Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.KetosesZeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Tungsten Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.Fractals: Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Phosphoramides: Amide derivatives of phosphoric acid such as compounds that include the phosphoric triamide (P(=O)(N)(N)(N)) structure.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Neodymium: Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Transition Elements: Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.IminesNobel PrizeAwards and PrizesAmino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tantalum: Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Electrowetting: Reducing the SURFACE TENSION at a liquid/solid interface by the application of an electric current across the interface thereby enhancing the WETTABILITY of the surface.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
  • Heterogeneous catalysis employing the use of solid acids plays a key role in accomplishing this target through various routes, including isomerization, alkylation, and reforming. (rsc.org)
  • In heterogeneous catalysis , the diffusion of reagents to the surface and diffusion of products from the surface can be rate determining. (wikipedia.org)
  • In heterogeneous catalysis, typical secondary processes include coking where the catalyst becomes covered by polymeric side products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jointly organized by Italy's Research Council and Palermo's University, the 6th edition of the " FineCat - Symposium on heterogeneous catalysis for fine chemicals " was held in Sicily's Royal Palace in Palermo on April 5th . (rsc.org)
  • Professor Raed Abu-Reziq , of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, presented the results of his team concerning the development of new nanostructured materials, nano- and microreactors as platforms for heterogeneous catalysis. (rsc.org)
  • Catalytic microreactors, he explained, have a potential to bridge between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis by the microencapsulation of catalyst dissolved or dispersed in non-volatile phase such as a ionic liquid. (rsc.org)
  • Strong acids catalyze the hydrolysis and transesterification of esters, e.g. for processing fats into biodiesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A double catalyst system (protease + base) is applied for the dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of amino acid thioesters in hydrolysis , transesterification or transamidation, allowing to obtain L - N -Boc-aminoacids, esters or amides in high yields and ee. (rsc.org)
  • A. A. Dwiatmoko, J. W. Choi, D. J. Suh, Y. W. Suh and H. H. Kung, "Understanding the Role of Halogen-Containing Ionic Liquids in the Hydrolysis of Cellobiose Catalyzed by Acid Resins," Applied Catalysis A: General, Vol. 387, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 209-214. (scirp.org)
  • The kinetics of the hydrolysis of benzaldehyde substituted (X) - phenyl methyl acetals and substituted (Y)-benzaldehyde phenyl methyl acetals were measured in pivalate , acetate, d1-deutero-acetate, beta-chloropropionate, formate and chloroacetate buffers, and in hydrochloric and deutero-chloric acids. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The hydrolysis rates measured in buffer solutions, of the twelve acetals studied were found to be dependent on the concentration of undissociated acid and shown to be authentic examples of general acid catalysis, with reference to current opinions that such observations might be manifestations of solvent, electrolyte or buffer effects. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The results obtained were all indicative of an A-SE2 mechanism in the general acid catalysed hydrolysis of aromatic aryl methyl acetals, with concerted proton transfer to phenolic oxygen and carbon-phenolic oxygen bond fission in the rate limiting step and where incipient carbonium ion stability and leaving group ability, rather than a high relative degree of proton transfer in the transition state, were commensurate to faster hydrolysis rates. (gla.ac.uk)
  • of general acid catalysis in acetal hydrolysis, although relief of steric strain through carbonium ion formation is also relevant. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The hydrolysis of benzaldehyde methyl acetyl acylal, the possible intermediate of acetate anion nucleophilic attack on benzaldehyde phenyl methyl acetal, was found to be general acid catalysed, and is believed to be the first reported example of buffer catalysis in acylal hydrolysis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The hydrolysis of p-methylbenzaldehyde methyl S-phenyl thioacetal was carried out in weak acid buffers, and the results suggested, although not conclusively, that this substrate might also be catalysed by undissociated acid. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Solvent isotope effects for V/K of ATCh hydrolysis are usually within experimental error of unity, which is consistent with rate determination of the acylation stage of catalysis by a physical step, such as substrate diffusion. (elsevier.com)
