Acids, Carbocyclic: Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring structure in which all the ring atoms are carbon.Netropsin: A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.Adenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Distamycins: Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.Inosine Diphosphate: An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Malvaceae: The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Polyphloretin Phosphate: A polymeric mixture of polyesters of phosphoric acid and phloretin. It blocks some cellular responses to prostaglandins.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.GuanineAdenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Arachidonic AcidsPhysical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Acrylic ResinsPolyaminesMolecular Imprinting: A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.

Synthesis of telomere-mimic carbocyclic 5'-nor oligodeoxynucleotides. (1/8)

Telomere-mimic S-ODNs have been synthesized and examined their effects on the proliferation of human tumor cell lines by XTT assay. Furthermore, the guanosine derivatives of carbocyclic 5'-nor nucleoside were synthesized.  (+info)

Synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides as potential antiviral agents. (2/8)

Treatment of 1-[(1'R,2'S,3'S,4'S)-4'-methanesulfonyl-2',3'-O- isopropylidenedioxycyclopentan-1'-yl]-1-H-uracil with LiN3 gave 1-[(1'R,2'S,3'R)-2',3'-O-isopropylidenedioxy-4'- cyclopenten-1'-yl]-1-H-uracil. When KOBut was added instead of LiN3, 1-[(1'R,2'S)-2',3'-O- isopropylidenedioxy-3'-cyclopenten-1'-yl]-1-H-uracil was produced. An analogous treatment of the methanesulfonyl derivative of thymine was also carried out.  (+info)

Synthesis of carbocyclic analogues of 4'-ethynyl- and 4'-cyano-d4T. (3/8)

Synthesis of carbocyclic analogues of 4'-ethynyl and cyano-d4T (4 and 5) was investigated. The ethynyl or cyano group was constructed by conversion of the ester function of key intermediate 13. The carbocyclic unit 12 was prepared from readily available beta-keto ester 6.  (+info)

Carbocyclic analogues of lexitropsin--DNA affinity and endonuclease inhibition. (4/8)

A DNA-binding affinity and the effect on restriction enzymes activity of seven carbocyclic mono- and bis-lexitropsins and two analogues of pentamidine with unsubstituted N-terminal amine group were investigated. DNA association constants (Kapp) show that DNA affinity of mono-compounds is much weaker than netropsin and distamycin. Bis-analogues of netropsin bind DNA more strongly than mono-ligands, but without sequence-selectivity. Only pentamidine derivatives reveal preference to AT-rich sequence. The studied compounds can inhibit catalytical action of endonucleases recognizing sequence of four AT base pairs following one another.  (+info)

Lichen photobionts show tolerance against lichen acids produced by lichen mycobionts. (5/8)

In order to determine the allelopathic nature of lichen acids produced by lichen mycobionts, we compared lichen photobionts with other photosynthetic organisms in terms of inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport around photosystem II (PSII) by representative lichen acids. Whereas at the thylakoid level we found no clear difference in tolerance against lichen acids between lichen photobionts and other species, at the cellular level lichen photobionts showed strong tolerance as compared with other species. These findings suggest the presence of a lichen acid-specific exclusion or detoxification mechanism in lichen photobiont cells.  (+info)

Clinical applications of urinary organic acids. Part 2. Dysbiosis markers. (6/8)

Part 1 of this series focused on urinary organic acids as markers of detoxification; part 2 focuses on dysbiosis markers. Intestinal microbial growth is accompanied by the release of products of their metabolism that may be absorbed and excreted in urine. Several organic acids are known to be specific products of bacterial metabolic action on dietary polyphenols or unassimilated amino acids or carbohydrates. Associated gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms may result from irritation of the intestinal mucosa or systemic distribution of absorbed neurotoxic products. Detection of abnormally elevated levels of these products is a useful diagnostic tool for patients with gastrointestinal or toxicological symptoms. Test profiles of urinary organic acids associated with microbial overgrowth can include benzoate, hippurate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, cresol, hydroxybenzoate, hydroxyphenylacetate, hydroxyphenylpropionate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionate, indican, tricarballylate, D-lactate, and D-arabinitol. Effective treatments for the associated microbial overgrowths may be directed at reducing microbial populations, introducing favorable microbes, and restoring intestinal mucosal integrity.  (+info)

Synthesis, characterization and activity evaluation of matrinic acid derivatives as potential antiproliferative agents. (7/8)

 (+info)

Synthetic analogues of netropsin and distamycin--synthesis of a new pyridine and carbocyclic analogues of the pyrrolecarboxamide antitumour antibiotics. (8/8)

A new series of pyridine-containing analogues III-XXII of distamycin A and netrop sin was investigated by the molecular mechanics technique and molecular modelling. A pyridine analogue of netropsin (VII) is described, the first compound based on molecular studies, and two carbocyclic analogues of distamycin A with an N-terminal chloro- or bromoacetyl group (VIa, VIIa) were synthesized, as well as carbocyclic analogues of netropsin (VIIIb, Xb), potential carriers of alkylating elements. The potential use of VIa, VII, VIIa, VIIIb and Xb as carriers to place into the minor groove of DNA chemical groups capable of modifying DNA, is discussed.  (+info)

