Acinar Cells: Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.ChymotrypsinogenAquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Receptors, Cholecystokinin: Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.Taurolithocholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Azaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Parasympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Parotid DiseasesCytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Strophanthins: A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Pancreatic alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Receptor, Cholecystokinin A: A subtype of cholecystokinin receptor found primarily in the PANCREAS; STOMACH; INTESTINE; and GALLBLADDER. It plays a role in regulating digestive functions such as gallbladder contraction, pancreatic enzyme secretion and absorption in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.Endocrine Cells: Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Ruthenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.Pancreatic Stellate Cells: Star-shaped, myofibroblast-like cells located in the periacinar, perivascular, and periductal regions of the EXOCRINE PANCREAS. They play a key role in the pathobiology of FIBROSIS; PANCREATITIS; and PANCREATIC CANCER.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Lithostathine: The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Bumetanide: A sulfamyl diuretic.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Propylbenzilylcholine Mustard: An analog of benzilylcholine mustard. It is an alkylating nitrogen mustard analog that binds specifically and irreversibly to cholinergic muscarinic receptors and is used as an affinity label to isolate and study the receptors.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Receptors, Purinergic P2X4: A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Gabexate: A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.Physalaemin: An oligopeptide isolated from the skin of Physalaemus fuscumaculatus, a South American frog. It is a typical kinin, resembling SUBSTANCE P in structure and action and has been proposed as a sialagogue, antihypertensive, and vasodilator.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Rough: A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.Devazepide: A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.R-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Carcinoma, Islet Cell: A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Bethanechol CompoundsDithizone: Chelating agent used for heavy metal poisoning and assay. It causes diabetes.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.AcetophenonesCarboxypeptidases A: Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC 3.4.2.1 and EC 3.4.12.2.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Sugar PhosphatesSodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.IodoproteinsMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Inbred C57BLStreptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Receptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Isethionic Acid: A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Carboxypeptidase B: A ZINC-dependent carboxypeptidase primary found in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. The enzyme catalyzes the preferential cleavage of a C-terminal peptidyl-L-lysine or arginine. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.2.2 and EC 3.4.12.3.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Rats, Inbred F344Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tetragastrin: L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Salivary Gland DiseasesProglumide: A drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on gastric secretion and reduces gastrointestinal motility. It is used clinically in the drug therapy of gastrointestinal ulcers.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
(1/157) Recovery of INS-R and ER-alpha expression in the salivary glands of diabetic mice submitted to hormone replacement therapy.

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(2/157) Histopathology and ex vivo insulin secretion of pancreatic islets in gestational diabetes: A case report.

Gestational diabetes (GD) results from insufficient endogenous insulin supply. No information is available on features of islet cells in human GD. Herein, we describe several properties of islets from a woman with GD. Immunohistochemical stainings and EM analyses were performed on pancreatic samples. Islet isolation was achieved by enzymatic dissociation and density gradient centrifugation. Ex vivo insulin secretion was studied in response to fuel secretagogues. Control islets were obtained from matched non-pregnant, non-diabetic women. Total insulin positive area was lower in GD, mainly due to the presence of smaller islets. beta-cell apoptosis and the presence of Ki67 positive islet cells were similar in GD and controls, whereas the amount of insulin positive cells in or close to the ducts was decreased in GD. Ex vivo insulin secretion did not differ between GD and non-pregnant, non-diabetic islets. These findings suggest that in this case of human GD there might mainly be a defect of beta-cell amount, not due to increased apoptosis, but possibly to insufficient regeneration.  (+info)

(3/157) Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress, acinar cell damage, and systemic inflammation in acute pancreatitis.

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(4/157) PKCtheta activation in pancreatic acinar cells by gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors is needed for stimulation of numerous important cellular signaling cascades.

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(5/157) Role of neutrophils in the activation of trypsinogen in severe acute pancreatitis.

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(6/157) Functional role of an islet transcription factor, INSM1/IA-1, on pancreatic acinar cell trans-differentiation.

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(7/157) Secretin is not necessary for exocrine pancreatic development and growth in mice.

