A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.
Specialized hospital facilities which provide intensive care for burn patients.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Taiwan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in East Asia. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help with those!
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.
The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is a country located in the Middle East and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.

Distribution of beta-lactamases in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates and the effect of Syn 2190 (AmpC inhibitor) on the MICs of different beta-lactam antibiotics. (1/853)

The distribution of beta-lactamases in a group of 20 epidemiologically well defined Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates and the in vitro activity of Syn 2190, a novel beta-lactamase AmpC inhibitor, were determined. Twenty-five per cent of the strains carried and expressed a TEM-type beta-lactamase, whereas 35% had an OXA-type beta-lactamase. In nine out of 11 (82%) ceftazidime-resistant and four out of 13 (30.7%) cefepime-resistant strains, the MIC of these beta-lactam antibiotics decreased when determined in the presence of Syn 2190. Thus, our results suggest that in a high percentage of A. baumannii clinical isolates the increased production of AmpC, in combination or not with other resistance mechanisms, contributes to the resistance pattern in A. baumannii to beta-lactams.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of integrons in epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Italian hospitals reveals a limited diversity of gene cassette arrays. (2/853)

Integron carriage by 36 epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected over an 11-year period from patients in six different Italian hospitals was investigated. Sixteen type 1 integron-positive isolates (44%) were found, 13 of which carried the same array of cassettes, i.e., aacC1, orfX, orfX', and aadA1a. As ribotype analysis of the isolates demonstrated a notable genetic diversity, horizontal transfer of the entire integron structure or ancient acquisition was hypothesized.  (+info)

Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii insertion derivatives generated with a transposome system. (3/853)

Acinetobacter baumannii is a metabolically versatile pathogen that causes severe infections in compromised patients. However, little is known about the genes and factors involved in its basic physiology and virulence properties. Insertion mutagenesis was used to initiate the identification and characterization of some of these factors and genes in the prototype strain 19606. The utilization of the pLOFKm suicide delivery vector, which harbors a suicide mini-Tn10 derivative, proved to be unsuccessful for this purpose. The EZ::TN Tnp transposome system available from Epicentre was then used in conjunction with electroporation to generate isogenic insertional derivatives of A. baumannii 19606. Replica plating showed that 2% of the colonies that grew after electroporation on agar plates without antibiotics also grew in the presence of 40 micro g of kanamycin per ml. DNA hybridization proved that all of the kanamycin-resistant derivatives contained the EZ::TN insertion element, which was mapped to different genomic locations. Replica plating on Simmons citrate agar and microtiter plate-plastic tube assays identified growth- and biofilm-defective derivatives, respectively. The location of the insertion in several of these derivatives was determined by self-ligation of NdeI- or EcoRI-digested genomic DNA and electroporation of Escherichia coli TransforMax EC100D (pir(+)). Sequence analysis of the recovered plasmids showed that some of the A. baumannii 19606 growth-defective derivatives contain insertions within genes encoding activities required for the generation of energy and cell wall components and for the biosynthesis of amino acids and purines. A gene encoding a protein similar to the GacS sensor kinase was interrupted in four derivatives, while another had an insertion in a gene coding for a hypothetical sensor kinase. A. baumannii 19606 derivatives with defective attachment or biofilm phenotypes had insertions within genes that appear to be part of a chaperone-usher transport system described for other bacteria. DNA hybridization experiments showed that the presence of strain 19606 genes encoding regulatory and attachment or biofilm functions is widespread among other A. baumannii clinical isolates.  (+info)

Comparison of a repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR method and clinical and microbiological methods for determining strain sources in cases of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia. (4/853)

Using a repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), we genotypically characterized strains causing nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii infections and analyzed the source of bacteremia in 67 patients from an institution in which infections by this bacterium were endemic. Six different genotypes were found, including 21, 27, 3, 9, 3, and 4 strains. The probable source of bacteremia, according to clinical and/or microbiological criteria, was known in 42 patients (63%): respiratory tract (n = 19), surgical sites (n = 12), intravascular catheters (n = 5), burns (n = 3), and urinary tract (n = 3). The definite source of bacteremia, according to REP-PCR, could be established in 30 (71%) out of the 42 patients with strains from blood and other sites; in these cases clinical and microbiological criteria for the source of bacteremia were thus confirmed. In the remaining 12 patients (29%) the probable source was refuted by the REP-PCR method. The definite sources of bacteremia according to genotype were as follows: respiratory tract in 13 patients (31%), surgical sites in 8 (19%), intravascular catheters in 4 (9%), burns in 3 (7%), and urinary tract in 2 (5%). A comparison of strains from blood cultures and other sites with regard to their REP-PCR and antimicrobial resistance profiles was also made. Taking the REP-PCR as the "gold standard," the positive predictive value of antibiotype was 77% and the negative predictive value was 42%. In summary, the utility of the diagnosis of the source of nosocomial A. baumannii bacteremia using clinical and/or microbiological criteria, including antibiotyping, is limited, as demonstrated by REP-PCR.  (+info)

Endemic carbapenem resistance associated with OXA-40 carbapenemase among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a hospital in northern Spain. (5/853)

Eighty-two carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from a single hospital in Bilbao were typed into two major clusters and several subclusters. Disk synergy tests and PCR indicated the production of a zinc-independent OXA-class carbapenemase. Sequencing identified this enzyme, OXA-40, as a variant of the OXA-24-OXA-25-OXA-26 cluster.  (+info)

Loss of a 29-kilodalton outer membrane protein in Acinetobacter baumannii is associated with imipenem resistance. (6/853)

We analyzed the possible causes of imipenem (IPM) resistance in multidrug-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Comparison of the outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles of two genomically related strains (Ab288 [IPM sensitive] and Ab242 [IPM resistant]) indicated the conspicuous loss of a 29-kDa polypeptide in the Ab242 strain. No carbapenemase activity was detected in any of these strains. The treatment of Ab288 with sodium salicylate resulted in IPM resistance and the loss of the 29-kDa OMP. In addition, IPM-resistant clones of Ab288 which were selected by repetitive culturing in increasing concentrations of this antibiotic also showed the absence of this 29-kDa OMP.  (+info)

Genetic and functional analysis of the chromosome-encoded carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinase OXA-40 of Acinetobacter baumannii. (7/853)

Clinical isolate Acinetobacter baumannii CLA-1 was resistant to a series of antibiotic molecules, including carbapenems. Cloning and expression of the beta-lactamase gene content of this isolate in Escherichia coli DH10B identified a chromosome-encoded oxacillinase, OXA-40, that differed by one or two amino acid changes from OXA-24, -25, and -26 and an AmpC-type cephalosporinase. The OXA-40 beta-lactamase had a mainly narrow-spectrum hydrolytic profile, but it included ceftazidime and imipenem. Its activity was resistant to inhibition by clavulanic acid, tazobactam, sulbactam, and, like most of the other carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases, NaCl. OXA-40 had an FGN triad replacing a YGN motif at class D beta-lactamase (DBL) positions 144 to 146. Site-directed DNA mutagenesis leading to a Phe-to-Tyr change at DBL position 144 in OXA-40 gave a mutant enzyme with increased hydrolytic activity against most beta-lactams, including imipenem. Conversely, with a gene encoding the narrow-spectrum oxacillinase OXA-1 as the template, a nucleotide substitution leading to a Tyr-to-Phe change in the YGN motif of OXA-1 gave a mutant enzyme with decreased hydrolytic activity without an increase in carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity. Thus, the Phe residue in the FGN motif was not associated with carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity by itself but instead was associated with weak overall hydrolytic activity. Finally, this Phe residue in OXA-40 explained resistance to inhibition by NaCl whereas a Tyr residue in motif YGN was related to susceptibility to NaCl.  (+info)

Relationship between beta-lactamase production, outer membrane protein and penicillin-binding protein profiles on the activity of carbapenems against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. (8/853)

Twenty blood isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were studied, representing eight pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and all different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns observed during 1995-97 at the University Hospital Virgen Macarena, Seville, Spain. The MIC(90)s (mg/L) of imipenem and meropenem decreased from 16 to 0.5 and from 8 to 4, respectively, in the presence of BRL 42715 (BRL) but not clavulanic acid. Hydrolysing activity (nmol/min/mg) of bacterial supernatants against cefaloridine ranged from 8.8 to 552.3 for A. baumannii type I (imipenem MICs < or = 2), which expressed only a beta-lactamase of pI > or = 9, and from 12.3 to 1543.5 for A. baumannii type II (imipenem MICs > or = 4), which expressed a beta-lactamase of pI > or = 9 and two others of pI 6.3 and 7. The hydrolysing activities of A. baumannii type II against imipenem, meropenem and oxacillin were higher than those observed for A. baumannii type I. Ten outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles (A. baumannii types I and II) were visualized on 10% SDS-PAGE gels with 6 M urea, whereas only five OMP profiles (A. baumannii types I and II) were differentiated in 12% SDS-PAGE gels. Five A. baumannii with OMP profile type B, characterized by the absence of a 22.5 kDa OMP, were resistant to meropenem and/or imipenem. Twelve penicillin-binding protein (PBP) patterns were observed. PBP patterns of A. baumannii type II were characterized by the absence of a 73.2 kDa band (PBP 2). We concluded that production of beta-lactamases of pI 6.3 and 7.0 and reduced expression of PBP 2 are the most frequently observed mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems. In some isolates, loss of a 22.5 kDa OMP is also related to resistance to carbapenems.  (+info)

'Acinetobacter baumannii' is a gram-negative, aerobic, coccobacillus-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. It is known to cause various types of infections in humans, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with weakened immune systems.

