Acinar Cells: Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.ChymotrypsinogenAquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Receptors, Cholecystokinin: Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.Taurolithocholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Azaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Parasympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Parotid DiseasesCytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Strophanthins: A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Pancreatic alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Receptor, Cholecystokinin A: A subtype of cholecystokinin receptor found primarily in the PANCREAS; STOMACH; INTESTINE; and GALLBLADDER. It plays a role in regulating digestive functions such as gallbladder contraction, pancreatic enzyme secretion and absorption in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.Endocrine Cells: Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Ruthenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.Pancreatic Stellate Cells: Star-shaped, myofibroblast-like cells located in the periacinar, perivascular, and periductal regions of the EXOCRINE PANCREAS. They play a key role in the pathobiology of FIBROSIS; PANCREATITIS; and PANCREATIC CANCER.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Lithostathine: The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Bumetanide: A sulfamyl diuretic.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Propylbenzilylcholine Mustard: An analog of benzilylcholine mustard. It is an alkylating nitrogen mustard analog that binds specifically and irreversibly to cholinergic muscarinic receptors and is used as an affinity label to isolate and study the receptors.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Receptors, Purinergic P2X4: A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Gabexate: A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.Physalaemin: An oligopeptide isolated from the skin of Physalaemus fuscumaculatus, a South American frog. It is a typical kinin, resembling SUBSTANCE P in structure and action and has been proposed as a sialagogue, antihypertensive, and vasodilator.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Rough: A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.Devazepide: A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.R-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Carcinoma, Islet Cell: A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Bethanechol CompoundsDithizone: Chelating agent used for heavy metal poisoning and assay. It causes diabetes.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.AcetophenonesCarboxypeptidases A: Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC 3.4.2.1 and EC 3.4.12.2.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Sugar PhosphatesSodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.IodoproteinsMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Inbred C57BLStreptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Receptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Isethionic Acid: A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Carboxypeptidase B: A ZINC-dependent carboxypeptidase primary found in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. The enzyme catalyzes the preferential cleavage of a C-terminal peptidyl-L-lysine or arginine. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.2.2 and EC 3.4.12.3.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Rats, Inbred F344Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tetragastrin: L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Salivary Gland DiseasesProglumide: A drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on gastric secretion and reduces gastrointestinal motility. It is used clinically in the drug therapy of gastrointestinal ulcers.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.

Recovery of INS-R and ER-alpha expression in the salivary glands of diabetic mice submitted to hormone replacement therapy. (1/157)

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Histopathology and ex vivo insulin secretion of pancreatic islets in gestational diabetes: A case report. (2/157)

Gestational diabetes (GD) results from insufficient endogenous insulin supply. No information is available on features of islet cells in human GD. Herein, we describe several properties of islets from a woman with GD. Immunohistochemical stainings and EM analyses were performed on pancreatic samples. Islet isolation was achieved by enzymatic dissociation and density gradient centrifugation. Ex vivo insulin secretion was studied in response to fuel secretagogues. Control islets were obtained from matched non-pregnant, non-diabetic women. Total insulin positive area was lower in GD, mainly due to the presence of smaller islets. beta-cell apoptosis and the presence of Ki67 positive islet cells were similar in GD and controls, whereas the amount of insulin positive cells in or close to the ducts was decreased in GD. Ex vivo insulin secretion did not differ between GD and non-pregnant, non-diabetic islets. These findings suggest that in this case of human GD there might mainly be a defect of beta-cell amount, not due to increased apoptosis, but possibly to insufficient regeneration.  (+info)

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress, acinar cell damage, and systemic inflammation in acute pancreatitis. (3/157)

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PKCtheta activation in pancreatic acinar cells by gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors is needed for stimulation of numerous important cellular signaling cascades. (4/157)

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Role of neutrophils in the activation of trypsinogen in severe acute pancreatitis. (5/157)

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Functional role of an islet transcription factor, INSM1/IA-1, on pancreatic acinar cell trans-differentiation. (6/157)

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Secretin is not necessary for exocrine pancreatic development and growth in mice. (7/157)

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The distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in acinar cells of rat pancreas revealed with the freeze-fracture replica labeling method. (8/157)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Matrix metalloproteinase-7 is expressed by pancreatic cancer precursors and regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in exocrine pancreas. AU - Crawford, Howard C.. AU - Scoggins, Charles R.. AU - Kay Washington, M.. AU - Matrisian, Lynn M.. AU - Leach, Steven D.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - In gastrointestinal epithelium, metaplastic conversion between predominant cell types is associated with an increased risk of neoplasia. However, the mechanisms regulating metaplastic transitions in adult epithelia are largely undefined. Here we show that matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is expressed not only in the majority of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma specimens, but also in human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and metaplastic duct lesions in human and mouse. In a mouse model of pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, MMP-7 progressively accumulates during the metaplastic transition, resulting in a concomitant increase in solubilization of Fas ligand (FasL). Under identical ...
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Define acinar cell, acinous cell. acinar cell, acinous cell synonyms, acinar cell, acinous cell pronunciation, acinar cell, acinous cell translation, English dictionary definition of acinar cell, acinous cell. a small room as in a convent or prison; basic structural unit of all organisms: a one-celled animal Not to be confused with: sell - to transfer goods or...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pancreatic acinar cell physiology and function. AU - Miller, L. J.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The past year has witnessed a marked increase in the complexity of intracellular processes involved in the function of a polarized epithelial cell. The pancreatic acinar cell is perhaps the best studied such cell, and the classical model for stimulus-secretion coupling and secretory protein biosynthesis and export. In this review, I examine several new reports that impact on these themes. I include the identification of newly recognized pancreatic secretagogues; insights into the biochemical basis for hormone receptor affinity states and interconversion, desensitization, and internalization; lipid mediators of secretagogue action; patterns and regulators of intracellular calcium events along with their spatial and temporal patterns; regulated channels, transporters, and junctional communication in the acinar cell and cellular organelles; and new insights into regulated ...
B. DNA-Protein Cross-Linking. To cross-link protein to the genomic DNA, 270 µl of formalin was added to 10 ml of DMEM containing acini to obtain a final solution of 1% formaldehyde. Cells were agitated for 10 minutes (Note 1) on a shaker table. Following the addition of 514 µl of 2.5 M glycine (125 mM final) for 5 minutes to quench the formaldehyde and terminate the crosslinking reaction, cells were centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 3 minutes at 40C. The pellet of acinar cells was washed twice with ice cold PBS.. C. Isolation of Nuclei from Isolated Acinar Cells. To isolate nuclei, acinar cells were incubated in Cytoplasmic Extract buffer (CE Buffer; 10 mM HEPES pH 7.4, 10 mM KCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 0.1% Triton-X100, 0.5 mM DTT and protease inhibitors [5 µg/mL Aprotinin, 5 µg/mL Leupeptin, 5 µg/mL Pepstatin, 75 µg/mL PMSF]) followed by 5 strokes of Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer. The cells were set on ice for 15 minutes. To pellet the nuclei, the samples were centrifuged at 4oC and 5000 g for 10 ...
title: Suppression of NF-kappaB activation and cytokine production by N-acetylcysteine in pancreatic acinar cells., doi: 10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00368-3, category: Article
As multiple recent studies have described acinar cells undergoing acinar to ductal metaplasia as a common cell of origin of PDAC (and reviewed in the study by Rooman and Real) the central role of MYC in acinar cells within the pancreas is of particular ...
Interpretive Summary: The establishment and initial characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line, PICM-31, is described. The PICM-31 cell line was started from the in vitro culture of the inner cells of an early pig embryo. The cells were small and grew relatively slowly. They frequently self-organized into radially symmetrical groupings of cells, i.e., wheel-like and similar to the acinar structures inside the pancreas. Electron microscopic examination confirmed that the cells were organized into a functional acinar-like unit and that they contained secretory granules as expected of the cells of the pancreas that secrete digestive enzymes. The PICM-31 cells were shown to be expressing the genes for digestive enzymes, and the secreted enzymes themselves were also identified by mass spectroscopy. The PICM-31 cells also expressed marker genes that indicated the cells may be progenitor pancreas cells, i.e., that the PICM-31 cells might be able to change into the ...
To protect acinar cells from self-digestion, the powerful digestive enzymes that the cells make are initially produced in an inactive form, notes Pancreas.org. These inert enzymes are converted into...
Differentiation of salisphere into acinar cells. (A) Amylase expressing cells (AC) in submandibular gland tissue (Tissue) were also present at the onset of cult
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2. Activation of ERK pathway in Pancreatic Acinar Cells (Figure 1). ERK activation is usually monitored by following the dual phosphorylation of the Thr and Tyr residues in the Thr-Glu-Tyr activation sequence brought about by MEK as there are a number of good phosphospecific antibodies directed at this epitope. It can also be shown by phosphorylation of myelin basic protein either in a test tube or by an in gel technique following gel electrophoresis and renaturization. Both Western blots and the in gel kinase procedure reveal the two forms of ERK at approximately 44 and 42 kDa; in fact, the molecules were originally referred to as p42 and p44 MAPK with p42 being what is now referred to as ERK2 and p44 now being ERK1. Using isolated rat or mouse pancreatic acini in vitro, ERK1/2 is activated by CCK, bombesin, substance P, and carbachol, all of which activate G protein coupled receptors coupled to Gq and calcium mobilization but not by secretin or VIP which activate receptors coupled to Gs and ...