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(8/157) The distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in acinar cells of rat pancreas revealed with the freeze-fracture replica labeling method.

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*  Acute pancreatitis
Serum amylase may be normal (in 10% of cases) for cases of acute or chronic pancreatitis (depleted acinar cell mass) and ... Necrotic fat cells appear as shadows, contours of cells, lacking the nucleus, pink, finely granular cytoplasm. It is possible ... 55 years white blood cell count > 16000 cells/mm3 blood glucose > 11.1 mmol/L (> 200 mg/dL) serum AST > 250 IU/L serum LDH > ... The two types of acute pancreatitis are mild and severe, which are defined based on whether the predominant response to cell ...
*  Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas
... , also acinar cell carcinoma, is a rare malignant exocrine tumour of the pancreas. It ... Von Hoff, 23 Klimstra, DS.; Heffess, CS.; Oertel, JE.; Rosai, J. (Sep 1992). "Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas. A ... Feb 2010). "[A case of acinar cell carcinoma of pancreas, manifested by subcutaneous nodule as initial clinical symptom]". ... Pancreatic Cancer, 2005, Jones & Bartlett Learning, ISBN 0763721786, 9780763721787 Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas ( ...
*  Autoimmune pancreatitis
... or CD8-positive lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells, and exhibits interstitial fibrosis and acinar cell atrophy in later ... plasma cells), with rare ductal epithelial cells lacking atypia, favors the diagnosis of AIP. The sensitivity and the ... at the initial stages, typically, there is a cuff of lymphoplasma cells surrounding the ducts but also more diffuse ... It has been proposed that a cytologic smear primarily composed of acini rich in chronic inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, ...
*  Canine pancreatitis
Acinar cells make up 82% of the total pancreas; these cells are responsible for the production of the digestive enzymes. ... "Acinar Cell". Auckland Bioengineering Institute-University of Auckland. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. ... Pancreatitis can result in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, if the organ's acinar cells are permanently damaged; the ... either continued to exhibit inflammation of the organ or had decreased acinar cell function, even though they had no ...
*  Exocrine gland
Merocrine secretion - cells excrete their substances by exocytosis; for example, pancreatic acinar cells. Apocrine secretion - ... Serous cells secrete proteins, often enzymes. Examples include gastric chief cells and Paneth cells Mucous cells secrete mucus ... a portion of the cell membrane that contains the excretion buds off. Holocrine secretion - the entire cell disintegrates to ... The glandular portion may be tubular or acinar, or may be a mix of the two (called tubuloacinar). If the glandular portion ...
*  Acinic cell carcinoma
Basophilic, bland cells similar to acinar cells. Growth pattern: solid - acinar cells, microcytic - small cystic spaces ... These tumors which resemble serous acinar cells vary in their behavior from locally aggressive to blatantly malignant. It can ... "Acinic Cell Carcinoma Overview." Acinic Cell Carcinoma Information Center. Web. 07 Dec. 2009. Chiosea, SI; Griffith, C; Assaad ... Acinic cell carcinoma of the lung is a very rare variant of lung cancer that, in this organ, is classified among the salivary ...
*  John Leonora
Acinar cell source of the parotid hormone. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the acinar cells of the parotid glands are ...
*  Pancreatic progenitor cell
Exocrine cells constitute the acinar cells and the ductal cells. The endocrine cells constitute the beta cells which make ... Endocrine lineages develop into Delta cells, PP-cells, Epsilon cells, Beta cells and Alpha cells. Alpha cells produce glucagon ... digestive enzyme transporting cells (ductal cells) and hormone producing cells (endocrine cells). These endocrine cells develop ... Beta cell pro-precursors are MafB+/Pdx1+/Nkx2.2+ cells. These beta cell pro-precursors are determined to form beta cell ...
*  Vesicle-associated membrane protein
VAMP8 also participates the regulated exocytosis in pancreatic acinar cells. VAMP4 is involved in transport from the Golgi. ... Cell. 10 (6): 1957-72. doi:10.1091/mbc.10.6.1957. PMC 25394 . PMID 10359608. Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 1 at the US ...
