease family protein; Derived by automated computational analysis using gene prediction method- Protein Homology; Belongs to the purine-cytosine permease (2.A.39) family (468 aa ...
Rayani, Arezoo and Ahanjan, Mohammad and Goli, Hamid Reza and Naderifard, Niloofar and zamanzdeah, Maryam (2020) Comparing the Effect of Probiotic and Non-probiotic Yogurt Drinks on Two Common Oral Microorganisms: An In Vitro Study. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 30 (185). pp. 33-40. Ranjbar, Termeh and Hashemi, zahra and Sadeghian, Fereshteh and Goli, Hamid Reza and Ahanjan, Mohammad and Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali (2020) Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Allium paradoxum Extract and Evaluation of their Antibacterial Activities. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 29 (182). pp. 1-11. NorouziBazgir, Zahra and Ahanjan, Mohammad and MohammadBagher, Hashemi Soteh and Goli, Hamid Rez (2019) Correction to: Prevalence of IMP and SPM Genes in Clinical Isolates of Carbapenem Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Educational Hospitals of Sari, Iran. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 29 (176). pp. 227-228. NorouziBazgir, Zahra and ...
Bacterial infections due to Acinetobacter species are typically encountered in health care settings and can be particularly difficult to treat due to the propensity of the organism to incorporate multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Hospital outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infections have been reported. A wide range of infections are possible with this organism, including bloodstream infections, pneumonia (occasionally even community-acquired pneumonia), urinary tract infections, and wound infections (wound infection in soldiers after traumatic injury have been reported ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Novel Phenotypic Method To Screen for Plasmid-Mediated Colistin Resistance among Enterobacteriales. AU - Bell, Drew T.. AU - Bergman, Yehudit. AU - Kazmi, Abida Q.. AU - Lewis, Shawna. AU - Tamma, Pranita. AU - Simner, Patricia. PY - 2019/5/1. Y1 - 2019/5/1. N2 - Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (PMCR), a consequence of the mcr genes, is a significant public health concern given its potential to easily spread among clinical pathogens. Recently, it was discovered that MCR enzymes require zinc for activity. Thus, we modified the colistin broth-disk elution (CBDE) test to screen for plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (PMCR) genes based on any reduction of colistin MIC in the presence of EDTA. Eighty-five isolates of the order Enterobacteriales (12 mcr positive) were tested by CBDE ± EDTA. The sensitivity and specificity of the EDTA-CBDE method to detect PMCR compared to the molecular genotype results were 100% and 95.8%, respectively. Isolates positive by the EDTA-CBDE test ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative genomic analysis of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 To determine strain-specific genomic regions and gentisate biodegradation. AU - Jung, Jaejoon. AU - Madsen, Eugene L.. AU - Jeon, Che Ok. AU - Park, Woojun. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - The comparative genomics of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 assayed with A. baylyi ADP1, A. calcoaceticus PHEA-2, and A. baumannii ATCC 17978 revealed that the incorporation of phage-related genomic regions and the absence of transposable elements have contributed to the large size (4.15 Mb) of the DR1 genome. A horizontally transferred genomic region and a higher proportion of transcriptional regulator- and signal peptide-coding genes were identified as characteristics of the DR1 genome. Incomplete glucose metabolism, metabolic pathways of aromatic compounds, biofilm formation, antibiotics and metal resistance, and natural competence genes were conserved in four compared genomes. Interestingly, only strain DR1 possesses gentisate ...
Tigecycline is a last-resort antibiotic that is used to treat severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant bacteria. tet(X) has been shown to encode a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that modifies tigecycline1,2. Here, we report two unique mobile tigecycline-resistance genes, tet(X3) and tet(X4), in numerous Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter that were isolated from animals, meat for consumption and humans. Tet(X3) and Tet(X4) inactivate all tetracyclines, including tigecycline and the newly FDA-approved eravacycline and omadacycline. Both tet(X3) and tet(X4) increase (by 64-128-fold) the tigecycline minimal inhibitory concentration values for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. In addition, both Tet(X3) (A. baumannii) and Tet(X4) (E. coli) significantly compromise tigecycline in in vivo infection models. Both tet(X3) and tet(X4) are adjacent to insertion sequence ISVsa3 on their respective conjugative plasmids and confer a mild fitness cost (relative ...
Acrônimos com ACINETOBACTER. As definições de siglas Acinetobacter. As definições de acrónimo Acinetobacter. Sigla Acinetobacter significa para. Além de encontrar siglas. Encontre o que significam as siglas!
