Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring structure in which all the ring atoms are carbon.
A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.
An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.
An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A polymeric mixture of polyesters of phosphoric acid and phloretin. It blocks some cellular responses to prostaglandins.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.

Synthesis of telomere-mimic carbocyclic 5'-nor oligodeoxynucleotides. (1/8)

Telomere-mimic S-ODNs have been synthesized and examined their effects on the proliferation of human tumor cell lines by XTT assay. Furthermore, the guanosine derivatives of carbocyclic 5'-nor nucleoside were synthesized.  (+info)

Synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides as potential antiviral agents. (2/8)

Treatment of 1-[(1'R,2'S,3'S,4'S)-4'-methanesulfonyl-2',3'-O- isopropylidenedioxycyclopentan-1'-yl]-1-H-uracil with LiN3 gave 1-[(1'R,2'S,3'R)-2',3'-O-isopropylidenedioxy-4'- cyclopenten-1'-yl]-1-H-uracil. When KOBut was added instead of LiN3, 1-[(1'R,2'S)-2',3'-O- isopropylidenedioxy-3'-cyclopenten-1'-yl]-1-H-uracil was produced. An analogous treatment of the methanesulfonyl derivative of thymine was also carried out.  (+info)

Synthesis of carbocyclic analogues of 4'-ethynyl- and 4'-cyano-d4T. (3/8)

Synthesis of carbocyclic analogues of 4'-ethynyl and cyano-d4T (4 and 5) was investigated. The ethynyl or cyano group was constructed by conversion of the ester function of key intermediate 13. The carbocyclic unit 12 was prepared from readily available beta-keto ester 6.  (+info)

Carbocyclic analogues of lexitropsin--DNA affinity and endonuclease inhibition. (4/8)

A DNA-binding affinity and the effect on restriction enzymes activity of seven carbocyclic mono- and bis-lexitropsins and two analogues of pentamidine with unsubstituted N-terminal amine group were investigated. DNA association constants (Kapp) show that DNA affinity of mono-compounds is much weaker than netropsin and distamycin. Bis-analogues of netropsin bind DNA more strongly than mono-ligands, but without sequence-selectivity. Only pentamidine derivatives reveal preference to AT-rich sequence. The studied compounds can inhibit catalytical action of endonucleases recognizing sequence of four AT base pairs following one another.  (+info)

Lichen photobionts show tolerance against lichen acids produced by lichen mycobionts. (5/8)

In order to determine the allelopathic nature of lichen acids produced by lichen mycobionts, we compared lichen photobionts with other photosynthetic organisms in terms of inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport around photosystem II (PSII) by representative lichen acids. Whereas at the thylakoid level we found no clear difference in tolerance against lichen acids between lichen photobionts and other species, at the cellular level lichen photobionts showed strong tolerance as compared with other species. These findings suggest the presence of a lichen acid-specific exclusion or detoxification mechanism in lichen photobiont cells.  (+info)

Clinical applications of urinary organic acids. Part 2. Dysbiosis markers. (6/8)

Part 1 of this series focused on urinary organic acids as markers of detoxification; part 2 focuses on dysbiosis markers. Intestinal microbial growth is accompanied by the release of products of their metabolism that may be absorbed and excreted in urine. Several organic acids are known to be specific products of bacterial metabolic action on dietary polyphenols or unassimilated amino acids or carbohydrates. Associated gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms may result from irritation of the intestinal mucosa or systemic distribution of absorbed neurotoxic products. Detection of abnormally elevated levels of these products is a useful diagnostic tool for patients with gastrointestinal or toxicological symptoms. Test profiles of urinary organic acids associated with microbial overgrowth can include benzoate, hippurate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, cresol, hydroxybenzoate, hydroxyphenylacetate, hydroxyphenylpropionate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionate, indican, tricarballylate, D-lactate, and D-arabinitol. Effective treatments for the associated microbial overgrowths may be directed at reducing microbial populations, introducing favorable microbes, and restoring intestinal mucosal integrity.  (+info)

Synthesis, characterization and activity evaluation of matrinic acid derivatives as potential antiproliferative agents. (7/8)

 (+info)

Synthetic analogues of netropsin and distamycin--synthesis of a new pyridine and carbocyclic analogues of the pyrrolecarboxamide antitumour antibiotics. (8/8)

A new series of pyridine-containing analogues III-XXII of distamycin A and netrop sin was investigated by the molecular mechanics technique and molecular modelling. A pyridine analogue of netropsin (VII) is described, the first compound based on molecular studies, and two carbocyclic analogues of distamycin A with an N-terminal chloro- or bromoacetyl group (VIa, VIIa) were synthesized, as well as carbocyclic analogues of netropsin (VIIIb, Xb), potential carriers of alkylating elements. The potential use of VIa, VII, VIIa, VIIIb and Xb as carriers to place into the minor groove of DNA chemical groups capable of modifying DNA, is discussed.  (+info)