Pieces of mouse embryonic pancreatic epithelium cultured in an inductive situation in vitro, or when examined at critical times in vivo, show a gradient of zymogen granule accumulation. Cells located internally in explants, or in central acini in vivo, show this overt differentiation first. As the epithelia age, the more peripheral cell population proceeds in a similar differentiation. Observations of autoradiograms of H3-thymidine-labeled tissues indicate that the first cells which cease incorporating the DNA-precursor are in the central regions that differentiate first. In older explants, thymidine incorporation is largely restricted to the periphery of the tissue as zymogen appears in the internal cells. Evidence suggests that cells or nuclei which have replicated DNA move inward before dividing. Some daughter cells apparently return peripherad to divide again, whereas others remain centrally where they undergo differentiation. During at least the first 24 hours of these maturational changes, ...
With the exception of a few types of cells, (acinar cells, T lymphocytes and hepatocytes), every cell in your body has a cilia. In the vision community, we are used to seeing these structures in the distal portion of the photoreceptors. The reality is that every cell in the retina has a cilium and some cells […]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide genetic and epigenetic analyses of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas reveal aberrations in genome stability. AU - Jäkel, Cornelia. AU - Bergmann, Frank. AU - Toth, Reka. AU - Assenov, Yassen. AU - Van Der Duin, Daniel. AU - Strobel, Oliver. AU - Hank, Thomas. AU - Klöppel, Günter. AU - Dorrell, Craig. AU - Grompe, Markus. AU - Moss, Joshua. AU - Dor, Yuval. AU - Schirmacher, Peter. AU - Plass, Christoph. AU - Popanda, Odilia. AU - Schmezer, Peter. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive exocrine tumor with largely unknown biology. Here, to identify potential targets for personalized treatment, we perform integrative genome-wide and epigenome-wide analyses. The results show frequently aberrant DNA methylation, abundant chromosomal amplifications and deletions, and mutational signatures suggesting defective DNA repair. In contrast to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, no recurrent point mutations are detected. The ...
RESULTS: We defined three distinctive phases-termed inflammation, regeneration and refinement-following induction of moderate acute pancreatitis in wild-type mice. These corresponded to different waves of proliferation of mesenchymal, progenitor-like and acinar cells. Pancreas regeneration required a coordinated transition of proliferation between progenitor-like and acinar cells. In mice harbouring an oncogenic Kras mutation and challenged with pancreatitis, there was an extended inflammatory phase and a parallel, continuous proliferation of mesenchymal, progenitor-like and acinar cells. Analysis of high-resolution transcriptional data from wild-type animals revealed that organ regeneration relied on a complex interaction of a gene network that normally governs acinar cell homeostasis, exocrine specification and intercellular signalling. In mice with oncogenic Kras, a specific carcinogenic signature was found, which was preserved in full-blown mouse pancreas cancer ...
In the pig parotid gland, ATPDase was mainly associated with duct epithelium, with very little, if any, immunoreactivity on acinar cells. Myoepithelial cells dispersed among acini produced a significant signal. There have been reports of Ca2+-dependent ATPases associated with isolated parotid acinar cells, but as judged by their biochemical properties, these ATPases are different from ATPDases. However, a nucleoside triphosphatase described by Sato et al. (29) in bovine parotid gland and an apyrase described by Valenzuela et al. (34) in a microsomal fraction of rat salivary gland appear to correspond to the ATPDase described in this study and hence could well be associated with ductal epithelial and myoepithelial cells. In agreement with these findings, some studies on rat parotid acini show very little ecto-ATPase activity (9). Some P2Zpurinoceptors have been described on rat parotid acinar cells, which respond to ATP and mediate a Ca2+increase caused by both an influx and a mobilization from ...
We hypothesize, due to the Sjögrens syndrome (SS) disease characteristics, that the primary target hit by the disease process is the secretory acinar cell and that this cell is particularly in women damaged due to insufficient support, normally provided by dehydroepiandrosterone and its intracrine processing. Dehydroepiandrosterone deficiency at the time of adrenopause seems to us as the more likely endocrine trigger than estrogen deficiency caused by menopause as androgens in general are considered to be protective against autoimmunity and estrogens to favor it. Acinar cell is normally responsible for the production of primary saliva. Acinar cell damage can lead to acinar cell apoptosis and loss. Normally this is compensated by division of the acinar cells in situ or, according to recent reports, perhaps rather by division and subsequent migration of one of the daughter cells into the acinar space and transdifferentiation of this intercalated ductal cell progenitor into mature acinar cell. In ...
The present study demonstrates that p8 is expressed in human islets and certain rodent pancreatic β-cell lines. Furthermore, proliferation and p8 expression in rat INS-1 β-cells is strongly inducible by high glucose concentrations in the medium. Our findings point to a possible new role of p8 as a mediator of glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell proliferation. This hypothesis is supported by studies demonstrating increased cell growth in p8 overexpressing rat AR42J pancreatic acinar cells (6) and human HeLa cervix epithelial cells (7). Moreover, glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell proliferation involves activation of PKC (2,3), and rat as well as human p8 amino acid sequences contain a highly conserved region with two PKC sites (16).. p8 was originally postulated as a pancreatic emergency gene product, which is exclusively upregulated in pancreatic acinar cells during stress caused by acute pancreatitis (6). The emergency gene character was underlined by the strong increase of pancreatic p8 ...
In these experiments, TG was used to deplete Ca2+ stores in cells maintained in nominally Ca2+-free extracellular solution. Addition of Ca2+ to the extracellular solution resulted in SOCE-mediated increase in [Ca2+]c (cytosolic Ca2+ concentration) followed by formation of an elevated [Ca2+]c plateau (Figure 4). Addition of InsP3-producing secretagogue ACh reversibly decreased the amplitude of the plateau (Figure 4A, n=465). Using the Mn quench technique [20] we also observed a small (13±2%) but statistically significant inhibition of the influx by 300 nM ACh (Supplementary Figure S5 available at http://www.BiochemJ.org/bj/436/bj4360231add.htm, n=145 cells in ACh-treated group and n=139 cells in control group). Caffeine (10 mM), which in PACs very efficiently blocks InsP3-induced Ca2+ responses [21] has no effect on its own (Figure 4B, n=169), but it partially reversed the ACh-induced reduction of the plateau (Figure 4C, n=168). These experiments suggest that activation of IP3Rs has a mild ...
Della torre, G, "Ultracytochemical characterization of c particle-producing vacuoles in pancreatic acinar cells of the mouse." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1981 ...
GSK-7975A inhibits CRAC entry (Fura-2 340:380 normalized at 700 s). (A) Changes in mouse pancreatic acinar [Ca2+]C induced by CCK (1 nmol/L) with external physi
the expression of caspase-1 is a frequent event in chronic pancreatitis and its distribution pattern may reflect two functions of this protease: on one hand its participation in the apoptotic pathway in atrophic acinar cells and, on the other hand, its role in proliferation and differentiation in proliferating duct cells. PMID: 11345139 ...
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human ZSCAN23 protein. ZSCAN23 (ABZ92213.1, 1 a.a. ~ 389 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00222696-B01P) - Products - Abnova
Regulated secretion from pancreatic acinar cells occurs by exocytosis of zymogen granules (ZG) at the apical plasmalemma. ZGs originate from the TGN and undergo prolonged maturation and condensation. After exocytosis, the zymogen granule membrane (ZGM) is retrieved from the plasma membrane and ultimately reaches the TGN. In this study, we analyzed the fate of a low M(r) GTP-binding protein during induced exocytosis and membrane retrieval using immunoblots as well as light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. This 27-kD protein, identified by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes rab3A and B, may be a novel rab3 isoform. In resting acinar cells, the rab3-like protein was detected primarily on the cytoplasmic face of ZGs, with little labeling of the Golgi complex and no significant labeling of the apical plasmalemma or any other intracellular membranes. Stimulation of pancreatic lobules in vitro by carbamylcholine for 15 min, resulted in massive exocytosis that led to a near doubling of ...
Despite expression of oncogenic KRAS, premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (PanIN1) lesions rarely become fully malignant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The molecular mechanisms through which established risk factors, such as chronic pancreatitis, acinar cell damage, and/or defective autophagy increase the likelihood of PDAC development are poorly understood. We show that accumulation of the autophagy substrate p62/SQSTM1 in stressed KrasG12D acinar cells is associated with PDAC development and maintenance of malignancy in human cells and mice. p62 accumulation promotes neoplastic progression by controlling the NRF2-mediated induction of MDM2, which acts through p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms to abrogate checkpoints that prevent conversion of differentiated acinar cells to proliferative ductal progenitors. MDM2 targeting may be useful for preventing PDAC development in high-risk individuals ...
