Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Phosphorous Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.Fosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksMuscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)L Forms: Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Fluorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.Isobutyrates: Aliphatic acids that contain four carbons in a branched-chain configuration. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-carboxypropane structure.KetonesIminesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Illicium: A plant genus of the family Illiciaceae, order Illiciales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have evergreen, aromatic leaves and bisexual flowers. The female portion of the flower consists of 7 to 15 carpels.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Nucleoside-Triphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.AcrylatesDicarboxylic AcidsAcrylic ResinsCoumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

3,4-Dihydrocoumarin hydrolase with haloperoxidase activity from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus F46. (1/16)

A novel lactonohydrolase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin, was purified 375-fold to apparent homogeneity, with a 22.7% overall recovery, from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus F46, which was isolated as a fluorene-assimilating micro-organism. The molecular mass of the native enzyme, as estimated by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography, is 56 kDa, and the subunit molecular mass is 30 kDa. The enzyme specifically hydrolyzes 3,4-dihydrocoumarin, and the Km and Vmax for 3,4-dihydrocoumarin are 0.806 mM and 4760 U.mg-1, respectively. The N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of the enzyme show high similarity to those of bacterial non-heme haloperoxidases. The enzyme exhibits brominating activity with monochlorodimedon in the presence of H2O2 and 3, 4-dihydrocoumarin or an organic acid, such as acetate and n-butyrate.  (+info)

Al-induced efflux of organic acid anions is poorly associated with internal organic acid metabolism in triticale roots. (2/16)

The secretion of organic acid anions from roots has been identified as a mechanism of resistance to Al. However, the process leading to the secretion of organic acid anions is poorly understood. The effect of Al on organic acid metabolism was investigated in two lines of triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmark) differing in Al-induced secretion of malate and citrate and in Al resistance. The site of Al-induced secretion of citrate and malate from a resistant line was localized to the root apices (terminal 5 mm). The levels of citrate (root apices and mature root segments) and malate (mature segments only) in roots increased during exposure to Al, but similar changes were observed in both triticale genotypes. The in vitro activities of four enzymes involved in malate and citrate metabolism (citrate synthase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) were similar for sensitive and resistant lines in both root apices and mature root segments. The response of these enzymes to pH did not differ between tolerant and sensitive lines or in the presence and absence of Al. Moreover, cytoplasmic and vacuolar pH were not affected by exposure to Al in either line. Together, these results indicate that the Al-dependent efflux of organic acid anions from the roots of triticale is not regulated by their internal levels in the roots or by the capacity of the root cells to synthesize malate and citrate.  (+info)

Propionyl-coenzyme A synthetases of Ralstonia solanacearum and Salmonella choleraesuis display atypical kinetics. (3/16)

Propionyl-coenzyme A synthetases (PrpE) of Salmonella choleraesuis and Ralstonia solanacearum sharing 62% identity in amino acid sequence to each other were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Both enzymes catalyzed acetyl-, propionyl-, butyryl- and acrylyl-coenzyme A formation with the highest k(cat)/K(m) values for propionate. They displayed sigmoidal homotrophic autoactivation kinetics for propionate but not for the other acyl substrates tested. Besides, substrate inhibition kinetics was observed for co-substrates, i.e. ATP and CoA. Based on the kinetic data reported herein, the reaction mechanisms of the enzyme are discussed.  (+info)

The inhibition of the human cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) promoter by fibrates in cultured cells is mediated via the liver x receptor alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha heterodimer. (4/16)

In previous work, we showed that the binding of the liver x receptor alpha:peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (LXRalpha:PPARalpha) heterodimer to the murine Cyp7a1 gene promoter antagonizes the stimulatory effect of their respective ligands. In this study, we determined if LXRalpha:PPARalpha can also regulate human CYP7A1 gene promoter activity. Co-expression of LXRalpha and PPARalpha in McArdle RH7777 hepatoma cells decreased the activity of the human CYP7A1 gene promoter in response to fibrates and 25-hydroxycholesterol. In vitro, the human CYP7A1 Site I bound LXRalpha:PPARalpha, although with substantially less affinity compared with the murine Cyp7a1 Site I. The binding of LXRalpha:PPARalpha to human CYP7A1 Site I was increased in the presence of either LXRalpha or PPARalpha ligands. In HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells, fibrates and 25-hydroxycholesterol inhibited the expression of the endogenous CYP7A1 gene as well as the human CYP7A1 gene promoter when co-transfected with plasmids encoding LXRalpha and PPARalpha. However, a derivative of the human CYP7A1 gene promoter that contains a mutant form of Site I that does not bind LXRalpha:PPARalpha was not inhibited by WY 14,643 or 25-hydroxycholesterol in both McArdle RH7777 and HepG2 cells. The ligand-dependent recruitment of LXRalpha:PPARalpha heterodimer onto the human CYP7A1 Site I can explain the inhibition of the human CYP7A1 gene promoter in response to fibrates and 25-hydroxycholesterol.  (+info)

Corn hybrid affects in vitro and in vivo measures of nutrient digestibility in dogs. (5/16)

Corn is a commonly used ingredient in dry pet foods because there is a stable supply and it is a relatively inexpensive source of nutrients. Corn hybrids are available that are higher in CP and amylose and lower in phytate concentration than conventional hybrids. Approximately 500 mg of high-protein (HP), high-protein, low-phytate (HPLP), and high-amylose (HA) corn were compared with conventional (CONV) corn and amylomaize starch (AM) in triplicate and exposed to pepsin/hydrochloric acid and pancreatin to simulate hydrolytic digestion. Substrate remaining after this was used to determine in vitro colonic fermentation. Organic matter disappearances as a result of hydrolytic digestion were >80% for CONV, HP, and HPLP, whereas HA (60.7%) and AM (43.7%) were lower (P < 0.05). Total digestion (TD) values after hydrolytic digestion and 8 h of fermentation using canine fecal inoculum were greater (P < 0.05) for CONV, HP, and HPLP vs. HA and AM. The residue left after hydrolytic digestion of all substrates was poorly fermented. Five ileal-cannulated dogs were fed each corn hybrid at approximately 31% of the diet in a 5 x5 Latin square design. Dogs fed diets containing HP corn had higher (P < 0.05) ileal OM digestibility (70.3%) and tended (P < 0.10) to have higher DM digestibility (64.6%). Ileal starch digestibilities were lower (P < 0.05) for dogs fed HA (64.0%) and AM (63.0%). Ileal digestibilities of essential (71.2%), nonessential (67.4%), and total (69.0%) AA tended to be higher (P < 0.10) for HP diets compared with CONV (66.4, 62.4, and 64.0%, respectively). Total-tract DM, OM, CP, and GE digestibilities (77, 82, 77, and 84%, on average, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) for dogs fed CONV, HP, and HPLP than for those fed AM (66.9, 71.6, 72.6, and 76.5%) and HA (60.6, 65.7, 69.7, and 71.5%). Total-tract fat digestibilities were lower (P < 0.05) for dogs fed HA diets (86.6%) than for all other treatments (91.0%, on average). Total-tract starch digestibilities were higher (P < 0.05) for dogs fed CONV, HP, and HPLP (98%, on average) compared with HA (72.8%) and AM (76.5%). No differences were detected among treatments in fecal bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, or Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The experiments demonstrated that HP and HPLP corn had hydrolytic digestion and fermentation characteristics similar to those of CONV corn, whereas HA resulted in similar responses to AM, a well-established resistant starch ingredient.  (+info)