Four lichen acids, physodalic acid (F1), physodic acid (F2), 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (F3), and isophysodic acid (F4), were isolated from Hypogymnia physodes methanol extract using preparative reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and their structures were determined by UV, MS, H-1 NMR and C-13 NMR. This is the first report on the isolation of F4 from H. physodes. Isolated rat thymocytes were cultivated with increasing F1-F4 concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 mu g/well) and proliferative activity, viability, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and MMP (mitochondrial membrane potential) disturbances were evaluated. Obtained results show significantly decreased thymocytes proliferation was observed when cells were treated with F1 (1 mu g, p LT 0.05; 10 mu g; p LT 0.001), F2 (10 mu g, p LT 0.05) and F3 compound (10 mu g, p LT 0.05). Significantly increased cytotoxicity was detected when cells were incubated with F1 (1 mu g, p LT 0.05; 10 mu g, p LT 0.01), F2 (10 mu ...g, p LT 0.05) and ...
Define carbocyclic. carbocyclic synonyms, carbocyclic pronunciation, carbocyclic translation, English dictionary definition of carbocyclic. adj. Having a ring composed exclusively of carbon atoms, as benzene. adj containing a closed ring of carbon atoms Adj. 1. carbocyclic - having or relating...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activity of Carbocyclic 2,3-Didehydro-2,,3-dideoxy 2,6-Disubstituted Purine Nucleosides. AU - Vince, Robert. AU - Hua, Mei. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - (±)-cis-[4-[(2,5-Diamino-6-chloropyrimidinyl)amino]-2-cyclopentenyl]carbinol (5a) was synthesized from 2-amino-4,6-dichloropyrimidine and cis-4-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentenylamine (2a) by subsequent preparation of the 5-[(4-chlorophenyl)azo] derivative of the resulting pyrimidine (3a) and reduction of the azo moiety with zinc and acetic acid. The carbocyclic analogue of 2′,3/-didehydro-2′,3′-dideoxy 2-amino-6-chloropurine (6a) and the corresponding 8-azapurine (9a) were prepared from 5a. The carbocyclic 2′,3/-didehydro-2′,3′-dideoxy analogues of guanine (7a) and 2,6-diaminopurine (8a), and 8-azaguanine (10a) and 8-aza-2,6-diaminopurine (11a) were prepared from 6a and 9a, respectively. The corresponding 2′,3′-saturated series of 2-amino-6-substituted-purine carbocyclic nucleosides was prepared ...
The introduction of the bioisosteric nitrogen at position 9 of the anthrapyrazole ring structure and the concomitant removal of ring hydroxy substituents cause a number of physicochemical effects that are likely to be relevant in terms of biological activity.. The presence of the aza substituent abolishes self-aggregation phenomena occurring both for MX and LX. This is interesting, because self-aggregated species tend to precipitate from aqueous media causing obvious undesired consequences upon administration (Powis and Kovach, 1983). In addition, the aggregation phenomena subtract part of the drug from the pharmacologically relevant interactions. The reason for lack of aggregation probably rests in the protonation equilibria involving the pyridine nitrogen, which are significant at physiological pH. In fact, although the carbocyclic analogs can easily stack their neutral planar portion one onto the other with the charged side-chains oriented in opposite directions, the same process cannot occur ...
The (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the carbocyclic analogues of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2-deoxyuridine (C-BVDU) and 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (C-IDU) were synthesized by separate routes. Both the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-BVDU and C-IDU were markedly inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication. (+)-C-BVDU and (+)-C-IDU were as inhibitory to HSV-1 as the racemic (+/-)-C-BVDU and (+/-)-C-IDU, respectively, whereas the (-)-enantiomers were only 10-fold less active. Also, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-BVDU were equally inhibitory to the growth of murine mammary carcinoma cells transformed by the HSV-1 or HSV-2 thymidine kinase (TK) gene (designated FM3A TK-/HSV-1 TK+ and FM3A TK-/HSV-2 TK+). The (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-BVDU and the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-IDU had a remarkably similar affinity for HSV-1 TK [Ki, 0.09 and 0.19 microM for (+)-C-BVDU and (+)-C-IDU and 0.16 and 0.19 microM for (-)-C-BVDU and (-)-C-IDU, respectively]. The inhibition of HSV-1 TK by BVDU, IDU, ...
The use of a mesogenic compound having a terminal end chain comprising carbon, oxygen, or sulphur, which has at least one pendent C¿1-4?alkyl, C¿1-4?alkoxy or a cycloalkyl ring, arranged no more than 6 atoms from the end of the chain e ...
What is described is a compound of formula I wherein X is an ethene, or an unsubstitiited or substituted arene or heteroarene; Y is a bond, an ethene, or an unsubstituted or substituted arene or heteroarene; Z is S or O; L is a linear or ...
After considerable fiddling, Ive finally managed to update the phylogeny and host-association matrix for the most common lichen photobiont, Trebouxia. The methods are similar to those used in my previous post on Nostoc rbcX sequences, to the extent that the same script can used to run both analyses. It was modified to use algal species names rather than host names when analysing Trebouxia, to colour the clades in the tree, and to count the number of times each photobiont lineage has been sampled from each lichen genus. All the steps required for this analysis can be see here. All of the files that were generated are available here.. I had previously built a tree from 1840 ITS sequences and identified lineages corresponding to ten named species and five unnamed species. Since then, there have been a number of important papers that have expanded the known diversity of the group and begun to codify the novel lineages. My current ITS tree (PDF version here) has 2335 sequences and includes 12 named ...
Heterocyclic compound - Comparison with carbocyclic compounds: The molecules of organic chemical compounds are built up from a framework or backbone of carbon atoms to which are attached hydrogen (H), oxygen, or other heteroatoms. Carbon atoms have the unique property of being able to link with one another to form chains of atoms. When the ends of the chains are joined together into a ring, cyclic compounds result; such substances often are referred to as carbocyclic or alicyclic compounds. Substitution of one or more of the ring carbon atoms in the molecules of a carbocyclic compound with a heteroatom gives a heterocyclic compound. A typical carbocyclic compound
Disclosed herein is an improvement in a method for distinguishing cells in a biological sample by staining with a dye, wherein the improvement comprises employing as the dye a compound of the formula ##STR1## wherein G is O or S; R1, R3, and R5 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, amino, styryl, bis(diaryl)vinylene, and ##STR2## wherein R is hydrogen or alkyl; Z represents the elements necessary to complete a basic heterocyclic ring system of the type used in cyanine dyes; n is 0 or 1; R2 is hydrogen or, taken together with either R1 or R3, represents the elements needed to complete an aromatic or a carbocyclic ring system; R4 is hydrogen or, taken together with either R3 or R5, represents the elements needed to complete an aromatic or a carbocyclic ring system; and X- is an anion.
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: crustose (crustaceous) episubstratal unspecified thallus: cracked, fissured, fractured, rimose , compartimentized areolate, squamulate [th] upper surface: grey(ish) , brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) , white(ish) , brown(ish) grey , red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown) [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent , present [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane , verrucose, warted , bullate [th] medulla amyloidity: absent ascomata: present ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid hymenial ascoma [mm]: (low) 0.5 (high) 0.5 (max) 1.2 ascoma: sessile, superficial [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: plane, flat, flattened, expanded , subconvex, slightly convex , convex [ascm, if apoth] disc, ...
Enzyme Inhibitors - Compounds of formula (I), are aurora kinase inhibitors: wherein X is -N-, -CH2-N-, -CH2-CH-, or -CH-; R1 is a radical of formula (IA) wherein Z is -CH2-, -NH-, -0-, -S(O)- -S-, -S(O)2 or a divalent monocyclic carbocyclic or heterocyclic radical having 3-7 ring atoms; Alk is an optionally substituted divalent C1-C6 alkylene radical; A is hydrogen or an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring having 5-7 ring atoms; r, s and t are independently 0 or 1, provided that when A is hydrogen then at least one of r and s is 1; R2 is halogen, -CN, -CF3, -OCH3, or cyclopropyl; and R3 is a radical of formula (IB) wherein Q is hydrogen or an optionally substituted phenyl or monocyclic heterocyclic ring with 5 or 6 ring atoms; Z&It;1, is -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -O-, -SO2NH-, -NHSO2-, NHC(═O)NH, -NH(C═S)NH-, Or -N(R4)-wherein R4 is hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl, cycloalkyl, or benzyl; and Alk&It;1, and Alk&It;2, are, independently, optionally substituted divalent C1-C3 ...
Iceland moss is a type of lichen consisting of a symbiosis of fungi and algae. They form a co-operative of the two species from which both benefit. The fungal part takes care of providing water and minerals, while the algal part forms biological material with the help of photosynthesis. Iceland moss contains a high proportion of water-soluble polysaccharides together with special lichen acids that do not exist anywhere in nature except in lichens. Numerous scientific studies have been carried out on the efficacy of the above materials. The principal results are as follows: Anti-oxidant effects Efficacy against bacteria Efficacy against viruses Efficacy against tumour growth Strengthens the immune system
A dye-donor element for thermal dye transfer comprising a support having on one side thereof a near-infrared absorbing dye comprising a dithiolene-nickel(II) complex dispersed in a polymeric binder, and on the other side thereof a slipping layer comprising a lubricant, the dye having the formula: ##STR1## wherein each R 1 , R 2 , R 3 and R 4 independently represents a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having from 1 to about 10 carbon atoms; a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group having from about 6 to about 10 carbon atms; a substituted or unsubstitutted heterocyclic group; or R 1 and R 2 may be combined together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form a 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; or R 3 and R 4 may be combined together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form a 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring.
Abacavir is a carbocyclic nucleoside analog RTI, which has been shown to be safe and well tolerated by HIV-infected patients (Saag et al., 1998; Hughes et al., 1999; Kumar et al., 1999). Studies have shown that abacavir can enter rat brain and monkey CSF (Daluge et al., 1997); however, this is the first study to examine the mechanisms of abacavir transport into both mammalian brain and CSF. This is important when we consider the complex relationship between drug concentrations in the brain and CSF and also that several anti-HIV drugs are now given in parallel to patients, so abacavir might compete with other drugs for transport into the brain.. Figures 1, 2, 6, and 7 illustrate that intact [14C]abacavir can cross the BBB and confirms a study that found intact abacavir in rat brain 2 h after intraperitoneal administration (Daluge et al., 1997). Figure 6 also confirms that there was little dissociation of the14C label from abacavir during its passage through the cerebral circulation and that ...