The lacrimal gland (LG) is an exocrine gland important for secretion of the tear film. The kinase p38 has important signal transduction functions, e.g. in gene transcription, but has previously not been known to modulate exocrine secretion. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of p38 in carbachol (Cch)-induced LG secretion in LG acinar cells in vitro. Western blotting was used to determine the phosphorylation status of p38 and p42/44 and determine expression of p38 isoforms. To determine the effect of p38 inhibition on LG secretion, PD 169316, a general p38 inhibitor, and SB 239063, an inhibitor of p38α and β, were added to the cells prior to secretion measurements. The results revealed activation of p38 mediated by Cch stimulation and inhibition of Cch-induced secretion as a result of p38 inhibition. The inhibition was observed with PD 169316 isoforms, but not with SB 239063. The p38δ isoform was shown to have robust expression both by Western blotting of acinar cells and ...
Results Non-neoplastic acinar cells were stained diffusely, but epithelial cells of the pancreatic duct and the islets of Langerhans were not stained. In pancreatic tumours, all the seven ACCs were diffusely positive for the 2P-1-2-1 antibody. However, no positive staining was found in other pancreatic tumours including NETs, SPNs and ductal adenocarcinomas. The sensitivity and specificity of the 2P-1-2-1 antibody for ACCs were both 100%. In other organs studied, positive staining was observed only in the ectopic pancreas. ...
Acute pancreatitis (AP), a human disease in which the pancreas digests itself, has substantial mortality with no specific therapy. The major causes of AP are alcohol abuse and gallstone complications, but it also occurs as an important side effect of the standard asparaginase-based therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Previous investigations into the mechanisms underlying pancreatic acinar cell death induced by alcohol metabolites, bile acids, or asparaginase indicated that loss of intracellular ATP generation is an important factor. We now report that, in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells or cell clusters, removal of extracellular glucose had little effect on this ATP loss, suggesting that glucose metabolism was severely inhibited under these conditions. Surprisingly, we show that replacing glucose with galactose prevented or markedly reduced the loss of ATP and any subsequent necrosis. Addition of pyruvate had a similar protective effect. We also studied the effect of ...
The splicing-factor oncoprotein SRSF1 (also known as SF2/ASF or ASF/SF2) is upregulated in breast cancers. We investigated the ability of SRSF1 to transform human and mouse mammary epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. SRSF1-overexpressing COMMA-1D cells formed tumors, following orthotopic transplantation to reconstitute the mammary gland. In three-dimensional (3D) culture, SRSF1-overexpressing MCF-10A cells formed larger acini than control cells, reflecting increased proliferation and delayed apoptosis during acinar morphogenesis. These effects required the first RNA-recognition motif and nuclear functions of SRSF1. SRSF1 overexpression promoted alternative splicing of BIM (also known as BCL2L11) and BIN1 to produce isoforms that lack pro-apoptotic functions and contribute to the phenotype. Finally, SRSF1 cooperated specifically with MYC to transform mammary epithelial cells, in part by potentiating eIF4E activation, and these cooperating oncogenes are significantly coexpressed in human breast ...
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in North America. The highest risk factor for PDAC is recurrent pancreatitis. While the link between PDAC and pancreatitis is unknown, de-differentiation of acinar cells is common to both diseases. Our lab has shown that Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3), a factor upregulated during pancreatic injury, contributes to the development of acinar-to-ductal cell metaplasia (ADM), a precursor phenotype of PDAC. The goal of this study was to identify how ATF3 contributes to ADM. I hypothesize that ATF3 regulates acinar gene expression promoting ADM. We observed decreased ADM development in Atf3-/- acinar cultures, along with expression changes in differentiation genes and ADM promoting pathways (EGFR) in vivo. Assessment following chronic injury indicated absence of ATF3 resulted in decreased tissue damage. These results suggest a novel mechanism where ATF3 promotes ADM through loss of the mature acinar cell phenotype.
The role of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancers remains largely unknown. The present study shows that neurogenin 3 directed Cre deletion of Tsc1 gene induces the development of pancreatic acinar carcinoma. By cross-breeding the Neurog3-cre mice with Tsc1(loxp/loxp) mice, we generated the Neurog3-Tsc1-/- transgenic mice in which Tsc1 gene is deleted and mTOR signaling activated in the pancreatic progenitor cells. All Neurog3-Tsc1-/- mice developed notable adenocarcinoma-like lesions in pancreas starting from the age of 100 days old. The tumor lesions are composed of cells with morphological and molecular resemblance to acinar cells. Metastasis of neoplasm to liver and lung was detected in 5% of animals. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin significantly attenuated the growth of the neoplasm. Relapse of the neoplasm occurred within 14 days upon cessation of rapamycin treatment. Our studies indicate that activation of mTOR signaling in the pancreatic ...
The molecular identities of the pathways that mediate K+ and Cl− effluxes in serous acinar cells are unknown. CFTR mRNA is expressed in these cells, and immunocytochemistry revealed it to be present near the apical membrane. To examine the role of CFTR in Ca2+-evoked fluid secretion, we employed cells from the cftrtm1Unc−/− mouse and we pharmacologically inhibited CFTR in WT mouse cells. The results demonstrated that mouse nasal acinar cells from both WT and cftrtm1Unc−/− mice, as well as WT cells treated with CFTRinh172, all exhibited similar rates of Cl− efflux in response to muscarinic stimulation. Isolated intact submucosal glands from CF individuals that lack functional CFTR can secrete fluid in response to cholinergic agonists (Joo et al. 2002a), and it was recently shown that intact glands in WT and cftrtm1Unc−/− mice trachea secrete fluid in response to CCh at similar rates (Ianowski et al. 2007). It has remained unclear if cholinergic-induced fluid secretion in CF glands ...
Morphological analysis of transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma of rat has revealed a continuum of cells from those which totally lack mature secretory granules to cells with abundant well-formed secretory granules. This tumor is easily dissociable into single cells which incorporate [3H]thymidine and [3H]leucine into DNA and protein at a linear rate for 3 to 4 hr. The number of cells synthesizing DNA, as assessed by light microscope autoradiography, was about 17%. Dissociated neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells are classified into four cell types (types I to IV) on the basis of nuclear morphology, degree of polarization, and the extent of specialization of cytoplasmic organelles. Type IV cells possess all the characteristics of mature pancreatic acinar cells, such as abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, prominent Golgi apparatus, and numerous secretory granules. Cell types III, II, and I are progressively less differentiated. An analysis of the cytological features of 285 dissociated tumor ...
The human body is in a constant race to replace cells, tissues, and whole organs that are lost due to injury, disease, and normal aging. Although the body has remarkable inherent regenerative capacity, it often cannot keep pace. Donor cells and tissues are available in limited quantities and are beset by problems such as immune compatibility and transplant rejection. Recently, technologies to convert one cell type into another, so-called "direct reprogramming," have provided promise as a new source of cells for regenerative medicine. Li et al. now provide an enhanced method to directly reprogram native mouse pancreatic acinar cells into "induced" pancreatic beta cells that are functional and persist long-term.. A wave of recent studies have shown that cell identity can be readily modulated by the expression of key transcription factors. However, there remain significant uncertainties about whether the cells created by direct reprogramming will prove useful in regenerative medicine, as their ...
Adventitia and perivascular adipose tissue the integral unit in vascular disease (Chapter 20).. New! Arginase-II promotes tumor necrosis factor-α release from pancreatic acinar cells causing β-cell apoptosis in aging. ...
J:102698 Murtaugh LC, Law AC, Dor Y, Melton DA, Beta-catenin is essential for pancreatic acinar but not islet development. Development. 2005 Nov;132(21):4663-74 ...
Tear proteins are supplied by the regulated fusion of secretory vesicles with the apical surface of lacrimal gland acinar cells, utilizing trafficking mechanisms largely yet uncharacterized. We investigated the role of Rab27b in regulating the exocytotic pathway of these secretory vesicles. Evaluation of morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy of lacrimal glands from Rab27b-/- and Rab27ash/ash/Rab27b-/- mice, but not Ashen mice deficient in Rab27a, showed significant changes in organelle morphology which included an approximate 50% decrease in abundance of secretory vesicles and decreased vesicle localization in the subapical region. Along with an apparent secretory pathway effect, knockout of Rab27b also resulted in a two-fold increase in the number of lysosomes, four-fold increase number of damaged mitochondria, two-fold increase in the formation of autophagosome-like organelles, and observed increased ER swelling and vesiculation. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis, ...
RESULTS: The acinar cell apoptotic index (AI) and proliferation index were higher in chronic pancreatitis than controls. T lymphocytes diffusely infiltrated fibrous bands and acini but rarely islets. Acinar Bcl-2 expression exceeded islet expression in chronic pancreatitis and controls while Bax was strongly expressed by a subset of islet cells and weakly by centroacinar cells. Islet Fas and Fas ligand expression exceeded acinar expression in chronic pancreatitis and controls. Acinar Rb expression was higher in chronic pancreatitis than in controls. Islets in chronic pancreatitis and controls showed intense TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression ...