Enantioselective fluorescent recognition of chiral acids by cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-based bisbinaphthyl molecules. (6/16)

The cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-based bisbinaphthyl macrocycles (S)-/(R)-5 and their cyclic and acyclic analogues are synthesized. The interactions of these compounds with various chiral acids are studied. Compounds (S)-/(R)-5 exhibit highly enantioselective fluorescent responses and high fluorescent sensitivity toward alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids and N-protected amino acids. Among these interactions, (S)-mandelic acid (10(-3) M) led to over 20-fold fluorescence enhancement of (S)-5 (1.0 x 10(-5) M in benzene/0.05% DME) at the monomer emission, and (S)-hexahydromandelic acid (10(-3) M) led to over 80-fold fluorescence enhancement. These results demonstrate that (S)-5 is useful as an enantioselective fluorescent sensor for the recognition of the chiral acids. On the basis of the study of the structures of (S)-5 and the previously reported 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine-based bisbinaphthyl macrocycle (S)-4, the large fluorescence enhancement of (S)-5 with a chirality-matched alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acid is attributed to the formation of a structurally rigidified host-guest complex and the further interaction of this complex with the acid to suppress the photoinduced electron-transfer fluorescent quenching caused by the nitrogens in (S)-5.  (+info)

Bioactive constituents from Chinese natural medicines. XXVIII. Chemical structures of acyclic alcohol glycosides from the roots of Rhodiola crenulata. (7/16)

Five new glycosides, creosides I, II, III, IV, and V, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the roots of Rhodiola crenulata, together with 21 known compounds. The chemical structures of new constituents were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.  (+info)

Mutation of the active site carboxy-lysine (K70) of OXA-1 beta-lactamase results in a deacylation-deficient enzyme. (8/16)

 (+info)