*  P2RX4
... "cAMP potentiates ATP-evoked calcium signaling in human parotid acinar cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (38): ... and in fat cells. P2X4 receptors have been implicated in the regulation of cardiac function, ATP-mediated cell death, synaptic ... Continued binding leads to increased permeability to N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG+) in about 50% of the cells expressing the P2X4 ... The P2X4 receptor has high calcium permeability, leading to the depolarization of the cell membrane and the activation of ...
*  Calcium signaling
Petersen, Ole H (2005). "Ca2+ signalling and Ca2+-activated ion channels in exocrine acinar cells". Cell Calcium. 38 (3-4): 171 ... Nanodomain European Calcium Society Clapham, D.E. (2007). "Calcium Signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-1058. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Many cell surface receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases activate the phospholipase C ( ... Depletion of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum will lead to Ca2+ entry from outside the cell by activation of "Store- ...
*  Serpin
"Acinar cell apoptosis in Serpini2-deficient mice models pancreatic insufficiency". PLoS Genetics. 1 (3): e38. doi:10.1371/ ... Cell. 129 (2): 263-75. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.02.042. PMID 17448989. Gooptu B, Dickens JA, Lomas DA (February 2014). "The ... Cell. 130 (6): 1108-19. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.013. PMC 2128786 . PMID 17889653. Hejgaard J, Rasmussen SK, Brandt A, ... "Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell ...
*  Nicotine
Chowdhury P, Udupa KB (December 2006). "Nicotine as a mitogenic stimulus for pancreatic acinar cell proliferation". World J. ... In cancer cells, nicotine promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition which makes the cancer cells more resistant to drugs ... Cell. 16 (2): 143-6. PMID 14651253. Ye YN, Liu ES, Shin VY, Wu WK, Luo JC, Cho CH (January 2004). "Nicotine promoted colon ... Administration of nicotine to guinea pigs has been shown to cause harm to cells of the inner ear.[unreliable medical source?] ...
*  Saliva
Parasympathetic stimulation leads to acetylcholine (ACh) release onto the salivary acinar cells. ACh binds to muscarinic ... Human saliva comprises 98% water, plus electrolytes, mucus, white blood cells, epithelial cells (from which DNA can be ... secreted by the acinar cells of the parotid and submandibular glands, starts the digestion of starch before the food is even ... which is secreted by the acinar cells of the sublingual gland; has a pH optimum around 4.0 so it is not activated until ...
*  ITPR2
5-trisphosphate receptors in parotid acinar cells. A mechanism for the synergistic effects of cAMP on Ca2+ signaling". J. Biol ... induced apoptosis of human T-lymphoma cells". Cell Calcium. 27 (6): 315-28. doi:10.1054/ceca.2000.0126. PMID 11013462. Mayne M ... Cell. Signal. 20 (4): 737-47. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2007.12.010. PMID 18249094. Wilker E, Mittleman MA, Litonjua AA, et al. ( ... Cell Biol. 183 (2): 297-311. doi:10.1083/jcb.200803172. PMC 2568025 . PMID 18936250. Johnson JM, Castle J, Garrett-Engele P, et ...
*  Carney complex
"Pancreatic ductal and acinar cell neoplasms in Carney complex: a possible new association". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96 (11): ... Testicular cancer, particularly Sertoli cell type, is associated with Carney syndrome. Thyroid and pancreas cancer may also ...
*  Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate
... other cell types have followed suit, as exemplified by the pancreas (acinar and beta cells), T-cells, and smooth muscle. Levels ... "Cell-permeant NAADP: a novel chemical tool enabling the study of Ca2+ signalling in intact cells". Cell Calcium. 43 (6): 531-8 ... A 2'-3'-phosphatase stimulated by Ca2+ has been proposed in brain and, possibly in pancreatic acinar cells, that catabolises ... "Role of NAADP and cADPR in the Induction and Maintenance of Agonist-Evoked Ca2+ Spiking in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells". ...
*  Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor calcium channels
They co-localize with Orai channels (TC# 1.A.52) in pancreatic acinar cells. IP3 receptors possess three domains: N-terminal ... "InsP₃receptors and Orai channels in pancreatic acinar cells: co-localization and its consequences". The Biochemical Journal. ... They predominate in the endoplasmic reticular membranes of various cell types in the brain but have also been found in the ... Ry receptors occur primarily in muscle cell sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) membranes, and IP3 receptors occur primarily in brain ...
