Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring structure in which all the ring atoms are carbon.
A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.
An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.
An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A polymeric mixture of polyesters of phosphoric acid and phloretin. It blocks some cellular responses to prostaglandins.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
Guanine is a purine nucleobase, one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA and RNA, involved in forming hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs in double-stranded DNA molecules.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Synthesis of telomere-mimic carbocyclic 5'-nor oligodeoxynucleotides. (1/8)

Telomere-mimic S-ODNs have been synthesized and examined their effects on the proliferation of human tumor cell lines by XTT assay. Furthermore, the guanosine derivatives of carbocyclic 5'-nor nucleoside were synthesized.  (+info)

Synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides as potential antiviral agents. (2/8)

Treatment of 1-[(1'R,2'S,3'S,4'S)-4'-methanesulfonyl-2',3'-O- isopropylidenedioxycyclopentan-1'-yl]-1-H-uracil with LiN3 gave 1-[(1'R,2'S,3'R)-2',3'-O-isopropylidenedioxy-4'- cyclopenten-1'-yl]-1-H-uracil. When KOBut was added instead of LiN3, 1-[(1'R,2'S)-2',3'-O- isopropylidenedioxy-3'-cyclopenten-1'-yl]-1-H-uracil was produced. An analogous treatment of the methanesulfonyl derivative of thymine was also carried out.  (+info)

Synthesis of carbocyclic analogues of 4'-ethynyl- and 4'-cyano-d4T. (3/8)

Synthesis of carbocyclic analogues of 4'-ethynyl and cyano-d4T (4 and 5) was investigated. The ethynyl or cyano group was constructed by conversion of the ester function of key intermediate 13. The carbocyclic unit 12 was prepared from readily available beta-keto ester 6.  (+info)

Carbocyclic analogues of lexitropsin--DNA affinity and endonuclease inhibition. (4/8)

A DNA-binding affinity and the effect on restriction enzymes activity of seven carbocyclic mono- and bis-lexitropsins and two analogues of pentamidine with unsubstituted N-terminal amine group were investigated. DNA association constants (Kapp) show that DNA affinity of mono-compounds is much weaker than netropsin and distamycin. Bis-analogues of netropsin bind DNA more strongly than mono-ligands, but without sequence-selectivity. Only pentamidine derivatives reveal preference to AT-rich sequence. The studied compounds can inhibit catalytical action of endonucleases recognizing sequence of four AT base pairs following one another.  (+info)

Lichen photobionts show tolerance against lichen acids produced by lichen mycobionts. (5/8)

In order to determine the allelopathic nature of lichen acids produced by lichen mycobionts, we compared lichen photobionts with other photosynthetic organisms in terms of inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport around photosystem II (PSII) by representative lichen acids. Whereas at the thylakoid level we found no clear difference in tolerance against lichen acids between lichen photobionts and other species, at the cellular level lichen photobionts showed strong tolerance as compared with other species. These findings suggest the presence of a lichen acid-specific exclusion or detoxification mechanism in lichen photobiont cells.  (+info)

Clinical applications of urinary organic acids. Part 2. Dysbiosis markers. (6/8)

Part 1 of this series focused on urinary organic acids as markers of detoxification; part 2 focuses on dysbiosis markers. Intestinal microbial growth is accompanied by the release of products of their metabolism that may be absorbed and excreted in urine. Several organic acids are known to be specific products of bacterial metabolic action on dietary polyphenols or unassimilated amino acids or carbohydrates. Associated gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms may result from irritation of the intestinal mucosa or systemic distribution of absorbed neurotoxic products. Detection of abnormally elevated levels of these products is a useful diagnostic tool for patients with gastrointestinal or toxicological symptoms. Test profiles of urinary organic acids associated with microbial overgrowth can include benzoate, hippurate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, cresol, hydroxybenzoate, hydroxyphenylacetate, hydroxyphenylpropionate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionate, indican, tricarballylate, D-lactate, and D-arabinitol. Effective treatments for the associated microbial overgrowths may be directed at reducing microbial populations, introducing favorable microbes, and restoring intestinal mucosal integrity.  (+info)

Synthesis, characterization and activity evaluation of matrinic acid derivatives as potential antiproliferative agents. (7/8)


Synthetic analogues of netropsin and distamycin--synthesis of a new pyridine and carbocyclic analogues of the pyrrolecarboxamide antitumour antibiotics. (8/8)

A new series of pyridine-containing analogues III-XXII of distamycin A and netrop sin was investigated by the molecular mechanics technique and molecular modelling. A pyridine analogue of netropsin (VII) is described, the first compound based on molecular studies, and two carbocyclic analogues of distamycin A with an N-terminal chloro- or bromoacetyl group (VIa, VIIa) were synthesized, as well as carbocyclic analogues of netropsin (VIIIb, Xb), potential carriers of alkylating elements. The potential use of VIa, VII, VIIa, VIIIb and Xb as carriers to place into the minor groove of DNA chemical groups capable of modifying DNA, is discussed.  (+info)

Carbocyclic acids are organic compounds containing a carbon ring and one or more carboxylic acid groups. A carboxylic acid group is characterized by a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom (carbonyl group) and single-bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

In carbocyclic acids, the carbon ring may be aromatic or aliphatic. Aromatic rings contain alternating double bonds between carbon atoms, while aliphatic rings do not have these double bonds. The presence of the carboxylic acid group(s) makes these compounds acidic due to the ionizable hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl group.

Examples of carbocyclic acids include benzoic acid (an aromatic compound with a single carboxylic acid group), cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (an aliphatic compound with a single carboxylic acid group), and phthalic acid (an aromatic compound with two carboxylic acid groups).

Netropsin is not a medical condition or diagnosis, but rather a pharmacological substance. It is a small molecule that can bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner, and it has been used in research as a tool to study the structure and function of DNA. In a medical context, netropsin has been investigated for its potential therapeutic use in the treatment of various conditions, including cancer and viral infections. However, it is not currently approved for clinical use in humans.

I must clarify that "Inorganic Chemicals" is a broad term related to the field of chemistry and not specifically within the realm of medicine. However, I can provide a general definition for you:

Inorganic chemicals are chemical substances that primarily consist of matter other than carbon-based compounds. They include metallic and non-metallic elements, along with their compounds, excluding carbon-hydrogen bonds (organic compounds). Examples of inorganic chemicals are salts, acids, and bases, as well as metal alloys and oxides.

In the context of medicine, certain inorganic chemicals can be used in medical treatments, such as lithium carbonate for bipolar disorder or potassium chloride as an electrolyte replenisher. However, some inorganic chemicals can also pose health risks depending on the type and level of exposure. For instance, lead and mercury are toxic heavy metals that can cause serious health problems if ingested or inhaled.

Pyrimidine nucleosides are organic compounds that consist of a pyrimidine base (a heterocyclic aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms and four carbon atoms) linked to a sugar molecule, specifically ribose or deoxyribose, via a β-glycosidic bond. The pyrimidine bases found in nucleosides can be cytosine (C), thymine (T), or uracil (U). When the sugar component is ribose, it is called a pyrimidine nucleoside, and when it is linked to deoxyribose, it is referred to as a deoxy-pyrimidine nucleoside. These molecules play crucial roles in various biological processes, particularly in the structure and function of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.