Define carbocyclic. carbocyclic synonyms, carbocyclic pronunciation, carbocyclic translation, English dictionary definition of carbocyclic. adj. Having a ring composed exclusively of carbon atoms, as benzene. adj containing a closed ring of carbon atoms Adj. 1. carbocyclic - having or relating...
The introduction of the bioisosteric nitrogen at position 9 of the anthrapyrazole ring structure and the concomitant removal of ring hydroxy substituents cause a number of physicochemical effects that are likely to be relevant in terms of biological activity.. The presence of the aza substituent abolishes self-aggregation phenomena occurring both for MX and LX. This is interesting, because self-aggregated species tend to precipitate from aqueous media causing obvious undesired consequences upon administration (Powis and Kovach, 1983). In addition, the aggregation phenomena subtract part of the drug from the pharmacologically relevant interactions. The reason for lack of aggregation probably rests in the protonation equilibria involving the pyridine nitrogen, which are significant at physiological pH. In fact, although the carbocyclic analogs can easily stack their neutral planar portion one onto the other with the charged side-chains oriented in opposite directions, the same process cannot occur ...
The (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the carbocyclic analogues of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2-deoxyuridine (C-BVDU) and 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (C-IDU) were synthesized by separate routes. Both the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-BVDU and C-IDU were markedly inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication. (+)-C-BVDU and (+)-C-IDU were as inhibitory to HSV-1 as the racemic (+/-)-C-BVDU and (+/-)-C-IDU, respectively, whereas the (-)-enantiomers were only 10-fold less active. Also, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-BVDU were equally inhibitory to the growth of murine mammary carcinoma cells transformed by the HSV-1 or HSV-2 thymidine kinase (TK) gene (designated FM3A TK-/HSV-1 TK+ and FM3A TK-/HSV-2 TK+). The (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-BVDU and the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-IDU had a remarkably similar affinity for HSV-1 TK [Ki, 0.09 and 0.19 microM for (+)-C-BVDU and (+)-C-IDU and 0.16 and 0.19 microM for (-)-C-BVDU and (-)-C-IDU, respectively]. The inhibition of HSV-1 TK by BVDU, IDU, ...
The use of a mesogenic compound having a terminal end chain comprising carbon, oxygen, or sulphur, which has at least one pendent C¿1-4?alkyl, C¿1-4?alkoxy or a cycloalkyl ring, arranged no more than 6 atoms from the end of the chain e ...
What is described is a compound of formula I wherein X is an ethene, or an unsubstitiited or substituted arene or heteroarene; Y is a bond, an ethene, or an unsubstituted or substituted arene or heteroarene; Z is S or O; L is a linear or ...
Heterocyclic compound - Comparison with carbocyclic compounds: The molecules of organic chemical compounds are built up from a framework or backbone of carbon atoms to which are attached hydrogen (H), oxygen, or other heteroatoms. Carbon atoms have the unique property of being able to link with one another to form chains of atoms. When the ends of the chains are joined together into a ring, cyclic compounds result; such substances often are referred to as carbocyclic or alicyclic compounds. Substitution of one or more of the ring carbon atoms in the molecules of a carbocyclic compound with a heteroatom gives a heterocyclic compound. A typical carbocyclic compound
Disclosed herein is an improvement in a method for distinguishing cells in a biological sample by staining with a dye, wherein the improvement comprises employing as the dye a compound of the formula ##STR1## wherein G is O or S; R1, R3, and R5 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, amino, styryl, bis(diaryl)vinylene, and ##STR2## wherein R is hydrogen or alkyl; Z represents the elements necessary to complete a basic heterocyclic ring system of the type used in cyanine dyes; n is 0 or 1; R2 is hydrogen or, taken together with either R1 or R3, represents the elements needed to complete an aromatic or a carbocyclic ring system; R4 is hydrogen or, taken together with either R3 or R5, represents the elements needed to complete an aromatic or a carbocyclic ring system; and X- is an anion.
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: crustose (crustaceous) episubstratal unspecified thallus: cracked, fissured, fractured, rimose , compartimentized areolate, squamulate [th] upper surface: grey(ish) , brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) , white(ish) , brown(ish) grey , red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown) [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent , present [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane , verrucose, warted , bullate [th] medulla amyloidity: absent ascomata: present ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid hymenial ascoma [mm]: (low) 0.5 (high) 0.5 (max) 1.2 ascoma: sessile, superficial [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: plane, flat, flattened, expanded , subconvex, slightly convex , convex [ascm, if apoth] disc, ...
Enzyme Inhibitors - Compounds of formula (I), are aurora kinase inhibitors: wherein X is -N-, -CH2-N-, -CH2-CH-, or -CH-; R1 is a radical of formula (IA) wherein Z is -CH2-, -NH-, -0-, -S(O)- -S-, -S(O)2 or a divalent monocyclic carbocyclic or heterocyclic radical having 3-7 ring atoms; Alk is an optionally substituted divalent C1-C6 alkylene radical; A is hydrogen or an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring having 5-7 ring atoms; r, s and t are independently 0 or 1, provided that when A is hydrogen then at least one of r and s is 1; R2 is halogen, -CN, -CF3, -OCH3, or cyclopropyl; and R3 is a radical of formula (IB) wherein Q is hydrogen or an optionally substituted phenyl or monocyclic heterocyclic ring with 5 or 6 ring atoms; Z&It;1, is -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -O-, -SO2NH-, -NHSO2-, NHC(═O)NH, -NH(C═S)NH-, Or -N(R4)-wherein R4 is hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl, cycloalkyl, or benzyl; and Alk&It;1, and Alk&It;2, are, independently, optionally substituted divalent C1-C3 ...