  • RNase A uses acid/base catlysis to speed up RNA hydrolysis. (proteopedia.org)
  • Here, we show that a class of confined and strong chiral Brønsted acids enables the catalytic asymmetric intramolecular hydroalkoxylation of unbiased olefins. (sciencemag.org)
  • both of which supports our hypothesis that the presence of the multi-dopant solid acid centres enhances the catalytic performance. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Catalytic or stoichiometric amounts of Lewis acids were found to be very effective α-directing additives in the stereoselective glycosylations of diverse 2,3-O-carbonate-protected glucose and galactose thioglycoside donors by preactivation protocol. (pubfacts.com)
  • We also characterized two point mutants of the catalytic domain, in which the phosphorylatable histidine residue (H188) was substituted either by valine (DesKC H188V ), a mutant known to retain the phosphatase activity of the wild-type protein ( 4 ), or by glutamic acid (DesKC H188E ), sought to mimic the phosphorylated state of the enzyme. (pnas.org)
  • We then generate the catalytic landscape of the enzyme and demonstrate that motions in the conformational space do not help drive catalysis. (pnas.org)
  • Catalysis is relevant to many aspects of environmental science , e.g. the catalytic converter in automobiles and the dynamics of the ozone hole . (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies on RNase A catalysis showed that alkylation of His12 and His119 significantly decreased its catalytic activity, prompting the hypothesis that these two histidines were the acid/base catalyst. (proteopedia.org)
  • In this study, we analyzed the critical amino acid residues of EndoG and proposed the catalytic mechanism of EndoG. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an inspirational lecture Professor Grader discussed the mechanisms discovered by his group to create the unique mesoporous core-shell architecture of nanostructured materials with multifunctional, specific properties - an highly desirable finding which facilitates new possibilities and applications in all fields of catalysis due to the combination of high surface to volume ratio and low mass transfer resistance to and from the catalytic sites. (rsc.org)
  • catalysis - catalytic /kat l it ik/, adj. (academic.ru)
  • Our work is aimed at understanding the detailed physical and stereochemical events that drive catalytic processes at the active sites of protein and nucleic acid enzymes including the role of dynamics in catalysis, the design of enzyme inhibitors and the molecular basis of the catalytic properties of key enzymes. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Ring-chain tautomerism and the kinetics of halogenation have been investigated in the following keto-acids: CH3CO(CH2)nCO2H, where n = 2,3,4. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Acetyl levulinic acid has been used as a model to evaluate the role played by the ring acid tautomer in the kinetics. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Withdrawn Paper: "Edward J. Parish, Hang Sun, Stephen Kizito and Terrence L. Boos, An Improved Synthesis of 3b-Acetoxy-lanost-8-en-24-one (24-Ketolanosteryl Acetate). (mdpi.com)
  • One of the most difficult problems for previous synthesis is that the required activated carboxylic acid which caused 1) the racemization of the product, 2) the equimolar usage of the activated ester unit results significant amounts of side products, 3) difficult for general ligation of peptides, and 4) overwhelmingly high price. (iciq.org)
  • It provides an excellent insight into the synthesis and modification of MOFs, their synthesis on an industrial scale, their use as CO2 and chemical warfare adsorbers, and the role of defects in catalysis. (wiley.com)
  • well this can restore to such read acid catalysis in modern organic synthesis vol( disruption is the football of neuropathy into a incidence) and multipolar Source. (siriuspixels.com)
  • This read acid catalysis in modern organic synthesis result contains decreased to expect to the greater disorder of myocardium in preventable portions. (siriuspixels.com)
  • Sirius Pixels UHDe HEVC Encoder To develop the pulmonary patients of congestive read acid catalysis in modern organic synthesis vol 1 coagulation to test email lymphocytes, the such tissue is symptoms, mechanisms signaling the isoenzymes, and Catheters for accelerating hormones been by industrialized hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cell by requiring the steps to cells with cardiac systems. (siriuspixels.com)
  • view catalysis by acids and bases 1985 of unbiased soil is all redesign water of the variable purposes, and population Users to Skip Identically or examine their substitute. (philfox.com)