A nucleoside is a biochemical molecule that consists of a pentose sugar (a type of simple sugar with five carbon atoms) covalently linked to a nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous base can be one of several types, including adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, or uracil. Nucleosides are important components of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, which are the genetic materials found in cells. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, including cell division, protein synthesis, and gene expression.

Carbon-Nitrogen (C-N) ligases with glutamine as amide-N-donor are a class of enzymes that catalyze the joining of a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom from different molecules, with glutamine serving as the nitrogen donor. The reaction specifically involves the transfer of the amide nitrogen from glutamine to a carbonyl carbon atom, resulting in the formation of a new C-N bond.

This type of enzyme is involved in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. The reaction catalyzed by these enzymes often requires ATP as an energy source to drive the formation of the new bond.

An example of a C-N ligase with glutamine as amide-N-donor is glutamine synthetase, which catalyzes the formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia using ATP as an energy source. The enzyme uses the amide nitrogen of glutamine to transfer the nitrogen atom to the carbonyl carbon of glutamate, forming a new C-N bond in the process.

Adenosylhomocysteinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the methionine cycle, which is a biochemical pathway involved in the synthesis and metabolism of various essential molecules in the body. The formal medical definition of adenosylhomocysteinase is:

"An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of S-adenosylhomocysteine to homocysteine and adenosine. This reaction is the first step in the recycling of methionine, a sulfur-containing amino acid that is essential for various metabolic processes, including the synthesis of proteins, neurotransmitters, and phospholipids."

In simpler terms, adenosylhomocysteinase helps break down S-adenosylhomocysteine, a byproduct of methylation reactions in the body, into its component parts: homocysteine and adenosine. This breakdown is essential for the proper functioning of the methionine cycle and the maintenance of normal levels of homocysteine, which can be toxic at high concentrations.

Deficiencies or mutations in the adenosylhomocysteinase gene can lead to an accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine and homocysteine, which can contribute to various health issues, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and developmental abnormalities.

Cyclization is a chemical process that involves forming a cyclic structure or ring-shaped molecule from a linear or open-chain compound. In the context of medicinal chemistry and drug design, cyclization reactions are often used to synthesize complex molecules, including drugs, by creating rings or fused ring systems within the molecule's structure.

Cyclization can occur through various mechanisms, such as intramolecular nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, or radical reactions. The resulting cyclized compounds may exhibit different chemical and biological properties compared to their linear precursors, making them valuable targets for drug discovery and development.

In some cases, the cyclization process can lead to the formation of stereocenters within the molecule, which can impact its three-dimensional shape and how it interacts with biological targets. Therefore, controlling the stereochemistry during cyclization reactions is crucial in medicinal chemistry to optimize the desired biological activity.

Overall, cyclization plays a significant role in the design and synthesis of many pharmaceutical compounds, enabling the creation of complex structures that can interact specifically with biological targets for therapeutic purposes.

Distamycin is an antiprotozoal and antibacterial drug that belongs to a class of medications called antibiotics. It is a polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces distallicus, which has the ability to bind to DNA and inhibit protein synthesis in susceptible microorganisms. Distamycin is primarily used to treat infections caused by parasites such as amoebae and giardia. It works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, preventing them from multiplying and causing further harm.

Distamycin is not commonly used in clinical practice due to its narrow spectrum of activity and the availability of other more effective antimicrobial agents. However, it has been studied in combination with other drugs for the treatment of certain types of cancer, as it can also inhibit the growth of cancer cells by interfering with their DNA synthesis.

It is important to note that distamycin should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and its use may be associated with side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rashes. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it is essential to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting distamycin therapy.

Inosine Diphosphate (IDP) is not a medical condition, but a biochemical compound. It is a nucleotide that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of RNA and certain important chemical compounds in the body. Medically, it might be relevant in understanding biochemical processes or in specific metabolic or genetic conditions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Malvaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the mallow family of plants, which includes over 4,000 species. Some plants in this family have been used in traditional medicine, but Malvaceae itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Thromboxanes are a type of lipid compound that is derived from arachidonic acid, a type of fatty acid found in the cell membranes of many organisms. They are synthesized in the body through the action of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX).

Thromboxanes are primarily produced by platelets, a type of blood cell that plays a key role in clotting. Once formed, thromboxanes act as powerful vasoconstrictors, causing blood vessels to narrow and blood flow to decrease. They also promote the aggregation of platelets, which can lead to the formation of blood clots.

Thromboxanes are involved in many physiological processes, including hemostasis (the process by which bleeding is stopped) and inflammation. However, excessive production of thromboxanes has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, such as heart attacks, strokes, and pulmonary hypertension.

There are several different types of thromboxanes, including thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). TXA2 is the most biologically active form and has a very short half-life, while TXB2 is a more stable metabolite that can be measured in the blood to assess thromboxane production.

Ribose monophosphates are organic compounds that play a crucial role in the metabolism of cells, particularly in energy transfer and nucleic acid synthesis. A ribose monophosphate is formed by the attachment of a phosphate group to a ribose molecule, which is a type of sugar known as a pentose.

In biochemistry, there are two important ribose monophosphates:

1. Alpha-D-Ribose 5-Phosphate (ADP-Ribose): This compound serves as an essential substrate in various cellular processes, including DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, and protein modification. The enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP-ribose is known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).
2. Ribulose 5-Phosphate: This compound is a key intermediate in the Calvin cycle, which is the process by which plants and some bacteria convert carbon dioxide into glucose during photosynthesis. Ribulose 5-phosphate is formed from ribose 5-phosphate through a series of enzymatic reactions.

Ribose monophosphates are essential for the proper functioning of cells and have implications in various physiological processes, as well as in certain disease states.

Adenosine deaminase inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of the enzyme adenosine deaminase. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down adenosine, a chemical in the body that helps regulate the immune system and is involved in the inflammatory response.

By inhibiting the activity of adenosine deaminase, these medications can increase the levels of adenosine in the body. This can be useful in certain medical conditions where reducing inflammation is important. For example, adenosine deaminase inhibitors are sometimes used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and damage to the joints.

One common adenosine deaminase inhibitor is called deoxycoformycin (also known as pentostatin). This medication is typically given intravenously and is used to treat hairy cell leukemia, a rare type of cancer that affects white blood cells.

It's important to note that adenosine deaminase inhibitors can have serious side effects, including suppression of the immune system, which can make people more susceptible to infections. They should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Cyclopentanes are a class of hydrocarbons that contain a cycloalkane ring of five carbon atoms. The chemical formula for cyclopentane is C5H10. It is a volatile, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of polymers. Cyclopentanes are also found naturally in petroleum and coal tar.

Cyclopentanes have a unique structure in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a pentagonal shape, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms and one or two hydrogen atoms. This structure gives cyclopentane its characteristic "bowl-shaped" geometry, which allows it to undergo various chemical reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that can lead to the formation of other chemicals.