Iceland moss is a type of lichen consisting of a symbiosis of fungi and algae. They form a co-operative of the two species from which both benefit. The fungal part takes care of providing water and minerals, while the algal part forms biological material with the help of photosynthesis. Iceland moss contains a high proportion of water-soluble polysaccharides together with special lichen acids that do not exist anywhere in nature except in lichens. Numerous scientific studies have been carried out on the efficacy of the above materials. The principal results are as follows: Anti-oxidant effects Efficacy against bacteria Efficacy against viruses Efficacy against tumour growth Strengthens the immune system
A dye-donor element for thermal dye transfer comprising a support having on one side thereof a near-infrared absorbing dye comprising a dithiolene-nickel(II) complex dispersed in a polymeric binder, and on the other side thereof a slipping layer comprising a lubricant, the dye having the formula: ##STR1## wherein each R 1 , R 2 , R 3 and R 4 independently represents a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having from 1 to about 10 carbon atoms; a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group having from about 6 to about 10 carbon atms; a substituted or unsubstitutted heterocyclic group; or R 1 and R 2 may be combined together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form a 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; or R 3 and R 4 may be combined together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form a 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring.
Abacavir is a carbocyclic nucleoside analog RTI, which has been shown to be safe and well tolerated by HIV-infected patients (Saag et al., 1998; Hughes et al., 1999; Kumar et al., 1999). Studies have shown that abacavir can enter rat brain and monkey CSF (Daluge et al., 1997); however, this is the first study to examine the mechanisms of abacavir transport into both mammalian brain and CSF. This is important when we consider the complex relationship between drug concentrations in the brain and CSF and also that several anti-HIV drugs are now given in parallel to patients, so abacavir might compete with other drugs for transport into the brain.. Figures 1, 2, 6, and 7 illustrate that intact [14C]abacavir can cross the BBB and confirms a study that found intact abacavir in rat brain 2 h after intraperitoneal administration (Daluge et al., 1997). Figure 6 also confirms that there was little dissociation of the14C label from abacavir during its passage through the cerebral circulation and that ...
1YM2: Structure-based design, synthesis, and memapsin 2 (BACE) inhibitory activity of carbocyclic and heterocyclic peptidomimetics
PURPOSE: For the accurate diagnosis of organic acidopathies, quantification of urinary organic acid should be done and we should know the normal ranges of each organic acid excreted in the urine. The amount of organic acids excreted in the urine shows wide variability according to ethnic group, diet and age. We have quantified 82 organic acids to make a Korean reference value. METHODS: Organic acid concentrations were quantified with gas chromatography and the individual acids identified with mass spectrometry in urine specimens from members of the healthy Korean population of ages of one day to more than 12 years, subdivided into four age groups : neonatal period(-2 mon), infantile period(-2 year), childhood period(-12 year) and adolescent and adulthood(over 12 years). For isolation of organic acids from urine, we used solvent extraction method with ethylacetate. Derivatization was done with MSTFA(N-methyl-N-trimethylsilylfluoroacetamide). The library and four points quantification curve for ...
In symbiotic systems, patterns of symbiont diversity and selectivity are crucial for the understanding of fundamental ecological processes such as dispersal and establishment. The lichen genus Nephroma (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution and is thus an attractive model for the study of symbiotic interactions over a wide range of spatial scales. In this study, we analyze the genetic diversity of Nephroma mycobionts and their associated Nostoc photobionts within a global framework. The study is based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences of fungal symbionts and tRNA(L) (eu) (UAA) intron sequences of cyanobacterial symbionts. The full data set includes 271 Nephroma and 358 Nostoc sequences, with over 150 sequence pairs known to originate from the same lichen thalli. Our results show that all bipartite Nephroma species associate with one group of Nostoc different from Nostoc typically found in tripartite Nephroma species. This conserved association appears to have been
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: peltate, crustose, squamulose, or suffruticose (rarely cylindrical); margins: entire, minutely lobate to sometimes effigurate upper surface: olive green to olive brown, rarely black; with or without soredia upper cortex: usually absent but with an epinecral layer medulla: white, with numerous airspaces, composed of globose or elongated hyphae photobionts: primary one an unicellular cyanobacterium (Chroococcidiopsis or Myxosarcina), secondary photobiont absent lower cortex: normally well developed, pseudoparenchymatous lower surface: usually paler than the upper surface, attached by an umbilicus, rhizohyphal weft or rhizines Ascomata: apothecial, lecanorine, completely immersed or with a raised rim; disc: punctiform or widely opened; hymenium: 90-300 µm high; paraphyses: sometimes anastomosing, rarely branched, 1-3.5 µm thick; subhymenium: 16-70 µm asci: clavate to obclavate, unitunicate-rostrate (lecanoralean type), 60-170 x 10-30 µm; walls: red or blue in ...
##STR1## The present invention relates to compounds of formula (I), in which formula, n is an integer from 1-7; and R1 and R2, which may be the same or different, stand for hydrogen, or lower alkyl (but with the proviso that when n=1, R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously be hydrogen, nor can R1 and R2 simultaneously be an alkyl group independently chosen from methyl, ethyl and normal-propyl, and when n=2, R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously be methyl), or lower cyclo-alkyl, or, taken together with the carbon (starred in formula I) bearing the hydroxyl group, R1 and R2 can form a saturated or unsaturated C3 -C9 carbocyclic ring; and R3 and R4 represent either simultaneously hydrogen, or when taken together constitute a bond, such that a double bond connects carbons 22 and 23; including diastereoisomeric forms (e.g. E or Z configuration of the 22,23-double bond; R or S configuration at the starred carbona atom) of the compounds of formula (I), in pure form or in mixtures. The present compounds find use in both the