DHA 40% is an unsaturated acyclic acid that is a golden-yellow to yellow colored flowable soft liquid. This product should be stored at | 5℃ under nitro...
Icariin exerts estrogen-like activity in ameliorating EAE via mediating estrogen receptor β, modulating HPA function and glucocorticoid receptor expression ...
102506-09-2 - SLSORSYCKMNPIJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - (Cyclohexane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilobis(methylene)))tetrakisphosphonicacid, sodium salt - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Price KE, Pearce RE, Garg UC, Heese BA, Smith LD, Sullivan JE, Kennedy MJ, Bale JF, Ward RM, Chang TK, Abbott FS, Leeder JS. Effects of valproic acid on organic acid metabolism in children: a metabolic profiling study. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Jun; 89(6):867-74 ...
cyclohexane-1,3-dione 504-02-9 NMR spectrum, cyclohexane-1,3-dione H-NMR spectral analysis, cyclohexane-1,3-dione C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
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TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Peak and Relative Intensity Listing (degree 2θ, peaks with I/I1 value) Peak No. A I/I1 B I/I1 C I/I1 D I/I1 E I/I1 1 12.87 35 6.43 29 6.55 7 10.28 9 6.76 8 2 13.25 11 9.67 46 11.89 22 12.74 21 9.68 35 3 14.08 12 10.52 30 12.19 26 13.02 26 10.74 18 4 14.28 18 12.57 17 12.58 26 13.54 18 13.96 16 5 15.77 14 13.61 64 12.97 20 13.7 21 14.50 11 6 16.09 9 14.24 42 14.05 46 14.1 20 14.94 24 7 16.62 23 14.64 70 14.93 17 15.78 21 16.62 21 8 17.53 30 16.34 52 15.39 19 16.24 10 17.52 10 9 17.92 27 17.05 23 15.89 13 17.5 15 17.90 10 10 18.95 79 17.54 58 16.35 17 17.94 40 19.20 20 11 19.29 100 19.34 20 17.25 29 18.6 66 20.44 15 12 20.04 21 20.36 29 17.44 55 19.04 100 21.38 100 13 20.38 10 20.64 100 18.34 20 19.90 50 23.28 13 14 21.01 47 21.06 83 19.47 100 20.4 18 24.18 19 15 21.99 8 21.61 40 19.96 58 21.1 17 25.16 12 16 23.84 8 22.06 33 21.14 48 21.92 10 25.18 12 17 24.68 17 23.17 23 22.27 15 23.58 23 25.20 10 18 25.28 40 23.56 23 22.84 9 25.3 19 25.22 11 19 25.83 9 23.92 15 23.37 40 ...
Buy high quality 6-[[2-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl]methylamino]pyridin-3-ol 326496-02-0 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 4-{(1S)-1-Hydroxy-2-[(|sup>2|/sup>H|sub>3|/sub>)methylamino]ethyl}-1,2-benzenediol.
Root efflux of organic acid anions underlies a major mechanism of plant aluminium (Al) tolerance on acid soils. This efflux is mediated by transporters of the Al-activated malate transporter (ALMT) or the multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE) families. ZmALMT2 was previously suggested to be involved in Al tolerance based on joint association-linkage mapping for maize Al tolerance. In the current study, we functionally characterized ZmALMT2 by heterologously expressing it in Xenopus laevis oocytes and transgenic Arabidopsis. In oocytes, ZmALMT2 mediated an Al-independent electrogenic transport product of organic and inorganic anion efflux. Ectopic overexpression of ZmALMT2 in an Al-hypersensitive Arabidopsis KO/KD line lacking the Al tolerance genes, AtALMT1 and AtMATE, resulted in Al-independent constitutive root malate efflux which partially restored the Al tolerance phenotype. The lack of correlation between ZmALMT2 expression and Al tolerance (e.g., expression not localized to the root tip, ...
Fruit composition at harvest is strongly dependent on the temperature during the grapevine developmental cycle. This raises serious concerns regarding the sustainability of viticulture and the socio-economic repercussions of global warming for many regions where the most heat-tolerant varieties are already cultivated. Despite recent progress, the direct and indirect effects of temperature on fruit development are far from being understood. Experimental limitations such as fluctuating environmental conditions, intra-cluster heterogeneity and the annual reproductive cycle introduce unquantifiable biases for gene expression and physiological studies with grapevine. In the present study, DRCF grapevine mutants (microvine) were grown under several temperature regimes in duly-controlled environmental conditions. A singly berry selection increased the accuracy of fruit phenotyping and subsequent gene expression analyses. The physiological and transcriptomic responses of five key stages sampled simultaneously
Contents 1 Salmonella choleraesuis in Swine 1.1 History 1.2 Etiology 1.3 Zoonotic Potential 1.4 Epidemiology 1.5 The Disease 1.6...
In the present study, attempts were made to identify the potential of bacterial strains for promoting Arachis hypogaea L. growth. Four hundred and thirty three bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere,
Recently, we showed that secretion of citrate in an aluminium (Al) tolerant cultivar soybean (Glycine max) (cv. Suzunari) is a specific response to Al stress [Yang et al. (2000) Physiol Plant 110: 72-77]. Here we investigated the intrinsic mechanisms behind the secretion of citrate induced by Al. The amount of citrate secreted during the 24-h Al treatment period increased with increasing concentration of Al (0-70 μM). We analysed citrate secretion basically under 3 conditions: (1) by varying light-exposure, (2) with intact or excised shoots and (3) by using a divided chamber technique. Further, the content of organic acids in the tissue and the activity of enzymes involved in organic acid metabolism were analysed and evaluated. The results indicate that high rate of citrate secretion in soybean requires a 4-h induction period. Al had a continuous effect on the citrate secretion when Al was removed from the treatment solution. Citrate secretion increased steadily under exposure to continuous ...
Page contains details about tris({[(9,10-dioxo-8a,9,10,10a-tetrahydroanthracen-2-yl)amino]methylidene})cyclohexane-1,3,5-trione nanowires . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Fatigue is not just a lack of physical energy; mental exhaustion can also contribute to an overall lack of energy and endurance. EnergyForce™ is a non-stimulant formula that includes the nutrients necessary to naturally support both physical and mental energy without the jitters or anxiety associated with some energy supplements.. Clinical research has shown that the botanical extracts in Endurin TG™, Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea, help reduce fatigue and promote vitality. They also provide adaptogenic support that provides an increase in the bodys ability to cope on multiple physiological levels.. Panax Ginseng and Eleuthero root have been studied for centuries for enhancing vitality. Ginsengs activity has been shown to increase nonspecific immunostimulatory activity, while Eleuthero Root helps increase the bodys resistance to external negative forces and creates an overall normalizing affect.. EnergyForce™ contains an energizing compound of complementary nutrients and herbs, ...
c)Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for potency using the mouse test provided in this paragraph. A mouse dose shall be 1/20 of the least dose recommended on the label for other animals which shall not be less than 2 ml. (1) The ability of the bacterin being tested (Unknown) to protect mice shall be compared with a Standard Reference Bacterin (Standard) which is either supplied by or acceptable to Veterinary Services. (2) At least three fivefold dilutions shall be made with the Standard and the same fivefold dilution shall be made for each Unknown. The dilutions shall be made in Phosphate-Buffered Saline. (3) For each dilution of the Standard and each dilution of an Unknown, a group of at least 20 mice, each weighing 16 to 22 grams, shall be used. Each mouse in a group shall be injected intraperitoneally with one mouse dose of the appropriate dilution. Each mouse shall be revaccinated on day 14, using the same schedule. (4) Each of ...
Titulo en español: Caracterización de bacterias diazotróficas solublizadoras de fosfato como promotoras de crecimiento en plantas de maízTitulo corto: Caracterización de bacterias diazotróficasAbstract: Phosphorus is limiting for growth of maize plants, and because of that use of fertilizers like rock phosphate has been proposed. However, direct use of rock phosphate is not recommended because of its low availability, so it is necessary to improve it. In this study, a group of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, for their production of indolic compounds and for their effects on growth of maize plants. Strains of the genera Azosporillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium and Klebsiella, were quantitatively evaluated for solubilization of Ca3(PO4)2 and Rock Phosphate as a single source of phosphorous in SRS culture media. Additionally, the phosphatase enzyme activity was quantified at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and production of indolic ...
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A ph is a -log(h3,0+). An indicator is a weak organic acids whose color differs from that of its conjugate.A buffer is a soluton that can receive moderate amounts of either acid or base without significant change in its ph. Neutralization is combinig e...