1YM2: Structure-based design, synthesis, and memapsin 2 (BACE) inhibitory activity of carbocyclic and heterocyclic peptidomimetics
PURPOSE: For the accurate diagnosis of organic acidopathies, quantification of urinary organic acid should be done and we should know the normal ranges of each organic acid excreted in the urine. The amount of organic acids excreted in the urine shows wide variability according to ethnic group, diet and age. We have quantified 82 organic acids to make a Korean reference value. METHODS: Organic acid concentrations were quantified with gas chromatography and the individual acids identified with mass spectrometry in urine specimens from members of the healthy Korean population of ages of one day to more than 12 years, subdivided into four age groups : neonatal period(-2 mon), infantile period(-2 year), childhood period(-12 year) and adolescent and adulthood(over 12 years). For isolation of organic acids from urine, we used solvent extraction method with ethylacetate. Derivatization was done with MSTFA(N-methyl-N-trimethylsilylfluoroacetamide). The library and four points quantification curve for ...
In symbiotic systems, patterns of symbiont diversity and selectivity are crucial for the understanding of fundamental ecological processes such as dispersal and establishment. The lichen genus Nephroma (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution and is thus an attractive model for the study of symbiotic interactions over a wide range of spatial scales. In this study, we analyze the genetic diversity of Nephroma mycobionts and their associated Nostoc photobionts within a global framework. The study is based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences of fungal symbionts and tRNA(L) (eu) (UAA) intron sequences of cyanobacterial symbionts. The full data set includes 271 Nephroma and 358 Nostoc sequences, with over 150 sequence pairs known to originate from the same lichen thalli. Our results show that all bipartite Nephroma species associate with one group of Nostoc different from Nostoc typically found in tripartite Nephroma species. This conserved association appears to have been
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: peltate, crustose, squamulose, or suffruticose (rarely cylindrical); margins: entire, minutely lobate to sometimes effigurate upper surface: olive green to olive brown, rarely black; with or without soredia upper cortex: usually absent but with an epinecral layer medulla: white, with numerous airspaces, composed of globose or elongated hyphae photobionts: primary one an unicellular cyanobacterium (Chroococcidiopsis or Myxosarcina), secondary photobiont absent lower cortex: normally well developed, pseudoparenchymatous lower surface: usually paler than the upper surface, attached by an umbilicus, rhizohyphal weft or rhizines Ascomata: apothecial, lecanorine, completely immersed or with a raised rim; disc: punctiform or widely opened; hymenium: 90-300 µm high; paraphyses: sometimes anastomosing, rarely branched, 1-3.5 µm thick; subhymenium: 16-70 µm asci: clavate to obclavate, unitunicate-rostrate (lecanoralean type), 60-170 x 10-30 µm; walls: red or blue in ...
##STR1## The present invention relates to compounds of formula (I), in which formula, n is an integer from 1-7; and R1 and R2, which may be the same or different, stand for hydrogen, or lower alkyl (but with the proviso that when n=1, R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously be hydrogen, nor can R1 and R2 simultaneously be an alkyl group independently chosen from methyl, ethyl and normal-propyl, and when n=2, R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously be methyl), or lower cyclo-alkyl, or, taken together with the carbon (starred in formula I) bearing the hydroxyl group, R1 and R2 can form a saturated or unsaturated C3 -C9 carbocyclic ring; and R3 and R4 represent either simultaneously hydrogen, or when taken together constitute a bond, such that a double bond connects carbons 22 and 23; including diastereoisomeric forms (e.g. E or Z configuration of the 22,23-double bond; R or S configuration at the starred carbona atom) of the compounds of formula (I), in pure form or in mixtures. The present compounds find use in both the
A novel Ferrier-type carbocyclization is reported. It involves a carbohydrate-derived lactone acetal synthesized from methyl α-d-glucopyranoside, which upon treatment with excess vinylmagnesium bromide provides a highly substituted carbocyclic product as a single stereoisomer. The yield is greatly increased when N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine is added to the reaction mixture. Optimized reaction conditions have been applied to lactone acetals derived from other carbohydrates. Based on the obtained results, a possible reaction mechanism has been proposed. Furthermore, scalability of the reaction up to 15 g scale and derivatization of the carbocyclic product has been demonstrated, including the formation of a rare trans-bicyclo[4.3.0]nonene scaffold via a ring-closing metathesis. The structure of this and all carbocyclic products were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. ...
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This comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the major ring-forming processes used in synthesis takes its examples from the terpene field. Since terpenes are most representative of carbocyclic compounds found in nature and characterized by intricate assays of ring structures, they are the most attractive and challenging targets for synthesis and a testing ground for defining the limitation of annulation techniques. With over 1200 references, this book constitutes a valuable reference work. It can also serve as supplementary text for senior and graduate level organic chemistry ...
The carbocyclic nucleosides, represented by the prototype molecule, CBV, are novel reverse transcriptase inhibitors with significant activity against HIV (Vince et al., 1988). An analog of CBV, abacavir, is currently in clinical trials (Faletto et al., 1997).. The present work continued the preclinical investigations of another CBV analog, 6AC, and the mechanism of its enhanced systemic delivery of CBV after oral dosing. ADA, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of 6AC to CBV, is localized in the presystemic organs, with the intestine having significantly greater activity than the liver (Ho et al., 1980; Chinsky et al., 1990). For 6AC, the intestine should be the primary organ where most of the first-pass effect takes place after an oral dose. Indeed, the disappearance half-lives of 6AC in the in vitro incubation studies were in accord with the relative tissue distribution of ADA. Homogenate incubations are often used as a means for in vitro prediction of in vivo metabolism. Obviously, ...
11. The process of claim 10, wherein the bis-.THETA.3-bonded ruthenium complex is chosen from:(a) a complex comprising Formula (III): ##STR00012## wherein:R811, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 are independently chosen from hydrocarbyl and substituted hydrocarbyl; provided one or more of R811, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 may form part of a ring or ring system chosen from carbocyclic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, and combinations thereof; provided two or more of R811, R813, R814, and R816 may link together to form a longer chain; andL1 and L2 are independently chosen from anion, hydrocarbyl, and substituted hydrocarbyl; provided L1 and L2 together may form the anion, a hydrocarbyl moiety, or a substituted hydrocarbyl moiety;(b) a complex evaluation comprising Formula (IV): ##STR00013## R611, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 are independently chosen from hydrocarbyl and substituted hydrocarbyl; provided one or more of R811, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 may form part of a ring or ring ...
A photopolymerizable composition, element and method of photopolymerizing the composition or element are disclosed wherein the composition comprises an addition polymerizable compound containing ethylenic unsaturation and a co-initiator including a photopolymerization activator and a photosensitizer. In one aspect of the invention, the photosensitizer is selected to be a coumarin having an absorption maximum between about 250 and about 550 nm, and a ##STR1## substituent in the 3-position wherein R1 is alkyl or alkenyl having 1-12 carbon atoms, or a carbocyclic or heterocyclic group having 5-20 nuclear carbon and hetero atoms, the coumarin and the activator being present in an amount sufficient to provide, when the composition is coated, dried and exposed to a medium-pressure mercury light source, a speed which is at least about one-fifth that of the same composition coated, dried and exposed identically except with a co-initiator consisting of Michlers ketone and benzophenone. In another aspect of the
A photopolymerizable composition, element and method of photopolymerizing the composition or element are disclosed wherein the composition comprises an addition polymerizable compound containing ethylenic unsaturation and a co-initiator including a photopolymerization activator and a photosensitizer. In one aspect of the invention, the photosensitizer is selected to be a coumarin having an absorption maximum between about 250 and about 550 nm, and a ##STR1## substituent in the 3-position wherein R1 is alkyl or alkenyl having 1-12 carbon atoms, or a carbocyclic or heterocyclic group having 5-20 nuclear carbon and hetero atoms, the coumarin and the activator being present in an amount sufficient to provide, when the composition is coated, dried and exposed to a medium-pressure mercury light source, a speed which is at least about one-fifth that of the same composition coated, dried and exposed identically except with a co-initiator consisting of Michlers ketone and benzophenone. In another aspect of the
Directory of patents filed by Mark L Bosse (54 patents): Methods for determining peroxidately active substances; Antibiotic formulation and use for bacterial infections; Non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; Phosphonomethoxy carbocyclic nucleosides and nucleotides; Aromatic compounds
Dysbiosis is a condition that can affect both humans & animals alike. Its an underlying cause of many debilitating diseases. So what the hell is Dysbiosis?
Chemically it is a carbocyclic acid and a phenylpropionate. Mikashima H, Goto K (January 1982). "[Inhibitory effect of 2-(4-(2- ... imidazo(1,2-a)pyridyl)phenyl) propionic acid (miroprofen) on platelet aggregation and prostaglandin I2 generation (author's ...
Carbocyclic thymidine analogues for use as potential therapeutic agents. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2009;28(5):633‐ ... The flexibility of these inhibitors enables binding of the active site as well as amino acid residues outside of the active ... She is also the elected Secretary for the International Society of Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids (IS3NA) from 2019 ... Seley-Radtke, Katherine L.; Sunkara, Naresh K. (2009-08-11). "Carbocyclic Thymidine Analogues for Use as Potential Therapeutic ...
Tamiflu is a carbocyclic mimic of the cell-surface carbohydrate sialic acid. Tamiflu is an enzyme inhibitor that blocks the ... either by Coulombic interaction with carboxylate amino acid side-chains in the enzyme active site, or by mimicking positive- ...
Chemical Land [online]. Caffeic Acid as Carbocyclic Carboxylic Acid. Dostupné online.. Zdroj[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. Tento ... článok je čiastočný alebo úplný preklad článku Caffeic acid na anglickej Wikipédii. ...