*  RAB4A
"Rab4 associates with the actin terminal web in developing rat pancreatic acinar cells". European Journal of Cell Biology. 72 (1 ... Molecular Biology of the Cell. 11 (7): 2201-11. doi:10.1091/mbc.11.7.2201. PMC 14913 . PMID 10888662. Li L, Omata W, Kojima I, ... dephosphorylation determines the localization of rab4 during the cell cycle". The EMBO Journal. 11 (12): 4379-89. PMC 557012 . ...
*  Calcium-regulated heat stable protein 1
2003). "CRHSP-24 phosphorylation is regulated by multiple signaling pathways in pancreatic acinar cells". Am. J. Physiol. ... Kim JE, Tannenbaum SR, White FM (2005). "Global phosphoproteome of HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells". J. Proteome Res. 4 ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ... "Purification and characterization of a novel physiological substrate for calcineurin in mammalian cells". J Biol Chem. 273 (35 ...
*  Ceruletide
In addition to promoting the inflammatory cell reaction to acinar cells, ceruletide induces pancreatitis through dysregulation ... "Cerulein upregulates ICAM-1 in pancreatic acinar cells, which mediates neutrophil adhesion to these cells". Am J Physiol ... Ceruletide upregulates pancreatic acinar cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins through intracellular ... Surface ICAM-1 in turn promotes neutrophil adhesion onto acinar cells enhancing pancreatic inflammation. ...
*  Ductal cells
Ductal cell mix their production with acinar cells' to make up the pancreatic juice.. ... Ductal cells refer to cells lining the pancreatic duct and are responsible for production of bicarbonate-rich secretion. Ductal ... cells are stimulated by the hormone secretin and are responsible for maintenance of the duodenal pH and prevention of duodenal ...
*  CHML (gene)
"Expression and localization of rab escort protein isoforms in parotid acinar cells from rat". J. Cell. Physiol. 185 (3): 339-47 ... 2005). "Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation". ...
*  CSDC2
2003). "CRHSP-24 phosphorylation is regulated by multiple signaling pathways in pancreatic acinar cells". Am. J. Physiol. ... J Cell Mol Med. 7 (1): 35-42. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2003.tb00200.x. PMID 12767259. "Entrez Gene: CSDC2 cold shock domain ...
*  CLCN2
2002). "Loss of hyperpolarization-activated Cl− current in salivary acinar cells from Clcn2 knockout mice". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ... Cell Mol. Biol. 24 (4): 376-81. doi:10.1165/ajrcmb.24.4.4114. PMID 11306429. Lipecka J, Bali M, Thomas A, et al. (2002). " ... Cell. Cardiol. 31 (3): 657-666. doi:10.1006/jmcc.1998.0901. PMID 10198195. Sander T, Schulz H, Saar K, et al. (2000). "Genome ... J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 282 (4): C805-16. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00291.2001. PMID 11880269. Nehrke K, Arreola J, Nguyen HV, et ...
*  Persin
Animal studies show that exposure to persin leads to apoptosis in certain types of breast cancer cells. It has also been shown ... leaves which causes necrosis of the acinar epithelium of the lactating mammary gland and the myocardium". Nat. Toxins. 3 (5): ... induces Bim-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells". Mol Cancer Ther. 5 (9): 2300-9. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06- ... "Synergistic cytotoxicity between tamoxifen and the plant toxin persin in human breast cancer cells is dependent on Bim ...
*  Lactoferrin
... is also present in secondary granules of PMN and is secreted by some acinar cells. Lactoferrin can be purified from ... Many viruses tend to bind to the lipoproteins of the cell membranes and then penetrate into the cell. Lactoferrin binds to the ... Such an indirect antiviral effect is achieved by affecting natural killer cells, granulocytes and macrophages - cells, which ... Cell Biol. 80 (1): 125-30. doi:10.1139/o01-208. PMID 11908636. Harmsen MC, Swart PJ, de Béthune MP, Pauwels R, De Clercq E, The ...