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Zinc oxide and vitamin B6 are regarded as the really effective part which plays an essential job in raising the testosterone amount, which is essential for accelerating the hormones and would make you healthful. This product or service can be acquiring wealthy information of minerals which fulfills the deficiency of primary need of your body. Rhodiola crenulata may be very valuable in protecting the cortisol degree of the human body and manages the pressure level and tends to make you able to focus on your goal in a much better way. Tribulu terrestris is a traditional aspect which usually to blame for simulation of blood throughout the physique and Additionally, it considered as incredibly handy in production of libiodo, dont concern yourself with your reduced push. By using this awesome product you can make your body healthier from each side i.e internally as well as externally. Nitric oxide is having its attribute of opening the blood vessel for suitable flowing of blood through the entire ...
Compounds having the formula: are inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis. These compounds are useful as anti-asthmatic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective agents. They are also useful in treating diarrhea, hypertension, angina, platelet aggregation, cerebral spasm, premature labor, ...
(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[(2-amino-4-methylpentyl)-methylamino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-N-[(2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxo-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-1-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]propan-2-yl]pentanediamide 135721-56-1 MSDS report, (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[(2-amino-4-methylpentyl)-methylamino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-N-[(2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxo-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-1-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]propan-2-yl]pentanediamide MSDS safety technical specifications search, (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[(2-amino-4-methylpentyl)-methylamino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-N-[(2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxo-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-1-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]propan-2-yl]pentanediamide safety information specifications ect.
Alfa Aesar™ 4-(Methylamino)phenol sulfate, ACS, 99.0-101.5% 50g Alfa Aesar™ 4-(Methylamino)phenol sulfate, ACS, 99.0-101.5% Mercaptoe to Methoxya...
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Organic Acid Products catalog and Organic Acid manufacturer directory. weiku.com is a Organic Acid trade platform offering information about Global Organic Acid Products and global Organic Acid buyers
ethyl 2-(methylamino)acetate | C5H11NO2 | CID 95849 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
2-[[2-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)ethyl]methylamino]ethanol/ACM68213989 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Surfaces with primary or secondary amino groups covalently bound are dedicated to promote the covalent immobilisationof compounds containing reactive moieties such as amino, carboxyl or thiol groups via well-known homoheterobifunctionallinkers, e.g. N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) or Succinimidyl 4-(N-maleidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC).. This kind of immobilisation can overcome some of the limitations connected with physical adsorption of the molecules tothe surfaces:. ...
Surfaces with primary or secondary amino groups covalently bound are dedicated to promote the covalent immobilisationof compounds containing reactive moieties such as amino, carboxyl or thiol groups via well-known homoheterobifunctionallinkers, e.g. N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) or Succinimidyl 4-(N-maleidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC).. This kind of immobilisation can overcome some of the limitations connected with physical adsorption of the molecules tothe surfaces:. ...
Phenotypic and Genotypic Features of a Salmonella Heidelberg Strain Isolated in Broilers in Brazil and Their Possible Association to Antibiotics and Short-Chain Organic Acids Resistance and Susceptibility.. Santin, Elizabeth; Hayashi, Ricardo Mitsuo; Wammes, Jessica Caroline; Gonzalez-Esquerra, Ricardo; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Freire, Caio César de Melo; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira. 2017-01-01. Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is a human pathogen also found in broilers. A strain (UFPR1) has been associated with field reports of resistance to short-chain organic acids (SCOA) in broilers in the South of Brazil, but was susceptible to a Bacillus subtilis -based probiotic added in feed in a related study. This work aimed to (i) report clinical symptoms caused by SH UFPR1 in broilers, (ii) study its susceptibility to some antibiotics in vitro , and (iii) SCOA in vivo ; and (iv) relate these phenotypic observations with its genome characteristics. Two in vivo ...
the invention relates to medicine, in particular to the experimental cardiovascolari.. Closest to the claimed solution is a way of correcting hypoestrogen-induced endothelial dysfunction furostanol glycosides from cell culture plants of dioscorea deltoidea described 27.07.2008, RF patent No. 2329807.. The main disadvantage of this method is that the correction geoastro-meningocerebral endothelial disfuncio associated with estrogen-like activity furostanol glycosides. Therefore, the results of the correction of endothelial dysfunction in case of damage in the system L-arginine-NO, which is mainly caused by deficiency of endothelial NO-synthase, using furostanol glycosides from cell culture plants of dioscorea deltoidea with estrogen-like activity is unsatisfactory.. While the main mechanism of action of the mixture of solutions gomeopaticheskih dilutions of polyclonal rabbit antibodies to endothelial synthase nitric oxide - C12, C30, C200 is an increase of eNOS, thereby affecting the main link of ...
It features several key, nutraceutical blends. Fo Ti Blast™ (60 mg/cap) features Fo Ti, a premier botanical revered for centuries. Rhodiola Pro Blend™ delivers the famous "3 Rs": Rhaponticum, Rhodiola Rosea and Rhodiola Crenulata (70 mg/cap), the perfect adaptogenic triple blend. Ecko-Boost™ showcases the amazing nutritional star, Ecklonia Cava (55 mg/cap), and Nopal Pro Blend™ (190 mg/cap) is also included for optimal effect. ...
Enogen® corn hybrids from Syngenta have been providing value for farmers and ethanol producers, now Enogen® Feed hybrids can help provide value for beef and dairy producers as well. "Enogen continues to be an exciting part of our business in Syngenta and the NK brand," said Quinn Showalter, NK Sales Head, during an interview at the National Association of Farm Broadcasting (NAFB) annual Trade Talk. Enogen corn will produce about 2 billion gallons of ethanol this year. "New as we move forward into 2018 is the value that Enogen brings from a feed standpoint.". Showalter says on-farm trials this year showed very promising results and as grain or silage, can provide a valuable ration component that helps provide more available energy for cattle in the form of starch and sugar, which also helps improve digestibility. "There is incremental value in the form of feed efficiency that come from Enogen," he said.. In this interview, Quinn also discusses Syngentas long-term commitment to the NK brand and ...
Exogenous cyclic 3,5-AMP (cAMP) and substances known to increase the intracellular concentration of this nucleotide (isoproterenol, theophylline, noradrenaline, lactate) were shown to inhibit the transport of fluorescein (a weak organic acid) into the rat renal proximal tubules at 20 degrees C. Carbacholine decreasing intracellular cAMP concentration stimulated the transport. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blockator, diminished significantly the inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on the transport. Lactate and carbacholine when added simultaneously, neutralize their action. The inhibitory action of intracellular cAMP on the transport is supposed to be a result of the diminition of a pool of endogenous weak organic acids which may take part in the exchange of diffusion with the marker anion across basal plasma membrane.
According to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, Annex VIII, section 9.2.2.1, column 2, the study need not be conducted if the substance is highly insoluble in water or the substance is readily biodegradable. The water solubility of the test substance is 47 µg/L at 20 °C and is therefore classed as insoluble. Furthermore a Ready Biodegradability test shows 54.1% degradation after 28 days. Although this does not fulfill the minimum criteria set out by the OECD method, it does however indicate that the material achieved ,50 % within 30 days, highlighting its propensity for biodegradation. An inherent biodegradability test shows 80.5% degradation after 28 days, therefore it is considered that the material is inherently biodegradable and as such not persistent in environmentally significant conditions. Therefore given the poor solubility and propensity for biodegradation further studies are scientifically unjustified. ...