... the breakdown acids found in used gear oil may include carbocyclic acids, ketones, esters, and nitration and sulfation ... it will have a tendency to collect acids and increase its Total Acid Number (TAN). For example, ... Bases may be used to combat chemical decomposition of the base stock oil in the presence of acids. When oil is subjected to ... Alkaline additives are used to neutralize the acids mentioned previously, and also help prevent the formation of sulfates in a ...
Vince, R.; Hua, M. "Synthesis of carbovir and abacavir from a carbocyclic precursor" Current Protocols in nucleic acid ... including carbocyclic puromycin (I), carbocyclic Ara-A (II), carbovir (III) and guanine as well as azaguanine carbocyclic ... Vince lactam has been extensively used for the preparation of various carbocyclic nucleosides with medicinal applications in ... It is named after Robert Vince who has used the structural features of this molecule for the preparation of carbocyclic ...
Strong acids such as hydrochloric acid can, however, protonate indole. Indole is primarily protonated at the C3, rather than N1 ... Since the pyrrolic ring is the most reactive portion of indole, electrophilic substitution of the carbocyclic (benzene) ring ... The amino acid tryptophan is an indole derivative and the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Indole is a solid at ... It is the precursor to indole-3-acetic acid and synthetic tryptophan. The N-H center has a pKa of 21 in DMSO, so that very ...
... and structural analysis of carbocyclic sialic acid analogues with potent anti-influenza activity J Am Chem Soc 119: 681-90; M. ... The human Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1), the human angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R), human P2Y receptor 1 (P2Y1 ... Crystal structure of human lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 Cell 161: 1633-1643 H. Zhang, H. Unal, C. Gati, G.W. Han, W. Liu, N ... Structure-activity relationships of carbocyclic influenza neuraminidase inhibitors Bioorg Med Chem Lett 7: 1837-1842; C. U. Kim ...
She spent nine years at Caltech, working on 3 and 4 membered carbocyclic ring compounds, the reactions of alcohols with ... diazomethane, the hydrolysis of diaryliodonium salts, the deanimation of nitrous acid, and benzyne reaction intermediates in ...
Part I. Trifluoromethanesulphonic acid", J. Chem. Soc. (in German), pp. 4228-4232, doi:10.1039/JR9540004228 T. Gramstadt, R.N. ... salts form carbocyclic rings", J. Org. Chem. (in German), 41 (17), pp. 2882-2885, doi:10.1021/jo00879a019 Stang, Peter J.; ... Perfluoroalkanesulphonic acids", J. Chem. Soc. (in German), pp. 173-180, doi:10.1039/JR9560000173 G.M. Whitesides, F.D. ... An early preparation method starts from the barium salt of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH), from which the free TfOH is ...
... , also known as 13-hydroxy-3-oxo-13,17-secoandrosta-1,4-dien-17-oic acid δ-lactone, is a synthetic 18-oxasteroid ... with a six-membered lactone ring in place of the five-membered carbocyclic D-ring. Testolactone was first approved for medical ...
... including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as " ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ... Fenamic acid is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent ...
2-acetoxybenzoic acid. acetylsalicylate. acetylsalicylic acid. O-acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (BAN UK), Aspirin (USAN US). ... Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ...
... is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid ... Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... and phosphatidic acid. Brain[edit]. Arachidonic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and is present in ...
The four aromatic amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine each serve as one of the 20 basic building- ... Aromaticity also occurs in compounds that are not carbocyclic or heterocyclic; inorganic six-membered-ring compounds analogous ... Examples include trinitrotoluene (TNT), acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), paracetamol, and the nucleotides of DNA. Aromatic ... "On Insolinic Acid". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 8: 1-3. doi:10.1098/rspl.1856.0002. "Bonding in benzene - the Kekulé ...
... or GLA (γ-linolenic acid), (INN and USAN gamolenic acid) is a fatty acid found primarily in seed oils. ... This article is about gamma-Linolenic acid. For α-Linolenic acid, see alpha-Linolenic acid. For linoleic acid (no "n"), see ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... It is an isomer of α-linolenic acid, which is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid, found in rapeseed canola oil, ...
Nucleic Acids. 19 (3): 651-690. doi:10.1080/15257770008035015. PMID 10843500. S2CID 43360920. Wang J; Rawal RK; Chu CK (August ... The fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine was reported in 1988 as the first example of a carbocyclic ... Antiviral Carbocyclic Purine nucleosides (-)Carbovir Abacavir Entecavir Carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine Entecavir, a ... There are two approaches used in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. Linear approaches to chiral carbocyclic nucleosides ...
It is characterized by multiple stereogenic centers and functional groups arrayed around a six-membered carbocyclic ring. ... As with shikimic acid, aminoshikimic acid is an attractive candidate for use as the core scaffold for synthesis of ... Aminoshikimic acid is also an alternative to shikimic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of neuraminidase inhibitors ... Aminoshikimic acid is an intriguing alternative to shikimic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of neuraminidase ...
Crout, D.H.G. (2012). "The Biosynthesis of Carbocyclic Compounds". In Lloyd, D. (ed.). Carbocyclic Chemistry. Volume One. ... Vulpinic acid is derived biosynthetically by esterification from pulvinic acid; pulvinate itself derives from the aromatic ... both of which derive from aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine via secondary metabolism. The roles of vulpinic acid are ... Vulpinic acid is a natural product first found in and important in the symbiosis underlying the biology of lichens. It is a ...
"Chemical Land". Caffeic Acid as Carbocyclic Carboxylic Acid.. ... Caffeic acid and its derivative caffeic acid phenethyl ester ( ... Umbellic acid (2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) 2,3-Dihydroxycinnamic acid 2,5-Dihydroxycinnamic acid Gould, Kevin S.; Markham, ... Caffeate O-methyltransferase is an enzyme responsible for the transformation of caffeic acid into ferulic acid. Caffeic acid ... 4-dicarboxylic acid). Caffeic acid can also be polymerized using the horseradish peroxidase/H2O2 oxidizing system. Caffeic acid ...
... (DHQ) is the first carbocyclic intermediate of the shikimate pathway. It is created from 3- ... 3-Dehydroquinic acid undergoes five further enzymatic steps in the remainder of the shikimate pathway to chorismic acid, a ... 3-Dehydroquinate goes through beta oxidation, similar to fatty acids. Then, this compound (6-oxo-3-dehydro-quinate) is ... It has the same structure as quinic acid, which is found in coffee, but the C-3 hydroxyl is oxidized to a ketone group. ...
"Carbocyclic fatty acids in plants: Biochemical and molecular genetic characterization of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis of ... Cyclopropene fatty acids are even rarer than CPAs. The best-known examples are malvalic acid and sterculic acid. Sterculic acid ... Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) are a subgroup of fatty acids that contain a cyclopropane group. Although they are usually rare ... which catalyzes the biodesaturation of stearic acid to oleic acid. At least one review indicates that CPFA are carcinogenic, co ...
Dihydrosterculic acid is the major carbocyclic fatty acid in the seed oils of Litchi chinensis. It is a cyclopropane fatty acid ... Biochem J 1962;82:385-9. PMC 1243468 "Natural alicyclic fatty acids, section:Cyclopropane and Cyclopropene Fatty Acids from ... Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is a compound found in lychee (Litchi chinensis) seeds. It is also a metabolite in ... Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is found in lychee seeds and also a toxic metabolite in mammalian digestion after ...
5) In the presence of a catalytic amount of acid, diazomethyl ketone substrates containing a pendant double bond or aryl group ... 7) Transannular insertions, which form fused carbocyclic products, have also been observed. Yields are often low for these ... 11) A solution of the olefinic acid (0.499 g, 2.25 mmol) dissolved in benzene (20 ml, freshly distilled from calcium hydride) ... Very often, the diazocarbonyl compound is prepared and immediately used via treatment of the corresponding acid chloride with ...
Agonista: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Tulad ng sa fenamic acid, ang kompuwestong ito ay maaaring buuin mula sa 2-chlorobenzoic acid at 2,3-dimethylaniline.[9] ... Ang Mefenamic acid o Asidong mefenamiko ay isang miyembro ng klaseng deribatibong asidong anthraniliko (o fenamate) ng mga ... "Side effects for Mefenamic Acid". Medline Plus. National Institutes of Health.. *↑ Prusakiewicz JJ et al. Differential ...
Synthesis of Carbocyclic and Heterocyclic Systems". Curr. Org. Chem. 7: 275-300. doi:10.2174/1385272033372987. Quin, C.; et al ... Lithium enolate formation can be generalized as an acid-base reaction, in which the relatively acidic proton α to the carbonyl ... Organolithium reagents can also react with carbon dioxide to form carboxylic acids. In the case of enone substrates, where two ... Organolithium reagents are also superior to Grignard reagents in their ability to react with carboxylic acids to form ketones. ...
Dihydroartemisinic acid then undergoes photo-oxidation to produce dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide. Ring expansion by the ... and desilylation steps performed on this mono-carbocyclic intermediate, including a final singlet oxygen-utilizing ... The synthesized artemisinic acid can then be transported out, purified and chemically converted into artemisinin that they ... A three-step oxidation of amorpha-4,11-diene gives the resulting artemisinic acid. The UC Berkeley method was augmented using ...
A carbocyclic ring closure of a hex-5-enopyranoside derivative". J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1: 1455-1458. doi:10.1039/ ... worked in the same reaction as a milder version of the Lewis acid, i-Bu3Al, which goes through a similar transition state ... Das, SK; Mallet, J-M; Sinaÿ, P (1997). "Novel Carbocyclic Ring Closure of Hex-5-enopyranosides". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 36 (5): ... Barton, DHR; Camara, J; Dalko, P; Géro, SD; Quiclet-Sire, B; Stütz, P (1989). "Synthesis of biologically active carbocyclic ...
The substituted phenyl group at the top of the channel interacts with the side-chains of amino acid residues through ... that is fused in this stilbene system has been extensively manipulated to include every imaginable heterocyclic and carbocyclic ... Celecoxib is metabolized primarily by CYP2C9 isoenzyme to carboxylic acid and also by non-CYP-dependent glucuronidation to ... These compounds differ greatly from NSAIDs that are arylalkonic acid analogs. Encouraged by the "concept testing" experiments ...
E 17b, 4th Edition Supplement: Carbocyclic Three-Membered Ring Compounds, Cyclopropanes: Synthesis. Goettingen: Georg Thieme ... showing that cyclononatetraene is a weaker acid than cyclopentadiene. Cyclononatetraenyl cation is an 8π system. Its ...
... the free carboxylic acid), are agonists of the prostacyclin receptor, which leads to vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation. ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