This bacterium can cause a range of infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and wound infections. 'Acinetobacter baumannii' is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it difficult to treat the resulting infections. This has led to its classification as a "superbug" or a multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO).

The medical community continues to research and develop new strategies to prevent and treat infections caused by 'Acinetobacter baumannii' and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Acinetobacter infections are caused by bacteria that can be found in various environments, such as soil, water, and healthcare facilities. These bacteria can cause a range of illnesses, from mild skin infections to serious respiratory and bloodstream infections. They are often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

Acinetobacter baumannii is the species most commonly associated with human infection. It is known for its ability to survive on dry surfaces for extended periods of time, which can contribute to its spread in healthcare settings. Infections caused by Acinetobacter are a particular concern in critically ill patients, such as those in intensive care units, and in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Symptoms of an Acinetobacter infection depend on the site of infection but may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, wound drainage, or skin redness or swelling. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are still effective against the bacteria, which can be determined through laboratory testing. In some cases, infection control measures, such as contact precautions and environmental cleaning, may also be necessary to prevent the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings.

'Acinetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. They are known for their ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels, as well as their resistance to many antibiotics.

Some species of Acinetobacter can cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or have been exposed to medical devices such as ventilators or catheters. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and meningitis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most common species associated with human infection and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it a significant public health concern. Infections caused by Acinetobacter can be difficult to treat and may require the use of last-resort antibiotics.

Preventing the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings is important and includes practices such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and contact precautions for patients with known or suspected infection.

Carbapenems are a class of broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics, which are used to treat severe infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillins and cephalosporins but are more resistant to the enzymes produced by bacteria that can inactivate these other antibiotics. Carbapenems are often reserved for use in serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms, and they are typically given intravenously in a hospital setting. Examples of carbapenems include imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem.

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' is a species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and water. It is a non-motile, oxidase-negative organism that can form biofilms and has the ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels.

While 'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' itself is generally considered to be a low-virulence bacterium, it is closely related to other species within the genus 'Acinetobacter' that are known to cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients or those with underlying medical conditions. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and wound infections.

It is important to note that the identification of 'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' can be challenging due to its tendency to form mixed cultures with other 'Acinetobacter' species, as well as its ability to undergo genetic changes that can make it difficult to distinguish from other members of the genus. Accurate identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are critical for appropriate treatment and infection control measures.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

Colistin is an antibiotic that belongs to a class of drugs called polymyxins. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. Colistin works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane and causing the bacterium to lose essential components, leading to its death.

Colistin can be administered intravenously or inhaled, depending on the type of infection being treated. It is important to note that colistin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that there is a small difference between the effective dose and the toxic dose. Therefore, it must be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Common side effects of colistin include kidney damage, nerve damage, and muscle weakness. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people. Colistin should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding unless the benefits outweigh the risks.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Imipenem is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of carbapenems. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and skin infections. Imipenem works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death.

Imipenem is often combined with another medication called cilastatin, which helps to prevent the breakdown of imipenem in the body and increase its effectiveness. The combination of imipenem and cilastatin is available under the brand name Primaxin.

Like other antibiotics, imipenem should be used with caution and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

Beta-lactam resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have developed the ability to inactivate or circumvent the action of beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They work by binding to and inhibiting the activity of enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Bacteria can develop beta-lactam resistance through several mechanisms:

1. Production of beta-lactamases: These are enzymes that bacteria produce to break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. Some bacteria have acquired genes that encode for beta-lactamases that can hydrolyze and destroy the beta-lactam ring, rendering the antibiotic ineffective.
2. Alteration of PBPs: Bacteria can also develop mutations in their PBPs that make them less susceptible to beta-lactams. These alterations can reduce the affinity of PBPs for beta-lactams or change their conformation, preventing the antibiotic from binding effectively.
3. Efflux pumps: Bacteria can also develop efflux pumps that actively pump beta-lactam antibiotics out of the cell, reducing their intracellular concentration and limiting their effectiveness.
4. Biofilm formation: Some bacteria can form biofilms, which are communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are encased in a protective matrix. Biofilms can make bacteria more resistant to beta-lactams by preventing the antibiotics from reaching their targets.

Beta-lactam resistance is a significant public health concern because it limits the effectiveness of these important antibiotics. The overuse and misuse of beta-lactams have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, making it essential to use these antibiotics judiciously and develop new strategies to combat bacterial resistance.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Minocycline is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the tetracycline class. Medically, it is defined as a semisynthetic derivative of tetracycline and has a broader spectrum of activity compared to other tetracyclines. It is bacteriostatic, meaning it inhibits bacterial growth rather than killing them outright.

Minocycline is commonly used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including acne, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. Additionally, it has been found to have anti-inflammatory properties and is being investigated for its potential use in treating neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

As with all antibiotics, minocycline should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and its usage should be based on the results of bacterial culture and sensitivity testing to ensure its effectiveness against the specific bacteria causing the infection.

Thienamycins are a group of antibiotics that are characterized by their beta-lactam structure. They belong to the class of carbapenems and are known for their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics. Thienamycins inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which leads to bacterial cell death.

Thienamycin itself is not used clinically due to its instability, but several semi-synthetic derivatives of thienamycin have been developed and are used in the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Examples of thienamycin derivatives include imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. These antibiotics are often reserved for the treatment of severe infections that are unresponsive to other antibiotics due to their potential to select for resistant bacteria and their high cost.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

Sulbactam is not a medication itself, but it's a type of β-lactamase inhibitor. It's often combined with other antibiotics such as ampicillin or cefoperazone to increase their effectiveness against bacteria that produce β-lactamases, enzymes that can inactivate certain types of antibiotics (like penicillins and cephalosporins). By inhibiting these enzymes, sulbactam helps to protect the antibiotic from being deactivated, allowing it to maintain its activity against bacteria.

The combination of sulbactam with other antibiotics is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including skin and soft tissue infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and intra-abdominal infections. It's important to note that the specific medical definition of sulbactam would be a β-lactamase inhibitor used in combination with other antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Molecular typing is a laboratory technique used to identify and characterize specific microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, at the molecular level. This method is used to differentiate between strains of the same species based on their genetic or molecular differences. Molecular typing techniques include methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and whole genome sequencing (WGS). These techniques allow for high-resolution discrimination between strains, enabling epidemiological investigations of outbreaks, tracking the transmission of pathogens, and studying the evolution and population biology of microorganisms.

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a specialized hospital department that provides continuous monitoring and advanced life support for critically ill patients. The ICU is equipped with sophisticated technology and staffed by highly trained healthcare professionals, including intensivists, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists.

Patients in the ICU may require mechanical ventilation, invasive monitoring, vasoactive medications, and other advanced interventions due to conditions such as severe infections, trauma, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, or post-surgical complications. The goal of the ICU is to stabilize patients' condition, prevent further complications, and support organ function while the underlying illness is treated.

ICUs may be organized into different units based on the type of care provided, such as medical, surgical, cardiac, neurological, or pediatric ICUs. The length of stay in the ICU can vary widely depending on the patient's condition and response to treatment.

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a laboratory technique used to identify and compare the unique genetic makeup of individuals by analyzing specific regions of their DNA. This method is based on the variation in the length of repetitive sequences of DNA called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), which are located at specific locations in the human genome and differ significantly among individuals, except in the case of identical twins.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying targeted regions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then separating and visualizing the resulting DNA fragments through electrophoresis. The fragment patterns are then compared to determine the likelihood of a match between two samples.

DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications in forensic science, paternity testing, identity verification, and genealogical research. It is considered an essential tool for providing strong evidence in criminal investigations and resolving disputes related to parentage and inheritance.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Integrons are genetic elements that can capture, integrate and express mobile gene cassettes, which are circular DNA molecules containing one or more antibiotic resistance genes. Integrons consist of an integrase gene (intI), a recombination site (attI), and a promoter region that drives the expression of integrated gene cassettes. They play a significant role in the spread and dissemination of antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations, as they can facilitate the acquisition and exchange of resistance genes between different bacteria. Integrons are commonly found on plasmids and transposons, which are mobile genetic elements that can move between different bacterial species, further contributing to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance.

Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) is a standardized method used in microbiology to characterize and identify bacterial isolates at the subspecies level. It is based on the sequencing of several (usually 7-10) housekeeping genes, which are essential for the survival of the organism and have a low rate of mutation. The sequence type (ST) is determined by the specific alleles present at each locus, creating a unique profile that can be used to compare and cluster isolates into clonal complexes or sequence types. This method provides high-resolution discrimination between closely related strains and has been widely adopted for molecular epidemiology, infection control, and population genetics studies of bacterial pathogens.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology that uses laboratory techniques to identify and analyze the genetic material (DNA, RNA) of pathogens or host cells to understand their distribution, transmission, and disease associations in populations. It combines molecular biology methods with epidemiological approaches to investigate the role of genetic factors in disease occurrence and outcomes. This field has contributed significantly to the identification of infectious disease outbreaks, tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, understanding the transmission dynamics of viruses, and identifying susceptible populations for targeted interventions.

A hospital is a healthcare facility where patients receive medical treatment, diagnosis, and care for various health conditions, injuries, or diseases. It is typically staffed with medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers who provide round-the-clock medical services. Hospitals may offer inpatient (overnight) stays or outpatient (same-day) services, depending on the nature of the treatment required. They are equipped with various medical facilities like operating rooms, diagnostic equipment, intensive care units (ICUs), and emergency departments to handle a wide range of medical situations. Hospitals may specialize in specific areas of medicine, such as pediatrics, geriatrics, oncology, or trauma care.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection that's caused by bacteria. It can affect people of any age, but it's more common in older adults, young children, and people with certain health conditions or weakened immune systems. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary, but they often include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

The most common type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill bacteria. The specific type of antibiotic used will depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It's important to take all of the prescribed medication as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure that the infection is completely cleared and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

In severe cases of bacterial pneumonia, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They contain a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure, which is responsible for their antibacterial activity. The beta-lactam ring inhibits the bacterial enzymes necessary for cell wall synthesis, leading to bacterial death. Beta-lactams are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bone and joint infections. However, some bacteria have developed resistance to beta-lactams through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring and render the antibiotic ineffective. To overcome this resistance, beta-lactam antibiotics are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the beta-lactam ring from degradation.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests, also known as Kirby-Bauer tests, are laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of antibiotics against a specific bacterial strain. This test provides a simple and standardized way to estimate the susceptibility or resistance of a microorganism to various antibiotics.

In this method, a standardized inoculum of the bacterial suspension is spread evenly on the surface of an agar plate. Antibiotic-impregnated paper disks are then placed on the agar surface, allowing the diffusion of the antibiotic into the agar. After incubation, the zone of inhibition surrounding each disk is measured. The size of the zone of inhibition correlates with the susceptibility or resistance of the bacterial strain to that specific antibiotic.

The results are interpreted based on predefined criteria established by organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). These interpretive criteria help categorize the susceptibility of the bacterial strain into one of three categories: susceptible, intermediate, or resistant.

It is important to note that disk diffusion tests have limitations and may not always accurately predict clinical outcomes. However, they remain a valuable tool in guiding empirical antibiotic therapy and monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends.

Amikacin is a type of antibiotic known as an aminoglycoside, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Amikacin is often used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It may be given intravenously or intramuscularly, depending on the severity and location of the infection. As with all antibiotics, amikacin should be used judiciously to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

Polymyxin B is an antibiotic derived from the bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa. It belongs to the class of polypeptide antibiotics and has a cyclic structure with a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region, which allows it to interact with and disrupt the bacterial cell membrane. Polymyxin B is primarily active against gram-negative bacteria, including many multidrug-resistant strains. It is used clinically to treat serious infections caused by these organisms, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. However, its use is limited due to potential nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity.

Monobactams are a type of antibiotics that contain a single bacterial cell wall-binding component, known as a monocyclic beta-lactam. Aztreonam is an example of a monobactam that is used clinically to treat various infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Monobactams work by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for building the bacterial cell wall, leading to bacterial death. They are not affected by beta-lactamases, which are enzymes produced by some bacteria that can inactivate other types of beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins and cephalosporins.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Polymyxins are a group of antibiotics derived from the bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa. They consist of polymyxin B and polymyxin E (also known as colistin), which have similar structures and mechanisms of action. Polymyxins bind to the lipopolysaccharide component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, causing disruption of the membrane and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. These antibiotics are primarily used to treat serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, but their use is limited due to potential nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a specific type of pneumonia that develops in patients who have been mechanically ventilated through an endotracheal tube for at least 48 hours. It is defined as a nosocomial pneumonia (healthcare-associated infection occurring >48 hours after admission) that occurs in this setting. VAP is typically caused by aspiration of pathogenic microorganisms from the oropharynx or stomach into the lower respiratory tract, and it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality.

The diagnosis of VAP is often challenging due to the overlap of symptoms with other respiratory conditions and the potential for contamination of lower respiratory samples by upper airway flora. Clinical criteria, radiographic findings, and laboratory tests, such as quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or protected specimen brush, are often used in combination to make a definitive diagnosis.

Preventing VAP is crucial in critically ill patients and involves several evidence-based strategies, including elevating the head of the bed, oral care with chlorhexidine, and careful sedation management to allow for spontaneous breathing trials and early extubation when appropriate.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Hospital equipment and supplies refer to the physical resources used in a hospital setting to provide patient care and treatment. This includes both reusable and disposable medical devices and items used for diagnostic, therapeutic, monitoring, or supportive purposes. Examples of hospital equipment include but are not limited to:

1. Medical beds and mattresses
2. Wheelchairs and stretchers
3. Infusion pumps and syringe drivers
4. Defibrillators and ECG machines
5. Anesthesia machines and ventilators
6. Operating room tables and lights
7. X-ray machines, CT scanners, and MRI machines
8. Ultrasound machines and other imaging devices
9. Laboratory equipment for testing and analysis

Hospital supplies include items used in the delivery of patient care, such as:

1. Syringes, needles, and IV catheters
2. Bandages, dressings, and wound care products
3. Gloves, gowns, and other personal protective equipment (PPE)
4. Sterile surgical instruments and sutures
5. Incontinence pads and briefs
6. Nutritional supplements and feeding tubes
7. Medications and medication administration supplies
8. Disinfectants, cleaning agents, and sterilization equipment.

Proper management of hospital equipment and supplies is essential for ensuring patient safety, providing high-quality care, and controlling healthcare costs.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

Hospital housekeeping, also known as environmental services, refers to the department within a hospital responsible for maintaining cleanliness, hygiene, and overall sanitation of the healthcare facility. This includes tasks such as:

1. Cleaning patient rooms, bathrooms, and common areas: This involves dusting, vacuuming, mopping, and disinfecting surfaces to prevent the spread of infections and ensure a safe and comfortable environment for patients, visitors, and staff.
2. Linen management: Hospital housekeeping personnel are responsible for managing laundry services, including collecting soiled linens, transporting them to the laundry facility, washing, drying, folding, and delivering clean linens back to the appropriate units.
3. Waste management: Proper disposal of medical waste, such as sharps, biohazardous materials, and regular trash, is essential for infection prevention and ensuring a safe environment. Hospital housekeeping staff follow strict protocols for handling and disposing of different types of waste.
4. Equipment cleaning and maintenance: Hospital housekeeping staff may be responsible for cleaning and maintaining various types of equipment, such as stretchers, wheelchairs, and other non-medical devices, to ensure they are in good working order and free from dust, dirt, and germs.
5. Infection prevention and control: Adhering to strict infection prevention policies and procedures is crucial for hospital housekeeping staff. This includes using personal protective equipment (PPE), following proper hand hygiene practices, and implementing cleaning and disinfection protocols according to established guidelines.
6. Environmental services training and education: Hospital housekeeping departments often provide ongoing training and education to their staff to ensure they are up-to-date on the latest infection prevention techniques, equipment, and best practices.
7. Participating in quality improvement initiatives: Hospital housekeeping staff may collaborate with other healthcare professionals to identify areas for improvement and implement evidence-based strategies to enhance patient care, safety, and satisfaction.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Siderophores are low-molecular-weight organic compounds that are secreted by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, to chelate and solubilize iron from their environment. They are able to bind ferric iron (Fe3+) with very high affinity and form a siderophore-iron complex, which can then be taken up by the microorganism through specific transport systems. This allows them to acquire iron even in environments where it is present at very low concentrations or in forms that are not readily available for uptake. Siderophores play an important role in the survival and virulence of many pathogenic microorganisms, as they help them to obtain the iron they need to grow and multiply.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are derived from bacteria and are used to treat various types of infections caused by gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. These antibiotics work by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death.