We are happy to welcome our new PhD student Flora Allendorf. Floras project "toxicokinetic modeling of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans" is a PhD project of IP Exposom.. Additionally, we now are happy to welcome our PhD student Andrea Ebert here in Leipzig, who spent her first year of PhD in a cooperating group in Linz. Andrea investigates the membrane permeability of ionic and neutral species. ...
87607-27-0 - FIFBPQMPYUTVAO-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Carbamic acid, (5-amino-1,2-dihydro-3-(((4-methoxyphenyl)methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpyrido(3,4-b)pyrazin-7-yl)-, ethyl ester - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Acids are an important group of chemicals. Organic acids are characterised by the presence of a -COOH group attached to a carbon atom. In this experiment, some typical properties of a weak organic acid are observed.
The inhibition of root growth by aluminum (Al) is well established, yet a unifying mechanism for Al toxicity remains unclear. The association between cell growth and endogenously generated ionic currents measured in many different systems, including plant roots, suggests that these currents may be directing growth. A vibrating voltage microelectrode system was used to measure the net ionic currents at the apex of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots from Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive cultivars. We examined the relationship between these currents and Al-induced inhibition of root growth. In the Al-sensitive cultivar, Scout 66, 10 micromolar Al (pH 4.5) began to inhibit the net current and root elongation within 1 to 3 hours. These changes occurred concurrently in 75% of experiments. A significant correlation was found between current magnitude and the rate of root growth when data were pooled. No changes in either current magnitude or growth rate were observed in similar experiments using the ...
HPLC Application #14969: Monosaccharides with organic acids using Rezex ROA. Column used: Rezex™ ROA-Organic Acid H+ (8%), LC Column 300 x 7.8 mm, Ea Part#: 00H-0138-K0
View Notes - Organic_Acids_and_bases from CHEM CHEM266 at Waterloo. Organic Acids and Bases This document has been written to provide you with an overview of the fundamental concepts of organic
Formula: C14H24N2O7MW: 332. 35Salt: 2HClCAS: 22189-32-8TNP NUMBER: TNP00199MDL NUMBER: MFCD00058104IUPAC: (8S,11S,13S,14S,3R,6R,10R,12R)-12,14-bis(methylamino)-3,11,13-trihydroxy-6-met hyl-2,7,9-trioxatricyclo[8....
This report is available in Microsoft Excel and Acrobat PDF formats at the Wisconsin Corn Agronomy website: http://corn.agronomy.wisc.edu. The most current version of Wisconsin Corn Hybrid Performance Trials (A3653) is also available to download as a PDF or purchase as a printed booklet at the UW Extension Learning Store: http://learningstore.uwex.edu. For more information on the Wisconsin Crop Improvement Association, visit: http://wcia.wisc.edu. Copyright © 2012 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System doing business as the division of Cooperative Extension of the University of Wisconsin-Extension. All rights reserved. Send copyright inquiries to: Cooperative Extension Publishing, 432 N. Lake St., Rm. 227, Madison, WI 53706, [email protected] Authors: Joe Lauer is professor of agronomy, Kent Kohn is corn program manager in agronomy, and Thierno Diallo is research specialist in agronomy, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Lauer also ...
To further understand the process of Al-induced citrate secretion from soybean roots, the effect of protein synthesis inhibitor, anion channel blockers, and citrate carrier inhibitors on Al-induced citrate exudation was investigated in Al-resistant soybean cultivar PI 416937. Citrate exudation from roots increased with the increase of Al concentration from 10 to 50 μM and initiated after 4 h of Al ...
1,3-Diphenyl-2-(methylamino)propanol | C16H19NO | CID 584311 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4-[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-[6-amino-8-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)methylamino]purine-1,3,7-triium-9-yl]-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxymethyl]benzonitrile (C25H23Cl2N7O4) from the PQR.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule [(2R,3S,5S)-5-(2-amino-6-oxo-3H-purine-1,7-diium-4-id-9-yl)-3-hydroxy-3-[2-(methylamino)benzoyl]tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl phosphono hydrogen phosphate (C18H23N6O11P2) from the PQR.
Bartlett, P. A.; Myerson, J. (1978). "Stereoselective epoxidation of acyclic olefinic carboxylic acids via iodolactonization". ... The reaction mechanism involves the formation of a positively charged halonium ion in a molecule with a carboxylic acid or ... 6-heptadien-4-carboxylic acid derivatives". Tetrahedron Letters. 29 (13): 1517. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)80340-8. Baldwin, ...
L.A. Flippin & C.H. Heathcock (1983) Acyclic stereoselection. 16. High diastereofacial selectivity in Lewis acid mediated ... amino acid side chains in enzyme active sites; see below). Planar electrophiles include aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acid- ... These nucleophiles can be paired with an array of planar electrophiles: aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acid-derivatives, and ... Mahrwald, Rainer (1999). "Diastereoselection in Lewis-Acid-Mediated Aldol Additions" (PDF). Chem. Rev. 99: 1095-1120, esp. pp. ...
Removed by acid. Normally, the cleavage of acyclic acetals is easier than of cyclic acetals. Acylals - Removed by Lewis acids. ... Protection of carboxylic acids: Methyl esters - Removed by acid or base. Benzyl esters - Removed by hydrogenolysis. tert-Butyl ... Methylthiomethyl ether - Removed by acid. Pivaloyl (Piv) - Removed by acid, base or reductant agents. It is substantially more ... Silyl esters - Removed by acid, base and organometallic reagents. Orthoesters - Removed by mild aqueous acid to form ester, ...
The related sulfinamides (R(S=O)NHR) are amides of sulfinic acids (R(S=O)OH) (see sulfinyl). Chiral sulfinamides such as tert- ... Hydrochlorothiazide is a drug that features both acyclic and cyclic sulfonamide groups. Camphorsultam is a sultam used as a ... Sulfonamide (medicine) Sulfamic acid Sulfamide Actor, P.; Chow, A. W.; Dutko, F. J.; McKinlay, M. A. (2005), "Chemotherapeutics ... Any sulfonamide can be considered as derived from a sulfonic acid by replacing a hydroxyl group with an amine group. In ...
Here, pederic acid is added to the protected compound in LiHMDS and THF, producing a 75% yield. The protecting groups are then ... introducing stereoselective reduction of the acyclic ketone. Michael addition of nitromethane is performed. After several steps ... Beginning with (+)-benzoylselenopederic acid, Zn(BH4)2 reduction is applied, ... 2. Stereocontrolled synthesis of (+)-benzoylselenopederic acid and total synthesis of (+)-pederin". Tetrahedron Letters. 26 (52 ...
... related thiosulfinates show radical-trapping antioxidant activity associated with easy formation of sulfenic acids The acyclic ... The thiosulfinate group can occur in cyclic as well as acyclic structures. A variety of acyclic and cyclic thiosulfinates are ... Methyl methanethiosulfinate decomposes thermally giving methanesulfenic acid (CH3SOH), the simplest sulfenic acid, as well as ... Asparagusic acid S-oxide and brugierol are other natural 1,2-dithiolane-1-oxides occurring in Asparagus o cinalis and Brugiera ...
Graham, T. J. A.; Doyle, A. G. Nickel-Catalyzed Cross Coupling of Chromene Acetals and Boronic Acids. Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 1616 ... Katcher, M. H.; Sha, A.; Doyle, A. G. Regio- and Enantioselective Fluorination of Acyclic Allylic Halides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. ... Evidence for Boronic Acid-Assisted Oxidative Addition and an Iminium Activation Pathway. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 16967- ...
For acyclic substrates the reaction yields the thermodynamic E-olefin product exclusively. This discovery was preceded nearly ... yields the palladium hydride enone complex which upon reductive elimination yields the product along with acetic acid and Pd0. ... The reversibility of the elimination step allows equilibration, leading to the thermodynamic E-selectivity in acyclic ... Qiang Tu's synthesis of the Alzheimer's disease medication galantamine likewise used this reaction in the presence of an acid- ...
In 1976, Meyers reported the first alkylation reaction of metallated azaenolates of hydrazones with an acyclic amino acid-based ... With para-tosylate acid added, the hydrazone compounds can be transformed to the corresponding ketones with almost quantitative ... The combination of cyclic amino acid derivatives (SAMP and RAMP) and the powerful hydrazone techniques were pioneered by E. J. ... Both SAMP and RAMP are synthesized from amino acids. The detailed synthesis of these two auxiliaries are shown below. The ...
The scheme shows a typical acid-catalyzed self-condensation of an aldehyde. Acid-catalyzed aldol mechanism Acid-catalyzed ... Heathcock, C. H.; Buse, C. T.; Kleschnick, W. A.; Pirrung, M. C.; Sohn, J. E.; Lampe, J. (1980). "Acyclic stereoselection. 7. ... When an acid catalyst is used, the initial step in the reaction mechanism involves acid-catalyzed tautomerization of the ... The acid also serves to activate the carbonyl group of another molecule by protonation, rendering it highly electrophilic. The ...