Cyclopentanes have a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For example, they are used in the production of plastics, resins, and synthetic rubbers. They also have potential uses in the development of new drugs and medical technologies, as their unique structure and reactivity make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

Cytidine is a nucleoside, which consists of the sugar ribose and the nitrogenous base cytosine. It is an important component of RNA (ribonucleic acid), where it pairs with guanosine via hydrogen bonding to form a base pair. Cytidine can also be found in some DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequences, particularly in viral DNA and in mitochondrial DNA.

Cytidine can be phosphorylated to form cytidine monophosphate (CMP), which is a nucleotide that plays a role in various biochemical reactions in the body. CMP can be further phosphorylated to form cytidine diphosphate (CDP) and cytidine triphosphate (CTP), which are involved in the synthesis of lipids, glycogen, and other molecules.

Cytidine is also available as a dietary supplement and has been studied for its potential benefits in treating various health conditions, such as liver disease and cancer. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish safe and effective dosages.

Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is a potent prostanoid, a type of lipid compound derived from arachidonic acid. It is primarily produced and released by platelets upon activation during the process of hemostasis (the body's response to stop bleeding). TXA2 acts as a powerful vasoconstrictor, causing blood vessels to narrow, which helps limit blood loss at the site of injury. Additionally, it promotes platelet aggregation, contributing to the formation of a stable clot and preventing further bleeding. However, uncontrolled or excessive production of TXA2 can lead to thrombotic events such as heart attacks and strokes. Its effects are balanced by prostacyclin (PGI2), which is produced by endothelial cells and has opposing actions, acting as a vasodilator and inhibiting platelet aggregation. The balance between TXA2 and PGI2 helps maintain vascular homeostasis.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Dideoxynucleosides are a type of modified nucleoside used in the treatment of certain viral infections, such as HIV and HBV. These compounds lack a hydroxyl group (-OH) at the 3'-carbon position of the sugar moiety, which prevents them from being further metabolized into DNA.

When incorporated into a growing DNA chain during reverse transcription, dideoxynucleosides act as chain terminators, inhibiting viral replication. Common examples of dideoxynucleosides include zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T), and lamivudine (3TC). These drugs are often used in combination with other antiretroviral agents to form highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens for the treatment of HIV infection.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Polyphloretin phosphate is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It appears to be a chemical compound that has been studied in the field of pharmacology and biochemistry, particularly for its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as it is not a clinically used medication or a standard diagnostic term.

Polyphloretin phosphate is a derivative of polyphloretin, which is a polyphenolic compound found in the bark of trees such as apple and cherry. It has been suggested that this compound may have various health benefits due to its antioxidant properties, but more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish its safety and efficacy in clinical settings.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Palladium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. It's used in various applications, including jewelry, dental work, electronics, and chemical reactions. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Molecular conformation, also known as spatial arrangement or configuration, refers to the specific three-dimensional shape and orientation of atoms that make up a molecule. It describes the precise manner in which bonds between atoms are arranged around a molecular framework, taking into account factors such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.

Conformational isomers, or conformers, are different spatial arrangements of the same molecule that can interconvert without breaking chemical bonds. These isomers may have varying energies, stability, and reactivity, which can significantly impact a molecule's biological activity and function. Understanding molecular conformation is crucial in fields such as drug design, where small changes in conformation can lead to substantial differences in how a drug interacts with its target.

Inosine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a nucleoside, which is formed from the combination of hypoxanthine and ribose. It is an intermediate in the metabolic pathways of purine nucleotides, which are essential components of DNA and RNA. Inosine has been studied for its potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms and clinical applications.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

Carbon-Nitrogen (C-N) ligases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the joining of a carbon atom from a donor molecule to a nitrogen atom in an acceptor molecule through a process called ligase reaction. This type of enzyme plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules that contain both carbon and nitrogen atoms.

C-N ligases typically require ATP or another energy source to drive the reaction forward, as well as cofactors such as metal ions or vitamins to facilitate the chemical bond formation between the carbon and nitrogen atoms. The specificity of C-N ligases varies depending on the enzyme, with some acting only on specific donor and acceptor molecules while others have broader substrate ranges.

Examples of C-N ligases include glutamine synthetase, which catalyzes the formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia, and asparagine synthetase, which catalyzes the formation of asparagine from aspartate and ammonia. Understanding the function and regulation of C-N ligases is important for understanding various biological processes and developing strategies to modulate them in disease states.

Guanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a biological molecule that plays a crucial role in the body. Guanine is one of the four nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, along with adenine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Specifically, guanine pairs with cytosine via hydrogen bonds to form a base pair.

Guanine is a purine derivative, which means it has a double-ring structure. It is formed through the synthesis of simpler molecules in the body and is an essential component of genetic material. Guanine's chemical formula is C5H5N5O.

While guanine itself is not a medical term, abnormalities or mutations in genes that contain guanine nucleotides can lead to various medical conditions, including genetic disorders and cancer.

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of adenosine levels in cells. The medical definition of adenosine kinase is:

"An enzyme (EC that catalyzes the phosphorylation of adenosine to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP) using ATP as the phosphate donor. This reaction helps maintain the balance between adenosine and its corresponding nucleotides in cells, and it plays a significant role in purine metabolism, cell signaling, and energy homeostasis."

Adenosine kinase is widely distributed in various tissues, including the brain, heart, liver, and muscles. Dysregulation of adenosine kinase activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Therefore, modulating adenosine kinase activity has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating these diseases.

Adenine is a purine nucleotide base that is a fundamental component of DNA and RNA, the genetic material of living organisms. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine via double hydrogen bonds, while in RNA, it pairs with uracil. Adenine is essential for the structure and function of nucleic acids, as well as for energy transfer reactions in cells through its role in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the cell.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Deoxyguanosine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), one of the nucleic acids. It is a nucleoside, which is a molecule consisting of a sugar (in this case, deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base (in this case, guanine). Deoxyguanosine plays a crucial role in the structure and function of DNA, as it pairs with deoxycytidine through hydrogen bonding to form a rung in the DNA double helix. It is involved in the storage and transmission of genetic information.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

Epoprostenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called prostaglandins. It is a synthetic analog of a natural substance in the body called prostacyclin, which widens blood vessels and has anti-platelet effects. Epoprostenol is used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries that supply blood to the lungs.

Epoprostenol works by relaxing the smooth muscle in the walls of the pulmonary arteries, which reduces the resistance to blood flow and lowers the pressure within these vessels. This helps improve symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain, and can also prolong survival in people with PAH.

Epoprostenol is administered continuously through a small pump that delivers the medication directly into the bloodstream. It is a potent vasodilator, which means it can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure if not given carefully. Therefore, it is usually started in a hospital setting under close medical supervision.

Common side effects of epoprostenol include headache, flushing, jaw pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle or joint pain. More serious side effects can include bleeding, infection at the site of the catheter, and an allergic reaction to the medication.