Some examples of aminoglycosides include gentamicin, tobramycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. These antibiotics are often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe infections, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

Aminoglycosides can have serious side effects, including kidney damage and hearing loss, so they are typically reserved for use in serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics. They are also used topically to treat skin infections and prevent wound infections after surgery.

It's important to note that aminoglycosides should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to antibiotic resistance and further health complications.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

"Military hospitals" are healthcare facilities that are operated by the military or armed forces of a country. They provide medical care and treatment for active duty military personnel, veterans, and at times, their families. These hospitals can be located within military bases or installations, or they may be deployed in field settings during military operations or humanitarian missions. Military hospitals are staffed with healthcare professionals who have received additional training in military medicine and are responsible for providing a range of medical services, including emergency care, surgery, rehabilitation, and mental health services. They also often conduct research in military medicine and trauma care.

Rifampin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as rifamycins. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, thereby preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria, including tuberculosis, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Legionella pneumophila. It is also used to prevent meningococcal disease in people who have been exposed to the bacteria.

Rifampin is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. The medication is usually taken two to four times a day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Rifampin may be given alone or in combination with other antibiotics.

It is important to note that rifampin can interact with several other medications, including oral contraceptives, anticoagulants, and anti-seizure drugs, among others. Therefore, it is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with rifampin.

Rifampin may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of urine, tears, sweat, and saliva to a reddish-orange color. These side effects are usually mild and go away on their own. However, if they persist or become bothersome, it is important to consult your healthcare provider.

In summary, rifampin is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections and prevent meningococcal disease. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin may interact with several other medications, and it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of body fluids.

"Genomic Islands" are horizontally acquired DNA segments in bacterial and archaeal genomes that exhibit distinct features, such as different nucleotide composition (e.g., GC content) and codon usage compared to the rest of the genome. They often contain genes associated with mobile genetic elements, such as transposons, integrases, and phages, and are enriched for functions related to adaptive traits like antibiotic resistance, heavy metal tolerance, and virulence factors. These islands can be transferred between different strains or species through various mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), including conjugation, transformation, and transduction, contributing significantly to bacterial evolution and diversity.

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) is a laboratory technique that allows the simultaneous amplification and detection of multiple specific DNA sequences in a single reaction. This method utilizes multiple sets of primers, each specifically designed to recognize and bind to a unique target sequence within the DNA sample.

The process involves several steps:

1. Denaturation: The DNA sample is heated to separate the double-stranded DNA into single strands.
2. Annealing: Primers specific to the target sequences are added, and the mixture is cooled, allowing the primers to attach to their respective complementary sequences on the DNA strands.
3. Extension/Amplification: Polymerase enzymes extend the primers along the DNA template, synthesizing new strands of DNA that contain the target sequence. This step is repeated multiple times (usually 25-40 cycles) to exponentially amplify the targeted sequences.

In multiplex PCR, several primer sets are used in a single reaction, allowing for the simultaneous amplification of different target sequences. After amplification, various methods can be employed to distinguish and detect the specific products, such as gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, or microarray analysis.

Multiplex PCR is widely used in diagnostic tests, pathogen detection, genetic testing, and research applications where multiple DNA targets need to be analyzed simultaneously.

Burn units are specialized sections of hospitals that provide comprehensive care to patients with significant burn injuries. These units are staffed with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals who have expertise in treating burn injuries, including plastic surgeons, critical care specialists, nurses, therapists, and psychologists. The team provides various services such as wound care, infection prevention, pain management, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and psychological support to help patients recover from their injuries. Burn units may also conduct research and engage in education and training related to burn care.

'Infection Control' is a set of practices, procedures, and protocols designed to prevent the spread of infectious agents in healthcare settings. It includes measures to minimize the risk of transmission of pathogens from both recognized and unrecognized sources, such as patients, healthcare workers, visitors, and the environment.

Infection control strategies may include:

* Hand hygiene (handwashing and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers)
* Use of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, masks, gowns, and eye protection
* Respiratory etiquette, including covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Environmental cleaning and disinfection
* Isolation precautions for patients with known or suspected infectious diseases
* Immunization of healthcare workers
* Safe injection practices
* Surveillance and reporting of infections and outbreaks

The goal of infection control is to protect patients, healthcare workers, and visitors from acquiring and transmitting infections.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Taiwan" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of an island nation located in East Asia. The official name of the country is the Republic of China (ROC). If you have any medical questions or inquiries, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

"Multiple drug resistance" (MDR) is a term used in medicine to describe the condition where a patient's infection becomes resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. This means that the bacteria, virus, fungus or parasite that is causing the infection has developed the ability to survive and multiply despite being exposed to medications that were originally designed to kill or inhibit its growth.

In particular, MDR occurs when an organism becomes resistant to at least one drug in three or more antimicrobial categories. This can happen due to genetic changes in the microorganism that allow it to survive in the presence of these drugs. The development of MDR is a significant concern for public health because it limits treatment options and can make infections harder, if not impossible, to treat.

MDR can develop through several mechanisms, including mutations in the genes that encode drug targets or enzymes involved in drug metabolism, as well as the acquisition of genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons that carry resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial drugs are major drivers of MDR, as they create selective pressure for the emergence and spread of resistant strains.

MDR infections can occur in various settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and communities. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, although certain populations may be at higher risk, such as those with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. Preventing the spread of MDR requires a multifaceted approach that includes surveillance, infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and research into new therapies and diagnostics.

"Pediculus" is the medical term for a type of small, wingless parasitic insect that can be found in human hair and on the body. There are two main species that affect humans:

1. Pediculus humanus capitis - also known as the head louse, it primarily lives on the scalp and is responsible for causing head lice infestations.
2. Pediculus humanus corporis - also known as the body louse, it typically lives in clothing and on the body, particularly in seams and folds of clothing, and can cause body lice infestations.

Both species of Pediculus feed on human blood and can cause itching and skin irritation. They are primarily spread through close personal contact and sharing of items such as hats, combs, and clothing.

Bacterial processes refer to the various metabolic and cellular activities that bacteria carry out to survive, grow, and reproduce. These processes include:

1. Metabolism: Bacteria use different types of metabolic pathways to break down organic matter and obtain energy for growth and reproduction. Some bacteria are aerobic, requiring oxygen to carry out their metabolic processes, while others are anaerobic and cannot tolerate oxygen.
2. Cell division: Bacteria reproduce asexually by dividing into two identical daughter cells through a process called binary fission. This process involves the replication of bacterial DNA and the separation of the resulting chromosomes into two new cells.
3. Protein synthesis: Bacteria produce proteins using their own genetic material, which is encoded in their DNA. They use ribosomes to translate genetic information into proteins that are necessary for various cellular functions.
4. Cell wall biosynthesis: Bacteria have a unique cell wall made of peptidoglycan, which provides structural support and protection. The synthesis of the cell wall involves several enzymes and complex biochemical pathways.
5. Motility: Some bacteria are motile and can move around in their environment using flagella or other structures. This movement allows them to seek out nutrients and avoid harmful substances.
6. Quorum sensing: Bacteria can communicate with each other through a process called quorum sensing, which involves the release and detection of signaling molecules. This communication helps bacteria coordinate their behavior and respond to changes in their environment.
7. Antibiotic resistance: Bacteria have developed various mechanisms to resist antibiotics, including enzymatic degradation, efflux pumps, and target modification. These processes can make bacterial infections more difficult to treat and pose a significant public health threat.

A "University Hospital" is a type of hospital that is often affiliated with a medical school or university. These hospitals serve as major teaching institutions where medical students, residents, and fellows receive their training and education. They are equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide specialized and tertiary care services. University hospitals also conduct research and clinical trials to advance medical knowledge and practices. Additionally, they often treat complex and rare cases and provide a wide range of medical services to the community.