Acinar cell carcinoma | definition of acinar cell carcinoma by Medical dictionary  Acinar cell carcinoma | definition of acinar cell carcinoma by Medical dictionary
What is acinar cell carcinoma? Meaning of acinar cell carcinoma medical term. What does acinar cell carcinoma mean? ... Looking for online definition of acinar cell carcinoma in the Medical Dictionary? acinar cell carcinoma explanation free. ... acinar cell carcinoma. acinar cell carcinoma. A highly aggressive tumour that represents 1-2% of all pancreatic malignancies, ... Acinar cell carcinoma. A malignant tumor arising from the acinar cells of the pancreas. ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Acinar+cell+carcinoma
Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » PubMed - Acinar Cell Carcinoma » November 2017  Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » PubMed - Acinar Cell Carcinoma » November 2017
PubMed - Acinar Cell Carcinoma (8 unread) * Activating transcription factor 3 promotes loss of the acinar cell phenotype in ... There were also no differences in acinar cell (P = .13) and duct cell replication (P = .099). Insulin-positive duct cells were ... Characterizing expression of transcription factors that affect acinar cell differentiation suggested that acinar cells lacking ... RATIONALE: Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-endocrine carcinomas (MAECs) of the pancreas are rare, accounting for ...
more infohttp://www.rare-cancer.org/news/PubMed_-_Acinar_Cell_Carcinoma/2017/11/
Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » PubMed - Acinar Cell Carcinoma » September  3, 2017  Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » PubMed - Acinar Cell Carcinoma » September 3, 2017
PubMed - Acinar Cell Carcinoma (1 unread) * Metaplasia: tissue injury adaptation and a precursor to the dysplasia-cancer ... Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » PubMed - Acinar Cell Carcinoma » September 3, 2017. Share , ... The cell of origin for intestinal metaplasia in the oesophagus and stomach and for pancreatic acinar-ductal metaplasia has been ... Metaplasia is the replacement of one differentiated somatic cell type with another differentiated somatic cell type in the same ...
more infohttp://www.rare-cancer.org/news/PubMed_-_Acinar_Cell_Carcinoma/2017/09/03/
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas - Wikipedia  Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas - Wikipedia
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, also acinar cell carcinoma, is a rare malignant exocrine tumour of the pancreas. It ... Von Hoff, 23 Klimstra, DS.; Heffess, CS.; Oertel, JE.; Rosai, J. (Sep 1992). "Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas. A ... Feb 2010). "[A case of acinar cell carcinoma of pancreas, manifested by subcutaneous nodule as initial clinical symptom]". ... Pancreatic Cancer, 2005, Jones & Bartlett Learning, ISBN 0763721786, 9780763721787 Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acinar_cell_carcinoma_of_the_pancreas
The utility of a novel antibody in the pathological diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma | Journal of Clinical...  The utility of a novel antibody in the pathological diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma | Journal of Clinical...
Conclusions It was shown that the 2P-1-2-1 antibody specifically stained the pancreatic acinar cells and tumours of acinar cell ... Results Non-neoplastic acinar cells were stained diffusely, but epithelial cells of the pancreatic duct and the islets of ... Aims Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumours of the exocrine pancreas accounting for about 1-2% of all pancreatic ... The utility of a novel antibody in the pathological diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma ...
more infohttp://jcp.bmj.com/content/65/4/327
Effects of extracellular ATP on ion transport systems and [Ca2+]i in rat parotid acinar cells. Comparison with the muscarinic...  Effects of extracellular ATP on ion transport systems and [Ca2+]i in rat parotid acinar cells. Comparison with the muscarinic...
Effects of extracellular ATP on ion transport systems and [Ca2+]i in rat parotid acinar cells. Comparison with the muscarinic ... Effects of extracellular ATP on ion transport systems and [Ca2+]i in rat parotid acinar cells. Comparison with the muscarinic ... were examined using a suspension of rat parotid acinar cells and were contrasted with the effects of the muscarinic agonist ... The rate of K+ efflux initiated by either agonist was reduced by 78-95% in cells that were loaded with BAPTA to slow the ...
more infohttp://jgp.rupress.org/content/95/2/319
Successful salvage chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX for recurrent mixed acinar cell carcinoma and ductal adenocarcinoma of the...  Successful salvage chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX for recurrent mixed acinar cell carcinoma and ductal adenocarcinoma of the...