Pancreatic acinar cells acquire in vitro a pancreatic progenitor phenotype associated with activation of p53, growth arrest and senescence. A similar program is also activated in chronic pancreatitis. To assess the mechanisms involved in this process, we cultured pancreatic acinar cells from wild-type, p53 (-/-) , p16 (-/-) and p21 (-/-) mice. Cultures from p53 (-/-) mice, but not those from p16 (-/-) or p21 (-/-) mice, display an enhanced proliferation and can be expanded continuously for more than 20 passages. p53 (-/-) cells also display features of stemness such as enhanced sphere formation, increased expression of pancreatic multipotent progenitor markers (Ptf1a, Pdx1, Cpa1, c-myc, Sox9 and Hnf1b), and of the stemness regulators Bmi1 and Klf4. Upon subculture, p53 (-/-) cells undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and express high levels of vimentin and of the transcriptional regulators Snai1, Snai2, Twist, Zeb1 and Zeb2. Genetic lineage tracing unequivocally demonstrates the epithelial
Warpaint Natural Teeth Whitener also got calcium bentonite clay peppermint and activated coconut to boost the health of your teeth and mouth. Starbucks Recipes Cards or type 2 diabetes develops these warning signs pain medications can cause dry mouth. This Beef Jerky is living food at its finest! Easy to make and great for kids lunchboxes.. Pancreatic acinar structures (acinus of 10-15 cells) pass through. Medicare Part D Information. Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes A Care guide for Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Depression is defined as an illness when the feelings of depression persist and interfere with a child or adolescents ability to function.. Pre-diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance) to have pre-diabetes after blood tests taken for another to check your fasting blood sugar (glucose) level at The Office of Global Affairs provides leadership and expertise in global health progress toward a world safe and secure from infectious disease Diseases and Functions of the Pancreas. Diabetic ...
Context Acinar cell carcinoma is rare disease of exocrine pancreas with an indolent course and favorable tumor biology. It usually occurs in elderly m..
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas characterised by the replacement of pancreatic parenchyma by fibrosis.1 2 Apart from fibrosis, the pancreatic parenchyma may also exhibit enlarged ducts, infiltration by inflammatory cells, the formation of duct-like tubular complexes, regions of acinar cell degeneration, and duct cell proliferation.3 In human acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and animal models of acute pancreatitis, duct-like structures, referred to as tubular complexes, have been described.4 8 Tubular complexes evolve as the acinar cells decrease in height and lose acinar cell specific antigens, paralleled by increased expression of duct cell markers.9 39 The molecular alterations underlying the fibrotic changes and the formation of these duct-like complexes are largely unknown. Recently, tyrosine kinase receptors, comprising the large family of growth factor receptors, have been shown to be overexpressed in the pancreas of patients with ...
Synonyms for acinar carcinoma in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acinar carcinoma. 28 words related to carcinoma: cancer of the liver, liver cancer, cancer, malignant neoplastic disease, adenocarcinoma, glandular cancer, glandular carcinoma. What are synonyms for acinar carcinoma?
The introduction of aggressive multi-modality treatments have helped cancer survivors live longer than before. Many cancer treatments have deleterious side-effe...
Pancreatic infection occurs most often as a complication of acute pancreatitis. The unique aspects of pancreatic inflammation predispose to secondary bacterial infection, which occurs in...
Hislop, Alison, and Reid, Lynne (1974).Thorax, 29, 90-94. Development of the acinus in the human lung. Development and remodelling of the acinus (those structures distal to the terminal bronchiolus) occurs during fetal life and childhood. Multiplication of the acinar air spaces and the structural changes they undergo have been described and represented schematically by summarizing previous studies, particularly those of the last two decades.. Most acinar airways are present before birth. Future respiratory bronchioli are represented by the 19th intrauterine week; alveolar ducts are present as saccules by the 28th week. Alveolar sacs and alveoli, as properly described, do not appear until after birth: alveoli increase in number, particularly in the first seven or so years of life, and in size with thoracic growth.. ...
Zscan25 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN320153G1|/strong|, Zscan25 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
View mouse Zscan21 Chr5:138116903-138134265 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Complete information for ZSCAN30 gene (Protein Coding), Zinc Finger And SCAN Domain Containing 30, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The substantia propria (or stroma of cornea) is fibrous, tough, unyielding, and perfectly transparent. At its centre, human corneal stroma is composed of about 200 flattened lamellæ (layers of collagen fibrils), superimposed one on another.[1] They are each about 1.5-2.5 μm in thickness. The anterior lamellæ interweave more than posterior lamellæ. The fibrils of each lamella are parallel with one another, but at different angles to those of adjacent lamellæ. The lamellæ are produced by keratocytes (corneal connective tissue cells), which occupy about 10% of the substantia propria. Apart from the cells, the major non-aqueous constituents of the stroma are collagen fibrils and proteoglycans. The collagen fibrils are made of a mixture of type I and type V collagens. These molecules are tilted by about 15 degrees to the fibril axis, and because of this, the axial periodicity of the fibrils is reduced to 65 nm (in tendons, the periodicity is 67 nm). The diameter of the fibrils is remarkably ...
Looking for online definition of acinar cell carcinoma in the Medical Dictionary? acinar cell carcinoma explanation free. What is acinar cell carcinoma? Meaning of acinar cell carcinoma medical term. What does acinar cell carcinoma mean?
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, also acinar cell carcinoma, is a rare malignant exocrine tumour of the pancreas. It represents 5% of all exocrine tumours of the pancreas, making it the second most common type of pancreatic cancer. It is abbreviated ACC. It typically has a guarded prognosis. The disease is more common in men than women and the average age at diagnosis is about 60. Symptoms are often non-specific and include weight loss. A classic presentation, found in around 15% of cases includes subcutaneous nodules (due to fat necrosis) and arthralgias, caused by release of lipase. ACC are associated with increased serum lipase and manifest in the classic presentation as the Schmid triad (subcutaneous fat necrosis, polyarthritis, eosinophilia). ACC are typically large, up to 10 cm, and soft compared to pancreatic adenocarcinoma, lacking its dense stroma. They can arise in any part of the pancreas. Histomorphologically, the tumour resembles the cells of the pancreatic acini and, ...
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with current 5-year survival rates at 6%. Greater than 90% of all pancreatic cancers harbor an activating mutation in codon 12 of the Kras gene (KrasG12D). Protein Kinase C iota (PKCι) has been shown to mediate KrasG12D downstream signaling and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in an explant model of pancreatic cancer initiation. Additionally, inhibition of PKCι in human pancreatic cancer cells leads to decreased tumor size, angiogenesis, and metastasis in an orthotopic tumor model, suggesting that PKCι plays a role in maintaining the oncogenic phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells. We sought to test the hypothesis that PKCι plays a role development and maintenance of pancreatic cancer using a mouse model of KrasG12D-induced pancreatic cancer.. Purpose: To identify the effect of PKCι loss on pancreas function and development of KrasG12D-induced pancreatic cancer.. Procedures: Pancreata from mice with ...
The studies described in this dissertation demonstrate that basement membrane may be required for maintenance of organized epithelial tissue architecture. The structural organization of normal rat pancreatic acinar epithelium is fully characterized in order to analyze its neoplastic disorganization within a pancreatic acinar cell tumor. Transmission electron microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of frozen semithin tissue sections are utilized to localize different components of the plasmalemma, cytoskeleton, basement membrane and connective tissue. Normal acinar cells sit on a continuous basement membrane and display a polarized distribution of intracellular organelles, cytoskeletal elements, and distinct membrane domains while these organized cell relations are lost within the parenchyma of the pancreatic acinar carcinoma. This tumor-associated disorganization of normal epithelial cell relations correlates directly with absence of integral basement membrane within the parenchyma of this
The pancreas is comprised of separate functional units that regulate two major physiological processes: digestion and glucose metabolism. The exocrine pancreas consists of acinar and duct cells. The acinar cells produce digestive enzymes and constitute the bulk of the pancreatic tissue. They are organized into grape-like clusters that are at the smallest termini of the branching duct system. The ducts, which add mucous and bicarbonate to the enzyme mixture, form a network of increasing size, culminating in main and accessory pancreatic ducts that empty into the duodenum. The endocrine pancreas, consisting of four specialized cell types that are organized into compact islets embedded within acinar tissue, secretes hormones into the bloodstream. The α- and β-cells regulate the usage of glucose through the production of glucagon and insulin, respectively. Pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin that are produced in the PP and δ-cells modulate the secretory properties of the other pancreatic cell ...
Parotid glands of experimental animals fed a liquid diet are reported to show atrophy (Hall and Schneyer 1964; Wilborn and Schneyer 1970; Hand and Ho 1981; Scott et al. 1990; Scott and Gunn 1991). To clarify whether apoptosis and proliferation of aci
Kit Component:- KN302268G1, Brip1 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN302268G2, Brip1 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN302268D, donor vector…
Injury to pancreatic acinar cells is thought to be the initiating point for the progression of acute pancreatitis, and, therefore, they represent an ideal experimental system to study the mechanisms of experimental acute pancreatitis (Bhatia et al., 2005). In experimental acute pancreatitis models, SP has been shown to be up-regulated and plays a proinflammatory role (Lau and Bhatia, 2006). The use of PPT-A gene knockout models and pharmacological antagonism of NK1R reduced the severity of AP and its associated lung injury, showing the importance of SP-NK1R interaction in AP (Bhatia et al., 1998; Lau et al., 2005). SP and NK1R are expressed in the pancreatic acinar cells, and this expression could contribute to the overall outcome of caerulein-induced AP.. Our results showed that treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with caerulein up-regulated gene expression of PPT-A and NK1R and also peptide levels of SP. At a physiological concentration of caerulein (10−10 M), the expression of PPT-A, NK1R, ...
Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinomas (MAcNECs) of the pancreas are extremely rare carcinomas with a significant component with acinar differentiation. To date, the clinicopathological behaviours of these neoplasms remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the histopathological and molecular characteristics of 20 ACCs and 13 MAcNECs and compared them to a cohort of 269 well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs). Compared to PanNETs, both ACCs and MAcNECs had an advanced pT classification (p,0.001), as well as more prevalent lymphovascular and perineural invasion (p=0.002) and lymph node and distant metastases (p,0.001). Patients with MAcNECs had worse overall (p,0.001) and recurrence-free survival (p,0.001) than those with PanNETs, but no significant difference with those with ACCs. Subgroup analyses revealed that patients with ACCs and MAcNECs had significantly worse recurrence-free survival than those with grade 1 PanNET (p,0.001), and ...
Endocytic vacuoles can be up to 10 μm in diameter and appear specifically in pathological conditions as a result of aberrant retrieval of structures formed by compound endocytosis [7]. The co-localization hypothesis of trypsinogen activation suggests intracellular/intra-organellar activation of trypsinogen and the formation of active (and potentially damaging) trypsin as a result of fusion of trypsinogen containing organelles with organelles containing lysosomal proteases (reviewed in [31]). In our previous study, we have indeed detected trypsin activity in the endocytic vacuoles and observed that some of the vacuoles have lysosomal markers [7]. In the present study, we specifically addressed the question about the role of SOCE in the formation of these vacuoles. The results of our experiments revealed that the SOCE-mediated Ca2+ plateaus produced by CCK or TLC-S (two commonly used inducers of experimental pancreatitis) are effectively suppressed by the Orai1 inhibitor GSK-7975A and that this ...
Elevated pressure in the pancreatic gland is the central cause of pancreatitis following abdominal trauma, surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and gallstones. In the pancreas excessive intracellular calcium causes mitochondrial dysfunction, premature zymogen activation, and necrosis ultimately leading to pancreatitis. Although stimulation of the mechanically activated, calcium-permeable ion channel, Piezo1, in the pancreatic acinar cell is the initial step in pressure-induced pancreatitis, activation of Piezo1 produces only transient elevation in intracellular calcium that is insufficient to cause pancreatitis. Therefore, how pressure produces a prolonged calcium elevation necessary to induce pancreatitis is unknown. We demonstrate that Piezo1 activation in pancreatic acinar cells caused a prolonged elevation in intracellular calcium levels, mitochondrial depolarization, intracellular trypsin activation, and cell death. Notably, these effects were dependent on the ...
The functional interactions that define the bilayered acinus have been explored using three-dimensional culture systems. When phenotypically normal human or rodent luminal cells are grown in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) gels, they recreate the structure and function of the acinus found in vivo even in the absence of myoepithelial cells [6, 18]. We believe that this is possible, in part, because cultured luminal cells express a number of proteins that are characteristic of myoepithelial cells in vivo (e.g. β4 integrin [10], epidermal growth factor receptor [19], vimentin [20], maspin [21], and others; for review [1]). It may be that luminal cells can form acinar structures in culture because of this ability to become luminal/myoepithelial hybrids. The possibility that expression of specific myoepithelial proteins confers distinctive signaling cues that promote cell survival and proper apicobasal polarity is an active area of investigation in our laboratory and those of our ...
Pancreatitis Symptoms and Treatments in Dogs - The pancreas has 2 functions. The first is to provide digestive enzymes; the second is to make insulin for sugar metabolism. Digestive enzymes are manufactured by the acinar cells and insulin by the islet cells. Pancreatitis is inflammation and swelling of the pancreas.
mice. IER3 expression was discrete in healthy acinar cells, becoming highly prominent in peritumoral acini, and particularly high in acinar ductal metaplasia (ADM) and PanIN lesions, where IER3 colocalized with phosphorylated ERK1/2. However, IER3 was absent in undifferentiated PDAC, which suggests that the IER3-dependent pathway is an early event in pancreatic tumorigenesis. IER3 expression was induced by both mild and severe pancreatitis, which promoted PanIN formation and progression to PDAC in ...
Analytical Enzyme Chymotrypsin: Chymotrypsin is produced in the acinar cells of the pancreas as the inactive precursor, chymotrypsinogen.
Complete information for ZSCAN32 gene (Protein Coding), Zinc Finger And SCAN Domain Containing 32, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
More than a century ago, a German pathologist noted at autopsies of patients who had succumbed to acute pancreatitis that their intrapancreatic digestive enzymes had been activated.1 His fateful observation engendered the surprisingly long-lived belief that pancreatitis is an autodigestive phenomenon resulting from the inappropriate activation of digestive enzymes within the pancreas itself. The past three decades have seen the development of several animal models of pancreatitis and remarkably, early intracellular trypsinogen activation has been observed consistently during the course of pancreatitis in all of them.2-5 Subsequently, pancreatitis research began to focus on the mechanisms of premature intracellular trypsinogen activation. We and others have shown that premature trypsinogen activation takes place in membrane-bound compartments resembling autophagic vesicles within which zymogen and lysosomal contents are colocalised.6-9 In these colocalisation vacuoles, the lysosomal protease ...
acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
International Journal of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on the molecular basis, cell biology and pharmacology of inflammation, including acute/chronic inflammation, mediators of inflammation, as well as cellular processes and molecular mechanisms involved in the production of inflammatory responses. The journal especially welcomes the submission of articles on anti-inflammatory drug development, trials and therapies.
In single mouse pancreatic acinar cells the effects of intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or the non-metabolizable InsP3 analogue inositol 1,4,5-triphosphorothioate (InsPS3) have been investigated using a wide range of concentrations. Different types of cytosolic Ca2+ fluctuation patterns (monitored as Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- current in patch-clamp whole-cell recording experiments) could be generated by InsP3 or InsPS3, dependent on concentration, resembling those previously shown to be evoked by varying degrees of receptor activation in these cells. Low InsPS3 concentrations evoked repetitive local Ca2+ spikes whereas at relatively high concentrations repetitive Ca2+ waves were produced. In the presence of intracellular citrate a much lower messenger level was sufficient to generate waves. The InsP3 concentration determines whether the cytosolic Ca2+ signals are local or global.
Transmission electron microscope image of a thin section cut through an area of mammalian pancreatic tissue. Image is a pancreatic acinar cell, showing nuclear pores and rough endoplasmic reticulum. JEOL 100CX ...
ZSCAN4 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_689890), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. The ZSCAN4 gene encodes a protein involved in telomere maintenance and with a key role in the critical feature of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, namely, defying cellular senescence and maintaining normal karyotype for many cell divisions in culture (Zalzman et al., 2010 )
The auditory pathway conveys the special sense of hearing. Information travels from the receptors in the organ of Corti of the inner ear - the cochlear hair cells - to the central nervous system, carried by the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII).
Acinar cells make up 82% of the total pancreas; these cells are responsible for the production of the digestive enzymes. ... "Acinar Cell". Auckland Bioengineering Institute-University of Auckland. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. ... Pancreatitis can result in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, if the organ's acinar cells are permanently damaged; the ... either continued to exhibit inflammation of the organ or had decreased acinar cell function, even though they had no ...
Merocrine secretion - cells excrete their substances by exocytosis; for example, pancreatic acinar cells. Apocrine secretion - ... Serous cells secrete proteins, often enzymes. Examples include gastric chief cells and Paneth cells Mucous cells secrete mucus ... a portion of the cell membrane that contains the excretion buds off. Holocrine secretion - the entire cell disintegrates to ... The glandular portion may be tubular or acinar, or may be a mix of the two (called tubuloacinar). If the glandular portion ...
There are cystic spaces surrounded by two uniform rows of epithelial cells with centrally placed pyknotic nuclei. The cystic ...
When used without context, it frequently refers to infections (squamous cell papilloma) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), ...
Acinar cell source of the parotid hormone. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the acinar cells of the parotid glands are ...
... is a malignant tumor of the delta cells of the endocrine pancreas that produces somatostatin. Increased levels ...
Cells resemble normal hepatocytes and are traversed by blood vessels but lack portal tracts or central veins. ... The hepatocytes are on a regular reticulin scaffold and less or equal to three cell thick. ... because of the risk of rupture causing bleeding and because they may contain malignant cells.[8] Current recommendations are ...
Microscopic appearance is signet ring cell carcinoma, which is tumor cells with mucin droplet that displaces the nucleus to one ... Diffuse stomach cancer is characterized by the presence of poorly differentiated tumor cells. ... rigid stomach wall caused by diffuse infiltration of tumor cells and extensive fibrosis. ... Acinar cell (8550-8559). *Acinic cell carcinoma. Other. Complex epithelial (8560-8589). *Warthin's tumor ...