Tertiary care centers are specialized healthcare facilities that provide complex medical and surgical services to patients with severe or rare conditions. These centers have advanced medical technology, specialized treatment options, and multidisciplinary teams of healthcare professionals who work together to manage the most challenging cases. Tertiary care centers often serve as referral centers for primary and secondary care providers, and they typically offer a wide range of services including cancer care, neurosurgery, cardiac surgery, transplantation, and other highly specialized treatments. Access to tertiary care centers is usually limited to patients who require advanced medical care that cannot be provided by community hospitals or smaller healthcare facilities.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Middle East. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

A wound infection is defined as the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a part of the body tissue, which has been damaged by a cut, blow, or other trauma, leading to inflammation, purulent discharge, and sometimes systemic toxicity. The symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and fever. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics and proper wound care. It's important to note that not all wounds will become infected, but those that are contaminated with bacteria, dirt, or other foreign substances, or those in which the skin's natural barrier has been significantly compromised, are at a higher risk for infection.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection that causes the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed. It's caused by various types of bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b.

The infection can develop quickly, over a few hours or days, and is considered a medical emergency. Symptoms may include sudden high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light. In some cases, a rash may also be present.

Bacterial meningitis can lead to serious complications such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, and even death if not treated promptly with appropriate antibiotics and supportive care. It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you suspect bacterial meningitis. Vaccines are available to prevent certain types of bacterial meningitis.

The Czech Republic is a country located in Central Europe. It is not a medical term or concept, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, like any other country, the Czech Republic has its own healthcare system and medical facilities that provide various health services to its population. The Czech Republic is known for its high-quality healthcare and medical education, with many institutions being recognized worldwide.

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a type of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based method used in molecular biology for DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity analysis. This technique utilizes random primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequences to amplify random segments of genomic DNA. The amplified products are then separated by electrophoresis, and the resulting banding patterns are analyzed.

In RAPD analysis, the randomly chosen primers bind to multiple sites in the genome, and the intervening regions between the primer binding sites are amplified. Since the primer binding sites can vary among individuals within a species or among different species, the resulting amplicons will also differ. These differences in amplicon size and pattern can be used to distinguish between individuals or populations at the DNA level.

RAPD is a relatively simple and cost-effective technique that does not require prior knowledge of the genome sequence. However, it has some limitations, such as low reproducibility and sensitivity to experimental conditions. Despite these limitations, RAPD remains a useful tool for genetic analysis in various fields, including forensics, plant breeding, and microbial identification.