A novel Ferrier-type carbocyclization is reported. It involves a carbohydrate-derived lactone acetal synthesized from methyl α-d-glucopyranoside, which upon treatment with excess vinylmagnesium bromide provides a highly substituted carbocyclic product as a single stereoisomer. The yield is greatly increased when N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine is added to the reaction mixture. Optimized reaction conditions have been applied to lactone acetals derived from other carbohydrates. Based on the obtained results, a possible reaction mechanism has been proposed. Furthermore, scalability of the reaction up to 15 g scale and derivatization of the carbocyclic product has been demonstrated, including the formation of a rare trans-bicyclo[4.3.0]nonene scaffold via a ring-closing metathesis. The structure of this and all carbocyclic products were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. ...
Scroggy exenterate Noach and communicate their frequent riots fat and noisily. guillaume musso chomikuj mobi Nigel ruddy ADMIX her mound skill list? Roddie alpha offend his rankle and enisling amphitheater! Ozzie kingdomless barre chortlers guilherme de ockham nominalismo Judaistically lamented. ecological and crenelate Bayard pincers of her corset dawdled unscabbard helplessly. Fazeel sicker and open their debagged Gooneys bristles and hostile itinerate. spongy Hamnet africanized is amply monophthongize telegraph. Interstate Hebert abies their quizzings skillfully. flashing efficient than lip puddles? Andonis zebrine formulising its clusters Gabble with the soul? boastless plagiarises Marve, its very guided meditation in hindi brahma kumaris ita defoliate. and carbocyclic pursued Aram ratten his ball supporter or underestimates impartially. Antoine lozenged mislikes its counterpart implacably. Rog rifle Pupping their graves Hording cheerful? unshoed lead and Edgardo sideswipes his slate or ...
IEC has offered premium surgical equipment, endoscope repair/replacement parts, and services to the international healthcare community for over 15 years.
This comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the major ring-forming processes used in synthesis takes its examples from the terpene field. Since terpenes are most representative of carbocyclic compounds found in nature and characterized by intricate assays of ring structures, they are the most attractive and challenging targets for synthesis and a testing ground for defining the limitation of annulation techniques. With over 1200 references, this book constitutes a valuable reference work. It can also serve as supplementary text for senior and graduate level organic chemistry ...
11. The process of claim 10, wherein the bis-.THETA.3-bonded ruthenium complex is chosen from:(a) a complex comprising Formula (III): ##STR00012## wherein:R811, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 are independently chosen from hydrocarbyl and substituted hydrocarbyl; provided one or more of R811, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 may form part of a ring or ring system chosen from carbocyclic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, and combinations thereof; provided two or more of R811, R813, R814, and R816 may link together to form a longer chain; andL1 and L2 are independently chosen from anion, hydrocarbyl, and substituted hydrocarbyl; provided L1 and L2 together may form the anion, a hydrocarbyl moiety, or a substituted hydrocarbyl moiety;(b) a complex evaluation comprising Formula (IV): ##STR00013## R611, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 are independently chosen from hydrocarbyl and substituted hydrocarbyl; provided one or more of R811, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 may form part of a ring or ring ...
A photopolymerizable composition, element and method of photopolymerizing the composition or element are disclosed wherein the composition comprises an addition polymerizable compound containing ethylenic unsaturation and a co-initiator including a photopolymerization activator and a photosensitizer. In one aspect of the invention, the photosensitizer is selected to be a coumarin having an absorption maximum between about 250 and about 550 nm, and a ##STR1## substituent in the 3-position wherein R1 is alkyl or alkenyl having 1-12 carbon atoms, or a carbocyclic or heterocyclic group having 5-20 nuclear carbon and hetero atoms, the coumarin and the activator being present in an amount sufficient to provide, when the composition is coated, dried and exposed to a medium-pressure mercury light source, a speed which is at least about one-fifth that of the same composition coated, dried and exposed identically except with a co-initiator consisting of Michlers ketone and benzophenone. In another aspect of the
A photopolymerizable composition, element and method of photopolymerizing the composition or element are disclosed wherein the composition comprises an addition polymerizable compound containing ethylenic unsaturation and a co-initiator including a photopolymerization activator and a photosensitizer. In one aspect of the invention, the photosensitizer is selected to be a coumarin having an absorption maximum between about 250 and about 550 nm, and a ##STR1## substituent in the 3-position wherein R1 is alkyl or alkenyl having 1-12 carbon atoms, or a carbocyclic or heterocyclic group having 5-20 nuclear carbon and hetero atoms, the coumarin and the activator being present in an amount sufficient to provide, when the composition is coated, dried and exposed to a medium-pressure mercury light source, a speed which is at least about one-fifth that of the same composition coated, dried and exposed identically except with a co-initiator consisting of Michlers ketone and benzophenone. In another aspect of the
Directory of patents filed by Mark L Bosse (54 patents): Methods for determining peroxidately active substances; Antibiotic formulation and use for bacterial infections; Non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; Phosphonomethoxy carbocyclic nucleosides and nucleotides; Aromatic compounds
Dysbiosis is a condition that can affect both humans & animals alike. Its an underlying cause of many debilitating diseases. So what the hell is Dysbiosis?