Lewis acid promoted and transmetalation reactions are much milder and have achieved synthetic utility. Intramolecular addition ... and depends on the relative energies of a number of acyclic transition states. (E)-Stannanes exhibit higher syn selectivity ... Chelation control using Lewis acids such as magnesium bromide can lead to high stereoselectivities for reactions of α-alkoxy ... Reagent control implies that a catalyst or Lewis acid promoter is serving as the stereocontrolling species. When all substrates ...
5) Cyclic and acyclic dienes generally give cyclobutanones, rather than Diels-Alder adducts. In reactions of cyclic dienes, the ... Lewis acid catalysis is necessary for this process, unless the carbonyl compound possesses strongly electron- withdrawing ...
4) In many cases, cyclic dienes give higher diastereoselectivities than acyclic dienes. Use of amino-acid-based chiral ... Cyclic, acyclic, and tethered imines have all been employed in the reaction with success. (1) Simple alkyl or aryl amines are ... The lowest-energy transition state for the concerted process places the imine lone pair (or coordinated Lewis acid) in an exo ... 2) When the imine nitrogen is protonated or coordinated to a strong Lewis acid, the mechanism shifts to a stepwise, Mannich- ...
This is not the case in Lewis-acid-promoted reactions, in which either the (Z) or (E) stannane gives the syn product ... The origin of this selectivity has been debated, and depends on the relative energies of a number of acyclic, rotameric ... Chelation control using Lewis acids such as magnesium bromide can lead to high stereoselectivities for reactions of α-alkoxy ... A wide variety of enantioselective additions employing chiral, non-racemic Lewis acids are known. The chiral (acyloxy)borane or ...
During the synthesis of acetalated dextran both acyclic and cyclic acetals are formed. The acyclic acetals degrade into an ... This allows it to be processed in the same manner as many polyesters, like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), through processes ... The ratio of cyclic to acyclic acetals varies with reaction time since acyclic acetals are kinetically favored and cyclic ... "Acid-Degradable and Bioerodible Modified Polyhydroxylated Materials". Google Patent. Kauffman, KJ; Do, C; Sharma, S; Gallovic, ...
Only in the recent version of Hive 0.14 were these functions fully added to support complete ACID properties. This is because ... Internally, a compiler translates HiveQL statements into a directed acyclic graph of MapReduce, Tez, or Spark jobs, which are ... ISBN 978-1-4493-8973-4. Hive Language Manual ACID and Transactions in Hive Hive A Warehousing Solution Over a MapReduce ... Support for insert, update, and delete with full ACID functionality was made available with release 0.14. ...
Although humans cannot derive phytanic acid from chlorophyll, they can convert free phytol into phytanic acid. Thus, patients ... Phytol is an acyclic diterpene alcohol that can be used as a precursor for the manufacture of synthetic forms of vitamin E and ... The metabolites phytanic acid and pristanic acid are naturally occurring ligands. In mice oral phytol induces massive ... "Diverse captive non-human primates with phytanic acid-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial phytanic acid ...
X. The Rule of "Steric Control of Asymmetric Induction" in the Syntheses of Acyclic Systems Donald J. Cram, Fathy Ahmed Abd ... if a Lewis acid such as Al-iPr2 or Zn2+ is introduced, a bidentate chelation effect can be observed. This locks the carbonyl ... Chiral acyclic alkenes also show diastereoselectivity upon reactions such as epoxidation and enolate alkylation. The ... Cram and Reetz demonstrated that 1,3-stereocontrol is possible if the reaction proceeds through an acyclic transition state. ...
An acid-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction formed intermediate E which was further converted to the final product under the ... The key step in Heathcock's synthetic route involves a cyclization of acyclic dialdehydes A or B to form proto-daphniphylline. ... Treating A or B with a sequence of simple reagents containing potassium hydroxide, ammonia, and acetic acid led to the ... Eschenmoser A, Felix D, Gut M, Meier J, Stadler P (1959). "Some aspects of acid-catalysed cyclizations of terpenoid polyenes". ...
With trifluoroacetic acid, benzene is lost to give the trifluoroacetate: Ni(η2-C6H4)(Cy2PCH2CH2PCy2) + 2 CF3CO2H → Ni(O2CCF3)2( ... Buchwald, S. L.; Nielsen, R. B. "Group 4 Metal Complexes of Benzynes, Cycloalkynes, Acyclic Alkynes, and Alkenes" Chem. Rev. ...
A patented process for the manufacture of rosefuran via condensation of 3-formylpropionic acid methyl ester with crotonaldehyde ... Rosefuran has also been synthesized via cyclization of suitable acyclic precursors, such as, 5-oxogeraniol and 5-hydroxycitral ... has also been prepared via palladium catalyzed cross coupling of the methyl ester of 4-bromo-5-methyl-2-furancarboxylic acid ...
Lithium formate can be converted to formic acid with an acid workup and the original germylene hydride was found to reform in ... The first stable acyclic germylene hydride was formed from the dissociation of a hydrido-digermene. The initial monomeric ... Two equivalents of elemental sulfur react with the β-diketiminato germylene hydride to give a germanium dithiocarboxylic acid ... There was also no evidence found for any tautomeric equilibrium of the germanium dithiocarboxylic acid analogue, which is ...
5) Lactonization of alkenes in the presence of acetic acid and acetate salts is a synthetically useful method for the synthesis ... and trans lactones are selectively formed from either cis or trans acyclic alkenes. (6) β-Dicarbonyl compounds are useful ... Glacial acetic acid is the most common solvent used, and although it results in heterogeneous reaction mixtures at room ...
... is less basic than acyclic aliphatic amines, with a pKa of 7.9 for the conjugate acid, due to increased s character ... N-unsubstituted aziridines can be opened with olefins in the presence of strong Lewis acid B(C 6F 5) 3. The toxicology of a ... CH 2-CH+ 2-R This reaction type requires a Lewis acid catalyst such as boron trifluoride. In this way 2-phenyl-N-tosylaziridine ...
Retrosynthetic tree A directed acyclic graph of several (or all) possible retrosyntheses of a single target. Synthon An ... In planning the synthesis of phenylacetic acid, two synthons are identified. A nucleophilic "-COOH" group, and an electrophilic ... The synthesis of phenylacetic acid determined by retrosynthetic analysis is thus: PhCH2Br + NaCN → PhCH2CN + NaBr PhCH2CN + 2 ... H2O → PhCH2COOH + NH3 In fact, phenylacetic acid has been synthesized from benzyl cyanide, itself prepared by the analogous ...
Acyclic (3°C): diphenhydramine (c.f deramciclane), orphenadrine, p-methyldiphenhydramine. *Acyclic (4°C): moxastine, Clemastine ... Alkylamine: A-86929, amfonelic acid. Benzenes linked by a non-carbon atom[edit]. *Nitrogen: promethazine, imipramine, ...
Acyclic nucleotide analogues based on phosphonic acids].. [E V Efimtseva, S N Mikhaĭlov, M V Fomicheva, S V Meshkov, M S ... The synthesis of novel nucleotide analogues on the basis of ethylphosphonic acid was described. A rigid structural element, an ...
Polyprenoic acid in hepatocellular carcinoma. [N Engl J Med. 1996]. *Prevention of second primary tumors by an acyclic retinoid ... We developed an acyclic retinoid, polyprenoic acid, that inhibits hepatocarcinogenesis in the laboratory and induces ... Prevention of second primary tumors by an acyclic retinoid, polyprenoic acid, in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. ... Treatment with polyprenoic acid significantly reduced the incidence of recurrent or new hepatomas. After a median follow-up of ...
... saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain acids, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, and 2-, 3-, and 4- ... c) 2-Methylbutyric acid, 2-methylpentanoic acid, and 4-methylpentanoic acid In general, branched-chain acids with an alpha- ... The daily per capita intake of the branched-chain acids (i.e. isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, and 2-methylbutyric acid) ... isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid or 2-methylbutyric acid) and corresponding aliphatic acyclic alcohols. Table 2 summarizes the ...
... threoninol nucleic acid (aTNA) containing thymine, cytosine and adenine nucleobases were synthesized and shown to form ... Highly stable triple helix formation by homopyrimidine (L)-acyclic threoninol nucleic acids with single stranded DNA and RNA ... Acyclic (L)-threoninol nucleic acid (aTNA) containing thymine, cytosine and adenine nucleobases were synthesized and shown to ... Highly stable triple helix formation by homopyrimidine (L)-acyclic threoninol nucleic acids with single stranded DNA and RNA V ...
... carboxylic acids (linear saturated aliphatic acids (C1-C6), isobutyric acid isovaleric acid and 2-ethylbutyric acid) are ... linear saturated aliphatic acids (C1-C6), isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid and 2-ethylbutyric acid). The four terpenoid ... acid is discussed in the monographs on saturated aliphatic acyclic linear primary alcohols aldehydes and acids and on saturated ... fatty acid or amino acid pathways (Voet & Voet, 1990). In general, the component linear saturated carboxylic acids (C1 - C6) ...