Nucleotides are the basic structural units of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They consist of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine or uracil), a pentose sugar (ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA) and one to three phosphate groups. Nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another, forming long chains known as polynucleotides. The sequence of these nucleotides determines the genetic information carried in DNA and RNA, which is essential for the functioning, reproduction and survival of all living organisms.

Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They typically contain fewer than 100 nucleotides, and can be synthesized chemically to have specific sequences. Oligonucleotides are used in a variety of applications in molecular biology, including as probes for detecting specific DNA or RNA sequences, as inhibitors of gene expression, and as components of diagnostic tests and therapies. They can also be used in the study of protein-nucleic acid interactions and in the development of new drugs.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Nucleic Acids. 19 (3): 651-690. doi:10.1080/15257770008035015. PMID 10843500. S2CID 43360920. Wang J; Rawal RK; Chu CK (August ... The fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine was reported in 1988 as the first example of a carbocyclic ... Antiviral Carbocyclic Purine nucleosides (-)Carbovir Abacavir Entecavir Carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine Lobucavir Entecavir ... There are two approaches used in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. Linear approaches to chiral carbocyclic nucleosides ...
"Chemical Land". Caffeic Acid as Carbocyclic Carboxylic Acid. (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals ... Umbellic acid (2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) 2,3-Dihydroxycinnamic acid 2,5-Dihydroxycinnamic acid Gould, Kevin S.; Markham, ... Caffeate O-methyltransferase is an enzyme responsible for the transformation of caffeic acid into ferulic acid. Caffeic acid ... 4-dicarboxylic acid). Caffeic acid can also be polymerized using the horseradish peroxidase/H2O2 oxidizing system. Caffeic acid ...
Carbocyclic thymidine analogues for use as potential therapeutic agents. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2009;28(5):633- ... The flexibility of these inhibitors enables binding of the active site as well as amino acid residues outside of the active ... She is also the elected Secretary for the International Society of Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids (IS3NA), 2019-2023 ... Seley-Radtke, Katherine L; Sunkara, Naresh K (2009-08-11). "Carbocyclic Thymidine Analogues for Use as Potential Therapeutic ...
Tamiflu is a carbocyclic mimic of the cell-surface carbohydrate sialic acid. Tamiflu is an enzyme inhibitor that blocks the ... either by Coulombic interaction with carboxylate amino acid side-chains in the enzyme active site, or by mimicking positive- ...
... (DHQ) is the first carbocyclic intermediate of the shikimate pathway. It is created from 3- ... 3-Dehydroquinic acid undergoes five further enzymatic steps in the remainder of the shikimate pathway to chorismic acid, a ... 3-Dehydroquinate goes through beta oxidation, similar to fatty acids. Then, this compound (6-oxo-3-dehydro-quinate) is ... Morrow, Gary W. (2016). "The Shikimate Pathway: Biosynthesis of Phenolic Products from Shikimic Acid". Oxford University Press ...
It is characterized by multiple stereogenic centers and functional groups arrayed around a six-membered carbocyclic ring. ... As with shikimic acid, aminoshikimic acid is an attractive candidate for use as the core scaffold for synthesis of ... Aminoshikimic acid is also an alternative to shikimic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of neuraminidase inhibitors ... Aminoshikimic acid is an intriguing alternative to shikimic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of neuraminidase ...
"Carbocyclic fatty acids in plants: Biochemical and molecular genetic characterization of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis of ... Cyclopropene fatty acids are even rarer than CPAs. The best-known examples are malvalic acid and sterculic acid. Sterculic acid ... Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) are a subgroup of fatty acids that contain a cyclopropane group. Although they are usually rare ... which catalyzes the biodesaturation of stearic acid to oleic acid. At least one review indicates that CPFA are carcinogenic, co ...
The major carbocyclic fatty acid in the seed oils of Litchi chinensis is a cyclopropane fatty acid named Dihydrosterculic acid ... Biochem J 1962;82:385-9. PMC 1243468 "Natural alicyclic fatty acids, section:Cyclopropane and Cyclopropene Fatty Acids from ... Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is found in lychee seeds and also a toxic metabolite in mammalian digestion after ... The fruit is rich in fatty acids, zinc, protein, and vitamin A. In the fully ripened arils of the fruit, Hypoglycin A is ...
... the breakdown acids found in used gear oil may include carbocyclic acids, ketones, esters, and nitration and sulfation ... it will have a tendency to collect acids and increase its Total Acid Number (TAN). For example, ... Bases may be used to combat chemical decomposition of the base stock oil in the presence of acids. When oil is subjected to ... Alkaline additives are used to neutralize the acids mentioned previously, and also help prevent the formation of sulfates in a ...
Crout, D.H.G. (2012). "The Biosynthesis of Carbocyclic Compounds". In Lloyd, D. (ed.). Carbocyclic Chemistry. Vol. One. ... Vulpinic acid is derived biosynthetically by esterification from pulvinic acid; pulvinate itself derives from the aromatic ... both of which derive from aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine via secondary metabolism. The roles of vulpinic acid are ... Vulpinic acid is a natural product first found in and important in the symbiosis underlying the biology of lichens. It is a ...
Vince, R.; Hua, M. "Synthesis of carbovir and abacavir from a carbocyclic precursor" Current Protocols in nucleic acid ... including carbocyclic puromycin (I), carbocyclic Ara-A (II), carbovir (III) and guanine as well as azaguanine carbocyclic ... Vince lactam has been extensively used for the preparation of various carbocyclic nucleosides with medicinal applications in ... It is named after Robert Vince who has used the structural features of this molecule for the preparation of carbocyclic ...
Strong acids such as hydrochloric acid can, however, protonate indole. Indole is primarily protonated at the C3, rather than N1 ... Since the pyrrolic ring is the most reactive portion of indole, electrophilic substitution of the carbocyclic (benzene) ring ... The amino acid tryptophan is an indole derivative and the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Indole is a solid at ... It is the precursor to indole-3-acetic acid and synthetic tryptophan. The N-H center has a pKa of 21 in DMSO, so that very ...
... and structural analysis of carbocyclic sialic acid analogues with potent anti-influenza activity J Am Chem Soc 119: 681-90; M. ... The human Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1), the human angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R), human P2Y receptor 1 (P2Y1 ... Crystal structure of human lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 Cell 161: 1633-1643 H. Zhang, H. Unal, C. Gati, G.W. Han, W. Liu, N ... Structure-activity relationships of carbocyclic influenza neuraminidase inhibitors Bioorg Med Chem Lett 7: 1837-1842; C. U. Kim ...
Part I. Trifluoromethanesulphonic acid", J. Chem. Soc. (in German), pp. 4228-4232, doi:10.1039/JR9540004228 T. Gramstadt, R.N. ... salts form carbocyclic rings", J. Org. Chem., vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 2882-2885, doi:10.1021/jo00879a019 Stang, Peter J.; Hanack, ... Perfluoroalkanesulphonic acids", J. Chem. Soc. (in German), pp. 173-180, doi:10.1039/JR9560000173 G.M. Whitesides, F.D. ... An early preparation method starts from the barium salt of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH), from which the free TfOH is ...