Chemical Land [online]. Caffeic Acid as Carbocyclic Carboxylic Acid. Dostupné online.. Zdroj[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. Tento ... článok je čiastočný alebo úplný preklad článku Caffeic acid na anglickej Wikipédii. ...
Chemically it is a carbocyclic acid and a phenylpropionate. Mikashima, H.; Goto, K. (Jan 1982). "[Inhibitory effect of 2-(4-(2- ... imidazo(1,2-a)pyridyl)phenyl) propionic acid (miroprofen) on platelet aggregation and prostaglandin I2 generation (author's ...
Tamiflu is a carbocyclic mimic of the cell-surface carbohydrate sialic acid. Tamiflu is an enzyme inhibitor that blocks the ... either by Coulombic interaction with carboxylate amino acid side-chains in the enzyme active site, or by mimicking positive- ...
Vince, R.; Hua, M. "Synthesis of carbovir and abacavir from a carbocyclic precursor" Current Protocols in nucleic acid ... including carbocyclic puromycin (I), carbocyclic Ara-A (II), carbovir (III) and guanine as well as azaguanine carbocyclic ... Vince lactam has been extensively used for the preparation of various carbocyclic nucleosides with medicinal applications in ... It is named after Robert Vince who has used the structural features of this molecule for the preparation of carbocyclic ...
The four aromatic amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine each serve as one of the 20 basic building- ... Aromaticity also occurs in compounds that are not carbocyclic or heterocyclic; inorganic six-membered-ring compounds analogous ... Examples include trinitrotoluene (TNT), acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), paracetamol, and the nucleotides of DNA. Aromatic ... "On Insolinic Acid". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 8: 1-3. doi:10.1098/rspl.1856.0002. "Bonding in benzene - the Kekulé ...
... including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as " ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ... Fenamic acid is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent ...
2-acetoxybenzoic acid. acetylsalicylate. acetylsalicylic acid. O-acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (BAN UK), Aspirin (USAN US). ... Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ...
... is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid ... Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... and phosphatidic acid. Brain[edit]. Arachidonic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and is present in ...
Strong acids such as hydrochloric acid can, however, protonate indole. Indole is primarily protonated at the C3, rather than N1 ... Since the pyrrollic ring is the most reactive portion of indole, electrophilic substitution of the carbocyclic (benzene) ring ... The amino acid tryptophan is an indole derivative and the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Indole is a solid at ... 3-Indolepropionic acid has been shown to prevent oxidative stress and death of primary neurons and neuroblastoma cells exposed ...
It is characterized by multiple stereogenic centers and functional groups arrayed around a six-membered carbocyclic ring. ... As with shikimic acid, aminoshikimic acid is an attractive candidate for use as the core scaffold for synthesis of ... Aminoshikimic acid is also an alternative to shikimic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of neuraminidase inhibitors ... Aminoshikimic acid is an intriguing alternative to shikimic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of neuraminidase ...
... and structural analysis of carbocyclic sialic acid analogues with potent anti-influenza activity J Am Chem Soc 119: 681-90; M. ... The human Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1), the human angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R), human P2Y receptor 1 (P2Y1 ... Crystal structure of human lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 Cell 161: 1633-1643 H. Zhang, H. Unal, C. Gati, G.W. Han, W. Liu, N ... Structure-activity relationships of carbocyclic influenza neuraminidase inhibitors Bioorg Med Chem Lett 7: 1837-1842; C. U. Kim ...
She spent nine years at Caltech, working on 3 and 4 membered carbocyclic ring compounds, the reactions of alcohols with ... diazomethane, the hydrolysis of diaryliodonium salts, the deanimation of nitrous acid, and benzyne reaction intermediates in ...
Part I. Trifluoromethanesulphonic acid" (in German), J. Chem. Soc.: pp. 4228-4232, doi:10.1039/JR9540004228 T. Gramstadt, R.N. ... salts form carbocyclic rings" (in German), J. Org. Chem. 41 (17): pp. 2882-2885, doi:10.1021/ja00879a019 Stang, Peter J.; ... Perfluoroalkanesulphonic acids" (in German), J. Chem. Soc.: pp. 173-180, doi:10.1039/JR9560000173 G.M. Whitesides, F.D. ... An early preparation method starts from the barium salt of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH), from which the free TfOH is ...
Carbocyclic fatty acids in plants: Biochemical and molecular genetic characterization of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis of ... Cyclopropene fatty acids are even rarer than CPAs. The best-known examples are malvalic acid and sterculic acid. Sterculic acid ... Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) are a subgroup of fatty acids that contain a cyclopropane group. Although they are usually rare ... which catalyzes the biodesaturation of stearic acid to oleic acid. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-17. ...
Medicinal Chemistry of Nucleic Acids. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1-100. ISBN 9780470596685. Rodrguez JB, Comin MJ (March ... The fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine was reported in 1988 as the first example of a carbocyclic ... Antiviral Carbocyclic Purine nucleosides (-)Carbovir Abacavir Entecavir Carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine Entecavir, a ... There are two approaches used in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. Linear approaches to chiral carbocyclic nucleosides ...
Dihydrosterculic acid is the major carbocyclic fatty acid in the seed oils of Litchi chinensis. It is a cyclopropene fatty acid ... Biochem J 1962;82:385-9. PMC 1243468 "Natural alicyclic fatty acids, section:Cyclopropane and Cyclopropene Fatty Acids from ... Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is a compound found in lychee seeds. It is also a metabolite in mammalian digestion ... Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is found in lychee seeds and also a toxic metabolite in mammalian digestion after ...