Newly published findings by a team of researchers in China describe the discovery of a plasmid-mediated mechanism in E. coli isolated from pigs that confers resistance to colistin - widely regarded as an antibiotic of last resort for treating drug resistant infections.. The researchers discovered the mechanism during a surveillance project looking at antibiotic resistance in E. coli from food animals when they found a large increase in the prevalence of colistin resistance in isolates. Further investigation revealed that a strain isolated from a pig, SHP45, possessed colistin resistance that could be transferred horizontally to another strain.. These findings led to the identification of a gene, mcr-1, conferring resistance to colistin and located on a plasmid within the bacterial cell. This is the first time that a resistance mechanism against polymyxin antibiotics like colistin has been found that is plasmid mediated and can be transferred horizontally to other bacteria.. Further studies ...
Carbapenems have traditionally been used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria resistant to many other agents, as they usually escaped the hydrolytic activity of most clinically relevant β-lactamases and are little affected (in terms of absolute MIC changes) by permeability and active efflux mechanisms. For years, resistance to these agents was mainly confined to non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria resistant to ertapenem, and a few species (most notably Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) with intrinsic resistance to all carbapenems, because of a chromosomal encoded carbapenemase.. In 1991, a transferable carbapenemase was reported in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain GN17203).1 Shortly after, OXA-23 (ARI-1)2 in Acinetobacter baumannii and KPC-1 in Klebsiella pneumoniae3 were also described. In the following years, organisms producing plasmid-mediated carbapenemases have rapidly spread worldwide. A pooled analysis of nine studies comparing mortality in infections caused by ...
Aim: To determine the prevalence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Gram-negative pathogens isolated from childrens samples. Materials & methods: Carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates (n = 117) were confirmed by VITEK® 2 compact system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and multilocus sequence typing. MIC (μg/ml) of various antibiotics was determined by VITEK 2 compact system. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed by PCR, DNA sequencing, PFGE and DNA hybridization. Results: Out of 117 carbapenemase producers, 37 (31.6%) and 29 (24.7%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, respectively. 72 (61.5%) isolates were NDM positive and among these 60, 9 and 3 were NDM-1, -5 and -7, respectively. Majority of the NDM-producing K. pneumoniae belonged to ST11 and ST273 while most of the E. coli belonged to ST405 and ST101. blaNDM were mainly located on 150kb plasmids. MIC displayed high resistance against β-lactams drugs ...
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海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版acinetobacter baummanii是什么意思,acinetobacter baummanii的用法,acinetobacter baummanii翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
Abstract: Chlorhexidine is widely used as an antiseptic or disinfectant in both hospital and community settings. A number of bacterial species display resistance to this membrane-active biocide. We examined the transcriptomic response of a representative nosocomial human pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, to chlorhexidine to identify the primary chlorhexidine resistance elements. The most highly up-regulated genes encoded components of a major multidrug efflux system, AdeAB. The next most highly overexpressed gene under chlorhexidine stress was annotated as encoding a hypothetical protein, named here as AceI. Orthologs of the aceI gene are conserved within the genomes of a broad range of proteobacterial species. Expression of aceI or its orthologs from several other γ- or β-proteobacterial species in Escherichia coli resulted in significant increases in resistance to chlorhexidine. Additionally, disruption of the aceI ortholog in Acinetobacter baylyi rendered it more susceptible to ...
Abstract: Chlorhexidine is widely used as an antiseptic or disinfectant in both hospital and community settings. A number of bacterial species display resistance to this membrane-active biocide. We examined the transcriptomic response of a representative nosocomial human pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, to chlorhexidine to identify the primary chlorhexidine resistance elements. The most highly up-regulated genes encoded components of a major multidrug efflux system, AdeAB. The next most highly overexpressed gene under chlorhexidine stress was annotated as encoding a hypothetical protein, named here as AceI. Orthologs of the aceI gene are conserved within the genomes of a broad range of proteobacterial species. Expression of aceI or its orthologs from several other γ- or β-proteobacterial species in Escherichia coli resulted in significant increases in resistance to chlorhexidine. Additionally, disruption of the aceI ortholog in Acinetobacter baylyi rendered it more susceptible to ...
The use of imipenem antibiotics to treat A. baumannii infections as the premier agents continued well in the 1990s. Despite the growing incidence of resistance, the level of imipenem use remained relatively high. The persistence of its use in clinical settings can be explained by its superior activity against A.baumannii compared to other antimicrobial agents, even with its growing resistance[63]. As the resistance of imipenem continued to grow, another bacteriostatic carbapenem began to be used in greater frequency-meropenem. In addition to be a broad-spectrum agent against gram-negative bacteria, meropenem is also less likely to cause seizures than imipenem[64]. Besides the continued the use of carbapenems, the combination of anti-A.baumannii agents was a major therapeutic strategy employed in the 1990s. The main purpose of these pairings was to put together drugs that would have similar effects as a monotherapy drug of the same class. This usually involved pairing a drug with high resistance ...