... may refer to: 3-Dehydroquinic acid, the first carbocyclic intermediate of the shikimate pathway Digital Humanities ...
Carbocyclic sugar L-DOPA - Chemical compound Lecithin - Generic term for amphiphilic substances of plant and animal origin ... Amino acid Vasopressin - Mammalian hormone released from the pituitary gland Vinpocetine - Chemical compound Vitamin B3, also ... Amino acid Theophylline - Drug used to treat respiratory diseases Tryptophan - chemical compoundPages displaying wikidata ... Type of α-amino acid Piracetam - Chemical compound (Nootropil) Pramiracetam - Chemical compound Pyritinol - Chemical compound ( ...
... , also known as 13-hydroxy-3-oxo-13,17-secoandrosta-1,4-dien-17-oic acid δ-lactone, is a synthetic 18-oxasteroid ... with a six-membered lactone ring in place of the five-membered carbocyclic D-ring. Testolactone was first approved for medical ...
In the final step, the keto-containing carbocyclic ring F is formed by an ATP-dependent enzyme Coenzyme F(430) synthetase (CfbB ... out a 6-electron and 7-proton reduction of the ring system in a reaction EC generating the 15,173-seco-F430-173-acid ( ... having a γ-lactam ring E and a keto-containing carbocyclic ring F. It is the only natural tetrapyrrole containing nickel, an ...
5) In the presence of a catalytic amount of acid, diazomethyl ketone substrates containing a pendant double bond or aryl group ... 7) Transannular insertions, which form fused carbocyclic products, have also been observed. Yields are often low for these ... 11) A solution of the olefinic acid (0.499 g, 2.25 mmol) dissolved in benzene (20 ml, freshly distilled from calcium hydride) ... Very often, the diazocarbonyl compound is prepared and immediately used via treatment of the corresponding acid chloride with ...
This reaction has been used to convert cyclohexanone to the methyl ester of cyclopropanecarboxylic acid. An alternative to the ... Redmore, D.; Gutsche, C.D. Carbocyclic Ring Expansion Reactions, Academic Press, NY, 1968, Kantorowski, E.J.; Kurth, M.J. (2000 ... d-Norandrost-5-en-3β-ol-16-carboxylic Acids". Organic Syntheses. 52: 53. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.052.0053. Casadei, M.A.; Calli, C ...
Dihydroartemisinic acid then undergoes photo-oxidation to produce dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide. Ring expansion by the ... and desilylation steps performed on this mono-carbocyclic intermediate, including a final singlet oxygen-utilizing ... The synthesized artemisinic acid can then be transported out, purified and chemically converted into artemisinin that they ... A three-step oxidation of amorpha-4,11-diene gives the resulting artemisinic acid. The UC Berkeley method was augmented using ...
A carbocyclic ring closure of a hex-5-enopyranoside derivative". J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1: 1455-1458. doi:10.1039/ ... worked in the same reaction as a milder version of the Lewis acid, i-Bu3Al, which goes through a similar transition state ... Das, SK; Mallet, J-M; Sinaÿ, P (1997). "Novel Carbocyclic Ring Closure of Hex-5-enopyranosides". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 36 (5): ... Barton, DHR; Camara, J; Dalko, P; Géro, SD; Quiclet-Sire, B; Stütz, P (1989). "Synthesis of biologically active carbocyclic ...
E 17b, 4th Edition Supplement: Carbocyclic Three-Membered Ring Compounds, Cyclopropanes: Synthesis. Goettingen: Georg Thieme ... showing that cyclononatetraene is a weaker acid than cyclopentadiene. Cyclononatetraenyl cation is an 8π system. Its ...
The substituted phenyl group at the top of the channel interacts with the side-chains of amino acid residues through ... that is fused in this stilbene system has been extensively manipulated to include every imaginable heterocyclic and carbocyclic ... Celecoxib is metabolized primarily by CYP2C9 isoenzyme to carboxylic acid and also by non-CYP-dependent glucuronidation to ... These compounds differ greatly from NSAIDs that are arylalkonic acid analogs. Encouraged by the "concept testing" experiments ...
Biphenylene and benzyne can be conveniently prepared from benzotriazole by N-amination with hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid. The ... methodology is not only limited to heterocyclization but was also successful for polynuclear hydrocarbons of small carbocyclic ... Synthesis of benzotriazole involves the reaction of o-phenylenediamine, sodium nitrite, and acetic acid. The conversion ... the BTA can lose a proton to act as a weak acid (pKa = 8.2) or accept a proton using the lone pair electrons located on its ...
Phytic acid also occurs in cereals with high bran content. Phytate is, however, not directly bioavailable to humans in the diet ... Inositol, or more precisely myo-inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in the brain and other mammalian tissues; it ... "Phytic acid". Archived from the original on 2017-08-06. Retrieved 2017-10-02. Reynolds, J. E. F. (1993 ... "Phytic acid". Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 2018-05-02. Klopfenstein, T. J.; ...
4-Biphenylacetic Acid and 4-Biphenylcarboxylic Acid/Triphenylmethane as Indicators in the Titration of Lithium Alkyls. Study of ... Another application that takes advantage of this reactivity is the formation of carbocyclic and heterocyclic compounds by ... Lithium enolate formation can be generalized as an acid-base reaction, in which the relatively acidic proton α to the carbonyl ... Organolithium reagents are also better than Grignard reagents in their ability to react with carboxylic acids to form ketones. ...
Examples of heterocyclic compounds include all of the nucleic acids, the majority of drugs, most biomass (cellulose and related ... either carbocyclic or heterocyclic, have a variety of common and systematic names. For example, with the benzo-fused ... Some noteworthy developments: 1818: Brugnatelli makes alloxan from uric acid 1832: Dobereiner produces furfural (a furan) by ... treating starch with sulfuric acid 1834: Runge obtains pyrrole ("fiery oil") by dry distillation of bones 1906: Friedlander ...
Vince continued his work on antiviral drug candidates at the University of Minnesota, where he went on to develop carbocyclic ... Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids, in 2010. The same year, Minnesota Inventor's Congress inducted him into Minnesota Inventors Hall ... Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids ACS Medicinal Chemistry Hall of Fame (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids April 2010: Received Honorary Doctorate of Science Degree from SUNY Buffalo September 2009: ...
The substrates required for enzymatic activity are adenosine triphosphate (ATP), UTP and the amino acid glutamine. The ATP and ... the carbocyclic analogue of cytidine". Biochemical Pharmacology. 39 (2): 319-325. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(90)90031-f. PMC 7111205 ... Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 850-857. doi:10.1080/15257770802146502. PMID 18600551. S2CID 33594588. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, ... a carbocyclic nucleoside targeted at CTP synthetase". Biochemical Pharmacology. 41 (12): 1821-1829. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(91) ...
Acids, Carbocyclic - Bezafibrate PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * Identification of photocatalytic ...
Nucleic Acids. 19 (3): 651-690. doi:10.1080/15257770008035015. PMID 10843500. S2CID 43360920. Wang J; Rawal RK; Chu CK (August ... The fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine was reported in 1988 as the first example of a carbocyclic ... Antiviral Carbocyclic Purine nucleosides (-)Carbovir Abacavir Entecavir Carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine Lobucavir Entecavir ... There are two approaches used in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. Linear approaches to chiral carbocyclic nucleosides ...
Acids, Carbocyclic / therapeutic use* * Adult * Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use* * Dibenzothiepins / therapeutic use ...
Formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, acrylic acid, etc., are cited as the organic carboxylic acid and acetic anhydride, etc ... are used as the organic carboxylic acid anhydride. The organic carboxylic acid, etc., are added in an amount of 0.01-5.0 pts.wt ... The acrylonitrile is preferably used in an amount of ≥4.0 mol based on 1 mol sulfuric acid. COPYRIGHT: (C)1992,JPO&Japio ... CONSTITUTION: Acrylonitrile is reacted with sulfuric acid at ≥95% concentration and isobutylene in the presence of an organic ...
... or by organic acids, e.g. phosphonic acids. C07H15/203 - Monocyclic carbocyclic rings other than cyclohexane rings. C07H15/26 ... C07K1/1077 - {by covalent attachment of residues other than amino acids or peptide residues, e.g. sugars, polyols, fatty acids} ... C07F9/65522 - {condensed with carbocyclic rings or carbocyclic ring systems}. C07F9/6561 - containing systems of two or more ... Modification of Cell Surfaces by Enzymatic Introduction of Special Sialic Acid Analogues journal, February 1993 * Kosa, R. E.; ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]. *Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Benzoates [D02.241.223.100]. *Iodobenzoates [D02.241.223.100. ...
Synthesis and bioactivity of analogues of the marine antibiotic tropodithietic acid ... For a detailed SAR study we first aimed at a series of compounds with a seven-membered carbocyclic core and an overall ... Tropodithietic acid (TDA, 1a) is an antibiotic produced by the marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens. It has an unusual ... Compound 22 was subsequently converted into the free acid 23 by treatment with TFA, while similar conversions of 20 and 21 were ...
Matched Categories: … Salicylic Acid and Derivatives ... sodium salicylate ... Acids, Carbocyclic ... Hydroxy Acids ... ... Matched Categories: … Acids, Carbocyclic ... Carboxylic Acids … Matched Products: … Medicated Lip Balm - Ont Top 8% ... Hand ... Matched Synonyms: … Salicylic acid ... Acidum salicylicum ... 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid … Matched Name: … Salicylic acid … Matched ... Salicylic acid. A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves, and also prepared synthetically. ...
The production method according to the present invention is characterized in that a D-amino acid oxidase used in step 2 in the ... The present invention relates to a granular catalyst for the hydrolysis of amino nitriles and/or amino amides to amino acids or ... The use of an arylvinyl α-carbonyl acid ester compound (I) as a photoinitiator in LED photopolymerization and a preparation ... USE OF ARYLVINYL A-CARBONYL ACID ESTER COMPOUND AS PHOTOINITIATOR IN LED PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREFOR. ...
Inefficient exogenous loading of a tapasin-dependent peptide onto HLA-B*44:02 can be improved by acid treatment or fixation of ... Synthesis of (+/-)-4-ethynyl and 4-cyano carbocyclic analogues of stavudine (d4T).Kumamoto H, Haraguchi K, Tanaka H, Nitanda ... Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by a two-amino-acid insertion in HIV-1 Vif from a ... Consumption of different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by growing female rats affects long bone mass and ...
... sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins) are single-pass cell surface receptors that have inhibitory activities on ... 6′-sulfo-sialyl Lewis X mimetic retaining the neuraminic acid core, but with a carbocyclic mimetic of the Gal moiety and a ... Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins) are single-pass cell surface receptors that contain sialic acid- ... Siglecs: A family of sialic-acid binding lectins. Glycobiology 1998, 8, 5-6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] ...
Carbocyclic fatty acids in plants: biochemical and molecular genetic characterization of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis of ... Evidence for the Role of Salicylic Acid in Thermoregulation in Sporophylls of Male Cones of Six Cycad Species. Asian Journal of ... Distribution of the neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid BMAA in Cycas micronesica. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 143: ... Identification of nonprotein amino acids from cycad seeds as N-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives by positive chemical- ...
Fused carbocyclic aromatic OR Naphtalene OR Phenol OR Sulfonic acid by Organic Functional groups ONLY Domain logical expression ... Secondary aromatic amine OR Sulfonic acid OR Sulfonic acid derivative by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol) ... Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic amine OR Aryl OR Azo OR Fused carbocyclic aromatic ... 2-[[4-[[4-[[6-anilino-1-hydroxy-3-sulpho-2-naphthyl]azo]-1-naphthyl]azo]-6-sulpho-1-naphthyl]azo]benzene-1,4-disulphonic acid, ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241] * Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223] * Phenylacetates [D02.241.223.601] * Cyclopentolate [D02.241. ... A 3-O-methyl ETHER of (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid.. Terms. Homovanillic Acid Preferred Term Term UI T020286. Date01/01/ ... A 3-O-methyl ETHER of (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid.. Entry Term(s). 3-Methoxy-4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid 4-Hydroxy-3- ... Methoxyphenylacetic Acid Registry Number. X77S6GMS36. Related Numbers. 306-08-1. CAS Type 1 Name. Benzeneacetic acid, 4-hydroxy ...
Scheme 25: Pyrophosphoric acid-catalyzed aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction on phenols. Scheme 25: Pyrophosphoric acid-catalyzed aza- ... Scheme 14: Functionalization of the carbocyclic ring of substituted indoles. Scheme 14: Functionalization of the carbocyclic ... Phosphoric acids. Chiral phosphoric acids have been envisaged as versatile organocatalysts for various asymmetric chemical ... Chiral phosphoric acid P12 was the stereoselectivity inducer in the products 36 as explained by π-π stacking and H-bonding ...
... for example polyanionic nucleic acids, to produce particles in which the therapeutic agent is encapsulated in a lipid vesicle. ... Methods for the preparation of a lipid-nucleic acid composition are provided. According to the methods, a mixture of lipids ... including aza-sugars and carbocyclic sugar analogs. Modifications in the purine or pyrimidine base moiety include, for example ... The nucleic acid that is used in a lipid-nucleic acid particle according to this invention includes any form of nucleic acid ...
... such as Jasmonic acid (JA), essential for anther and pollen development. Jasmonic acid is a carbocyclic fatty acid and plays an ... The main fatty acids in cotton anthers are saturated myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and ... arachidic acid (C20:0), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1), and polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2) and α-linolenic acid (C18 ... total fatty acid content of seed [12]. However, the accumulated unusual FA products, such as epoxy fatty acid, hydroxyl acid, ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]. *Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Benzoates [D02.241.223.100]. *Benzamides [D02.] ...
Volodymyr Sagan, Kharkiv (Ukraine) , Poster: "P-V-T phase diagrams of carbocyclic compounds". Dr. Oleksandr Samoilov, Kharkiv ( ... Vadim Shelkovsky, Kharkiv (Ukraine) , Poster: "Mass spectrometric observation of selectivity of interaction of amino acids with ... "Study of the protein-ligand binding in the development of hypersensitivity to folic acid". Prof. Iryna Kravchenko, Odessa ( ... Ukraine) , Poster: "Interactions of Non-modified, Organo and Acid-Modified Laponite with Liquid Crystal Hosts in Lyotropic and ...
Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids Patent Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G ... C - CHEMISTRY C07 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY C07F - ACYCLIC, CARBOCYCLIC OR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING ELEMENTS OTHER THAN ... The present invention provides a conjugate having a peptide with from about 10 to about 100 amino acids, wherein the peptide ... A61K51/088 - {conjugates with carriers being peptides, polyamino acids, proteins A - HUMAN NECESSITIES A61 - MEDICAL OR ...