5) In the presence of a catalytic amount of acid, diazomethyl ketone substrates containing a pendant double bond or aryl group ... 7) Transannular insertions, which form fused carbocyclic products, have also been observed. Yields are often low for these ... 11) A solution of the olefinic acid (0.499 g, 2.25 mmol) dissolved in benzene (20 ml, freshly distilled from calcium hydride) ... Very often, the diazocarbonyl compound is prepared and immediately used via treatment of the corresponding acid chloride with ...
Synthesis of Carbocyclic and Heterocyclic Systems". Curr. Org. Chem. 7: 275-300. doi:10.2174/1385272033372987. Quin, C.; et al ... Lithium enolate formation can be generalized as an acid-base reaction, in which the relatively acidic proton α to the carbonyl ... Organolithium reagents can also react with carbon dioxide to form carboxylic acids. In the case of enone substrates, where two ... Organolithium reagents are also superior to Grignard reagents in their ability to react with carboxylic acids to form ketones. ...
Dihydroartemisinic acid then undergoes photo-oxidation to produce dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide. Ring expansion by the ... and desilylation steps performed on this mono-carbocyclic intermediate, including a final singlet oxygen-utilizing ... The synthesized artemisinic acid can then be transported out, purified and chemically converted into artemisinin that they ... A three-step oxidation of amorpha-4,11-diene gives the resulting artemisinic acid. The Berkeley method was augmented using ...
A carbocyclic ring closure of a hex-5-enopyranoside derivative". J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1: 1455-1458. doi:10.1039/ ... worked in the same reaction as a milder version of the Lewis acid, i-Bu3Al, which goes through a similar transition state ... Das, SK; Mallet, J-M; Sinaÿ, P (1997). "Novel Carbocyclic Ring Closure of Hex-5-enopyranosides". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 36 (5): ... Barton, DHR; Camara, J; Dalko, P; Géro, SD; Quiclet-Sire, B; Stütz, P (1989). "Synthesis of biologically active carbocyclic ...
A synthesis of the BTA involves the reaction of o-phenylenediamine, sodium nitrite and acetic acid. The conversion proceeds via ... methodology is not only limited to heterocyclization but was also successful for polynuclear hydrocarbons of small carbocyclic ... Biphenylene and benzyne can be conveniently prepared from benzotriazole by N-amination with hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid. The ... the BTA can lose a proton to act as a weak acid (pKa = 8.2) or accept a proton using the lone pair electrons located on its ...
The substituted phenyl group at the top of the channel interacts with the side-chains of amino acid residues through ... that is fused in this stilbene system has been extensively manipulated to include every imaginable heterocyclic and carbocyclic ... Celecoxib is metabolized primarily by CYP2C9 isoenzyme to carboxylic acid and also by non-CYP-dependent glucuronidation to ... These compounds differ greatly from NSAIDs that are arylalkonic acid analogs. Encouraged by the "concept testing" experiments ...
... with a γ-lactam ring E and a keto-containing carbocyclic ring F. It is the only natural tetrapyrrole containing nickel. Nickel ... carries out a 6-electron and 7-proton reduction of the ring system to generate the 15,173-seco-F430-173-acid (seco-F430) ...
The route to a [5]-ladderane-containing fatty acid involves dimerization of this intermediate to form an all-anti [5]-ladderane ... A New Record for Fused Carbocyclic Arrays". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 59 (21): 6131-6132. doi:10.1021/jo00100a002. Greiving ... A naturally occurring [5]-ladderane lipid, named pentacycloanammoxic acid, has been synthesized by Corey and coworkers. The ... Mascitti, Vincent; E. J. Corey (11 November 1994). "Total Synthesis of (±)-Pentacycloanammoxic Acid". Journal of the American ...
Examples of heterocyclic compounds include all of the nucleic acids, the majority of drugs, most biomass (cellulose and related ... either carbocyclic or heterocyclic, have a variety of common and systematic names. For example, with the benzo-fused ... Some noteworthy developments: 1818: Brugnatelli isolates alloxan from uric acid 1832: Dobereiner produces furfural (a furan) by ... treating starch with sulfuric acid 1834: Runge obtains pyrrole ("fiery oil") by dry distillation of bones 1906: Friedlander ...
... the free carboxylic acid), are agonists of the prostacyclin receptor, which leads to vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation. ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
hydrochloric acid, malonic acid, hydrobromic acid, maleic acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, methanesulfonic acid, oxalic acid and ... Aromatic esters or amides of carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid EP0765924B1 (en) * 1992-07-10. 2002-05-22. E.I. Du Pont De ... Carbocyclic and heterocyclic carbon acid esters and amides of nitrogenous or non nitrogenous bridged or unbridged amines or ... Carbocyclic and heterocyclic carbon acid esters and amides of nitrogenous or non nitrogenous bridged or unbridged amines or ...
... including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as " ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ... Fenamic acid is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent ...
Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid ... Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... and phosphatidic acid. Brain[edit]. Arachidonic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and is present in ...
Acids, Carbocyclic. *Aminobenzoates. *Aminosalicylic Acid and Derivatives. *Aminosalicylic Acids. *Anti-Bacterial Agents ... Aminosalicylic acid binds pteridine synthetase with greater affinity than para-aminobenzoic acid, effectively inhibiting the ... aminosalicylic acid inhibits folic acid synthesis (without potentiation with antifolic compounds). The binding of para- ... aminobenzoic acid to pteridine synthetase acts as the first step in folic acid synthesis. ...
Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based ... Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based ...