The risk of bleeding increases with the concurrent medications clopidogrel, cefoperazone, valproic acid, cefotetan, ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Chemically ketorolac functions as a carboxylic acid derivative serving non-selectively to block the prostaglandin synthesis by ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... , also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Simila S, Keinanen S, Kouvalainen K.Oral antipyretic therapy: evaluation of benorylate, an ester of acetylsalicylic acid and ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... "Functional interaction of the carboxylic acid group of agonists and the arginine residue of the seventh transmembrane domain ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Corey speculated that the cardiotoxicity may be associated with an organic acid anhydride formed when rofecoxib is exposed to ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Since diacylglycerol is synthesized via phosphatidic acid, it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... or free fatty acids.(See Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage for ... to form lysophosphatidic acid, which is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid. ...
Polymorphism in the CysLTR2 gene resulting in a single amino acid substitution, M201V (i.e. amino acid methionine changed for ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... CysLTR2 encodes a protein composed of 347 amino acids and shows only modest similarity to the CysLTR1 gene in that its protein ... shares only 31% amino acid identity with the CysLTR1 protein.[9][10][11] ...
... they metabolize gamma-Linolenic acid, which has one less double bond than arachidonic acid, to series 1 prostanoids (PGD1, PGE1 ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Prostanoid receptors bind and respond principally to metabolites of the straight chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), ... However, the same enzymes that metabolize arachidonic acid to series 2 prostanoids similarly metabolize two other straight ...
Precursors: Linoleic acid. *γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid ... Agonista: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ...
Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ...
1832: Dobereiner produces furfural (a furan) by treating starch with sulfuric acid. 1834: Runge obtains pyrrole ("fiery oil") ... Heterocyclic rings systems that are formally derived by fusion with other rings, either carbocyclic or heterocyclic, have a ... Examples of heterocyclic compounds include all of the nucleic acids, the majority of drugs, most biomass (cellulose and related ...
... composed of 472 amino acids. DP2, is related to members of the chemotactic factor class of GPCRs, sharing an amino acid ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... DP2 has little or no such amino acid sequence relationship to the eight other Prostanoid receptors (see Eicosanoid receptor# ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Z)-7-[(1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-[(E,3S)- 3-hydroxyoct-1-enyl]cyclopentyl]hept-5-enoic acid ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... First, Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) facilitates the conversion of phospholipids to Arachidonic Acid, the framework from which all ... prostaglandins are formed.[8] The Arachidonic Acid then reacts with two Cyclooxygenase (COX) receptors, COX-1 and COX-2 to form ...
... acid is inactivated by beta oxidation to 1,2-dinortafluprost acid, 1,2,3,4-tetranortafluprost acid, and its lactone ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Tafluprost, as a lipophilic ester, easily penetrates the cornea and is then activated to the carboxylic acid, tafluprost acid. ... From left to right: tafluprost, tafluprost acid (the active metabolite), 1,2-dinortafluprost acid, 1,2,3,4-tetranortafluprost ...
Omega-3 fatty acids are metabolized to produce higher levels of TxA,3 which is relatively less potent than TxA2 and PGI3; ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Thromboxane-A synthase, an enzyme found in platelets, converts the arachidonic acid derivative prostaglandin H2 to thromboxane ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Z)-5-[(4R,5R)-5-Hydroxy-4-((S,E)-3-hydroxyoct-1-enyl)hexahydro-2H-cyclopenta[b]furan-2-ylidene]pentanoic acid ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... PGI2 is derived from the ω-6 arachidonic acid. PGI3 is derived from the ω-3 EPA. ... These convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), the immediate precursor of prostacyclin. Since thromboxane (an ...
Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ...
... , (RS)-2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (chemical formula C16H14O3) is one of the propionic acid class of ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Ketoprofen undergoes metabolism in the liver via conjugation with glucuronic acid, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 hydroxylation of the ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. *1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-7-hexahydro-1-pyrazinyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro ... Cyfansoddyn cemegol, meddyginiaeth, carbocyclic compound, cyffur hanfodol Math. bactericide, fluoroquinolone, quinolone Màs. ... quinolinecarboxylic acid. Cyfeiriadau[golygu , golygu cod y dudalen]. *↑ Pubchem. "Ciprofflocsacin". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ( ... 1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-piperazin-1-ylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid ...
Mucic acid strategy: convergent synthesis A and C merge to ABC then D - references: see related article Danishefsky Taxol total ... Taxol through Pd-Catalyzed Eight-Membered Carbocyclic Ring Formation" Chemistry: A European Journal 21 (1), 355-359. doi: ...
... is biosynthesized on an as-needed basis from dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) in healthy humans ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... 7-[(1R,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-5-oxocyclopentyl]heptanoic acid ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... , also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is an aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory drug[2] used to ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
hydrochloric acid, malonic acid, hydrobromic acid, maleic acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, methanesulfonic acid, oxalic acid and ... Aromatic esters or amides of carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid EP0765924B1 (en) * 1992-07-10. 2002-05-22. E.I. Du Pont De ... Carbocyclic and heterocyclic carbon acid esters and amides of nitrogenous or non nitrogenous bridged or unbridged amines or ... Carbocyclic and heterocyclic carbon acid esters and amides of nitrogenous or non nitrogenous bridged or unbridged amines or ...
This was demonstrated through the synthesis of various modified carbocyclic-locked nucleic acids (LNAs) and -ethylene-bridged ... nucleic acids (ENAs) with hydroxyl and/or methyl substituents attached at the carbocyclic part and their integration into AONs ... The substitutions on the carbocyclic moiety of the carba-LNA and -ENA did not affect significantly the choice of the cleavage ... Fine tuning of electrostatics around the internucleotidic phosphate through incorporation of modified 2,4-carbocyclic-LNAs ...
... including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as " ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ... Fenamic acid is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent ...
gamma-Linolenic acid or GLA (γ-linolenic acid), (INN and USAN gamolenic acid) is a fatty acid found primarily in seed oils. ... This article is about gamma-Linolenic acid. For α-Linolenic acid, see alpha-Linolenic acid. For linoleic acid (no "n"), see ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... It is an isomer of α-linolenic acid, which is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid, found in rapeseed canola oil, ...
A polymer such as cross-linked polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol, hyaluronic acid, a cellulosic polymer, for example, ... Cyclization is induced using strong acid, including for instance sulfuric acid, or alternatively, standard Mitsunobu conditions ... trifluoroacetic acid in water (v/v); Mobile phase B: 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v); Gradient: 5% to 100% B ... trifluoroacetic acid in water (v/v); Mobile phase B: 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v); Gradient: 5% to 100% B ...
L-amino-acid oxidase. MAPLALHLLVLVPILLSLVASQDWKAERSQDPFEKCMQDPDYEQLLKVVT.... unknown. D-amino-acid oxidase. ... 2-AMINOBENZOIC ACID. Find entries where: BE2. is present as a standalone ligand in 15 entries ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. , PMID:21059682 ...
3,4-Dihydroxycinnamic Acid. Categories. *Acids, Carbocyclic. *Antioxidants. *Cinnamates. *Compounds used in a research, ... CAFFEIC ACID. Find entries where: DHC. is present as a standalone ligand in 11 entries ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. , PMID:21059682 ...
carbocyclic synonyms, carbocyclic pronunciation, carbocyclic translation, English dictionary definition of carbocyclic. adj. ... Acetic acid is a member of the carbocyclic acid family.. Quantum Dots Brighten Future of Lighting ... carbocyclic. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical.. Related to carbocyclic: heterocyclic car·bo·cyc·lic. (kär′bō-sĭk′lĭk, -sī′klĭk ... Carbocyclic - definition of carbocyclic by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/carbocyclic ...
Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based ... Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based ...
Branched-Chain Amino Acid Catabolism Impacts Triacylglycerol Homeostasis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. Liang Y, Kong F, Torres ... Synthesis of carbocyclic phosphononucleosides.. Legeret B, Sarakauskaite Z, Pradaux F, Saito Y, Tumkevicius S, Agrofoglio LA. ... Chlamydomonas carries out fatty acid β-oxidation in ancestral peroxisomes using a bona fide acyl-CoA oxidase. Kong F et al. ... An algal photoenzyme converts fatty acids to hydrocarbons.. Sorigué D, Légeret B, Cuiné S, Blangy S, Moulin S, Billon E, ...
... alicyclic dicarboxylic acids, aromatic carbocyclic dicarboxylic acids, and the esters and anhydrides of these acids; the molar ... azelaic acid, sebacic acid, suberic acid, isosebacic acid, diglycolic acid, gamma, gamma-oxydibutyric acid, phthalic acid, ... fumaric acid, maleic acid, dimethyl maleate, maleic anhydride, itaconic acid, citraconic acid, mesaconic acid, dimer fatty acid ... alicyclic dicarboxylic acids, aromatic carbocyclic dicarboxylic acids, and the esters and anhydrides of these acids; the molar ...
SUBSTITUTED NAPHTHYLACETIC ACIDS. The invention is concerned with the compounds of formula (I) and pharmaceutically acceptable ... NEW INDANYLOXYPHENYLCYCLOPROPANECARB OXYLIC ACIDS. The present invention relates to compounds of general formula I, (I) wherein ... The invention relates to an ester having at least one sulphonic group on the acid chain, a method for the production thereof ... The invention further relates a process of using dilute sulfuric acid and re-circulating the dilute sul... ...
Macrocyclic and Carbocyclic Constructions by SET Oxidations of Styrenes, Allenes and Cyclopropanes. ... Controlled Drug Delivery Studies of Biological Macromolecules: Sodium Alginate and Lignosulphonic Acid Films ...
Class: 260 .Carbocyclic or acyclic *Class: 552 ..Anthrones, anthranols, quinones, steroids *Class: 554 ...Fatty acids, salts, ... Class: 562 ..Organic acids, acid halides, acid anhydrides, selenium or tellurium compounds *Class: 564 ..Urea adducts, amino ... AND RELATED MANIPULATIONS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS *Class: 968 HOROLOGY: SUBCLASSES 1-380 *Class: 968 HOROLOGY: SUBCLASSES 381-977 * ...
