Acids, Noncarboxylic: Inorganic acids with a non metal, other than carbon, attached to hydrogen, or an acid radical containing no carbon.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Great BritainNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Galactitol: A naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of GALACTOSE. It appears as a white crystalline powder with a slight sweet taste. It may form in excess in the lens of the eye in GALACTOSEMIAS, a deficiency of GALACTOKINASE.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Imidazolidines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Retinal DiseasesMethylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase: An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.

H14[NaP5W30O110] as a heterogeneous recyclable catalyst for the air oxidation of thiols under solvent free conditions. (1/5)

The catalytic oxidation of thiols to the corresponding disulfides using Preyssler's catalyst H(14)[NaP(5)W(30)O(110)] has been studied. These highly selective oxidations gave good yields of the target disulfides.  (+info)

Evaluation of polyphenolic profile and nutritional value of non-traditional fruit species in the Czech Republic--a comparative study. (2/5)


P6981, an arylstibonic acid, is a novel low nanomolar inhibitor of cAMP response element-binding protein binding to DNA. (3/5)


Atmospheric acid gases in Tokushima, Japan, monitored with parallel plate wet denuder coupled ion chromatograph. (4/5)

During the summer of 2011 and winter of 2012, we continuously measured trace acid gas concentrations in Tokushima, Japan, using a parallel plate wet denuder coupled ion chromatograph. The average concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitrous acid (HONO), nitric acid (HNO(3)), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) were, respectively, 0.54, 1.20, 1.17, and 3.22 mug m(-3) in the summer, and 0.09, 1.06, 0.46, and 5.11 mug m(-3) in the winter. In the summer, concentrations of all the acid gases increased after sunrise and showed a strong diurnal pattern with daytime maxima and nighttime minima, but the time at which concentration levels began to increase and the pace of increase differed among the acid gases. The concentration of HONO increased sharply immediately after sunrise, while concentrations of the other three gases began increasing about one and half hours later. SO(2) showed the fastest rate of increase, followed by HNO(3) and HCl. These differences were likely attributable to the formation processes of gaseous substances.  (+info)

A low pH-inducible, PhoPQ-dependent acid tolerance response protects Salmonella typhimurium against inorganic acid stress. (5/5)

The acid tolerance response enables Salmonella typhimurium to survive exposures to potentially lethal acidic environments. The acid stress imposed in a typical assay for acid tolerance (log-phase cells in minimal glucose medium) was shown to comprise both inorganic (i.e., low pH) and organic acid components. A gene previously determined to affect acid tolerance, atbR, was identified as pgi, the gene encoding phosphoglucoisomerase. Mutations in pgi were shown to increase acid tolerance by preventing the synthesis of organic acids. Protocols designed to separate the stresses of inorganic from organic acids revealed that the regulators sigma38 (RpoS), Fur, and Ada have major effects on tolerance to organic acid stress but only minor effects on inorganic acid stress. In contrast, the two-component regulatory system PhoP (identified as acid shock protein ASP29) and PhoQ proved to be important for tolerance to inorganic [corrected] acid stress but had little effect against organic acid stress. PhoP mutants also failed to induce four ASPs, confirming a role for this regulator in acid tolerance. Acid shock induction of PhoP appears to occur at the transcriptional level and requires the PhoPQ system. Furthermore, induction by acid occurs even in the presence of high concentrations of magnesium, the ion known to be sensed by PhoQ. These results suggest that PhoQ can sense both Mg2+ and pH. Since phoP mutants are avirulent, the low pH activation of this system has important implications concerning the pathogenesis of S. typhimurium. The involvement of four regulators, two of which are implicated in virulence, underscores the complexity of the acid tolerance stress response and further suggests that features of acid tolerance and virulence are interwoven.  (+info)