Search for Hydroxamic Acids, Chalcogen Analogs Or Salts Thereof (i.e., Compounds Having The -c(=x)-n(r)-xh Group Or The -c(xh)= ... Carbocyclic ring bonded directly to the carbon of the acid group (Class 562/622) ... Hydroxamic acid derivatives of phenoxy-acetic acids and analogs useful as therapeutic agents for treating anthrax poisoning ... Hydroxamic acid derivatives of 4-phenyl 4-hydroxy, 4-phenyl 4-alkoxy and 4-phenyl 4-arylalkoxy butyric acid useful as ...
Matched Categories: … Salicylic Acid and Derivatives ... Acids, Carbocyclic ... Hydroxy Acids ... Carboxylic Acids ... ... Matched Categories: … ascorbic acid (vit C) and calcium ... Phosphoric Acids ... Phosphorus Acids ... calcium phosphate ... ... Matched Synonyms: … Salicylic acid ... Acidum salicylicum ... 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid … Matched Name: … Salicylic acid … Matched ... Matched Categories: … Phosphoric Acids ... Phosphorus Acids ... Phosphate salts ... Calcium Compounds ... Phosphorus Compounds ...
Acids, Carbocyclic (9) * Benzoates (5) * Aminobenzoates (3) * meta-Aminobenzoates (0) * ortho-Aminobenzoates (1) * Fenamates (1 ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]. *Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Benzoates [D02.241.223.100]. *Benzamides [D02.] ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]. *Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Benzoates [D02.241.223.100]. *Benzamides [D02.] ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]. *Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Benzoates [D02.241.223.100]. *Benzamides [D02.] ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]. *Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Benzoates [D02.241.223.100]. *Benzoylcholine [D02.241.223.100. ...
Carboxylic Acids [D02.241]. *Acids, Carbocyclic [D02.241.223]. *Benzoates [D02.241.223.100]. *Chlorobenzoates [D02.241.223.100. ... Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms. ...
Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to "Mandelic Acids".. *Acids, Carbocyclic ... "Mandelic Acids" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Mandelic Acids" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Mandelic Acids" by people in Profiles. ...
  • A large number of novel carbocyclic nucleosides of pyrimidines and purines have been prepared, and many of these compounds are endowed with interesting biological activities. (
  • Justia Patents Organic Compounds -- Part Of The Class 532-570 Series Patents Organic Compounds (class 532, Subclass 1) Hydroxamic Acids, Chalcogen Analogs Or Salts Thereof (i.e. (
  • This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. (
  • Nowadays, organocatalysis is especially applied to asymmetric synthesis and a huge number of organocatalysts has been introduced in last three decades for the asymmetric synthesis of acyclic, carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and polycyclic molecular architectures with high molecular complexity. (
  • We have synthesised several structural analogues of TDA and used them in bioactivity tests against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio anguillarum for a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, revealing that the sulfur-free analogue of TDA, tropone-2-carboxylic acid, has an antibiotic activity that is even stronger than the bioactivity of the natural product. (
  • It has an unusual structure that is made up by a dithiet moiety fused to tropone-2-carboxylic acid ( Figure 1 ) [1] . (
  • The introduction of sulfur proceeds via nucleophilic attack of S -thiocysteine to the Michael acceptor of tropone-2-carboxylic acid coenzyme A ester and oxidative elimination of cysteine. (
  • The present invention provides a method which comprises A) reacting a steroidal carboxylic acid or a salt thereof with a coupling agent alone or in conjunction with a coupling enhancer, and B) reacting the product of step A) with a nucleophilic agent comprising a sulfur atom. (
  • The intermediate (such as an ester of formula (III)) is very suitable for use in a method for the conversion of a steroidal carboxylic acid to a steroidal carbothioic acid or a carbothioate. (
  • The benzoic acid ester of choline. (
  • Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms. (
  • The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. (
  • Linear approaches to chiral carbocyclic nucleosides 2 rely on the construction of the heterocyclic base onto a suitable protected chiral cyclopentylamine (1 → 2). (
  • In the convergent approach the intact heterocyclic base is coupled directly to a suitably protected functionalised carbocyclic moiety (3 → 2). (
  • Within the field of steroids the use of coupling agents have also found use, especially in the preparation of carbothioic acids and esters of the androstane series (e.g. (
  • Mandelic Acids" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Mandelic Acids" by people in this website by year, and whether "Mandelic Acids" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Mandelic Acids" by people in Profiles. (
  • The present invention relates to a granular catalyst for the hydrolysis of amino nitriles and/or amino amides to amino acids or derivatives thereof, a process for the preparation of this catalyst and a method for the preparation of an am. (
  • In flowering plants, the anther cuticle and pollen wall are riched in lipids, mainly fatty acids and their derivatives [17, 18]. (
  • The present invention is directed to a new class of hydroxamic acid derivatives, their use as LpxC inhibitors, and more specifically their use to treat bacterial infections. (
  • Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid). (
  • The present invention relates to a novel process for the conversion of steroidal carboxylic acids to carbothioate derivatives such as fluticasone propionate via novel intermediates. (
  • The problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a new method for the preparation of steroidal carbothioic acid and derivatives thereof such as fluticasone propionate, especially a method in which a number of the relevant method steps may be performed as a continuous one-pot synthesis. (
  • A 3-O-methyl ETHER of (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid. (
  • WO 2006/135881 describes quaternized ammonium salts prepared by condensation of a hydrocarbyl-substituted acylating agent and of an oxygen- or nitrogen-containing compound with a tertiary amino group, and subsequent quaternization by means of hydrocarbyl epoxide in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of an acid, especially acetic acid. (
  • Niflumic Acid" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Niflumic Acid" by people in this website by year, and whether "Niflumic Acid" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
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  • FAD2 catalyzes the first step, towards biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in cell membrane and wall, and it is thus of great importance to investigate the regulatory role of FAD2 in anther development. (
  • Carbocyclic nucleosides (also referred to as carbanucleosides) are nucleoside analogues in which a methylene group has replaced the oxygen atom of the furanose ring. (
  • The 5-membered ring carbocyclic nucleosides aristeromycin, the analog of adenosine, and neplanocin A, the cyclopentene analog of aristeromycin, have been isolated from natural sources. (
  • The two guanine antiviral carbocyclic nucleosides, the anti-HIV agent abacavir and the anti-hepatitis B agent entecavir, are reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. (
  • Antiviral Carbocyclic Purine nucleosides (-)Carbovir Abacavir Entecavir Carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine Lobucavir Entecavir, a guanosine analog, was reported in 1997 as a potent and selective inhibitor for the hepatitis B virus, and approved by the FDA in March 2005 for oral treatment of hepatitis B infection. (
