Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Schools: Educational institutions.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.IndazolesPhenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.QuinazolinesProtein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Voluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Chaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.PolynucleotidesNucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chaperonin 10: A group I chaperonin protein that forms a lid-like structure which encloses the non-polar cavity of the chaperonin complex. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroES protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
(1/1658) Reduced cytosolic acidification during exercise suggests defective glycolytic activity in skeletal muscle of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy. An in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder due to mutations in the dystrophin gene, resulting in reduced size and/or content of dystrophin. The functional role of this subsarcolemma protein and the biochemical mechanisms leading to muscle necrosis in Becker muscular dystrophy are still unknown. In particular, the role of a bioenergetic deficit is still controversial. In this study, we used 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31p-MRS) to investigate skeletal muscle mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP production in vivo in 14 Becker muscular dystrophy patients. Skeletal muscle glycogenolytic ATP production, measured during the first minute of exercise, was similar in patients and controls. On the other hand, during later phases of exercise, skeletal muscle in Becker muscular dystrophy patients was less acidic than in controls, the cytosolic pH at the end of exercise being significantly higher in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. The rate of proton efflux from muscle fibres of Becker muscular dystrophy patients was similar to that of controls, pointing to a deficit in glycolytic lactate production as a cause of higher end-exercise cytosolic pH in patients. The maximum rate of mitochondrial ATP production was similar in muscle of Becker muscular dystrophy patients and controls. The results of this in vivo 31P-MRS study are consistent with reduced glucose availability in dystrophin-deficient muscles.  (+info)

(2/1658) Incubation of OKP cells in low-K+ media increases NHE3 activity after early decrease in intracellular pH.

Chronic hypokalemia increases the activity of proximal tubule apical membrane Na+/H+ antiporter NHE3. The present study examined the effect of the incubation of OKP cells (an opossum kidney, clone P cell line) in control medium (K+ concn ([K+]) = 5.4 mM) or low-K+ medium ([K+] = 2.7 mM) on NHE3. The activity of an ethylisopropyl amiloride-resistant Na+/H+ antiporter, whose characteristics were consistent with those of NHE3, was increased in low-K+ cells beginning at 8 h. NHE3 mRNA and NHE3 protein abundance were increased 2.2-fold and 62%, respectively, at 24 h but not at 8 h. After incubation in low-K+ medium, intracellular pH (pHi) decreased by 0.27 pH units (maximum at 27 min) and then recovered to the control level. Intracellular acidosis induced by 5 mM sodium propionate increased Na+/H+ antiporter activity at 8 and 24 h. Herbimycin A, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked low-K+- and sodium propionate-induced activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter at 8 and 24 h. Our results demonstrate that low-K+ medium causes an early decrease in pHi, which leads to an increase in NHE3 activity via a tyrosine kinase pathway.  (+info)

(3/1658) Effect of acidification on the location of H+-ATPase in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells.

In previous studies, our laboratory has utilized a cell line derived from the rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) as a model system for mammalian renal epithelial cell acid secretion. We have provided evidence, from a physiological perspective, that acute cellular acidification stimulates apical exocytosis and elicits a rapid increase in proton secretion that is mediated by an H+-ATPase. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the effect of acute cellular acidification on the distribution of the vacuolar H+-ATPase in IMCD cells in vitro. We utilized the 31-kDa subunit of the H+-ATPase as a marker of the complete enzyme. The distribution of this subunit of the H+-ATPase was evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques (confocal and electron microscopy), and we found that there is a redistribution of these pumps from vesicles to the apical membrane. Immunoblot evaluation of isolated apical membrane revealed a 237 +/- 34% (P < 0.05, n = 9) increase in the 31-kDa subunit present in the membrane fraction 20 min after the induction of cellular acidification. Thus our results demonstrate the presence of this pump subunit in the IMCD cell line in vitro and that cell acidification regulates the shuttling of cytosolic vesicles containing the 31-kDa subunit into the apical membrane.  (+info)

(4/1658) HaCaT human keratinocytes express IGF-II, IGFBP-6, and an acid-activated protease with activity against IGFBP-6.