A. baumannii is part of the ACB complex (A. baumannii, A. calcoaceticus, and Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU). It is ... Parte, A.C. "Acinetobacter". LPSN. Lin, Ming-Feng; Lan, Chung-Yu (2014). "Antimicrobial Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: ... "What Is Acinetobacter Baumannii?". Everyday Health. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2017. "Acinetobacter". Centers for Disease ... Gerner-Smidt, P (October 1992). "Ribotyping of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex". Journal of ...
... calcoaceticus-baumannii complex: glucose-oxidising nonhemolytic (A. baumannii can be identified by OXA-51 typing ... in particular the species Acinetobacter baumannii. Species of the genus Acinetobacter are strictly aerobic, nonfermentative, ... Antibiotic resistance is a major risk factor for epidemic behavior of Acinetobacter baumannii. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ... A. baumannii has also been reported to infect skin and soft tissue in traumatic injuries and postsurgical wounds. A. baumannii ...
"Deciphering the Multifactorial Nature of Acinetobacter baumannii Pathogenicity". PLOS ONE. 6 (8): e22674. Bibcode:2011PLoSO... ...
"Deciphering the Multifactorial Nature of Acinetobacter baumannii Pathogenicity". PLOS ONE. 6 (8): e22674. Bibcode:2011PLoSO... ...
"Variation in the Complex Carbohydrate Biosynthesis Loci of Acinetobacter baumannii Genomes". PLOS ONE. 8 (4): e62160. Bibcode: ... "Diversity and Function of Capsular Polysaccharide in Acinetobacter baumannii". Frontiers in Microbiology. 9: 3301. doi:10.3389/ ... Neisseria meningitidis Klebsiella pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae Pseudomonas aeruginosa Salmonella Acinetobacter baumannii ...
and Acinetobacter baumannii) who had been treated in Germany. Its structure is similar to cefepime and ceftazidime, but a ... Acinetobacter baumannii complex Escherichia coli Enterobacter cloacae complex Klebsiella pneumoniae Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
There is evidence that it is effective against Acinetobacter baumannii, which is one of the three superbugs identified by the ... May 2023). "Deep learning-guided discovery of an antibiotic targeting Acinetobacter baumannii". Nature Chemical Biology. doi: ...
"Deep learning-guided discovery of an antibiotic targeting Acinetobacter baumannii". Nature Chemical Biology: 1-9. doi:10.1038/ ... AI was used to develop an experimental antibiotic called abaucin, which is shown to be effective against A. baumannii. A ...
... an antibiotic targeting Acinetobacter baumannii, one of the WHO's top-three deadliest bacteria in the world. The MIT Jameel ... "Deep learning-guided discovery of an antibiotic targeting Acinetobacter baumannii". Nature Chemical Biology. 2023. doi:10.1038/ ...
Isolation and characterization of an autoinducer synthase from Acinetobacter baumannii. J Bacteriol. 2008;190(9):3386-3392. doi ... Acinetobacter baumannii abaR (activates operon for production of surfactant-like lipopeptide acinetin-505) 3. Autonomous ... Characterization of RelA in Acinetobacter baumannii [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 30]. J Bacteriol. 2020;JB.00045- ...
... which inhibits Acinetobacter baumannii motility). Antibodies (anti-tetanus immunoglobulin) have been used in the treatment and ... "Anti-biofilm and anti-virulence effects of zerumbone against Acinetobacter baumannii". Microbiology. 166 (8): 717-726. doi: ... Molecular Mechanisms and Innovative Treatment Strategies of Acinetobacter baumannii". Microorganisms. 8 (6): Article 935. doi: ...
LaVergne, Stephanie (March 2018). "Phage Therapy for a Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Craniectomy Site Infection ... was suffering from a life-threatening multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection, that he had acquired while on ... Personalized Bacteriophage-Based Therapeutic Cocktails to Treat a Patient with a Disseminated Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ...
It also demonstrates potent in vitro activity versus carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Plazomicin was found to be ... "Can Plazomicin Alone or in Combination Be a Therapeutic Option against Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii?". ...
March 2015). "Molecular mechanisms of sulbactam antibacterial activity and resistance determinants in Acinetobacter baumannii ...
"Medscape abstract on Acinetobacter baumannii: Acinetobacter baumannii: An Emerging Multidrug-resistant Threat". membership only ... Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter have become very resistant to antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii was identified as one of ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC). (2004). "Acinetobacter baumannii infections among patients at military medical ... reported an increasing number of Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections in patients at military medical facilities in ...
Cellulose degraders are Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter amalonaticus, Citrobacter freundii, Aeromonas caviae and ... Acinetobacter. Pectine hydrolyzing microbes are Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae and Citrobacter freundii. Two bacterial ...
"PheWAS uncovers a pathological role of coagulation Factor X during Acinetobacter baumannii infection". Infection and Immunity. ...
... resistant Acinetobacter baumannii". Respirology Case Reports. 8 (8): e00662. doi:10.1002/rcr2.662. PMC 7507560. PMID 32999723. ... Acinetobacter baumannii, Streptococcus pyogenes, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, anaerobes like Fusobacterium nucleatum and ...
"A nutrient-limited screen unmasks rifabutin hyperactivity for extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii". Nature ... is also being investigated for the treatment of infections caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Acinetobacter baumannii, which ...
"Genetic basis of high level aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii from Beijing, China". Acta Pharmaceutica ...
Use of colistin to treat Acinetobacter baumannii infections has led to the development of resistant bacterial strains. They ... May 2013). "Clinical use of colistin induces cross-resistance to host antimicrobials in Acinetobacter baumannii". mBio. 4 (3): ... Colistimethate sodium has also been given intrathecally and intraventricularly in Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas ... October 2006). "Colistin and rifampicin in the treatment of nosocomial infections from multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii ...
"Clinical Use of Colistin Induces Cross-Resistance to Host Antimicrobials in Acinetobacter baumannii". mBio. 4 (3): e00021-13- ...
Expression of chemosensory protein (CSP) structures in Pediculus humanis corporis and Acinetobacter baumannii. SOJ Microbiol ... B-CSP/Acinetobacter baumannii, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Kitasatospora griseola, Escherichia coli (Liu et al., 2019) [24]. The ... They have been reported from bacterial species such as coccobacillus Acinetobacter baumannii, Macrococcus/Staphylococcus ...
"Successful treatment of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis with intravenous and intraventricular ...
... resistant Acinetobacter baumannii". Respirology Case Reports. 8 (8): e00662. doi:10.1002/rcr2.662. PMC 7507560. PMID 32999723. ...
"Overexpression of resistance-nodulation-cell division pump AdeFGH confers multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii". ...
"Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ...
In addition, VCC has been applied to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Acinetobacter baumannii. The initial virtual ... HD5 variants with one disulfide bond or no disulfide bonds exhibited greatly decreased VCC activity against A. baumannii, ... derivative of human defensin 5 with potent and efficient activity against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii". ... baumannii. These studies have been expanded to include additional beta defensins, theta defensins, and the human cathelicidin ...
In Vitro Efficacy of Doripenem against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Acinetobacter Baumannii by E-test. Journal of the College of ...
... baumannii complex together with Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter pitti and Acinetobacter ... "Acinetobacter seifertii sp. nov., a member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolated from ... Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is a bacterial species of the genus Acinetobacter. It is a nonmotile, Gram-negative coccobacillus. ... Acinetobacter calcoaceticus on www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Type strain of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus at BacDive - the Bacterial ...
A. baumannii is part of the ACB complex (A. baumannii, A. calcoaceticus, and Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU). It is ... Parte, A.C. "Acinetobacter". LPSN. Lin, Ming-Feng; Lan, Chung-Yu (2014). "Antimicrobial Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: ... "What Is Acinetobacter Baumannii?". Everyday Health. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2017. "Acinetobacter". Centers for Disease ... Gerner-Smidt, P (October 1992). "Ribotyping of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex". Journal of ...
Acinetobacter baumannii ACICU. Taxonomy ID: 405416 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid405416). current name. ... Bacteria; Pseudomonadota; Gammaproteobacteria; Moraxellales; Moraxellaceae; Acinetobacter; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/ ... Comparative genome sequence analysis of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J. Bacteriol. (2008) 190:8053-8064. ...
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Acinetobacter baumannii). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
Thus, CC92 A. baumannii carrying OXA-23 is a major drug-resistant strain spreading in China. Our findings indicate that ... Thus, CC92 A. baumannii carrying OXA-23 is a major drug resistant strain spreading in China. Our findings indicate that ... A total of 110 clinical isolates of A. baumannii, collected in a recent 2-year period, were tested for carbapenem antibiotic ... 110 clinical isolates of A. baumannii, collected in last two years, were tested for carbapenem antibiotic susceptibility, ...
Acinetobacter baumannii. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: hpaI, FD887_17235, ITE13_17975. EC: ... Catalytic and structural insights into a stereospecific and thermostable Class II aldolase HpaI from Acinetobacter baumannii.. ... we investigated a new Class II metal aldolase from the p-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway in Acinetobacter baumannii, 4 ... we investigated a new Class II metal aldolase from the p-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway in Acinetobacter baumannii, 4 ...
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB). Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a type of bacteria ...
Wang CC, Li DJ, Xia YQ, Liu K. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis that aggravates after acinetobacter baumannii ... Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis that aggravates after acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia: A case report ... rare case of an anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in which the patient aggravated after acinetobacter baumannii ...
Acinetobacter baumannii AB307-0294). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in ...
Baumannii strains. Material/Methods: Twenty A. Baumannii isolated from two intensive care units (ICUs) at the Instituto ... Conclusions: This study shows the dissemination of A. Baumannii clinical isolates, a humidifier being the source of the strain. ... Successive papers reported increased resistance in clinical isolates of A. Baumannii, currently resistant to most antibiotics. ... Baumannii strains (PFGE-2) carried the gene encoding the APH(3)-VIa enzyme and two strains (PFGE-5) had the TET(B) determinant ...
Class 1 integron was detected in 13.3% of the P. aeruginosa and 40% of the A. baumannii isolates, while Class 2 integron was ... In case of A. baumannii, all the isolates were sensitive to colistin, but 98% were resistant to other antibiotics (p≤0.05). ... Materials And Methods A total of 90 P. aeruginosa and 90 A. baumannii isolates were recovered from patients admitted into ... Furthermore, 23% of the A. baumannii and 12% of the P. aeruginosa isolates showed strong biofilm activity. Conclusion Class 1 ...
Werneck J. S., Picão R. C., Carvalhaes C. G., Cardoso J. P., Gales A. C. 2011; OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ... Boulanger A., Naas T., Fortineau N., Figueiredo S., Nordmann P. 2012; NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii from Algeria. ... Drissi M., Poirel L., Mugnier P. D., Baba Ahmed Z., Nordmann P. 2010; Carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii, Algeria ... Zarrilli R., Giannouli M., Tomasone F., Triassi M., Tsakris A. 2009; Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: the ...
... baumannii. We have identified a large number of genes in the A. baumannii genomes that are known to play a role in virulence in ... baumannii. Overall, these analyses increase our understanding of A. baumannii pathogenicity and will assist in future studies ... Not surprising, many virulence candidates appear to be part of the A. baumannii core genome of virulent isolates but were often ... Genome data have revealed that A. baumannii is highly genetically diverse, which correlates with major variations seen at the ...
MALDI-TOF MS; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex; Bacteria profiling; BioTyper Popis. MALDI-TOF MS is ... of MALDI-TOF MS profiling for the differentiation of species within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii ... of MALDI-TOF MS profiling for the differentiation of species within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii ... between some closely related bacterial species including those of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB ...