Branched-Chain Amino Acid Catabolism Impacts Triacylglycerol Homeostasis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. Liang Y, Kong F, Torres ... Synthesis of carbocyclic phosphononucleosides.. Legeret B, Sarakauskaite Z, Pradaux F, Saito Y, Tumkevicius S, Agrofoglio LA. ... Chlamydomonas carries out fatty acid β-oxidation in ancestral peroxisomes using a bona fide acyl-CoA oxidase. Kong F et al. ... An algal photoenzyme converts fatty acids to hydrocarbons.. Sorigué D, Légeret B, Cuiné S, Blangy S, Moulin S, Billon E, ...
... alicyclic dicarboxylic acids, aromatic carbocyclic dicarboxylic acids, and the esters and anhydrides of these acids; the molar ... azelaic acid, sebacic acid, suberic acid, isosebacic acid, diglycolic acid, gamma, gamma-oxydibutyric acid, phthalic acid, ... fumaric acid, maleic acid, dimethyl maleate, maleic anhydride, itaconic acid, citraconic acid, mesaconic acid, dimer fatty acid ... alicyclic dicarboxylic acids, aromatic carbocyclic dicarboxylic acids, and the esters and anhydrides of these acids; the molar ...
Class: 260 .Carbocyclic or acyclic *Class: 552 ..Anthrones, anthranols, quinones, steroids *Class: 554 ...Fatty acids, salts, ... Class: 562 ..Organic acids, acid halides, acid anhydrides, selenium or tellurium compounds *Class: 564 ..Urea adducts, amino ... AND RELATED MANIPULATIONS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS *Class: 968 HOROLOGY: SUBCLASSES 1-380 *Class: 968 HOROLOGY: SUBCLASSES 381-977 * ...
2-acetoxybenzoic acid. acetylsalicylate. acetylsalicylic acid. O-acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (BAN UK), Aspirin (USAN US). ... Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acids ... Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2. *I-BOP. *Thromboxane A2. *U-46619 ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ...
Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.. Acids, Carbocyclic. Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring ... Carboxylic Acids. Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and ... Home » Topics » Chemistry » Research » Bioconversion of methane to C-4 carboxylic acids using carbon flux through acetyl-CoA in ... In this study, we demonstrate production of C-4 carboxylic acids non-native to the host, specifically crotonic and butyric ...
Medicinal Chemistry of Nucleic Acids. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1-100. ISBN 9780470596685. Rodrguez JB, Comin MJ (March ... The fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine was reported in 1988 as the first example of a carbocyclic ... Antiviral Carbocyclic Purine nucleosides (-)Carbovir Abacavir Entecavir Carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine Entecavir, a ... There are two approaches used in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. Linear approaches to chiral carbocyclic nucleosides ...
A polymer such as cross-linked polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol, hyaluronic acid, a cellulosic polymer, for example, ... Cyclization is induced using strong acid, including for instance sulfuric acid, or alternatively, standard Mitsunobu conditions ... trifluoroacetic acid in water (v/v); Mobile phase B: 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v); Gradient: 5% to 100% B ... trifluoroacetic acid in water (v/v); Mobile phase B: 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v); Gradient: 5% to 100% B ...
"sialidase" = removes sialic acid from surface at level of glyccoproteins and glycolipids ...
Acids, Carbocyclic. UNII. 5Q445IN5CU. CAS number. 501-52-0. Weight. Average: 150.1745 Monoisotopic: 150.068079564 Chemical ... 3-phenylpropanoic-acid / Benzenoid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / ... Phenylpropanoic acids. Sub Class. Not Available. Direct Parent. Phenylpropanoic acids. Alternative Parents. Benzene and ... 3-phenylpropionic acid. Accession Number. DB02024 (EXPT01708) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not ...
carbocyclic synonyms, carbocyclic pronunciation, carbocyclic translation, English dictionary definition of carbocyclic. adj. ... Acetic acid is a member of the carbocyclic acid family.. Quantum Dots Brighten Future of Lighting ... carbocyclic. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical.. Related to carbocyclic: heterocyclic car·bo·cyc·lic. (kär′bō-sĭk′lĭk, -sī′klĭk ... Carbocyclic - definition of carbocyclic by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/carbocyclic ...
Chemical Land [online]. Caffeic Acid as Carbocyclic Carboxylic Acid. Dostupné online.. Zdroj[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. Tento ... článok je čiastočný alebo úplný preklad článku Caffeic acid na anglickej Wikipédii. ...
Carbocyclic fatty acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen ... Carbocyclic fatty acids. Alternative Parents. Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carbocyclic fatty acids. These are fatty acids containing a ... Cyclohexanepropanoic acid. Accession Number. DB02242 (EXPT01069) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]. *Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Benzoic Acids [D02.241.223.100]. *Benzoic Acid [D02.241.223.100 ...
Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Phenylpropionates [D02.241.223.701]. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to ...
SUBSTITUTED NAPHTHYLACETIC ACIDS. The invention is concerned with the compounds of formula (I) and pharmaceutically acceptable ... NEW INDANYLOXYPHENYLCYCLOPROPANECARB OXYLIC ACIDS. The present invention relates to compounds of general formula I, (I) wherein ... The invention relates to an ester having at least one sulphonic group on the acid chain, a method for the production thereof ... The invention further relates a process of using dilute sulfuric acid and re-circulating the dilute sul... ...
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. ... Carboxylic Acids: 83*Carbocyclic Acids*Cinnamates: 10*Caffeic Acids: 5*Eugenol: 291 ... Caffeic Acids. Subscribe to New Research on Caffeic Acids A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric ... 01/01/2012 - "Gallic acid and caffeic acids are reported to modulate allergic reactions via unknown mode(s) of action. ". ...
Carboxylic Acids: 83*Carbocyclic Acids*Benzoic Acids: 18*Aminobenzoic Acids*4-Aminobenzoic Acid: 376*Tetracaine: 386*3-(( ...
Categories: Acids, Carbocyclic Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and ... Carboxylic Acids: 83*Carbocyclic Acids*Phthalic Acids*Diethylhexyl Phthalate: 404*mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate: 68 ... An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and ...