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in skin. HaCaT human keratinocytes proliferate in response to IGFs and synthesize IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Recently, IGFBP-6 was also identified by NH2-terminal sequencing, but it has not been identified by Western ligand blotting. In the present study, IGFBP-6 was detected in HaCaT-conditioned medium by use of immunoblotting and Western ligand blotting with 125I-labeled IGF-II. Proteolytic activity against IGFBPs, an important mechanism for regulation of their activity, was then studied. An acid-activated, cathepsin D-like protease that cleaved both IGFBP-6 and IGFBP-3 was detected. Although proteolysis did not substantially reduce the size of immunoreactive IGFBP-6, it greatly reduced the ability of IGFBP-6 to bind 125I-IGF-II as determined by Western ligand blotting and solution assay. HaCaT keratinocytes do not express IGF-I mRNA, but IGF-II mRNA and protein expression was detected. These observations suggest the possibility of an autocrine IGF-II loop that is regulated by the relative expression of IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-6, and IGFBP proteases in these keratinocytes, although demonstration of this loop requires further study.  (+info)

(5/1658) Identification of nonlipophilic corynebacteria isolated from dairy cows with mastitis.

Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20 degrees C and lack of alpha-glucosidase and 4MU-alpha-D-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal beta-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium.  (+info)

(6/1658) The acid-inducible asr gene in Escherichia coli: transcriptional control by the phoBR operon.

Escherichia coli responds to external acidification (pH 4.0 to 5.0) by synthesizing a newly identified, approximately 450-nucleotide RNA component. At maximal levels of induction it is one of the most abundant small RNAs in the cell and is relatively stable bacterial RNA. The acid-inducible RNA was purified, and the gene encoding it, designated asr (for acid shock RNA), mapped at 35.98 min on the E. coli chromosome. Analysis of the asr DNA sequence revealed an open reading frame coding for a 111-amino-acid polypeptide with a deduced molecular mass of approximately 11.6 kDa. According to computer-assisted analysis, the predicted polypeptide contains a typical signal sequence of 30 amino acids and might represent either a periplasmic or an outer membrane protein. The asr gene cloned downstream from a T7 promoter was translated in vivo after transcription using a T7 RNA polymerase transcription system. Expression of a plasmid-encoded asr::lacZ fusion under a native asr promoter was reduced approximately 15-fold in a complex medium, such as Luria-Bertani medium, versus the minimal medium. Transcription of the chromosomal asr was abolished in the presence of a phoB-phoR (a two-component regulatory system, controlling the pho regulon inducible by phosphate starvation) deletion mutant. Acid-mediated induction of the asr gene in the Delta(phoB-phoR) mutant strain was restored by introduction of the plasmid with cloned phoB-phoR genes. Primer extension analysis of the asr transcript revealed a region similar to the Pho box (the consensus sequence found in promoters transcriptionally activated by the PhoB protein) upstream from the determined transcription start. The asr promoter DNA region was demonstrated to bind PhoB protein in vitro. We discuss our results in terms of how bacteria might employ the phoB-phoR regulatory system to sense an external acidity and regulate transcription of the asr gene.  (+info)

(7/1658) Screening procedure for detection of dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker metabolites in urine as part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extractive methylation.

A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) screening procedure was developed for the detection of dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker ("calcium antagonist") metabolites in urine as part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic drugs and poisons after extractive methylation. The part of the phase-transfer catalyst remaining in the organic phase was removed by solid-phase extraction on a diol phase. The compounds were separated by capillary GC and identified by computerized MS in the full scan mode. Using mass chromatography with the ions m/z 139, 284, 297, 298, 310, 312, 313, 318, 324, and 332, the possible presence of calcium channel blocker metabolites could be indicated. The identity of positive signals in such mass chromatograms was confirmed by comparison of the peaks underlying full mass spectra with the reference spectra recorded during this study. This method allowed the detection of therapeutic concentrations of amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, nifedipine, nilvadipine, nimodipine, nisoldipine, and nitrendipine in human urine samples. Because urine samples from patients treated with nicardipine were not available, the detection of nicardipine in rat urine was studied. The overall recovery ranged between 67 and 77% with a coefficient of variation of less than 10%, and the limit of detection was at least 10 ng/mL (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) in the full-scan mode.  (+info)

(8/1658) Novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the cerebellar cortex demonstrated by neutral red optical imaging.

A novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the rat cerebellar cortex was imaged in vivo using the pH-sensitive dye, Neutral red. Surface stimulation evoked an initial beam of increased fluorescence (i.e., decreased pH) that spread rostrally and caudally across the folium and into neighboring folia. A transient but marked suppression in the excitability of the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell circuitry accompanied the spread. Characteristics differentiating this phenomenon from the spreading depression of Leao include: high speed of propagation on the surface (average of 450 microm/s), stable extracellular DC potential, no change in blood vessel diameter, and repeatability at short intervals. This propagating acidification constitutes a previously unknown class of neuronal processing in the cerebellar cortex.  (+info)

*  Deception
For example, a claim that 'sunflower oil is beneficial to brain health due to the presence of omega-3 fatty acids' may be ... In fact, sunflower oil is relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and is not particularly good for brain health, so while this ...
*  Chloroacetic acids
Chloroacetic acid (chloroethanoic acid), CH2ClCOOH Dichloroacetic acid (dichloroethanoic acid), CHCl2COOH Trichloroacetic acid ... Trichloroacetic acid is made by directly reacting chlorine with acetic acid using a suitable catalyst. Chloroacetic acid is ... The sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid is used as a weedkiller. All of these acids are unusually strong for organic acids, and ... Chloroacetic acid is mainly made by hydrolysing trichloroethylene in the presence of sulfuric acid: CCl2= CHCl + 2 H2O → ...
*  Diferulic acids
... diferulic acid, and for a while this was thought to be the only one. Sinapic acid Coumaric acid M.Bunzel, J.Ralph and H. ... Just as ferulic acid is not the proper IUPAC name, the diferulic acids also tend to have trivial names that are more commonly ... Ferulic acid can also form trimers and tetramers, known as triferulic and tetraferulic acids respectively. They have been found ... Diferulic acids are more effective inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and better scavengers of free radicals than ferulic acid on ...
*  Anacardic acids
... are phenolic lipids, chemical compounds found in the shell of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale). An acid ... Chemically, anacardic acid is a mixture of several closely related organic compounds. Each consists of a salicylic acid ... Heating these anacardic acids converts them to the alcohols (cardanols) with reduced activity compared to the acids. ... It was later found to be a mixture rather than one chemical, sometimes the plural anacardic acids is used. Anacardic acid is ...
*  Aminonaphthalenesulfonic acids
Notes: Peri-acid dehydrates to the sultam. Via the Bucherer reaction, heating periacid with anilinium salts gives the N-phenyl ... Aminonaphthalenesulfonic acids are compounds with the composition C10H6(NH2)(SO3H), being derived from naphthalene (C10H8) ... substituted by an amino and sulfonic acid groups. These compounds are colorless solids. They are useful precursors to dyes. ... derivative, precursor to Acid Blue 113. Gerald Booth "Naphthalene Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
*  Haloacetic acids
... are carboxylic acids in which a halogen atom takes the place of a hydrogen atom in acetic acid. Thus, in a ... ClCH2COOH dichloroacetic acid (DCA) Cl2CHCOOH trichloroacetic acid (TCA) Cl3CCOOH monobromoacetic acid (MBA) BrCH2COOH ... For example, chloroacetic acid would have the structural formula CH2ClCO2H. In the same manner, in dichloroacetic acid two ... Trichloroacetic acid Trifluoroacetic acid "Drinking Water". cehtp.org. Retrieved 2016-08-15. Levesque, S; Rodriguez, MJ; ...
*  Nucleic Acids Research
... is an open-access peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press. It covers ... "Nucleic Acids Research". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official website. ... research on nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, and related work. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal's 2016 ...
*  Divinylether fatty acids