... acyclicl-threoninol nucleic acid (l-aTNA). l-aTNA formed a more stable duplex with DNA and RNA than either d-aTNA or serinol ... nucleic acid (SNA) as the rigidity of the l-form was more optimal for interaction with natural nucleic acids. ... We report the hybridization properties of a novel artificial nucleic acid: ... We report the hybridization properties of a novel artificial nucleic acid: acyclicL-threoninol nucleic acid (L-aTNA). L-aTNA ...
"Acyclic polyimides based on dinitriles and dicarboxylic acids, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Acyclic polyimides based on dinitriles and dicarboxylic acids. Acyclic polyimides based on dinitriles and dicarboxylic acids ... Acyclic polyimides based on dinitriles and dicarboxylic acids. Ochirov, B.; Burdukovskii, V.; Mognonov, D. ... lp/springer_journal/acyclic-polyimides-based-on-dinitriles-and-dicarboxylic-acids-253lslzegY ...
The reactions of (Z)-N,S-dimethylthiobenzimidate N-oxide, with methylmagnesium bromide and aqueous acid and base were ... Acyclic Imidate and Thiomidate Normal-Oxides: Nitrones of Esters and Thioesters (alpha-Alkoxynitrones, Alpha-Alkylthionitrones ... Acyclic Imidate and Thiomidate Normal-Oxides: Nitrones of Esters and Thioesters (alpha-Alkoxynitrones, Alpha-Alkylthionitrones ... Acyclic Imidate and Thiomidate Normal-Oxides: Nitrones of Esters and Thioesters (alpha-Alkoxynitrones, Alpha-Alkylthionitrones ...
... Dziedzic, Pawel Stockholm University, ... The ability of a primary amine containing acyclic beta(3)-amino acids to catalyze direct asymmetric anti-selective Mannich-type ... 1. Amino acid-catalyzed synthesis of amino acid derivatives: Application and semi-synthesis of Paclitaxel, Docetaxel and their ... Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Amino acid-catalyzed synthesis of amino acid derivatives: Application and semi- ...
Antiviral potential of a new generation of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, the 6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]-2,4- ... nucleic acids JO - Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids VL - 24 IS - 5-7 N2 - Three acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) ... Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids, 24(5-7), 331-41. De Clercq E, et al. Antiviral Potential of a New Generation of ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24(5-7):331-41.. De Clercq, E., Andrei, G., Balzarini, J., Leyssen, P., Naesens, L ...
"MMDB and VAST+: tracking structural similarities between macromolecular complexes.Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Jan; 42(Database ...
Crystal Structure of the Grb2 SH2 Domain in Complex with An Acyclic Ligand Having the Sequence pYVNVP. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3N8M/ ... Structures of complexes of macrocycle 7 and its acyclic control 8 are similar except for differences in relative orientations ...
Background/Purpose Acyclic retinoid (ACR) is a promising chemopreventive agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that ... Amino acid metabolism Is the Subject Area "Amino acid metabolism" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Nucleic Acids Research ; Volume 27. p. 1271-1274. 1999. Martinez, Carlos I.; Thoresen, Lars; Burgess, Kevin; Gibbs, Richard A. ... An allylic/acyclic adenosine nucleoside triphosphate for termination of DNA synthesis by DNA template-dependent polymerases. ... An allylic/acyclic adenosine nucleoside triphosphate for termination of DNA synthesis by DNA template-dependent polymerases ... An allylic/acyclic adenosine nucleoside triphosphate for termination of DNA synthesis by DNA template-dependent polymerases ...
Only under Lewis acid catalysis do these reactions occur under synthetically useful conditions. Acyclic transition states are ... a Lewis acid assists in the generation of an acylium ion from an acid chloride (or occasionally acid anhydride). Although the ... In Lewis acid catalysis of organic reactions, a metal-based Lewis acid acts as an electron pair acceptor to increase the ... Lewis acid Chiral Lewis acid Catalysis Enantioselective synthesis Carey, Fransis A.; Sundberg, Richard J. (2007). Advanced ...
Taurocholic Acid. Monocarboxylate transporter 1. transporter. DB04348. Taurocholic Acid. Sodium/bile acid cotransporter. ... Taurocholic Acid. Ileal sodium/bile acid cotransporter. transporter. DB04348. Taurocholic Acid. Canalicular multispecific ... Taurocholic Acid. ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11. transporter. DB04348. Taurocholic Acid. Solute carrier organic ... Taurocholic Acid. ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2. transporter. DB04348. Taurocholic Acid. Solute carrier organic ...
SUBSTITUTED NAPHTHYLACETIC ACIDS. The invention is concerned with the compounds of formula (I) and pharmaceutically acceptable ... NEW INDANYLOXYPHENYLCYCLOPROPANECARB OXYLIC ACIDS. The present invention relates to compounds of general formula I, (I) wherein ... The invention relates to an ester having at least one sulphonic group on the acid chain, a method for the production thereof ... The invention further relates a process of using dilute sulfuric acid and re-circulating the dilute sul... ...
LATENT ACIDS AND THEIR USE. The invention pertains to a compound generating an acid of the formula (I) or (II), for instance ... METHOD OF SYNTHESIZING Α-AMINO ACID DERIVATIVE WITH Α-ALKYL SIDE CHAIN SUBSTITUTION. The present invention discloses a method ... PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF ALKALI SALTS OF THE DIALKYLDITHIOCARBAMIC ACID. The present invention relates to a ... An electrodeposition composition comprising: (a) a source of copper ions; (b) an acid; (c) a suppressor; and (d) a leveler, ...
In 2018, Top exporters of Acids; unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids; esters of acrylic acid are Belgium ($493,922.76K , ... HS Code 291612: Acids; unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids; esters of acrylic acid. Please note: Exports is gross exports ... Acids; unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids; esters of acrylic acid. 2018. World. 493,922.76. 311,279,000. Kg. ... Acids; unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids; esters of acrylic acid. 2018. World. 427,166.51. 259,417,000. Kg. ...
1996) Prevention of second primary tumors by an acyclic retinoid, polyprenoic acid, in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. ... especially linoleic acid metabolism (17). Intriguingly, in animal models of NASH, the accumulation of linoleic acid in ... Acyclic retinoid (ACR) is a synthetic vitamin A-like compound capable of preventing the recurrence of HCC. Here, we performed a ... acyclic retinoid. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. HCC is highly malignant and causes ...
Lewis acids in diastereoselective processes involving acyclic radicals. Guindon, Y. / Guérin, Brigitte / Rancourt, J. / Chabot ...
Acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids having butyl and tetradecyl side alkyl chains at the α-position of the carboxylic acid ... "Acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids having butyl and tetradecyl side alkyl chains at the α-position of the carboxylic acid ... Acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids having butyl and tetradecyl side alkyl chains at the α-position of the carboxylic acid ... Acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids having butyl and tetradecyl side alkyl chains at the α-position of the carboxylic acid ...
... a 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acid, that has an open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped ... Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids). "Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids)" Acyclic Acid. In organic chemistry, Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic ... Uronic Acids *Glucuronates *Glucuronic Acid *Glucuronides *Hexuronic Acids *Iduronic Acid *Tricarboxylic Acids *Aconitic Acid * ... Ascorbic Acid *2,3-Diketogulonic Acid *Glucaric Acid *Gluconic Acids (Gluconates) *Glyceric Acids *Muramic Acids *Neuraminic ...
Bartlett, P. A.; Myerson, J. (1978). "Stereoselective epoxidation of acyclic olefinic carboxylic acids via iodolactonization". ... The reaction mechanism involves the formation of a positively charged halonium ion in a molecule with a carboxylic acid or ... 6-heptadien-4-carboxylic acid derivatives". Tetrahedron Letters. 29 (13): 1517. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)80340-8. Baldwin, ...
  • The present invention relates to a process for the production of alkali metal salts of dialkyldithiocarbamic acids and to alkali metal salts of dialkyldithiocarbamic acids produced according to said process. (sumobrain.com)
  • A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Three acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of 1) cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients (cidofovir, by the intravenous route), 2) chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections (adefovir dipivoxil, by the oral route), and 3) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, by the oral route). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Development of acyclic allylic nucleoside analogs, which act as NRTIs against HIV, involves both the computational and synthetic methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present invention describes terminal phosphate blocked nucleoside polyphosphates that are stable at high temperature and their use in nucleic acid amplification and analysis. (google.es)