LATENT ACIDS AND THEIR USE. The invention pertains to a compound generating an acid of the formula (I) or (II), for instance ... METHOD OF SYNTHESIZING Α-AMINO ACID DERIVATIVE WITH Α-ALKYL SIDE CHAIN SUBSTITUTION. The present invention discloses a method ... PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF ALKALI SALTS OF THE DIALKYLDITHIOCARBAMIC ACID. The present invention relates to a ... An electrodeposition composition comprising: (a) a source of copper ions; (b) an acid; (c) a suppressor; and (d) a leveler, ...
Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.. Acids, Carbocyclic. Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring ... Carboxylic Acids. Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and ... Home » Topics » Chemistry » Research » Bioconversion of methane to C-4 carboxylic acids using carbon flux through acetyl-CoA in ... In this study, we demonstrate production of C-4 carboxylic acids non-native to the host, specifically crotonic and butyric ...
To a solution of 1-[4-(methylthio)butyl]cyclopentanecarboxylic acid methyl ester (19.2 mmol, 4.43 g) in acetic acid (20 mL) was ... 1-[3-(methylthio)propyl]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester and 1-[3-(methylthio)propyl]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid. ## ... The carboxylic acid of formula 6 may be substituted by halogen, nitro, lower alkyl sulfonyl, cyano, lower alkyl, loweralkoxy, ... C. to give a compound of formula 5. Acylation of this compound with an aryl- or heteroaryl carboxylic acid of formula 6 using ...
Nucleic Acids. 19 (3): 651-690. doi:10.1080/15257770008035015. PMID 10843500. S2CID 43360920. Wang J; Rawal RK; Chu CK (August ... The fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine was reported in 1988 as the first example of a carbocyclic ... Antiviral Carbocyclic Purine nucleosides (-)Carbovir Abacavir Entecavir Carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine Entecavir, a ... There are two approaches used in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. Linear approaches to chiral carbocyclic nucleosides ...
"sialidase" = removes sialic acid from surface at level of glyccoproteins and glycolipids ...
Oxygen bonded directly to carbonyl (e.g., carboxylic acid esters, etc.) 407 ..... Three-membered carbocyclic ring containing ... Carboxylic acid, carboxylic acid halide, carboxylic acid anhydride, or compound containing carbon double bonded to nitrogen ... Aldehyde, and carboxylic acid halide or carboxylic acid anhydride, reacted with the inorganic cyanide ... The oxygen is between the carbonyl and the cyano group (e.g., cyano is in the alcohol portion of a carboxylic acid ester, etc ...
Chemical Land [online]. Caffeic Acid as Carbocyclic Carboxylic Acid. Dostupné online.. Zdroj[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. Tento ... článok je čiastočný alebo úplný preklad článku Caffeic acid na anglickej Wikipédii. ...
"Chemical Land". Caffeic Acid as Carbocyclic Carboxylic Acid.. ... Caffeic acid and its derivative caffeic acid phenethyl ester ( ... Umbellic acid (2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) 2,3-Dihydroxycinnamic acid 2,5-Dihydroxycinnamic acid Gould, Kevin S.; Markham, ... Caffeate O-methyltransferase is an enzyme responsible for the transformation of caffeic acid into ferulic acid. Caffeic acid ... 4-dicarboxylic acid). Caffeic acid can also be polymerized using the horseradish peroxidase/H2O2 oxidizing system. Caffeic acid ...
... carbocyclic explanation free. What is carbocyclic? Meaning of carbocyclic medical term. What does carbocyclic mean? ... Looking for online definition of carbocyclic in the Medical Dictionary? ... Such values were expected for a mixture containing aldehydes, ketones, and carbocyclic acids.. Characterization of ozonation ... Research and Markets: Medicinal Chemistry of Nucleic Acids - Complete, up-to-Date Coverage of Nucleic Acid Chemistry and ...
Acids, Carbocyclic. UNII. 5Q445IN5CU. CAS number. 501-52-0. Weight. Average: 150.1745 Monoisotopic: 150.068079564 Chemical ... 3-phenylpropanoic-acid / Benzenoid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / ... Phenylpropanoic acids. Sub Class. Not Available. Direct Parent. Phenylpropanoic acids. Alternative Parents. Benzene and ... 3-phenylpropionic acid. Accession Number. DB02024 (EXPT01708) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not ...
Carbocyclic fatty acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen ... Carbocyclic fatty acids. Alternative Parents. Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carbocyclic fatty acids. These are fatty acids containing a ... Cyclohexanepropanoic acid. Accession Number. DB02242 (EXPT01069) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]. *Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Benzoic Acids [D02.241.223.100]. *Benzoic Acid [D02.241.223.100 ...
Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Phenylpropionates [D02.241.223.701]. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to ...
Locked Nucleic Acids: Properties, Applications and Perspectives. Studies on the synthesis and properties of oligonucleotides ... Synthesis and Biological Activity of Selected Carbocyclic Nucleosides. 4-C-Ethynyl-2-deoxynucleosides. Modified nucleosides ... Investigations on Fluorine-labeled Ribonucleic Acids by 19F-NMR Spectroscopy. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, a major DNA ... Synthesis, chemical properties and biological activities of cyclic bis(3-5)diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and its analogues. ...
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. ... Carboxylic Acids: 83*Carbocyclic Acids*Cinnamates: 10*Caffeic Acids: 5*Eugenol: 291 ... Caffeic Acids. Subscribe to New Research on Caffeic Acids A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric ... 01/01/2012 - "Gallic acid and caffeic acids are reported to modulate allergic reactions via unknown mode(s) of action. ". ...
  • Our previous QSAR analysis with 41 structurally-different compounds revealed that two carbocyclic systems with at least one aromatic ring and ring-linking groups containing one carbon atom were important for stimulating ABCB1 dependent ATPase activity (Sakurai et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They detail the biochemical reactions involved in the biodegradation of major aliphatic, carbocyclic aromatic, and heterocyclic compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A large number of novel carbocyclic nucleosides of pyrimidines and purines have been prepared, and many of these compounds are endowed with interesting biological activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutathione and thiol compounds (cysteine, thioglycolic acid or thiocresol) or ascorbic acid have a protective effect on browning and disappearance of caffeic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the (Beta)- hydroxy azides are among the most important precursors for synthetic transformations into (Beta) - amino alcohols, vicinal diamines, amino sugars, carbocyclic nucleosides, natural products, and chiral auxiliaries [2-4], (Beta)- hydroxy thiocyanates have been extensively used for production of various heterocycles, some anticancer natural products, synthetic intermediates, drug candidates and herbicidal compounds [5-7]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carbocyclic fatty acids. (drugbank.ca)
  • In recent years naturally occurring herbal compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and high molecular weight polyphenols have gained considerable attention as beneficial protective agents. (mdpi.com)
  • A very remarkable sequence preference pattern dramatically favors GC steps in double-helical DNA, whereas the carbocyclic reference compounds show a substantially lower selectivity for GC. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Molecules containing both the NH 2 and COOH groups are called amino acids amino acid , any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Curable epoxide resin mixtures based on adducts, containing epoxide groups, which are obtained by reaction of certain long-chain aliphatic polyesters with an excess of diepoxide compounds, and linear or slightly branched polyesters, containing carbocyclic or heterocyclic rings and possessing 3 or 4 terminal. (google.com.au)
  • The method comprises the metal-catalyzed asymmetric 1,4-conjugate addition of vinylboron compounds to 2-substituted -4-oxy-cyclopent-2-en-1-ones. (patents.com)
  • Other indolic compounds include the plant hormone auxin (indolyl-3-acetic acid, IAA ), tryptophol , the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin , the betablocker pindolol , and the naturally occurring hallucinogen dimethyltryptamine . (lycaeum.org)
  • These drugs are commonly referred to as "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure and biological activity of some 4-amino-3-cinnoline-carboxylic acid derivatives. (ptfarm.pl)
  • The simple phenolic veratric acid (VA, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid) is one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits and it also occurs naturally in medicinal mushrooms which have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, a number of synthetic approaches have been developed for the synthesis of various pharmacologically interesting cyclic β-amino acid derivatives as monomers with multiple stereogenic centers. (deepdyve.com)
  • Beside developing efficient, flexible and stereoselective synthetic strategies for the preparation of carbocyclic nucleosides, the aim of our work is to find new potentially biologically active carbocyclic nucleosides and to synthesize carbocyclic derivatives of established antivirally active drugs. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Benzoic acid derivatives substituted by hydroxy group or ether containing oxygen atom have active bacteriostatic and fragrant properties. (chemicalland21.com)
  • The destructive metabolic property of oxygen containing benzoic acid derivatives such as protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and veratric acid (3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid) is used in the application for pharmaceuticals. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Complementary addressed modification and cleavage of a single stranded DNA fragment with alkylating oligonucleotide derivatives" Nucleic Acids Res. (patentgenius.com)
  • Reactive oligonucleotide derivatives and sequence-specific modification of nucleic acids" Biochimie (1985) 67:785-789. (patentgenius.com)
  • The pyridine nitrogen at position 9, missing in the carbocyclic derivatives, is involved in protonation equilibria at physiological pH. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors possessing a novel hydrophobic interaction in the enzyme active site: design, synthesis and structural analysis of carbocyclic sialic acid analogues with potent anti-influenza activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carbocyclic nucleosides (also referred to as carbanucleosides) are nucleoside analogues in which a methylene group has replaced the oxygen atom of the furanose ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbocyclic nucleosides are nucleoside analogues, in which the ribose moiety is replaced by a cyclopentane ring. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Other interesting carbocyclic precursors like cyclopentenol 7 can be used to synthesize several classes of carbocyclic nucleoside analogues, e.g.: 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro nucleosides (d4-nucleosides), 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides (ddNs), ribonucleosides, bicyclic nucleosides or even 2'-fluoro-nucleosides. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Scheme 4: Functionalized carbocyclic thymidine analogues based on cyclopentenol 7 . (uni-hamburg.de)