"Acinar cell apoptosis in Serpini2-deficient mice models pancreatic insufficiency". PLoS Genetics. 1 (3): e38. doi:10.1371/ ... Cell. 129 (2): 263-75. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.02.042. PMID 17448989. Gooptu B, Dickens JA, Lomas DA (February 2014). "The ... Cell. 130 (6): 1108-19. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.013. PMC 2128786 . PMID 17889653. Hejgaard J, Rasmussen SK, Brandt A, ... "Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell ...
VAMP8 also participates the regulated exocytosis in pancreatic acinar cells. VAMP4 is involved in transport from the Golgi. ... Cell. 10 (6): 1957-72. doi:10.1091/mbc.10.6.1957. PMC 25394 . PMID 10359608. Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 1 at the US ...
Chowdhury P, Udupa KB (December 2006). "Nicotine as a mitogenic stimulus for pancreatic acinar cell proliferation". World J. ... In cancer cells, nicotine promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition which makes the cancer cells more resistant to drugs ... Cell. 16 (2): 143-6. PMID 14651253. Ye YN, Liu ES, Shin VY, Wu WK, Luo JC, Cho CH (January 2004). "Nicotine promoted colon ... Administration of nicotine to guinea pigs has been shown to cause harm to cells of the inner ear.[unreliable medical source?] ...
... "cAMP potentiates ATP-evoked calcium signaling in human parotid acinar cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (38): ... and in fat cells. P2X4 receptors have been implicated in the regulation of cardiac function, ATP-mediated cell death, synaptic ... Continued binding leads to increased permeability to N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG+) in about 50% of the cells expressing the P2X4 ... The P2X4 receptor has high calcium permeability, leading to the depolarization of the cell membrane and the activation of ...
Petersen, Ole H (2005). "Ca2+ signalling and Ca2+-activated ion channels in exocrine acinar cells". Cell Calcium. 38 (3-4): 171 ... Nanodomain European Calcium Society Clapham, D.E. (2007). "Calcium Signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-1058. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Many cell surface receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases activate the phospholipase C ( ... Depletion of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum will lead to Ca2+ entry from outside the cell by activation of "Store- ...
Parasympathetic stimulation leads to acetylcholine (ACh) release onto the salivary acinar cells. ACh binds to muscarinic ... Human saliva comprises 98% water, plus electrolytes, mucus, white blood cells, epithelial cells (from which DNA can be ... secreted by the acinar cells of the parotid and submandibular glands, starts the digestion of starch before the food is even ... which is secreted by the acinar cells of the sublingual gland; has a pH optimum around 4.0 so it is not activated until ...
5-trisphosphate receptors in parotid acinar cells. A mechanism for the synergistic effects of cAMP on Ca2+ signaling". J. Biol ... induced apoptosis of human T-lymphoma cells". Cell Calcium. 27 (6): 315-28. doi:10.1054/ceca.2000.0126. PMID 11013462. Mayne M ... Cell. Signal. 20 (4): 737-47. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2007.12.010. PMID 18249094. Wilker E, Mittleman MA, Litonjua AA, et al. ( ... Cell Biol. 183 (2): 297-311. doi:10.1083/jcb.200803172. PMC 2568025 . PMID 18936250. Johnson JM, Castle J, Garrett-Engele P, et ...
"Subcellular distribution and function of Rab3A-D in pancreatic acinar AR42J cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 287 (3): 746 ... Weber E, Jilling T, Kirk KL (March 1996). "Distinct functional properties of Rab3A and Rab3B in PC12 neuroendocrine cells". J. ... Cell. 96 (3): 363-74. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80549-8. PMID 10025402. Jung YJ, Lee TH, Lee JY, Kim JH, Park JB (1999). " ... Mol Cell Biol. 15 (3): 1137-43. PMC 230335 . PMID 7532276. "Entrez Gene: RAB3A RAB3A, member RAS oncogene family". Fukuda M ( ...
Histologically, it forms clusters of goblet cells containing mucin with a minor admixture of Paneth cells and endocrine cells. ... Goblet cell carcinoid[edit]. Main article: Goblet cell carcinoid. This is considered to be a hybrid between an exocrine and ... Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing[1] type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the ... The term 'crypt cell carcinoma' has been used for them, and though perhaps more accurate than considering them carcinoids, has ...
"Pancreatic ductal and acinar cell neoplasms in Carney complex: a possible new association". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96 (11): ... Testicular cancer, particularly Sertoli cell type, is associated with Carney syndrome. Thyroid and pancreas cancer may also ...
... other cell types have followed suit, as exemplified by the pancreas (acinar and beta cells), T-cells, and smooth muscle. Levels ... "Cell-permeant NAADP: a novel chemical tool enabling the study of Ca2+ signalling in intact cells". Cell Calcium. 43 (6): 531-8 ... A 2'-3'-phosphatase stimulated by Ca2+ has been proposed in brain and, possibly in pancreatic acinar cells, that catabolises ... "Role of NAADP and cADPR in the Induction and Maintenance of Agonist-Evoked Ca2+ Spiking in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells". ...
They co-localize with Orai channels (TC# 1.A.52) in pancreatic acinar cells. IP3 receptors possess three domains: N-terminal ... "InsP₃receptors and Orai channels in pancreatic acinar cells: co-localization and its consequences". The Biochemical Journal. ... They predominate in the endoplasmic reticular membranes of various cell types in the brain but have also been found in the ... Ry receptors occur primarily in muscle cell sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) membranes, and IP3 receptors occur primarily in brain ...
"Rab4 associates with the actin terminal web in developing rat pancreatic acinar cells". European Journal of Cell Biology. 72 (1 ... Molecular Biology of the Cell. 11 (7): 2201-11. doi:10.1091/mbc.11.7.2201. PMC 14913 . PMID 10888662. Li L, Omata W, Kojima I, ... dephosphorylation determines the localization of rab4 during the cell cycle". The EMBO Journal. 11 (12): 4379-89. PMC 557012 . ...
2003). "CRHSP-24 phosphorylation is regulated by multiple signaling pathways in pancreatic acinar cells". Am. J. Physiol. ... Kim JE, Tannenbaum SR, White FM (2005). "Global phosphoproteome of HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells". J. Proteome Res. 4 ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ... "Purification and characterization of a novel physiological substrate for calcineurin in mammalian cells". J Biol Chem. 273 (35 ...
In addition to promoting the inflammatory cell reaction to acinar cells, ceruletide induces pancreatitis through dysregulation ... "Cerulein upregulates ICAM-1 in pancreatic acinar cells, which mediates neutrophil adhesion to these cells". Am J Physiol ... Ceruletide upregulates pancreatic acinar cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins through intracellular ... Surface ICAM-1 in turn promotes neutrophil adhesion onto acinar cells enhancing pancreatic inflammation. ...
"Expression and localization of rab escort protein isoforms in parotid acinar cells from rat". J. Cell. Physiol. 185 (3): 339-47 ... 2005). "Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation". ...
2003). "CRHSP-24 phosphorylation is regulated by multiple signaling pathways in pancreatic acinar cells". Am. J. Physiol. ... J Cell Mol Med. 7 (1): 35-42. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2003.tb00200.x. PMID 12767259. "Entrez Gene: CSDC2 cold shock domain ...
... lo Prostate Cancer Cell Population Harbors Self-Renewing Long-Term Tumor-Propagating Cells that Resist Castration". Cell Stem ... Micrograph of prostate adenocarcinoma, acinar type, the most common type of prostate cancer. Needle biopsy, H&E stain ... LNCaP cells express androgen receptor (AR), but PC-3 and DU-145 cells express very little or no AR. AR, an androgen-activated ... Prostate cancer cells are generally devoid of zinc. This allows prostate cancer cells to save energy not making citrate, and ...
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, also acinar cell carcinoma, is a rare malignant exocrine tumour of the pancreas. It ... Von Hoff, 23 Klimstra, DS.; Heffess, CS.; Oertel, JE.; Rosai, J. (Sep 1992). "Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas. A ... Feb 2010). "[A case of acinar cell carcinoma of pancreas, manifested by subcutaneous nodule as initial clinical symptom]". ... Pancreatic Cancer, 2005, Jones & Bartlett Learning, ISBN 0763721786, 9780763721787 Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas ( ...
What is acinar cell carcinoma? Meaning of acinar cell carcinoma medical term. What does acinar cell carcinoma mean? ... Looking for online definition of acinar cell carcinoma in the Medical Dictionary? acinar cell carcinoma explanation free. ... acinar cell carcinoma. acinar cell carcinoma. A highly aggressive tumour that represents 1-2% of all pancreatic malignancies, ... Acinar cell carcinoma. A malignant tumor arising from the acinar cells of the pancreas. ...
Conclusions It was shown that the 2P-1-2-1 antibody specifically stained the pancreatic acinar cells and tumours of acinar cell ... Results Non-neoplastic acinar cells were stained diffusely, but epithelial cells of the pancreatic duct and the islets of ... Aims Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumours of the exocrine pancreas accounting for about 1-2% of all pancreatic ... The utility of a novel antibody in the pathological diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma ...