  • There are two approaches used in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. (
  • 1988: Review of Glaxo's synthesis of fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides 1988: (±)-Carbovir first reported with potent anti-HIV activity and low cytotoxicity 1992: First comprehensive review of the synthesis of chiral carbocyclic nucleosides. (
  • Particularly interesting is the mechanism of sulfur introduction that we have recently investigated in a study combining gene knockouts and feeding experiments with 34 S-labelled amino acids [8] . (
  • The production method according to the present invention is characterized in that a D-amino acid oxidase used in step 2 in the scheme shown below is a polypeptide selected from the below-mentioned polypeptides (a) to (c). (
  • According to the methods, a mixture of lipids containing a protonatable or deprotonatable lipid, for example an amino lipid and a lipid such as a PEG- or Polyamide oligomer-modified lipid is combined with a buffered aqueous solution of a charged therapeutic agent, for example polyanionic nucleic acids, to produce particles in which the therapeutic agent is encapsulated in a lipid vesicle. (
  • Lipotropic injections contain a mixture of amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and enzymes that work together to break down more fat in the body. (
  • Shikimic acid, a key intermediate of the aromatic amino acid synthesis pathway [ 1 ] has immense pharmaceutical importance. (
  • Three aromatic amino acids, more than ten different antibiotics and many herbicides and pesticides have been synthesized from shikimic acid. (
  • Chiral Studies Across the Spectrum of Polymer Science: From dilute solution to the glassy state, from liquid crystals to peptide nucleic acids, to viruses and most recently investigations of plant based method of control of arthropod disease vectors. (
  • Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic. (
  • This invention relates to compositions comprising a combination of a lipid and a therapeutic agent, particularly to lipid-nucleic acid compositions, for in vivo therapeutic use. (
  • Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. (
  • Methods for the preparation of a lipid-nucleic acid composition are provided. (
  • Additionally, the invention provides methods of making the compositions, as well as methods of introducing the nucleic acids into cells using the compositions and treating disease conditions. (
  • No clinical assessment currently employs the basic phosphodiester chemistry found in natural nucleic acids, because of these and other known problems. (
  • 1966: First described synthesis of the racemic (±) carbocyclic analogue of adenosine. (
  • Coupling agents and enhancers have primarily been used in peptide chemistry where the need to activate carboxylic acids in order to facilitate peptide couplings has been recognized for decades (Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Activating Agents and Protecting Groups, ed. (
  • Synthesis of Tamiflu is solely dependent on the supply of shikimic acid. (
  • Hydroxamic Acids, Chalcogen Analogs Or Salts Thereof (i.e. (
  • Provided is a hydroxamic acid derivative represented by the following general formula [1] or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. (
  • Abacavir, was developed from racemic (±)-carbovir which was reported in 1988 by Robert Vince as the first carbocyclic nucleoside analogue to show potent activity against HIV with low cytotoxicity. (
  • The fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside carbocyclic 2′-ara-fluoro-guanosine was reported in 1988 as the first example of a carbocyclic analogue of an unnatural nucleoside to exhibit greater anti-herpes activity against the herpesviruses HSV-1 and HSV-2 in-vitro than its furanose parent. (
  • Carbocyclic (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2-deoxyuridine( (+) C-BVDU) GR95168 possesses activity against herpes simplex virus type l (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV, chicken pox and shingles) in-vitro and in-vivo. (
  • Microbial biotransformation has been used for the production of shikimic acid from quinic acid in recent few years as a potent alternative of the available methods [ 16 ],[ 17 ]. (
  • The present invention relates to a method for preparing an ester thiol compound by reacting a polyalcohol and a mercaptocarboxylic acid and to an optical resin or optical lens obtained therefrom having superior optical properties. (
  • Vayarin contains Lipirinen, a proprietary composition containing phosphatidylserine-omega 3, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [L1500, L1510]. (
  • Our work demonstrated the importance of C18:2 and/or C18:3 in development of pollen exine and anther cuticle in cotton, and provided clue for further investigation of the physiological significance of the fatty acid composition in plant growth and development. (
  • Shikimic acid was extracted from the reaction mixture by a pH-dependent method and maximum recovery (76%) was obtained with petroleum ether. (
  • In higher plants, the microsomal oleate Δ12 -desaturase (fatty acid desaturase 2, FAD2) is a hydrophobic endoplasmic reticulum protein, catalyzing the reaction from monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1) to polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2) by introducing a double bond between the 12th and 13th carbon atoms of C18:1 [1]. (
  • There is no acid degeneration or enzyme breakdown, meaning you will benefit from the full potency of this powerful vitamin. (
  • Various physico-chemical parameters of the biochemical reaction were optimized to enhance the yield of shikimic acid. (
  • Quinic acid, shikimic acid and dehydroshikimic acid were obtained from Sigma Aldrich chemical company (Milawukee, WI, USA). (
  • The use of an arylvinyl α-carbonyl acid ester compound (I) as a photoinitiator in LED photopolymerization and a preparation method therefor, which relate to the field of polymer photocuring, and are provided on the basis of the problems. (
  • It is a basic compound that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. (
  • Method for preparing a steroidal carbothioic acid by reacting steroidal carboxylic acids or salts with carbodiimides alone or in conjunction with a coupling enhancer followed by reaction with a nucleophilic sulfur containing agent. (
  • Upon treatment with Lewis acid, the proposed intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder reaction is cleanly and unexpectedly diverted either via C-C bond-forming fragmentation to the spiro-indene product (when R = OMe) or via elimination (when R = H). (
  • An oxidative dearomatization/Diels-Alder cascade to assemble the natural product carbocyclic core in one step is proposed. (
  • Biotransformation of quinic acid to shikimic acid seems to be a better alternative over its fermentative production. (
  • Still, there is a need to develop cost-effective and better alternative method for shikimic acid production. (
  • Based on compositional analysis of anthers cuticle and transcriptome data, we demonstrated it was unfavorable to the development of anther by regulating GhFAD2-3 expression level to increase the oleic acid content. (
  • Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins) are single-pass cell surface receptors that have inhibitory activities on immune cells. (
  • Biotransformation of quinic acid to shikimic acid was attempted using whole cells of Bacillus megaterium as a biocatalyst. (
  • In this study, whole cells of Bacillus megaterium MTCC 428 were used as biocatalyst for the transformation of quinic acid to shikimic acid. (
  • It is estimated that nearly two-thirds of the requirement of shikimic acid is still being sourced from plants, with the remaining one-third only obtained from genetically engineered Escherichia coli [ 8 ],[ 9 ]. (
  • Entry into the shikimate pathway from quinic acid seems to be advantageous over the classical pathway starting from glucose as there is less number of steps involved. (