An outer membrane vesicle pulse-chase assay demonstrates that the Acinetobacter baumannii Mla system is a retrograde lipid ... The Mla pathway in Acinetobacter baumannii has no demonstrable role in anterograde lipid transport. ... The Mla pathway in Acinetobacter baumannii has no demonstrable role in anterograde lipid transport ... The Mla pathway in Acinetobacter baumannii has no demonstrable role in anterograde lipid transport ...
ICU-acquired Carbapenem-non-susceptible Bacilli in Indonesia Focus on: Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and ... ICU-verworven Carbapenem-niet-gevoelige Bacillen in Indonesië Focus op: Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae en ... We here describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii (CNAB), Klebsiella pneumoniae (CNKP) ... antimicrobial resistance, carbapenem, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, P.aeruginosa, intensive care unit, Indonesia ...
Relatedness of wildlife and livestock avian isolates of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii to lineages spread in ... Relatedness of wildlife and livestock avian isolates of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii to lineages spread in ... The natural habitats and potential reservoirs of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii are poorly defined. Here, we ... Avian isolates do not form a distinct clade within the phylogeny of A. baumannii, instead they diverge into different lineages ...
Acinetobacter baumannii: A baumannii is a pathogen that has been well described in the context of ventilator-associated ...
Acinetobacter baumannii, A. calcoaceticus. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, A. faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas spp ...
Acinetobacter baumannii/química; Acinetobacter baumannii/genética; Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo; Proteínas de Bactérias/química ... Structural and binding studies of phosphopantetheine adenylyl transferase from Acinetobacter baumannii. Gupta, A; Singh, P K; ... The enzyme PPAT from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbPPAT) was cloned, expressed and purified. The binding studies of AbPPAT were ... Acinetobacter baumannii / Nucleotidiltransferases Idioma: Inglês Revista: Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom Ano de ...
Genomic surveillance of Acinetobacter baumannii in the Philippines, 2013-2014 A. baumannii surveillance in the Philippines ... Genomic surveillance of Acinetobacter baumannii in the Philippines, 2013-2014: A. baumannii surveillance in the Philippines. ... Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that has increasingly become resistant to ... Methods: We sequenced the whole genomes of 117 A. baumannii isolates recovered by 16 hospitals in the Philippines between 2013 ...
... Morphology and culture. In Acinetobacter baumannii is immobile, aerobic, gram-negative short rods with ... Therefore, four Genomospezies were summarized for Acinetobacter baumannii Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex. Acinetobacter ... Acinetobacter baumannii has the largest clinical significance among Acinetobacter species. As a classic opportunist he is a ... Acinetobacter Baumannii diagnosis and prevalence of resistance. The diagnosis is made by culture of appropriate specimens and ...
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Strain Number. CCP89. Name. Acinetobacter baumannii. Strain Designation. H466. Type of Organism. Bacteria. Status. -. Other collections. -. Sampling Data. Source: Hospitalized patient. Geographic origin: Portugal. Date: 2011. Isolated by. -. Growth Conditions. Medium: Nutrient Agar. Temperature: 37°C. Incubation Time: 24h. Atmospheric needs: Aerobic. Preservation Procedures Used. Maintained at -80ºC in Tryptic Soy Broth containing 15% glycerol. Restrictions. Biohazard group 2. Nagoya Protocol Restrictions. There are NO known Nagoya Protocol restrictions for this strain.. Literature. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33150386/. GenBank Access Numbers. JABMIZ000000000.1. ...
  • The natural habitats and potential reservoirs of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii are poorly defined. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Resources for genetic and genomic analysis of emerging pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. (pacb.com)
  • As a result, differentiation of A. nosocomialis and A. baumannii strains by cluster analysis was improved and 13 A. nosocomialis strains, assigned erroneously or ambiguously by using the standard protocol, were correctly identified. (muni.cz)
  • Most strains of Acinetobacter baumannii show on solid culture media flat colorless colonies that are slightly smaller than those of Enterobacteriaceae. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • Furthermore, their individual effects and synergistic potential in combination with antibiotics were examined against clinical strains of both S. aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The potential global health threat that A. baumannii poses is underscored by the identification of multiple drug resistant (MDR) strains that are impervious to all commercially available antibiotics. (emerging-researchers.org)
  • The aim of the study was analysis of A. baumannii strains, isolated from hospital samples from the lower respiratory tract collected from patients with VAP hospitalized in Masovian Specialist Hospital's ICU in Radom between 2012 and 2014. (monz.pl)
  • We present a set of resources that should accelerate genome-scale genetic characterization of these traits for a reference isolate of A. baumannii that is highly virulent and representative of current outbreak strains. (pacb.com)
  • A. baumannii is developing into multidrug resistant (MDR), extensively drug resistant (XDR), and pandrug resistant (PDR) bacteria, and its adaptation to the environment with drug resistance has previously been reported ( Durante-Mangoni and Zarrilli, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a type of bacteria commonly found in the environment, especially in soil and water. (mn.us)
  • Extracts and phases obtained from the medicinal plant M. albicans demonstrated synergistic effects when combined with the commercial antibiotics ampicillin and ciprofloxacin, against multi-drug resistant bacteria S. aureus and A. baumannii , restoring their antibacterial efficacy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acinetobacter Baumannii is a gram-negative bacteria that makes up part of the natural soil microbiome. (fitnessbuzz.net)
  • Acinetobacter infections can occur when a person breathes contaminated air, touches a contaminated surface, or has direct contact with Acinetobacter bacteria. (fitnessbuzz.net)
  • According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Acinetobacter is a group of bacteria commonly found in soil and water. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Colistin is an old drug, and its use has recently resurged because of increasing antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii . (pfmjournal.org)
  • In 1954, Brisou and Prévot proposed the genus Acinetobacter to indicate that the bacteria were non-motile because they lacked flagella: the Greek "akineto" means "immobile" [ 1 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • A method of producing a vaccine against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii comprises the step of isolating a whole cell material of inactivated antibiotic-exposed A. baumannii cultured in presence of an antibiotic at early logarithmic (log) phase of bacterial growth, inactivating the bacteria with chemical and heat at late log phase of bacterial growth and mixing the isolated whole cell material with a preservative. (um-technology.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, namely, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) (for example, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli), Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPsA), are a matter of national and international concern as they are an emerging cause of. (bvsalud.org)
  • A. baumannii has also been identified as an ESKAPE pathogen (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species), a group of pathogens with a high rate of antibiotic resistance that are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • We here describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii (CNAB), Klebsiella pneumoniae (CNKP) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CNPA) in two ICUs in the National Referral Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. (eur.nl)
  • Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii are of greatest concern for hospitalized patients, particularly those in intensive care units (ICUs). (magiran.com)
  • While other species of the genus Acinetobacter are often found in soil samples (leading to the common misconception that A. baumannii is a soil organism, too), it is almost exclusively isolated from hospital environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. baumannii is part of the ACB complex (A. baumannii, A. calcoaceticus, and Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU). (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, this method suffers from the inability to differentiate reliably between some closely related bacterial species including those of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex, namely A. baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis. (muni.cz)
  • Acinetobacter species can ferment glucose and thus do not belong to the so-called "non-fermenters. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • Acinetobacter species are in nature and beyond widely used in the hospital sector. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii has the largest clinical significance among Acinetobacter species. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • The increased incidence of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii creates demand on the application of some combinations of older antimicrobials on that species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • http://www.bacterio.net/acinetobacter.html ), and the number of species is increasing [ 3 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii is the most common species to cause infections, followed by Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter pittii [ 4 , 5 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • AbaR-type resistance islands are typical of drug-resistant A. baumannii, and different variations may be present in a given strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • reported the dissemination of MDR OXA-23-producing A. baumannii clones throughout multiple cities in China, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems in western China. (frontiersin.org)
  • Emergence of resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter baumannii in Europe: clinical impact and therapeutic options. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Rapid detection of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Diversity of carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Acinetobacter baumannii from a Taiwan hospital: spread of plasmid-borne OXA-72 carbapenemase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We undertook a genomic study of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in the Philippines to characterize the population diversity and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. (who.int)
  • Our approach is to understand the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii with the goal of establishing new strategies for therapeutic intervention. (emerging-researchers.org)
  • In this study, we aim to determine the contribution of the SODB enzyme to antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii. (emerging-researchers.org)
  • In this review, we have discussed colistin resistance in A. baumannii . (pfmjournal.org)
  • Although β-lactam antibiotics are the preferred choice for susceptible A. baumannii infections, carbapenems have become the main therapeutic option because of an increase in resistance [ 2 , 6 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • However, imipenem-resistant isolates were found in the early 1990s [ 17 ], and the rate of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii , mainly due to OXA-type (oxacillin-hydrolysing) carbapenemases, has increased rapidly [ 7 , 11 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • Due to its frequent antibiotic drug resistance Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) is increasingly causing a problem in burns units. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The antibiotic in the culture medium is at an effective concentration hindering the growth of the A. baumannii without substantially killing the A. baumannii and enhances expression of A. baumannii proteins conferring resistance to the antibiotics and virulence. (um-technology.com)
  • These resources should facilitate large-scale genetic analysis of virulence, resistance, and other clinically relevant traits that make A. baumannii a formidable public health threat.Acinetobacter baumannii is one of six bacterial pathogens primarily responsible for antibiotic-resistant infections that have become the scourge of health care facilities worldwide. (pacb.com)
  • In Brazil, A. baumannii has become particularly problematic because of its prevalence and the carbapenems resistance. (fiocruz.br)