Acinar cell carcinoma; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Ductal adenocarcinoma; FOLFIRINOX; Multimodal treatment; ... Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a mixed acinar cell carcinoma/ductal adenocarcinoma with ... Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a mixed acinar cell carcinoma/ductal adenocarcinoma with ... Successful salvage chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX for recurrent mixed acinar cell carcinoma and ductal adenocarcinoma of the ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/84478/
Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » Google - Acinar Cell Carcinoma  Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » Google - Acinar Cell Carcinoma
As multiple recent studies have described acinar cells undergoing acinar to ductal metaplasia as a common cell of origin of ... Google - Acinar Cell Carcinoma (5 unread) * This RSS feed URL is deprecated. ... A report in Nature Medicine describes the creation of a new autochthonous mouse model of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC ... the central role of MYC in acinar cells within the pancreas is of particular .... ...
more infohttp://news.rare-cancer.org/Google_-_Acinar_Cell_Carcinoma/
Giant Acinar Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas Presenting In a Young Patient | Abstract  Giant Acinar Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas Presenting In a Young Patient | Abstract
Context Acinar cell carcinoma is rare disease of exocrine pancreas with an indolent course and favorable tumor biology. It ... Giant Acinar Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas Presenting In a Young Patient Context Acinar cell carcinoma is rare disease of exocrine ... Conclusion Differential diagnosis of acinar cell carcinoma of pancreas should be considered in young patient with large tumor ... Histopathological examination with immunohistochemistry revealed acinar cell carcinoma of pancreas. ...
more infohttp://pancreas.imedpub.com/abstract/giant-acinar-cell-carcinoma-of-pancreas-presenting-in-a-young-patient-21717.html
Harvey R Kaslow, | Keck School of Medicine of USC  Harvey R Kaslow, | Keck School of Medicine of USC
Effect of anti-inflammatory cytokines on the activation of lymphocytes by lacrimal gland acinar cells in an autologous mixed ... A method to study induction of autoimmunity in vitro: co-culture of lacrimal cells and autologous immune system cells. Adv Exp ... Regulation of cytotoxic T cells by ecto-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) correlates with cell surface GPI-anchored/ ... Lacrimal gland epithelial cells stimulate proliferation in autologous lymphocyte preparations. Exp Eye Res. 2000 Jul; 71(1):11- ...
more infohttps://keck.usc.edu/faculty/harvey-r-kaslow/
Exocrine Pancreas Development Pathway Bioinformatics: Novus Biologicals  Exocrine Pancreas Development Pathway Bioinformatics: Novus Biologicals
The Exocrine Pancreas Development Pathway has been researched in relation to Pancreas Development, Cell Differentiation, Acinar ... Cell Differentiation, Endocrine Pancreas Development, Translation. The Exocrine Pancreas Development Pathway complements our ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/pathways/exocrine-pancreas-development
Psychology of Medicine: Acute pancreatitis  Psychology of Medicine: Acute pancreatitis
Serum amylase may be normal (in 10% of cases) for cases of acute or chronic pancreatitis (depleted acinar cell mass) and ... Squamous-cell carcinoma or squamous cell cancer ( SCC or SqCC ) is a cancer of a kind of epithelial cell, the squamous cell. ... Necrotic fat cells appear as shadows, contours of cells, lacking the nucleus, pink, finely granular cytoplasm. It is possible ... As part of the initial injury there is an extensive inflammatory response due to pancreatic cells synthesizing and secreting ...
more infohttp://monsterologist.blogspot.com/2014/12/acute-pancreatitis.html
Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms  Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms
Author keywords: Acinar cell carcinoma, Genetics, Histology, Methylation, MicroRNA, Pancreas, Pancreatic cancer, Pancreatic ... acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatoblastoma. show less ...