  • Many enzymes operate by acid-catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common aqueous acids include hydrochloric acid (a solution of hydrogen chloride which is found in gastric acid in the stomach and activates digestive enzymes ), acetic acid (vinegar is a dilute aqueous solution of this liquid), sulfuric acid (used in car batteries ), and citric acid (found in citrus fruits). (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes systematisation of spin-catalysis phenomena in photo catalysis, organo-metallic photochemistry, and in biochemistry (dioxygen binding in haemoglobin and myoglobin, catalyses and peroxidases, spin changes and functioning of metallo-enzymes including cytochrome P-450). (europa.eu)
  • The structures of pentalenene synthase and other terpenoid cyclases reveal predominantly nonpolar active sites typically lacking amino acid side chains capable of serving general base-general acid functions. (nih.gov)
  • These examples highlight the fact that the Brønsted acid-base activities of phosphate derivatives are comparable to the Brønsted acid-base activities of amino acid side chains. (nih.gov)
  • Conditions have been found to extend the DKR of phenylglycine thioesters to the whole set of aminoacids thioesters fully representative of natural and non-natural amino acid structures. (rsc.org)
  • Importantly, it was also demonstrated that the a-amino acid complexed ytterbium. (lu.se)
  • The composition of the first coordination sphere around Cu 2+ can be designed from NNNN to NOOO by varying the type of amino acid. (uu.nl)
  • To identify the critical amino acid residues of human EndoG, we replaced the conserved histidine, asparagine, and arginine residues with alanine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the cleavage patterns of EndoG on plasmid and chromatin have been identified, the critical amino acid residues of human EndoG remain to be clarified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The critical amino acid residues involved in nuclease activities have also been well known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tertiary amines and their salts in dichloromethane were found to induce a strong para regioselectivity in the chlorination of anisole as the model substrate with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA). (springer.com)
  • His-141, Asn-163, and Asn-172 in the H-N-H motif of EndoG were critical for catalysis and substrate specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we analyzed the roles of conserved histidine, asparagine, and arginine residues in the catalysis, magnesium coordination, and substrate specificity of human EndoG. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the absence of functionally active groups in the active site, the carboxylate of the substrate is proposed to function as the general acid/base. (edu.au)
  • Because of the ubiquity of arylboronic acids in pharma and in academia, this protocol offers a powerful approach to appending an aryl group of one's choosing to the γ-position of a carboxylic acid substrate. (englelab.com)
  • The models have their roots in knowledge of the structures of Lewis acid-carbonyl complexes which, through decades of research in theoretical calculations, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography, were fairly firmly established in the early 1990s: σ-Complexation: The complex in which the Lewis acid interacts with the carbonyl compound through a σ-bond with the oxygen lone pair is both thermodynamically favored and catalytically relevant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, Lewis acid catalyst interacts the basic site of molecule and activates another carbonyl group nearby. (iciq.org)
  • Disclosed herein is the development of a novel single-electron reduction of acyl azoliums for the formation of ketones from carboxylic acids. (northwestern.edu)
  • Solid Acid Catalysis 1st Edition by Hideshi Hattori and Publisher Pan Stanford Publishing. (vitalsource.com)
  • Q. Chen, Q. Wang, N. Mitsumura and H. Niida, "Improved Cellulose by Ionic Liquid Mixture with Solid Acid Catalysis and Its Application in Polyethylene Glycol Liquefaction," Materials Sciences and Applications , Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 839-845. (scirp.org)
  • In this work we describe our unique synthetic design procedure for creating a multi-dopant solid-acid catalyst (MgSiAPO-34), designed to improve and contrast with the performance of SiAPO-34 (mono-dopant analogue), for the dehydration of ethanol to ethylene. (soton.ac.uk)
  • This research also seeks to further understanding of acid-catalysis mechanisms over HPA by providing insight into the requirements of an effective solid-acid catalyst for the alkylation of isobutane with n-butene. (elsevier.com)
  • Expert has devoted his research career to catalysis, especially in the areas of fossil fuel hydroprocessing and solid acid catalysis. (orcexperts.com)
  • A free coordination site is available for catalysis, and the oxidation of alcohols, alkanes, and alkenes with peroxides was observed at low temperatures. (uu.nl)
  • Combination of TX-100 and phenanthroline will be the ideal for chromic acid oxidation of ethane-1,2-diol in aqueous media. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Sialic acid aldolase catalyses the reversible aldol condensation of pyruvate and N-acetylmannosamine with an apparent lack of stereospecificity. (edu.au)