We present the first case of a patient with pancreatic panniculitis caused by pancreatic-type primary acinar cell carcinoma ( ... From: Pancreatic panniculitis in a patient with pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma of the liver - case report and review of ... acinar cystadenocarcinoma, ACC of the liver, serous cystadenoma, HCC, gastric carcinoma with pancreatic infiltration, ...
We present the first case of a patient with pancreatic panniculitis caused by pancreatic-type primary acinar cell carcinoma ( ... From: Pancreatic panniculitis in a patient with pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma of the liver - case report and review of ... a core biopsy of the liver showing liver tissue adjacent to the acinar cell carcinoma, haematoxylin/eosin staining, 10-fold ... b compact acinar structures and trabeculae seen at higher magnification, haematoxylin/eosin staining, 40-fold magnification. c ...
Context Acinar cell carcinoma is rare disease of exocrine pancreas with an indolent course and favorable tumor biology. It ... Giant Acinar Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas Presenting In a Young Patient Context Acinar cell carcinoma is rare disease of exocrine ... Conclusion Differential diagnosis of acinar cell carcinoma of pancreas should be considered in young patient with large tumor ... Histopathological examination with immunohistochemistry revealed acinar cell carcinoma of pancreas. ...
Merocrine secretion - cells excrete their substances by exocytosis; for example, pancreatic acinar cells. Apocrine secretion - ... Serous cells secrete proteins, often enzymes. Examples include gastric chief cells and Paneth cells Mucous cells secrete mucus ... a portion of the cell membrane that contains the excretion buds off. Holocrine secretion - the entire cell disintegrates to ... The glandular portion may be tubular or acinar, or may be a mix of the two (called tubuloacinar). If the glandular portion ...
2005) Acinar Centre: Acinar and Centroacinar Cells. In: Functional Ultrastructure. Springer, Vienna. * DOI https://doi.org/ ... matrix of proteoglycans on zymogen granule membranes is involved in granule formation in rat pancreatic acinar cells. J Cell ...
... the powerful digestive enzymes that the cells make are initially produced in an inactive form, notes Pancreas.org. These inert ... The other cells of the exocrine pancreas are called duct cells. Acinar cells produce enzymes that turn vegetables, meat and ... Acinar cells are one of the two cells that make up the exocrine pancreas, a gland that secretes digestive enzymes into the ... To protect acinar cells from self-digestion, the powerful digestive enzymes that the cells make are initially produced in an ...
Cell Preparation and Extracellular Solutions.. Mouse pancreatic acinar cells were isolated by collagenase digestion as ... Isolated clusters of acinar cells were incubated in extracellular solution containing a cell-impermeant fluorescent tracer: ... Activation of trypsinogen in large endocytic vacuoles of pancreatic acinar cells. Mark W. Sherwood, Ian A. Prior, Svetlana G. ... Activation of trypsinogen in large endocytic vacuoles of pancreatic acinar cells. Mark W. Sherwood, Ian A. Prior, Svetlana G. ...
6 Studies found for: Acinar Cell Carcinoma , leucovorin. Also searched for Acinar Cell Adenocarcinomas. See Search Details ...
... Xianlin Zhao, Juan Li, Shifeng Zhu, Yiling Liu, Jianlei ... Cerulein-treated AR42J cells were used. After pretreatment with 479, 119.8, or 29.9 μg/L rhein, cells were cocultured with ... The Chinese herbal medicine Da-Cheng-Qi decoction can regulate a necrosis-apoptosis switch in injured pancreatic acinar cells. ... Rhein induces the necrosis-apoptosis switch in injured pancreatic acinar cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ...
Rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells (CRL-1492, ATCC, Rockville, MD, USA) were seeded at a density of cells/well in flat-bottom 24 ... there were more necrotic cells than apoptotic cells. There were more apoptotic cells and fewer necrotic cells in T1, T2, and T3 ... Rhein Induces a Necrosis-Apoptosis Switch in Pancreatic Acinar Cells. Xianlin Zhao, Juan Li, Shifeng Zhu, Yiling Liu, Jianlei ... Y.-Y. Ren, H.-L. Gong, W.-F. Tang, M.-H. Wan, J.-L. Zhao, and X. Huang, "Dachengqi decoction induces pancreatic acinar cell ...
... Xianlin Zhao, Juan Li, Shifeng Zhu, Yiling Liu, Jianlei ... Xianlin Zhao, Juan Li, Shifeng Zhu, et al., "Rhein Induces a Necrosis-Apoptosis Switch in Pancreatic Acinar Cells," Evidence- ...
Activated Notch1 prevents differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells and attenuate endocrine development.. Hald J1, Hjorth JP, ... The endocrine cells that do form show abnormal expression of cell type-specific markers. Our observations show that sustained ... forms cyst-like structures with ductal phenotype containing a few endocrine cells but completely devoid of acinar cells. ... At e10.5 to e12.5, we observe a disorganized pancreatic epithelium with reduced numbers of endocrine cells, confirming a ...
... acinous cell. acinar cell, acinous cell synonyms, acinar cell, acinous cell pronunciation, acinar cell, acinous cell ... English dictionary definition of acinar cell, acinous cell. a small room as in a convent or prison; basic structural unit of ... secondary cell, storage cell - a cell that can be recharged. galvanic cell, primary cell, voltaic cell - an electric cell that ... cell. (redirected from acinar cell, acinous cell). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia. cell. a ...
The left panel shows transmitted light image of isolated pancreatic acinar cells and clusters of pancreatic acinar cells. ... Bioluminescence was recorded from cells transfected with cLuc.. A. Images show bioluminescence of pancreatic acinar cells. The ... Dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP levels in pancreatic acinar cells.. Voronina SG1, Barrow SL, Simpson AW, ... Dynamic changes in the ATP levels in the cytosol and mitochondria of pancreatic acinar cells: effects of calcium-releasing ...
... exhibit progressive apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells with severe exocrine acinar cell loss by 8 wk of age, while the islets ... despite continued acinar cell loss. To our knowledge, this study describes the first characterized genetic animal model for ... of only the Serpini2 gene by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic complementation corrected the acinar cell defect as ... complementation of the transgene insertion mutant demonstrates that Serpini2 deficiency directly results in the acinar cell ...
However, in pancreatic acinar cells, neither messenger can explain the complex pattern of Ca2+ signals triggered by the ... Coordination of agonist-induced Ca2+-signalling patterns by NAADP in pancreatic acinar cells.. Cancela JM1, Churchill GC, ... whereas higher concentrations of NAADP selectively inactivated CCK-evoked Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells, indicating ... Cells were significantly more sensitive to NAADP than to either cADPR or InsP3, ...
Cell Biol Int. 2009 Jan;33(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cellbi.2008.09.008. Epub 2008 Oct 7. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review ... Although the molecular machinery and mechanism of cell secretion in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas is well documented ... Secretion from acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas: role of enteropancreatic reflexes and cholecystokinin.. Singer MV1, ... Cell Biol Int. 2009 Jan;33(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cellbi.2008.09.008. Epub 2008 Oct 7. ...
Normal acinar cells are the primary cells of the exocrine pancreas and are responsible for secreting various enzymes. ... Acinar cell neoplasms arise from the acinar cells of the pancreas. ... Acinar cell neoplasms arise from the acinar cells of the pancreas. Normal acinar cells are the primary cells of the exocrine ... Because the tumors arise from normal acinar cells, the tumor cells also may secrete pancreatic enzymes, most commonly lipase. ...
Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is extremely uncommon and its cytologic features have rarely been described. We ... Original cytologic diagnoses included "acinar cell carcinoma," "pancreatic endocrine tumor," "favor neuroendocrine tumor, ... The cytologic features included small to moderate-sized loose groups with numerous single cells, prominent acinar formation, ...
in leptin protection of salivary gland acinar cells against ethanol cytotoxicity," Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol ... Activation in Ghrelin Protection of Salivary Gland Acinar Cells against Ethanol Cytotoxicity. Bronislaw L. Slomiany and Amalia ... B. L. Slomiany and A. Slomiany, "Leptin protection of salivary gland acinar cells against ethanol cytotoxicity involves Src ... activation in gastric mucosal cell protection against ethanol cytotoxicity," Inflammopharmacology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 245-253 ...
... ... Ca2+ Influx in Rat Pancreatic Acinar Cells." Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 202(3): 1697-1704. ,http://hdl ...
What is acinar cell? Meaning of acinar cell as a finance term. What does acinar cell mean in finance? ... Definition of acinar cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to acinar cell: Acinar cell carcinoma. cell. an independent team of operatives who work together in a CELLULAR ... Acinar cell financial definition of acinar cell https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/acinar+cell ...