  • Current invention further describes charge modified terminal phosphate blocked nucleoside polyphosphates for improved incorporation and direct loading of nucleic acid sequencing reactions onto separating media. (google.es)
  • 1. In a method for nucleic acid analysis, which includes a high temperature polymerase reaction of a nucleic acid template, a primer, a nucleic acid polymerase, and at least one nucleoside polyphosphate, the improvement comprising conducting said polymerase reaction in the presence of at least one thermally stable terminally blocked nucleoside polyphosphates, wherein said nucleic acid analysis is chain terminator DNA sequencing. (google.es)
  • Prevention of second primary tumors by an acyclic retinoid, polyprenoic acid, in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • We developed an acyclic retinoid, polyprenoic acid, that inhibits hepatocarcinogenesis in the laboratory and induces differentiation and apoptosis in cell lines derived from human hepatoma. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we evaluated the comedolytic effect of a novel retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-gamma specific retinoid, ER36009, in the rhino mouse. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Linoleic acid is a doubly unsaturated fatty acid, also known as an omega-6 fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. (hmdb.ca)
  • In this particular polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), the first double bond is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-6). (hmdb.ca)
  • Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid in human nutrition because it cannot be synthesized by humans. (hmdb.ca)
  • Lineolic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 18 carbon long fatty acid, with two CC double bonds at the 9- and 12-positions. (hmdb.ca)
  • Pentadecanoic acid is a fatty acid of exogenous (primarily ruminant) origin. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms. (hmdb.ca)
  • The human sEH is of interest due to emerging roles of its endogenous substrates, epoxygenated fatty acids, in inflammation and hypertension. (eurekamag.com)
  • Acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids having butyl and tetradecyl side alkyl chains at the α-position of the carboxylic acid sidearm unit were prepared by the reaction of bisphenol and 2-bromoalkanoic acid in the presence of sodium hydride with quantitative yields. (elsevier.com)
  • The reaction mechanism involves the formation of a positively charged halonium ion in a molecule with a carboxylic acid or alcohol functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural analog of coronatine, the isoleucine conjugate of 1-oxo-indanoyl-4-carboxylic acid, effectively mimics the action of JA, but does not increase the level of endogenous JA. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In biological evaluation of dentigerumycin E ( 1 ) and its chemical derivatives [2- N ,16- N -deoxydenteigerumycin E ( 2 ) and dentigerumycin methyl ester ( 3 )], only dentigerumycin E exhibited antiproliferative and antimetastatic activities against human cancer cells, indicating that N -OH and carboxylic acid functional groups are essential for the biological activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • This stereospecific and stereocontrolled procedure was applied to the synthesis of acylic β 2,3 -amino acid derivatives functionalized with ester, nitrile, keto, alkyl or arylalkyl groups. (elsevier.com)
  • The absolute configuration of dentigerumycin E was established based on the advanced Marfey's method, ROESY NMR correlations, and analysis of the amino acid sequence of the ketoreductase domain in the biosynthetic gene cluster. (frontiersin.org)
  • The invention relates to an ester having at least one sulphonic group on the acid chain, a method for the production thereof and the use of the ester as a plasticizer for polymers. (sumobrain.com)
  • 7. A film forming binder according to claim 6 wherein the cycloaliphatic polycarboxylic acid is selected from the group of hexahydrophthalic anhydride, 1,4-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, and mixtures thereof. (google.com.au)
  • Silyl ether (most popular ones include trimethylsilyl (TMS), tert -butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS), tri- iso -propylsilyloxymethyl (TOM), and triisopropylsilyl (TIPS) ethers) - Removed by acid or fluoride ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mognonov, D. 2011-02-02 00:00:00 The mechanism of rearrangement of polycarboxyimidates prepared by the reaction of dinitriles with dicarboxylic acids at elevated temperature was studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • abstract = "A stereocontrolled approach to functionalized acyclic β2,3- amino acid derivatives was accomplished from cis- or trans-2- aminocyclohexenecarboxylates derived from bicyclic β-lactam regioisomers. (elsevier.com)
  • He has been a consultant to oilfield specialists Oil Plus Ltd, Newbury UK, on an industry -funded project on naphthenic acid chemistry and was a consultant to the UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office on forensic oil identification and other methods. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • In addition, a series of N,S-dialkylthioimidate N-oxides hydroiodides was synthesized by S-alkylation of N-alkylthiohydroxamic acids with methyl and ethyl iodide in acetone. (illinois.edu)
  • In humans, (R)-5-diphosphomevalonic acid is involved in the metabolic disorder called the cholesteryl ester storage disease pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • In Diels-Alder and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, Lewis acids lower the LUMO energy of the dienophile or dipolarphile, respectively, making it more reactive toward the diene or the dipole. (wikipedia.org)
  • ROS can randomly react with lipids, proteins and nucleic acids of cell causing oxidative stress and damage in these macromolecules, leading to pathogenesis of chronic diseases and age related and also cancer. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Pentetic Acid" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • The phytotoxin coronatine and amino acid conjugates of linolenic acid (e.g. linolenoyl- l -glutamine) mimic the action of PDA, but coronatine does not increase the level of endogenous JA. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The phytotoxin coronatine, isolated from P. syringae or Xanthomonas campestris , the accordingly designed synthetic analog 1-oxoindanoyl-Ile, and the amino acid conjugates of linolenic acid Lin-Ile and Lin-Gln, represent potent elicitors of plant volatile biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids. (harvard.edu)
  • Structures of complexes of macrocycle 7 and its acyclic control 8 are similar except for differences in relative orientations of corresponding atoms in the linking moieties of 7 and 8. (rcsb.org)
  • Zuschriften DOI: 10.1002/ange.201103422 G-Quadruplexes An Acyclic Oligoheteroaryle That Discriminates Strongly between Diverse G-Quadruplex Topologies** Florian Hamon, Eric Largy, Aurore Gudin-Beaurepaire, Myriam Rouchon-Dagois, Assitan Sidibe, David Monchaud, Jean-Louis Mergny, Jean-Francois Riou, Chi-Hung Nguyen, and Marie-Paule Teulade-Fichou* Quadruplex nucleic acids are secondary structures that may form in sequences containing guanine repeats. (docme.ru)
  • Searching for Bayesian network structures in the space of restricted acyclic partially directed graphs. (springer.com)
  • The reactions of (Z)-N,S-dimethylthiobenzimidate N-oxide, with methylmagnesium bromide and aqueous acid and base were investigated. (illinois.edu)
  • The ability of a primary amine containing acyclic beta(3)-amino acids to catalyze direct asymmetric anti-selective Mannich-type reactions is presented. (diva-portal.org)
  • In Lewis acid catalysis of organic reactions, a metal-based Lewis acid acts as an electron pair acceptor to increase the reactivity of a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many classical reactions involving carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bond formation can be catalyzed by Lewis acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to accelerating the reactions, Lewis acid catalysts are able to impose regioselectivity and stereoselectivity in many cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years, versatile catalysts bearing ligands designed for specific applications have facilitated improvement in both reactivity and selectivity of Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dichotomy can have important consequences in some reactions, as in the case of Lewis acid-promoted acetal substitution reactions, where the SN1 and SN2 mechanisms shown below may give different stereochemical outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to rate acceleration, Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions sometimes exhibit enhanced stereoselectivity, which stimulated the development of stereoinduction models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only under Lewis acid catalysis do these reactions occur under synthetically useful conditions. (wikipedia.org)