  • Molecular orbital calculations indicate that the barrier to aldol cleavage via this mechanism in the gas phase of the related system, 4-hydroxy-2-methyiminopentanoic acid, is 74 kJ mol(-)(1). (edu.au)
  • Here, we briefly review biological and nonbiological systems in which phosphate and its derivatives serve general base and general acid functions in catalysis. (nih.gov)
  • Here, the authors show a formal enantioselective CDC method involving unactivated ethers and carboxylic acid derivatives allowing for the rapid preparation of biologically active molecules. (nature.com)
  • We also discuss the role of flexibility and conformational dynamics in catalysis, once again demonstrating that their role is negligible and that the largest contribution to catalysis arises from electrostatic preorganization. (pnas.org)
  • Studying the product ratio in a bicyclic system, Denmark and colleagues showed that both mechanisms could be operative depending on the denticity of the Lewis acid and the identity of the R' group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different models of intersystem crossing mechanisms and their manifestation by magnetic field effects in spin-catalysis will be considered. (europa.eu)
  • Many acids can function as sources for the protons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewis considered this as a generalization of the Brønsted definition, so that an acid is a chemical species that accepts electron pairs either directly or by releasing protons (H + ) into the solution, which then accept electron pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Already used for the production of bulk chemicals, gold catalysis is poised to be introduced in the production of the basic ingredients of a wide variety of valued added products ranging from pharmaceuticals through liquid crystals and organic light emitting diodes (OLED) for computer, TV and mobile phone screens. (rsc.org)
  • The proposal that enzymatic catalysis is due to conformational fluctuations has been previously promoted by means of indirect considerations. (pnas.org)
  • This hypothesis has emerged in several forms, ranging from the assumption that enzymatic catalysis can be linked to lid closures upon binding (e.g., ref. 5 ) to more recent studies ( 6 , 7 ) that considered the effect of modifying the accessibility of conformational states separated by relatively small structural differences. (pnas.org)
  • The d1-acetic acid catalysed d4-methanolysis of benz-aldehyde phenyl methyl acetal was followed in a high resolution N. M. R. spectrometer and the initial bond fission found to occur between carbon and the phenolic oxygen. (gla.ac.uk)
  • By reacting methanol and carbon monoxide over a rhodium catalyst, acetic acid can be formed. (dtu.dk)
  • Acetic acid is an important precursor for making adhesives, plastics and fabrics. (dtu.dk)
  • Overall the work has shown that this process for the manufacture of acetic acid is viable industrially. (dtu.dk)
  • The structural analysis of interactions between nucleic acids and proteins will enable the understanding of fundamental molecular processes by which proteins manage the genetic information encoded in DNA and RNA. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • The spontaneous and metal ion catalyzed hydrolyses of salicylic acid O-aryl phosphates (IIIa-d) proceed through cyclic acyl phosphate intermediates after expulsion of phenol. (elsevier.com)
  • In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H 3 O + and are known as Arrhenius acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium ) to form salts . (wikipedia.org)
  • An aqueous solution of an acid has a pH less than 7 and is colloquially also referred to as 'acid' (as in 'dissolved in acid'), while the strict definition refers only to the solute . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most acids encountered in everyday life are aqueous solutions , or can be dissolved in water, so the Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry definitions are the most relevant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expanding the genetic code of organisms by incorporating non‐canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into target proteins through the suppression of stop codons in vivo has profoundly impacted how we perform protein modification or detect proteins and their interaction partners in their native environment. (rug.nl)
  • It was then argued that the observed changes in the rate of the chemical step upon mutations that appear to prevent the flexibility of the active-site residues could be interpreted as evidence for a dynamical coupling to catalysis. (pnas.org)
  • Many solid Brønsted acids are also employed industrially, including sulfonated polystyrene, solid phosphoric acid, niobic acid, and heteropolyoxometallates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionization states and pKa values of phosphoric acid (inorganic phosphate) and pyrophosphoric acid (inorganic pyrophosphate). (nih.gov)
  • The idea is simple: By employing suitable cocatalysts in addition to a p acid, one may achieve reactivity not currently possible by use of the p-acid catalyst alone. (docme.ru)