  • The indolic molecules 5,6-dihydroxyindole and 5,6-dihydroxyinodole-2-carboxylic acid are postulated to be the main monomeric building blocks of eumelanins [ 5 ]. (
  • 2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the thermoplastic or thermoset resin is a ethyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate, non-carboxylic acrylic-acrylonitrile, carboxylic butyl acrylate, polyvinylidene chloride-acrylic acid, methyl methacrylate-styrene, acrylic acid-styrene, polyacrylic acid, or urea-formaldehyde resin. (
  • Previously studied inhibitors of aldose reductase were largely from two chemical classes, spirosuccinamide/hydantoins and carboxylic acids. (
  • Of the two chemical classes of ARIs tested to date in phase III trials, the carboxylic acid inhibitors (e.g., zopolrestat) penetrate tissues poorly and are not very potent in vivo, whereas the spiroimide (spirohydantoin) inhibitors penetrate tissues more efficiently, but many have caused skin reactions or liver toxicity that limited the doses usable in humans to doses that were subtherapeutic in animal models ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • EARTH BORING, WELL TREATING, AND OIL FIELD CHEMISTRY : WELL TREATING : Contains organic component : Organic component contains nitrogen attached directly or indirectly to carbon by nonionic bonding : Organic component contains plural carboxylic acid, ester, or salt groups attached directly or indirectly to nitrogen by nonionic bonding : Carbocyclic ring is attached directly or indirectly to the ethylenic monomer by nonionic bonding (e.g., styrene, vinyl toluene, etc. (
  • More particularly, it relates to the preparation of mucilage-like compositions from a salt of a water-sensitive but water-insoluble cross-linked polymer of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer such as acrylic acid. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface topography of Noritake, IPS e.max and Cercon ceramics after treatment with either airborne aluminum oxide particle abrasion or hydrouoric acid etching. (
  • It was concluded that hydrouoric acid was effective only for Noritake and IPS e.max ceramics, and airborne particle abrasion was effective for the three ceramics. (
  • One exception to such methods has been the use of halosilanes which are known to react at room temperature with hydroxyl containing polymers, however, this procedure has the disadvantage of also producing an undesirable acid by-product, e.g. hydrogen chloride, which if not removed may have a deleterious effect on the performance of the cured composition. (
  • The 10% hydrouoric acid increased the surface irregularities of Noritake and IPS e.max ceramics, but did not change the surface topography of Cercon ceramic. (
  • Those which bind phosphorylated tyrosine residues may recruit multi-phosphorylated substrates for the adjacent active domains and are more conserved, while the other class have accumulated several variable amino acid substitutions and have a complete loss of tyrosine binding capability. (
  • Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins. (
  • The ATR of S. typhimurium requires the synthesis of over 50 acid shock proteins (ASPs) that can be grouped into what appear to be a variety of survival systems. (
  • Similar effect is observed in disinfectants where these ions react with the free organic acid and thiol groups of proteins on microbes and free proteins, resulting in protein precipitation. (
  • Molecular docking study shows that compound III is located in a pocket, which mainly comprises amino acids 209 to 316 in domain 2 of ATX, and binds with these residues of ATX through van der Waals, conventional hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic interactions. (
  • In contrast, the two-component regulatory system PhoP (identified as acid shock protein ASP29) and PhoQ proved to be important for tolerance to organic acid stress but had little effect against organic acid stress. (
  • The reason for this is that even in mildly acidic environments, the protonated form of an organic acid can permeate the cell membrane and dissociate inside the cell, in which the released proton can acidify intracellular pH. (
  • After dissociation, the membrane-impermeable, ionized form of the organic acid will accumulate intracellularly, causing further cell damage. (
  • In science, Hypochlorous Acid is an oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine, a reactive oxygen species , that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent. (
  • Furthermore, induction by acid occurs even in the presence of high concentrations of magnesium, the ion known to be sensed by PhoQ. (
  • The Inhibition of Maillard Browning by Different Concentrations of Rosmarinic Acid and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Model, Bakery, and Fruit Systems. (
  • Fukuzawa, K. Identification of human plasma lysophospholipase D, a lysophosphatidic acid-producing enzyme, as autotaxin, a multifunctional phosphodiesterase. (
  • manifested insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, elevated uric acid along with hypertriglyceridemia after fructose feeding for twenty weeks. (
  • Dubois, C.M. Autotaxin promotes cancer invasion via the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4: Participation of the cyclic AMP/EPAC/Rac1 signaling pathway in invadopodia formation. (
  • Researchers demonstrated that in epidermal keratinocytes, unliganded heterodimers of vitamin D receptor/retinoid X receptor (RXR)-α and retinoic acid receptor-γ/RXR-β are bound as repressing complexes to their cognate DNA-binding sequence(s) in the thymic stromal lymphopoietin ( TSLP ) promoter regulatory region. (
  • Aluminium can cause a decrease in the absorption of Pyrophosphoric acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. (
  • Calcium can cause a decrease in the absorption of Pyrophosphoric acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. (
  • The acid tolerance response enables Salmonella typhimurium to survive exposures to potentially lethal acidic environments. (
  • However, S. typhimurium often encounters a variety of potentially lethal acid stress conditions both in nature and during pathogenesis ( 10 ). (
  • Acid shock induction of PhoP appears to occur at the transcriptional level and requires the PhoPQ system. (
  • Acid stress is a complex phenomenon involving the combined biological effects of acidic pH and organic acids that may be present in a given environment. (
  • Yet, three-dimensional structural data show that they share similar conserved structural elements, namely, the phosphate-binding loop encompassing the PTPase signature motif (H/V)C(X)5R(S/T) and an essential general acid/base Asp residue on a surface loop. (
  • In our body, the presence of hydrogen peroxide , myeloperoxidase will generate hypochlorous acid and singlet oxygen , a reaction that plays an important role in the killing of bacteria by our phagocytes . (
  • Gum tragacanth, the best natural gum for applications where a smooth, non-grainy mucilaginous composition is desirable, is deswelled in the presence of acid or electrolyte, is in particularly shortsupply, and moreover, is among the most expensive of natural gums in use today. (
  • PhoP mutants also failed to induce four ASPs, confirming a role for this regulator in acid tolerance. (
  • Moolenaar, W.H. The emerging role of lysophosphatidic acid in cancer. (