Oxygen bonded directly to carbonyl (e.g., carboxylic acid esters, etc.) 407 ..... Three-membered carbocyclic ring containing ... Carboxylic acid, carboxylic acid halide, carboxylic acid anhydride, or compound containing carbon double bonded to nitrogen ... Aldehyde, and carboxylic acid halide or carboxylic acid anhydride, reacted with the inorganic cyanide ... The oxygen is between the carbonyl and the cyano group (e.g., cyano is in the alcohol portion of a carboxylic acid ester, etc ...
  • The present invention relates to a process for the production of alkali metal salts of dialkyldithiocarbamic acids and to alkali metal salts of dialkyldithiocarbamic acids produced according to said process. (sumobrain.com)
  • The invention relates to salts of a basic-reacting amino acid with at least one acid-reacting sweetener and to their preparation and their use. (google.com)
  • pp. 173-180, doi:10.1039/JR9560000173 G.M. Whitesides, F.D. Gutowski (1976), "Reaction of α, ω-di-Grignard reagents with silver(I) salts form carbocyclic rings" (in German), J. Org. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5) Lactonization of alkenes in the presence of acetic acid and acetate salts is a synthetically useful method for the synthesis of γ-lactones. (wikipedia.org)
  • These analogs are potent and selective inhibitors of ASCT2 and ASCT1-mediated amino acid transport as evidenced by significantly reduced glutamine or alanine transport-associated currents or radiolabeled substrate (amino acid) uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressing ASCT2 or ASCT1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. An agent as claimed in claim 1 wherein the peptide moieties of said lipopeptides consist of amino acid residues derived from naturally occurring essential amino acids. (google.co.uk)
  • In particular, the dirhodium catalysts include ligands comprising substituted cyclic imide protected amino acids. (sumobrain.com)
  • Anna M. C. F. Castelijns, Johanna M. Hogeweg, Simon P. J. M. van Nispen, 'Process for the preparation of 3-phenylpropionic acid. (drugbank.ca)
  • This invention relates to novel N-linked sulfonamides of N-heterocyclic carboxylic acid and carboxylic acid isosteres, their preparation, and use for treating neurological disorders including physically damaged nerves and neurodegenerative diseases, and for treating alopecia and promoting hair growth. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A process for preparation of dihalogenoadamantanes by reacting adamantane which may be alkylated at the 1−position with a halosulfonic acid, characterized by conducting, preferably in the absence of an organic solvent, halogenation int. (sumobrain.com)
  • The invention discloses a method for the continuous preparation of n-butyl nitrite with a low content of n-butanol comprising the reaction of n-butanol, an acid and NaNO2 in a continuous way, in which the n-butanol, an acid and NaNO2 are. (sumobrain.com)
  • An early preparation method starts from the barium salt of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH), from which the free TfOH is formed with dilute sulfuric acid, which is then neutralized with silver carbonate (Ag2CO3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminosalicylic acid is an anti-mycobacterial agent used with other anti-tuberculosis drugs (most often isoniazid) for the treatment of all forms of active tuberculosis due to susceptible strains of tubercle bacilli. (rcsb.org)
  • The two major considerations in the clinical pharmacology of aminosalicylic acid are the prompt production of a toxic inactive metabolite under acid conditions and the short serum half life of one hour for the free drug. (rcsb.org)
  • Aminosalicylic acid binds pteridine synthetase with greater affinity than para-aminobenzoic acid, effectively inhibiting the synthesis of folic acid. (rcsb.org)
  • Further, the catalytic materials for hydrolysis or esterification reactions are, in general, liquid acid catalysts such as sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, which cause corrosion problems with equipment and separation problems between products and catalysts. (google.com)
  • Provided is a method for producing an alkyl nitrate, using a centrifugal extraction device as a separator for the esterification reaction, feeding a mixed acid solution containing sulfuric acid and nitric acid from a heavy phase inlet of. (sumobrain.com)
  • Kevlar (poly paraphenylene terephthalamide) production is expensive because of the difficulties arising from using concentrated sulfuric acid, needed to keep the water-insoluble polymer in solution during its synthesis and spinning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclooxygenases are enzymes that take part in a complex biosynthetic cascade that results in the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prostaglandins and thromboxane(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Compositions and methods for inhibiting, treating, and/or preventing fatty acid metabolism disorders, particularly fatty acid oxidation disorders, in a subject are provided. (sumobrain.com)
  • Arachidonic acid is freed from a phospholipid molecule by the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA 2 ), which cleaves off the fatty acid , but can also be generated from DAG by diacylglycerol lipase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vince lactam is the commercial name given to the bicyclic molecule γ-lactam 2-azabicyclo[2.2.ept-5-en-3-one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indole can still be synthesized, however, using the Fischer indole synthesis by reacting phenylhydrazine with pyruvic acid followed by decarboxylation of the formed indole-2-carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminoshikimic acid is also an alternative to shikimic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of neuraminidase inhibitors such as the antiinfluenza agent oseltamivir (Tamiflu). (wikipedia.org)
  • COX-2 inhibitors have analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity by blocking the transformation of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin H2 selectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efforts have been made to convert NSAIDs into selective COX-2 inhibitors such as indometacin by lengthening of the alkylcarboxylic acid side-chain, but none have been marketed. (wikipedia.org)