  • These are structural analogues of sialic acid, and work to inhibit the enzymatic action of NA, thus retaining newly formed virus on the host cells. (springer.com)
  • Synthesis of purine nucleoside analogues derived from carbocyclic 5-C-(hydroxymethyl)hexopyranoses. (cas.cz)
  • Interactions between a-tocopherol and rosmarinic acid and its alkyl esters in emulsions: synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect? (umassmed.edu)
  • Benzoic acid is converted to its salts and esters for the use of preservative application in foods, drugs and personal products. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Polyacrylates are produced by polymerization of esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids (acrylates and methacrylates, respectively). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, both showed the same enantioselectivity in transacylation of alcohols and the hydrolysis of alcohol esters, as well as in the hydrolysis of esters chiral at the acid part. (diva-portal.org)
  • Bioconversion of methane to C-4 carboxylic acids using carbon flux through acetyl-CoA in engineered Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1C. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The synthesis of short chain carboxylic acids through the acetyl-CoA node demonstrates the potential for engineering M. buryatense 5GB1 as a platform for bioconversion of methane to a number of value added industrial chemicals, and presents new opportunities for further diversifying the products obtainable from methane as the feedstock. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Deoxygenative Deuteration of Carboxylic Acids with D2O. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We report a general, practical and scalable means of preparing deuterated aldehydes from aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with D2O as an inexpensive deuterium source. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An efficient and redox-neutral synthesis of 2 H-chromene-3-carboxylic acids from N-phenoxyacetamides and methyleneoxetanones has been realized via a solvent-controlled and rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H a. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study is a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 12 week study performed in up to 5 centres in Sweden to assess the effect of Omega-3 carboxylic acids and dapag. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This volume outlines a methodology of regioselective synthesis of aromatic and nonaromatic carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring systems based mainly on [2+2+2] and [4+2] cycloaddition, and other reactions of acetylenic units, including enediynes and enyne-allenes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The term "synthetic organic pigment" refers to manufactured colorants containing carbocyclic ring systems, many of which are aromatic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 6. A composition according to claim 1, characterised in that it comprises, as curing agents, acid polyesters with the structural element of the formula II, wherein R 1 and R 2 denote araliphatic, aromatic, cycloaliphatic, cycloaliphatic-aliphatic or heterocyclic-aliphatic radicals and not more than 2 methylene groups are present in the structural element per ring in the radical R 1 and R 2 . (google.com.au)
  • 11. A composition according to claim 10, characterised in that D denotes the trivalent radical of an aromatic tricarboxylic acid. (google.com.au)
  • The 5-membered ring carbocyclic nucleosides aristeromycin, the analog of adenosine, and neplanocin A, the cyclopentene analog of aristeromycin, have been isolated from natural sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two guanine antiviral carbocyclic nucleosides, the anti-HIV agent abacavir and the anti-hepatitis B agent entecavir, are reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiviral Carbocyclic Purine nucleosides (-)Carbovir Abacavir Entecavir Carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine Entecavir, a guanosine analog, was reported in 1997 as a potent and selective inhibitor for the hepatitis B virus, and approved by the FDA in March 2005 for oral treatment of hepatitis B infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two approaches used in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linear approaches to chiral carbocyclic nucleosides 2 rely on the construction of the heterocyclic base onto a suitable protected chiral cyclopentylamine (1 → 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988: Review of Glaxo's synthesis of fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides 1988: (±)-Carbovir first reported with potent anti-HIV activity and low cytotoxicity 1992: First comprehensive review of the synthesis of chiral carbocyclic nucleosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is a member of the Belgian Academy of Medicine, representing Chemistry, and a founding member of the International Society of Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids. (wiley.com)
  • I would certainly recommend this book to anyone interested in the bioorganic and medicinal chemistry of modified nucleosides and nucleic acids. (wiley.com)
  • What are carbocyclic nucleosides? (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Due to their unusual ring-puckering carbocyclic nucleosides have a different structure-activity-relationship (SAR) compared to natural nucleosides. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • How to obtain carbocyclic nucleosides? (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Carbocyclic nucleosides are synthetically the most challenging class of nucleosides, requiring multi-step and often elaborate synthetic pathways to introduce the necessary stereochemistry. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • There are two main strategies for the preparation of carbocyclic nucleosides. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • The more flexible strategy is a convergent approach: a functionalized carbocyclic moiety is condensed with a heterocycle rapidly leading to a variety of carbocyclic nucleosides. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • The asymmetric synthesis route and the racemic route above are short and efficient ways to diverse carbocyclic D - or L -nucleosides (Scheme 2). (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Different heterocycles can be condensed to these precursors leading to carbocyclic purine- and pyrimidine-nucleosides. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Beside α - and β -nucleosides, carbocyclic epi - and iso -nucleosides in the 2'-deoxyxylose form were accessable. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Moreover, this strategy offers the possibility of synthesizing new carbocyclic nucleosides by functionalizing the double bond before or after introduction of the nucleobase (scheme 3). (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Scheme 3: Functionalized carbocyclic nucleosides based on cyclopentenol 6 . (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids 8-9 (23): 1321-1327, 2004. (cas.cz)
  • The substitutions on the carbocyclic moiety of the carba-LNA and -ENA did not affect significantly the choice of the cleavage sites of RNase H mediated RNA cleavage in the AON/RNA hybrid duplex, but the cleavage rate depended on the modification site in the AON sequence. (nih.gov)
  • In the convergent approach the intact heterocyclic base is coupled directly to a suitably protected functionalised carbocyclic moiety (3 → 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The isomeric dienes 4a , b were hydroborated to the racemic carbocyclic moiety 6 . (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Acetic acid is a member of the carbocyclic acid family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The natural products were attained via rearrangements to an amidine intermediate, deprotection with 45% HBr in acetic acid, and cyclization on silica gel. (diva-portal.org)
  • 4] The Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling of electrondeficient polyfluoroarenes with thiophenes, furans, and imidazoles was achieved by Zhang and co-workers by using Ag2CO3 in the presence of 1 equivalent of acetic acid. (docme.ru)
  • lZ1 Q WILEY-VCH Verlag GrnbH, D-69451 Weinhelm, 1997 0570-0833/97/3619-2057 $17 50+ 5010 2057 HIGHLIGHTS water n-heptane carbon tetrachloride methyl ethyl ketone (butanone) acetic acid ethyl ester Figure 1. (docme.ru)
  • The physicochemical and DNA-binding properties of anticancer 9-aza-anthrapyrazoles (9-aza-APs) were investigated and compared with the carbocyclic analogs losoxantrone (LX) and mitoxantrone (MX). (aspetjournals.org)
  • This enzyme, which cleaves terminal sialic acid residue from glycoconjugates, is essential for virus proliferation and infectivity. (asm.org)
  • With the protection and another hydroboration step to 5 we gain access to an enantiomerically pure precursor for the synthesis of a variety of carbocyclic 2'-deoxynucleosides e.g. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Our work in this latter area will lead to construction of a variety of carbocyclic ring systems, including fused, spiro and bridged bicyclic systems, that serve as structural units for a myriad of terpenoid natural products. (luc.edu)
  • Testolactone is a synthetic antineoplastic agent that is structurally distinct from the androgen steroid nucleus in possessing a six-membered lactone ring in place of the usual five-membered carbocyclic D-ring. (drugs.com)
  • where R′ = H or CH 3 (for acrylic and methacrylic acids, respectively) and R is an aliphatic, carbocyclic, or heterocyclic group. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Poly(pyrimidine)-poly(purine) synthetic DNAs containing 5-methylcytosine form stable triplexes at neutral pH" Nucleic Acids Res. (patentgenius.com)
  • The present invention relates to a process for the production of alkali metal salts of dialkyldithiocarbamic acids and to alkali metal salts of dialkyldithiocarbamic acids produced according to said process. (sumobrain.com)
  • The most of commercial benzoic acid is produced by the reaction of toluene with oxygen at temperatures around 200 C in the liquid phase and in the presence of cobalt and manganese salts as catalysts. (chemicalland21.com)
  • gamma-Linolenic acid or GLA ( γ-linolenic acid ), ( INN and USAN gamolenic acid ) is a fatty acid found primarily in seed oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLA is categorized as an n −6 (also called ω−6 or omega-6) fatty acid, meaning that the first double bond on the methyl end (designated with n or ω) is the sixth bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an isomer of α-linolenic acid , which is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid, found in rapeseed canola oil, soybeans , walnuts , flax seed ( linseed oil ), perilla , chia , and hemp seed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although GLA is an n −6 fatty acid, a type of acid that is, in general, pro-inflammatory, it has anti-inflammatory properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • An algal photoenzyme converts fatty acids to hydrocarbons. (nih.gov)
  • Chlamydomonas carries out fatty acid β-oxidation in ancestral peroxisomes using a bona fide acyl-CoA oxidase. (nih.gov)
  • Abacavir, was developed from racemic (±)-carbovir which was reported in 1988 by Robert Vince as the first carbocyclic nucleoside analogue to show potent activity against HIV with low cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abacavir, formerly known as 1592U89, is a carbocyclic 2′-deoxyguanosine nucleoside analogue with its main activity being against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • GLA is a carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and three cis double bonds . (wikipedia.org)