more infohttps://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/339551
Rhein Induces a Necrosis-Apoptosis Switch in Pancreatic Acinar Cells  Rhein Induces a Necrosis-Apoptosis Switch in Pancreatic Acinar Cells
... Xianlin Zhao, Juan Li, Shifeng Zhu, Yiling Liu, Jianlei ... Cerulein-treated AR42J cells were used. After pretreatment with 479, 119.8, or 29.9 μg/L rhein, cells were cocultured with ... The Chinese herbal medicine Da-Cheng-Qi decoction can regulate a necrosis-apoptosis switch in injured pancreatic acinar cells. ... Rhein induces the necrosis-apoptosis switch in injured pancreatic acinar cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/404853/abs/
Rhein Induces a Necrosis-Apoptosis Switch in Pancreatic Acinar Cells  Rhein Induces a Necrosis-Apoptosis Switch in Pancreatic Acinar Cells
Rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells (CRL-1492, ATCC, Rockville, MD, USA) were seeded at a density of cells/well in flat-bottom 24 ... there were more necrotic cells than apoptotic cells. There were more apoptotic cells and fewer necrotic cells in T1, T2, and T3 ... Rhein Induces a Necrosis-Apoptosis Switch in Pancreatic Acinar Cells. Xianlin Zhao, Juan Li, Shifeng Zhu, Yiling Liu, Jianlei ... Y.-Y. Ren, H.-L. Gong, W.-F. Tang, M.-H. Wan, J.-L. Zhao, and X. Huang, "Dachengqi decoction induces pancreatic acinar cell ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/404853/
Activation of trypsinogen in large endocytic vacuoles of pancreatic acinar cells | PNAS  Activation of trypsinogen in large endocytic vacuoles of pancreatic acinar cells | PNAS
Cell Preparation and Extracellular Solutions.. Mouse pancreatic acinar cells were isolated by collagenase digestion as ... Isolated clusters of acinar cells were incubated in extracellular solution containing a cell-impermeant fluorescent tracer: ... Activation of trypsinogen in large endocytic vacuoles of pancreatic acinar cells. Mark W. Sherwood, Ian A. Prior, Svetlana G. ... Activation of trypsinogen in large endocytic vacuoles of pancreatic acinar cells. Mark W. Sherwood, Ian A. Prior, Svetlana G. ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/104/13/5674
Search of: Acinar Cell Carcinoma | leucovorin - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov  Search of: 'Acinar Cell Carcinoma' | 'leucovorin' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
6 Studies found for: 'Acinar Cell Carcinoma' , 'leucovorin'. Also searched for Acinar Cell Adenocarcinomas. See Search Details ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=%22Acinar+Cell+Carcinoma%22&intr=%22leucovorin%22
Acinar Cell Tumors - Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma  Acinar Cell Tumors - Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma
Normal acinar cells are the primary cells of the exocrine pancreas and are responsible for secreting various enzymes. ... Acinar cell neoplasms arise from the acinar cells of the pancreas. ... Acinar cell neoplasms arise from the acinar cells of the pancreas. Normal acinar cells are the primary cells of the exocrine ... Because the tumors arise from normal acinar cells, the tumor cells also may secrete pancreatic enzymes, most commonly lipase. ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/oncology/acinar-cell/
Cytology of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma  Cytology of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma
Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is extremely uncommon and its cytologic features have rarely been described. We ... Original cytologic diagnoses included "acinar cell carcinoma," "pancreatic endocrine tumor," "favor neuroendocrine tumor, ... The cytologic features included small to moderate-sized loose groups with numerous single cells, prominent acinar formation, ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/diac/200605000/01445404-200605000-00013
Dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP levels in pancreatic acinar cells.  - PubMed - NCBI  Dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP levels in pancreatic acinar cells. - PubMed - NCBI
The left panel shows transmitted light image of isolated pancreatic acinar cells and clusters of pancreatic acinar cells. ... Bioluminescence was recorded from cells transfected with cLuc.. A. Images show bioluminescence of pancreatic acinar cells. The ... Dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP levels in pancreatic acinar cells.. Voronina SG1, Barrow SL, Simpson AW, ... Dynamic changes in the ATP levels in the cytosol and mitochondria of pancreatic acinar cells: effects of calcium-releasing ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20102715