From the Staphylococcus aureus, 40% strains presented resistance to oxacillin (MRSA), 96.9% were resistant to penicillin G, 75.8% to erythromycin and 63.3% to ciproflxacin and levoflxacin. S. aureus strains resistant to linezolid (3.9%), daptomycin (4.7%) and vancomycin (2.3%) wer e also found.. When analyzing the susceptibility profile for Klebsiella pneumoniae, it was possible to observe that this strain presented the highest resistance rates to the following antimicrobials: aztreonam, cefepime and cefotaxime (75.2%) and ertapenem (69.7%); and the lowest rate of resistance was 2.6% to amikacin.. Acinetobacter baumannii presented the most worrying susceptibility profile, presenting a resistance frequency of 100% to imipenem; 91.1% to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and cefotaxime; 88.8% to cefepime; 86% to meropenem and 82.2% to levofloxacin.. The highest resistance rates to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 54.3% to ciprofloxacin, 53.1% to levofloxacin and imipenem, and 47% to norfloxacin. While that to ...
The emergence of carbapenemase producing bacteria, especially New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) and its variants, worldwide, has raised amajor public health concern. NDM-1 hydrolyzes a wide range of β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are the last resort of antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by resistant strain of bacteria. In this review, we have discussed bla NDM-1variants, its genetic analysis including type of specific mutation, origin of country and spread among several type of bacterial species. Wide members of enterobacteriaceae, most commonly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and gram-negative non-fermenters Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii were found to carry these markers. Moreover, at least seventeen variants of bla NDM-type gene differing into one or two residues of amino acids at distinct positions have been reported so far among different species of bacteria
Development of a Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii: In this study a multilocus sequence typ
About ContraFect: ContraFect is a biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of DLAs, including lysins and amurin peptides, as new medical modalities for the treatment of life-threatening, antibiotic-resistant infections. An estimated 700,000 deaths worldwide each year are attributed to antimicrobial-resistant infections. We intend to address life threatening infections using our therapeutic product candidates from our platform of DLAs, which include lysins and amurin peptides. Lysins are a new class of DLAs which are recombinantly produced antimicrobial proteins with a novel mechanism of action associated with the rapid killing of target bacteria, eradication of biofilms and synergy with conventional antibiotics. Amurin peptides are a novel class of DLAs which exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, including P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacter species. We believe that the properties of our ...
Background: Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze carbapems. MBL-producing gram-negative bacilli have been emerging worldwide. In this study, different MBLs were identified in various lung diseases in the japanese clinical hospitals.. Methods: From Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2010, 1618 GNB strains were submitted to the laboratory of 6 general hospitals in Aichi prefecture. Strains demonstrating a high level ceftazidime resistance (MIC, ,128 mg/ml) were subjected to a screening test for MBL production by using disks containing an MBL inhibitor, sodium mercaptoacetic acid (SMA). PCR and sequencing analyses were performed to confirm the types of MBLs and integrases using primers specific for each gene.. Results: Fifty-three strains (34 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 11 P. putida and 8 Acinetobacter baumannii) were isolated from elderly patients in various wards. These strains were isolated from various respiratory specimens (sputum, pus). By PCR analyses, 35 IMP-1 producers (26 P. ...
METHODS: In silico translation and digestion were performed on 14-25 whole genomes representing strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Peptides constituting theoretical core peptidomes in each were identified. Rapid tryptic digestion was performed; peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and compared with the theoretical core peptidomes. High-confidence core peptides (false discovery rate ,1%) were identified and analyzed with the lowest common ancestor search to yield potential species-specific peptide markers. The species specificity of each peptide was verified with protein BLAST. Further, 1 or 2 pathogens were serially diluted into pooled inflamed BAL, and a targeted LC-MS/MS assay was used to detect 25 peptides simultaneously. ...
Infectious diseases represent an ever-changing field of practice. Virtually each week brings new information, some with the potential to adjust or reinvent the current clinical practice. It is our task as clinicians to browse through field literature, through reports of randomized controlled trials, excerpts of conference proceedings, and to choose relevant scoops with high applicability in patient management.. This supplement brings together four articles relevant to four different areas of medical practice, from HIV infection to Gram-negative bacilli such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and interdisciplinary studies on infectious acute maxillary sinusitis.. Non-infectious comorbidities are of utmost importance in the management of HIV infection, as occurrence of kidney impairment, or fractures following decrease in bone mineral density, can significantly impact the quality of life and/or even life expectancy. The study presented at the 11th Edition of the Scientific Days ...
NIAID recently announced a research funding opportunity to develop and/or produce diagnostics to quickly detect the key bacteria responsible for antibacterial-resistant infections in hospital settings. The request for applications (RFA) will support diagnostics research related to one or more of the following types of bacteria: Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter species, and extra-intestinal pathogenic Eschericihia coli. NIAID expects to fund 10-15 awards for a total of up to $12 million in 2015, and the maximum length of each award is 5 years ...

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