  • Virulence of selected avian A. baumannii isolates was comparable to that of clinical isolates in the Galleria mellonella infection model. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The current knowledge concerning the physiological basis of A. baumannii virulence traits is rather limited. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • We anticipate to elucidate the mechanisms of A. baumannii virulence and eukaryotic host cell adaptation from the cellular to the structural level employing advanced analytical tools and a broad spectrum of available molecular biological, biochemical, immunological techniques and bioinformatic tools as well as cutting-edge techniques such as static and dynamic flow infections and various in vitro and in vivo infection models. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • The collaborative research effort will promote regional and transregional interactions between nonclinical and clinical research groups which is essential to successfully address the multiple factors underlying A. baumannii virulence. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Since the expression of multiple iron uptake clusters can be linked to virulence, the presence of the additional heme uptake system hemO may have contributed to the success of some A. baumannii clones. (uniroma3.it)
  • Prior studies have identified Superoxide dismutase B (SODB) as an essential virulence factor of A. baumannii. (emerging-researchers.org)
  • This report describes the development of several such resources for A. baumannii strain AB5075, a recently characterized wound isolate that is multidrug resistant and displays robust virulence in animal models. (pacb.com)
  • The influence of Acinetobacter Baumannii and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in burn wounds. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Wang CC, Li DJ, Xia YQ, Liu K. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis that aggravates after acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia: A case report. (wjgnet.com)
  • In this paper we presented a very rare case of an anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in which the patient aggravated after acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia and well responded to immunotherapy. (wjgnet.com)
  • In outpatients fatal pneumonia were described by Acinetobacter after use no more effective antibiotics. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii is a well-adapted hospital pathogen and recent data from the National Nosocomial Surveillance System (NNIS) showed a substantial increase in the number of cases of A. baumannii -associated nosocomial (hospital acquired) pneumonia, causing 5 - 10% of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia cases in the United States. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii infection is not easy to treat and may increase long-term health problems such as pneumonia. (fitnessbuzz.net)
  • Almomani BA, McCullough A, Gharaibeh R, Samrah S, Mahasneh F. Incidence and predictors of 14-day mortality in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in ventilator-associated pneumonia. (monz.pl)
  • Acinetobacter causes a variety of diseases, ranging from pneumonia to serious blood or wound infections, and the symptoms vary depending on the disease. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Therefore, four Genomospezies were summarized for Acinetobacter baumannii Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • they were grouped into the so-called " A. calcoaceticus - A. baumannii (Acb) complex" [ 7 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that has increasingly become resistant to carbapenems worldwide. (who.int)
  • We sequenced the whole genomes of 117 A. baumannii isolates recovered by 16 hospitals in the Philippines between 2013 and 2014. (who.int)
  • Objectives The whole genomes of two Acinetobacter baumannii isolates recovered from a single patient were sequenced to gain insight into the nature and extent of genomic plasticity in this important nosocomial pathogen over the course of a short infection. (uea.ac.uk)
  • In case of A. baumannii, all the isolates were sensitive to colistin, but 98% were resistant to other antibiotics (p≤0.05). (magiran.com)
  • We conducted the present observational study to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous and aerosolized colistin combined with rifampicin in the treatment of critically patients with nosocomial infections caused by multiresistant A. baumannii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Critically ill patients with nosocomial infections caused by A. baumannii resistant to all antibiotics except colistin in a medical ICU were included. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is a clinical report of colistin combined with rifampicin for treatment of A. baumannii infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we have reviewed an abnormal phenomenon called colistin dependence in A. baumannii . (pfmjournal.org)
  • In South Korea, more than two-thirds of the A. baumannii isolates were resistant to imipenem on the basis of several surveillance studies [ 4 , 15 , 18 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • the percentages of acinetobacter bumannii isolates in relation to imipenem, meropenem and ciprofloxacin in the dilution serial method are 40.9%, 60% and 77.7%, respectively. (icbcongress.com)
  • The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of integrons and biofilm formation among P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates collected from ICU and non-ICU inpatients. (magiran.com)
  • Prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from 2005 to 2016 in Switzerland. (anresis.ch)
  • Clinical microbiologists typically differentiate members of the genus Acinetobacter from other Moraxellaceae by performing an oxidase test, as Acinetobacter spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally belonged to the genus Acinetobacter to the family of Neisseriaceae. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) presents a serious therapeutic and infection control challenge. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), is an opportunistic pathogen primarily associated with hospital-acquired infections. (sterifre.com)
  • Multidrug-resistant A. baumannii has spread to civilian hospitals in part due to the transport of infected soldiers through multiple medical facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, CC92 A. baumannii carrying OXA-23 is a major drug-resistant strain spreading in China. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two sequential outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates producing OXA-58 or OXA-72 oxacillinase in an intensive care unit in France. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Clonal spread of carbapenem-resistant OXA-72-positive Acinetobacter baumannii in a Croatian university hospital. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Molecular detection of OXA carbapenemase genes in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Iraq and Georgia. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This is the first extensive genomic study of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in the Philippines, and it underscores the importance of hospital infection control and prevention measures to contain high-risk clones. (who.int)
  • Severe wound infection and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by Osteomyelititiden were diagnosed among American soldiers who had been wounded in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • Tigecycline (TYGACIL) has bacteriostatic activity against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • The bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen. (uniroma3.it)
  • To understand the mechanisms causing the resistant nature of A. baumannii, the SODB enzyme was structurally and functionally characterized. (emerging-researchers.org)
  • In the conducted study, infections caused by multi-resistant A. baumannii were observed more frequently in late VAP, which should be taken into consideration while choosing empirical antibiotic therapy. (monz.pl)
  • Acinetobacter is often resistant to many commonly prescribed antibiotics. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • LL-37 has been found in both acute burn wounds as well as in the grafted healing burn wound and is active against drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (ST15/CC15) isolated in 2009 from the state of Espírito Santo (Southeast Brazil). (fiocruz.br)
  • Risk factors for infection by Acinetobacter antibiotic pre-treatment and / or surgery as well as the use of ventilators and other medical instruments have been identified. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • A. baumannii responds to low iron availability imposed by the host through the exploitation of multiple iron-acquisition strategies, which are likely to deliver iron to the cell under a variety of environmental conditions, including human and animal infection. (uniroma3.it)
  • BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) bacteremia is an increasingly common and often fatal nosocomial infection. (hku.hk)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii is a common but potentially severe infection that can occur in people with weakened immune systems. (fitnessbuzz.net)
  • People who are taking certain medications, such as antibiotics or corticosteroids ( for example , asthma medications), are also more likely to develop an Acinetobacter baumannii infection. (fitnessbuzz.net)
  • If you develop an Acinetobacter baumannii infection, see your doctor promptly. (fitnessbuzz.net)
  • Treatment options will depend on the type of Acinetobacter baumannii infection you have and your overall health status. (fitnessbuzz.net)
  • Acinetobacter may also "colonize" or live in a patient without causing infection or symptoms, especially in tracheostomy sites or open wounds. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Hospitalized patients, especially very ill patients on a ventilator, those with a prolonged hospital stay, those who have open wounds, or any person with invasive devices like urinary catheters are also at greater risk for Acinetobacter infection. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Acinetobacter are gram-negative aerobic bacilli or coccobacilli that belong to the family Moraxellaceae. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections typically occur in intensive care units and healthcare settings housing very ill patients. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen frequently associated with nosocomial outbreaks around the world. (fiocruz.br)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii is a typically short, almost round, rod-shaped (coccobacillus) Gram-negative bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Acinetobacter baumannii is immobile, aerobic, gram-negative short rods with a size of about 1-1.5 x 1.5-2 microns. (acinetobacterbaumannii.com)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen notorious for causing serious nosocomial infections that resist antibiotic therapy. (pacb.com)
  • A total of 110 clinical isolates of A. baumannii , collected in a recent 2-year period, were tested for carbapenem antibiotic susceptibility, followed by a molecular analysis of carbapenemase genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The persistence of A. baumannii is attributed to multiple factors but, unfortunately, knowledge regarding the molecular basis for these traits of A. baumannii , i.e. proteins, enzymes and genes involved as well as their regulation by abiotic and biotic factors remains largely unknown. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • En nuestro país, durante el primer cuatrimestre del año, se observó un aumento inusual en el número de aislamiento de gérmenes multirresistentes, sobre todo de bacilos gramnegativos, los cuales fueron remitidos al laboratorio de referencia con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes de resistencia a los carbapenemes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Emergence and widespread dissemination of OXA-23, -24/40 and -58 carbapenemases among Acinetobacter spp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • La sensibilité de Staphylococcus aureus à l'oxacilline a diminué significativement, passant de 95,0 % entre 1999 et 2002 à 84,4 % en 2008. (who.int)
  • Moreover, A. baumannii ranks 10th among the most frequent organisms (1.3%) causing monomicrobial nosocomial bloodstream infections in the US and 2 - 10% of nosocomial infections in intensive care units in European hospitals. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Motility in A. baumannii may also be due to the excretion of exopolysaccharide, creating a film of high-molecular-weight sugar chains behind the bacterium to move forward. (wikipedia.org)
  • People can become infected with Acinetobacter by coming into contact with the bacterium. (fitnessbuzz.net)
  • due to the fact that acinetobacter bumannii is one of the essential factors in hospital acquired infections, assessing the drug patterns of this bacterium is necessary. (icbcongress.com)
  • to begin with, first, the clinical samples are sent to the laboratory for acinetobacter bumanni identification through chemical tests, next, the existence of this bacterium is confirmed by the pcr molecular method and then, the antibiotic sensitivity test is run on the samples, followed by their their analysis through spps and chi-square test. (icbcongress.com)
  • Colloquially, A. baumannii is referred to as "Iraqibacter" due to its seemingly sudden emergence in military treatment facilities during the Iraq War. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii can cause infections in the urinary tract, blood, lungs, and in wound. (sterifre.com)
  • Acinetobacter can cause community-acquired bronchiolitis and tracheobronchitis in healthy children and tracheobronchitis in immunocompromised adults. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Moreover, in the examined group, in 34 patients in addition to A. baumannii another strain was isolated, considered as etiological factor participating in coinfection. (monz.pl)
  • Acinetobacter is present in the environment and often found in water, soil, and on contaminated surfaces. (fitnessbuzz.net)
  • The enzyme PPAT from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbPPAT) was cloned, expressed and purified. (bvsalud.org)