  • Because the tumors arise from normal acinar cells, the tumor cells also may secrete pancreatic enzymes, most commonly lipase. (knowcancer.com)
  • They may also have subcutaneous masses, which are a manifestation of excessive lipase secreted by the tumor cells. (knowcancer.com)
  • The diagnosis of ancinar cell tumor is made by biopsy of the pancreatic mass. (knowcancer.com)
  • Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor that is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. (dovepress.com)
  • Laiho, K. U., Shelburne, J. D., Trump, B. F.: Observations on cell volume, ultrastructure, mitochondrial conformation and vital-dye uptake in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells: effects of inhibiting energy production and function of the plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • The Squamous Cells of Adenosquamous Carcinoma (ASCC) of the Prostate Might Represent a Terminally Differentiated Quiescent Component: Immunohistochemical Evidence From a Case of ASCC With Pleomorphic Giant Tumor Cells. (rare-cancer.org)
  • If tumor is completely removed, post-operative radiation therapy is typically not needed since acinic cell is considered a low-grade histology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Findings affecting pituitary function in some JBS patients have included such anomalies as the formation of a glial hamartoma (a neoplasm, or tumor composed of glial cells) on a lobe of the pituitary gland, as well congenital underdevelopment of the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analysis validated the approach of whole cancer genome sequencing in identifying somatic mutations and the importance of parallel sequencing of normal and tumor cell genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since FAS is essential for tumor cells, for its growth and survival, and is upregulated and overexpressed in variety of tumors, scientists have high expectations for FAS as a oncology drug target. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most frequently encountered products in neuroendocrine tumor cells across prostate cancer samples appear to be calcitonin (in more than one third of cases), neurotensin, serotonin, human chorionic gonadotropin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumor cells express cytokeratins that are typically expressed by luminal secretory type cells, but lack basal cell markers such as high molecular weight cytokeratin and p63. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, adjacent non-neuroendocrine tumor cells appear to display an increased expression of Ki-67. (wikipedia.org)
  • As opposed to their normal neuroendocrine counterparts, tumor neuroendocrine cells express the beta-oxidative enzyme alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, which is a recently described marker for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, five different functions have been ascribed to gap junction protein: Electrical and metabolic coupling between cells Electrical and metabolic exchange through hemichannels Tumor suppressor genes (Cx43, Cx32 and Cx36) Adhesive function independent of conductive gap junction channel (neural migration in neocortex) Role of carboxyl-terminal in signaling cytoplasmic pathways (Cx43) Gap Junctions have been observed in various animal organs and tissues where cells contact each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • M8083/3 Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma M8084/3 Squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell type M8090/1 Basal cell tumor (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus type Fibroepithelial basal cell carcinoma, Pinkus type Pinkus tumor Fibroepithelioma, NOS M8094/3 Basosquamous carcinoma (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rat pancreatic slices were incubated at 37°C in vitro , in order to determine if complete ischemia would reproduce the subcellular alterations seen in human pancreatic acinar cells following shock. (springer.com)
  • Given that normal acinar cells do not maintain the properties differentiated in vitro, the main aim of this research was to produce cells from undifferentiated precursors so that new study models could be developed. (imim.es)
  • In summary, our results show that the media formulation, supplement profile, and extracellular matrix composition are important for maximal expression of androgen-induced effects by lacrimal gland acinar cells in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • An in vitro dry eye model was produced by adding il-1b to the culture medium of primary rabbit lacrimal acinar cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Absence of trypsinogen activation in T(-/-) mice led to near complete inhibition of acinar cell death in vitro and a 50% reduction in acinar necrosis during AP progression. (nih.gov)
  • Certainly NAADP production can occur in vitro but whether it occurs in vivo is another question (because genetic knockout or knock-down of ADP-ribosyl cyclases has no effect on NAADP production in some cell types), and there may be other routes which require different substrates and enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The publication of two seminal research papers in 1998 outlining the isolation of these cells provided an in vitro method by which researchers may characterise PaSCs in both health and pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike 2D environments (e.g. a petri dish), a 3D cell culture allows cells in vitro to grow in all directions, similar to how they would in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eric Simon, in a 1988 NIH SBIR grant report, showed that electrospinning could be used to produced nano- and submicron-scale polystyrene and polycarbonate fibrous mats (now known as scaffolds) specifically intended for use as in vitro cell substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our study, activation of this knockin Kras G12D allele in the Elastase - and Mist1 -expressing mature acinar compartment of adult mice resulted in the spontaneous induction of mPanIN lesions of all histological grades, although invasive carcinomas per se were not seen. (pnas.org)
  • We conclude that in the appropriate genetic context, the differentiated acinar cell compartment in adult mice retains its susceptibility for spontaneous transformation into mPanIN lesions, a finding with potential relevance vis-à-vis the origins of PDAC. (pnas.org)
  • We investigated the effects of the endotoxemia induced in the early period of life on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and proapoptotic Bax, caspase-9 and -3 or antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression in the pancreatic acinar cells of adult animals. (hindawi.com)
  • An immediate need exists to obtain autologous adult progenitor cells as the use of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells potentially pose serious risks such as teratogenicity and immunogenic rejection. (rice.edu)
  • We conclude that the stem/progenitor potential of adult hS/PCs isolated without antigenic sorting or clonal expansion in suspension, combined with their ability to differentiate into specialized salivary cell lineages in a human-compatible culture system, makes them ideal for use in 3D bioengineered salivary gland applications. (rice.edu)
  • However, because of high levels of expression in differentiated acinar cells, this construct is tamoxifen independent in approximately 50% of adult acinar cells. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed the therapeutic potential of the LG epithelial progenitor cells (EPCPs), isolated from adult LacZ+ wild type LGs and transplanted into 'diseased' LGs of a new mouse model for Sjogrens Syndrome - the TSP-1 -/- mice. (arvojournals.org)
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is minimally expressed in the primitive and fetal definitive erythroid cells, but is highly expressed in adult definitive erythroid cells, particularly in the proerythroblast and the polychromatic and orthochromatic normoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a murine KLF2-deficient embryo, expression of β-like globin genes normally expressed in primitive erythroid cells was significantly decreased, although adult β-globin gene expression was unaffected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gap junctions occur in virtually all tissues of the body, with the exception of adult fully developed skeletal muscle and mobile cell types such as sperm or erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ΔNp63 is involved in multiple functions during skin development and in adult stem/progenitor cell regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We observed no requirement for concomitant chronic exocrine injury in the induction of mPanIN lesions from the mature acinar cell compartment. (pnas.org)
  • Here, submucosal gland serous acinar cells were isolated from murine airway, identified by immunofluorescence and gene expression profiling, and used in physiological studies. (wiley.com)
  • Accordingly, agonist-induced serous acinar cell shrinkage and swelling are caused by activation of solute efflux and influx pathways, respectively, and cell volume reflects the secretory state of these cells. (wiley.com)
  • These results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of salt and water secretion by lung submucosal glands, and they suggest that while murine submucosal gland fluid secretion in response to cholinergic stimulation can originate from CFTR-expressing serous acinar cells, it is not dependent upon CFTR function. (wiley.com)
  • These tumors which resemble serous acinar cells vary in their behavior from locally aggressive to blatantly malignant. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIMS: With immunomodulatory therapy being integrated into treatment regimes for non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC), we prospectively collected data on the immunohistochemical profile of tumours assessed in our institution and correlated this with morphological tumour features. (rare-cancer.org)
  • Small cell carcinoma Cells are usually round and are less than approximately 3 times the diameter of a resting lymphocyte and little evident cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemically, prostatic small cell carcinoma are positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, calcitonin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, while lacking, or rarely and weakly expressing, androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some studies suggest that the oncogenes H-ras and fes are important drivers of oncogenesis in many acinar-type lung cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of cross-class inhibitory serpins include serpin B4 a squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA-1) and the avian serpin myeloid and erythroid nuclear termination stage-specific protein (MENT), which both inhibit papain-like cysteine proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Goblet cells are typically found in the respiratory, reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts and are surrounded by stratified squamous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is an expression of diagnostic uncertainty, and analogous to the diagnosis of ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) on the Pap test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III (C21.1) AIN III (C21.1) M8078/3 Squamous cell carcinoma with horn formation M8080/2 Queyrat erythroplasia (C60. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen type (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mixed basal-squamous cell carcinoma M8095/3 Metatypical carcinoma M8096/0 Intraepidermal epithelioma of Jadassohn (C44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its incidence has been increasing in many developed Western nations in the past few decades, where it has become the most common major type of lung cancer in smokers (replacing squamous cell lung carcinoma) and in lifelong nonsmokers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cancer usually is seen peripherally in the lungs, as opposed to small cell lung cancer and squamous cell lung cancer, which both tend to be more centrally located, although it may also occur as central lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. a type of basophilic cell that makes up most of the bulk of the islets of Langerhans and secretes insulin . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It both synthesizes insulin, which manages our glucose levels and releases digestive cells into our intestine. (study.com)
  • Similarly, decreased concentrations or deletions of selected media supplements, including insulin, which binds to acinar cells, and dexamethasone, led to a significant diminution in the extent of androgen action, as well as to a decline in cell maintenance. (arvojournals.org)
  • These organelles are not observed to represent prominent compartments for the same receptor to traverse in the acinar cell, although fluorescent insulin is clearly internalized in these cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • This innate immune cell and lymphocyte infiltration can result in destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of the islets, and clinical diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • PACs (pancreatic acinar cells) are structurally and functionally polarized with secretory granules located in the apical region, whereas the basal and lateral parts contain well-developed rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum). (biochemj.org)
  • The goblet cell is highly polarized with the nucleus and other organelles concentrated at the base of the cell and secretory granules containing mucin, at the apical surface. (wikipedia.org)