  • The human body produces GLA from linoleic acid (LA). This reaction is catalyzed by Δ 6 - desaturase (D6D), an enzyme that allows the creation of a double bond on the sixth carbon counting from the carboxyl terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be prepared also by the oxidation of benzene with concentrated sulphuric acid or carbon dioxide in the presence of catalysts. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Caffeic acid is an organic compound that is classified as a hydroxycinnamic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid can be found in the bark of Eucalyptus globulus the barley grain Hordeum vulgare and the herb Dipsacus asperoides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid is found at a very modest level in coffee, at 0.03 mg per 100 ml. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid, which is unrelated to caffeine, is biosynthesized by hydroxylation of coumaroyl ester of quinic acid (esterified through a side chain alcohol). (wikipedia.org)
  • This hydroxylation produces the caffeic acid ester of shikimic acid, which converts to chlorogenic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid and its derivative caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) are produced in many kinds of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeate O-methyltransferase is an enzyme responsible for the transformation of caffeic acid into ferulic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid and related o-diphenols are rapidly oxidized by o-diphenol oxidases in tissue extracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeate 3,4-dioxygenase is an enzyme that uses caffeic acid and oxygen to produce 3-(2-carboxyethenyl)-cis,cis-muconate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid has a variety of potential pharmacological effects in in vitro studies and in animal models, and the inhibitory effect of caffeic acid on cancer cell proliferation by an oxidative mechanism in the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell line has recently been established. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid is an antioxidant in vitro and also in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid also shows immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid outperformed the other antioxidants, reducing aflatoxin production by more than 95 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies are the first to show that oxidative stress that would otherwise trigger or enhance Aspergillus flavus aflatoxin production can be stymied by caffeic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the carcinogenicity of caffeic acid have mixed results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral administration of high doses of caffeic acid in rats has caused stomach papillomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same study, high doses of combined antioxidants, including caffeic acid, showed a significant decrease in growth of colon tumors in those same rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recent data show that bacteria in the rats' guts may alter the formation of metabolites of caffeic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than caffeic acid being a thiamine antagonist (antithiamine factor), there have been no known ill effects of caffeic acid in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, caffeic acid treatment attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behaviour in experimental animals by decreasing both peripheral and central cytokine levels along with oxidative stress inflicted by LPS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic acid is susceptible to autoxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeic Acid as Carbocyclic Carboxylic Acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tento článok je čiastočný alebo úplný preklad článku Caffeic acid na anglickej Wikipédii. (wikipedia.org)
  • A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. (curehunter.com)
  • and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. (scielo.br)
  • This comprehensive reference guide offers information on the most current developments in name reactions on carbocyclic ring formations, and is intended as a resource for both students and professionals working in organic chemistry and polymer synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • He is the coauthor of various books, including Palladium in Heterocyclic Chemistry, Name Reactions: A Collection of Detailed Reaction Mechanisms and Synthetic Applications, Name Reactions in Heterocyclic Chemistry, Contemporary Drug Synthesis, The Art of Drug Synthesis, Name Reactions for Functional Group Transformations, Name Reactions for Homologations, Parts 1 and 2, and Name Reactions for Carbocyclic Ring Formations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Apart from having close to 500 contributions to scientific journals and books to his credit, he is an editor of the Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry, also published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • Provided herein is a process for isolating at least one (thio)phosphoric acid derivative, which has a boiling point of at least 70.degree. (patents.com)
  • The amino acid tryptophan is an indole derivative and the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin . (lycaeum.org)
  • The broad-spectrum antiviral agent ribavirin affects viral nucleic acid replication by multiple mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • The amino acid residues in the enzyme active site are highly conserved among different influenza NA subtypes ( 2 - 4 ), and NA inhibitors (NAI) have been shown to have antiviral activities against a broad range of influenza viruses ( 43 - 45 ). (asm.org)
  • A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. (curehunter.com)
  • Phenolic acids from Symphoricarpos albus (E.) Blake (Caprifoliaceae). (ptfarm.pl)
  • This was demonstrated through the synthesis of various modified carbocyclic-locked nucleic acids (LNAs) and -ethylene-bridged nucleic acids (ENAs) with hydroxyl and/or methyl substituents attached at the carbocyclic part and their integration into AONs by solid-phase DNA synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • 1966: First described synthesis of the racemic (±) carbocyclic analogue of adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention relates to an ester having at least one sulphonic group on the acid chain, a method for the production thereof and the use of the ester as a plasticizer for polymers. (sumobrain.com)
  • It is the precursor to ferulic acid, coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol, all of which are significant building blocks in lignin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine was reported in 1988 as the first example of a carbocyclic analogue of an unnatural nucleoside to exhibit greater anti-herpes activity against the herpesviruses HSV-1 and HSV-2 in-vitro than its furanose parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroxy and ether substituted benzoic acids feature analogue metabolite of a spirin (acetylsalicylic Acid). (chemicalland21.com)
  • The drug is based on the structure of the transition-state analogue 2,3-dehyro-2-deoxy- N -acetylneuraminic acid, with a single substitution of a guanidinium group on the 4′ position on the sugar ring. (asm.org)
  • 1. A diagnostic and/or therapeutically active agent comprising encapsulated gas filled microbubbles stabilised by membrane-forming amphiphilic lipopeptides, wherein the peptide moieties of said lipopeptides each comprises less than 20 amino acid residues. (google.co.uk)
  • 3. An agent as claimed in claim 1 wherein said peptide moieties each comprise less than 10 amino acid residues. (google.co.uk)
  • 4. An agent as claimed in claim 3 wherein said peptide moieties each comprise from 2 to 8 amino acid residues. (google.co.uk)
  • 5. An agent as claimed in claim 1 wherein the peptide moieties of said lipopeptides consist of amino acid residues derived from naturally occurring essential amino acids. (google.co.uk)
  • 6. An agent as claimed in claim 1 wherein the peptide moieties of said lipopeptides comprise alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acid residues. (google.co.uk)
  • A carboxylic acid anion formed when the carboxy group of a monocarboxylic acid is deprotonated. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2020. Crystal structure of (E)-3-(3-(5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one, C27H21N5O . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • SAM can either act as a methyl donor for the biogenesis of small molecules such as prenyllipids and macromolecules or as a regulator of the synthesis of aspartate-derived amino acids. (plantcell.org)
  • Pharmacokinetics of valproic acid, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, and 1-methyl-1-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid in the bile-exteriorized rat. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Highly functionalized cyclic β-amino acid moieties as promising scaffolds in peptide research. (deepdyve.com)
  • For drug design, to improve proteolytic stability, it is desirable to include unnatural building blocks, such as conformationally restricted β-amino acid moieties, into the peptide sequence. (deepdyve.com)
  • Substitution of proline with pipecolic acid at the scissile bond converts a peptide substrate of HIV proteinase into a selective inhibitor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Such values were expected for a mixture containing aldehydes, ketones, and carbocyclic acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ABC, a carbocyclic synthetic nucleoside analog, is converted into its active form, carbovir triphosphate, by normal metabolic processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is phosphorylated to its active metabolite, carbovir triphosphate, which inhibits the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase competitively and terminates deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When acting on GLA, arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase produces no leukotrienes and the conversion by the enzyme of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes is inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transformation to ferulic acid is catalyzed by the enzyme caffeate O-methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study, therefore, aimed to explore the possible roles of veratric acid in protection against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Results showed that veratric acid can attenuate cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) formation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and apoptosis induced by UVB. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, veratric acid had inhibitory effects on the UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. (mdpi.com)
  • We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of veratric acid on human skin. (mdpi.com)
  • Overall, results demonstrated significant benefits of veratric acid on the protection of keratinocyte against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection. (mdpi.com)
  • Shin SW, Jung E, Kim S, Lee K-E, Youm J-K, Park D. Antagonist Effects of Veratric Acid against UVB-Induced Cell Damages. (mdpi.com)
  • Prazosin, a peripheral vasodilator and antihypertensive , is also an example of the applicaion of veratric acid. (chemicalland21.com)
  • These data indicate that the volume occupied by the amino acid side chain at position 274 can influence the sensitivities of influenza N1 NA but not of N2 NA to both oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir. (asm.org)