Etheroleic acid has systematic name 12-[1′E-hexenyloxy]-9Z,11Z-dodecadienoic acid. Etherolenic acid has systematic name (9Z,11E ... These compounds, named colneleic acid (from linoleic acid) and colnelenicacid (from linolenic acid), could be also produced in ... Divinylether fatty acids contain a fatty acid chemically combined with a doubly unsaturated carbon chain linked by an oxygen ... Fatty acid hydroperoxides generated by plant lipoxygenases from linoleic and linolenic acids are known to serve as substrates ...
*  Furan fatty acids
... are a group of fatty acids that contain a furan ring. To this furan ring, an unbranched carboxylic acid and, ... A clinical trial of isolated omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in patients ... Carboxy-substituted furan fatty acids are known as urofuran acids. Urofuran fatty acids are metabolic products of furan fatty ... Natural furan fatty acids are mono- or di-methylated on the furan ring. Furan fatty acids are can be found in a variety of ...
*  Acids in wine
... but very low levels of acid. Tartaric acid is most often added, but winemakers will sometimes add citric or malic acid. Acids ... Along with malic acid, and to a lesser extent citric acid, tartaric is one of the fixed acids found in wine grapes. The ... Malic acid, along with tartaric acid, is one of the principal organic acids found in wine grapes. It is found in nearly every ... Most of the acids involved with wine are fixed acids with the notable exception of acetic acid, mostly found in vinegar, which ...
*  Phenyl alkanoic acids
5-phenylpentanoic acid, and 7-phenylheptanoic acid. Some others (alkyl-phenyl)-alkanoic acids) are formed when linolenic acid ... Thus, a prenylated benzoic acid acid derivative, crassinervic acid, has been isolated from Piper crassinervium. Similar ... 13-phenyltridecanoic acid and 15-phenylpentadecanoic acid in seed lipids. Other odd carbon number acids from C7 to C23 were ... contains at least four different foul smelling ω-phenylalkanoic acids, including phenylacetic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, ...
*  Urine organic acids
... is a medical diagnostic test that measures organic acid metabolites in the urine. The metabolites can come ... Jones, P. M.; Bennett, M. J. (2010). "Urine Organic Acid Analysis for Inherited Metabolic Disease Using Gas Chromatography-Mass ...
*  Lewis acids and bases
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor, not an electron-pair acceptor. Acid Base Acid-base reaction Brønsted-Lowry acid-base ... but a Lewis acid doesn't need to be a Brønsted-Lowry acid. The classification into hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB theory) ... using the key concepts that hard acid - hard base and soft acid - soft base interactions are stronger than hard acid - soft ... Me3B is a Lewis acid as it is capable of accepting a lone pair. In a Lewis adduct, the Lewis acid and base share an electron ...
*  Non-proteinogenic amino acids
... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α amino acids ... There are various groups of amino acids: 20 standard amino acids 22 proteinogenic amino acids over 80 amino acids created ... Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. This imino acid differs ... and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group is an amino acid. The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group ...
*  Phospholipid-derived fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids (SAFA) • 15:0 (Pentadecanoic acid) - Bacteria • Other straight chain (e.g. 16:0, Palmitic acid) - ... Tuberculostearic acid) - Actinomycetes Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) • 16:1 ω5c (Hexadecenoic acid) - Arbuscular ... Monounsaturated fatty acids (particularly at the omega-7 position), odd-chain saturated fatty acids (e.g. 15:0), branched-chain ... Phytoplankton produce considerable amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 ...
*  List of carboxylic acids
It is worth noting that the IUPAC name is not always the preferred name, for example, lactic acid is a common, and also the ... Carboxylic acids are organic compounds characterized by a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. The naming of these compounds is ... This list is ordered by the number of carbon atoms in a carboxylic acid. ..... HOOC-C=C-COOH. ... preferred, name for what systemic rules call 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid. ...
*  Volatile fatty acids analysis
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are important elements in controlling the anaerobic digestion process. It has two important roles: ... Volatile fatty acids can be analyzed by titration, distillation, steam distillation, and chromatography. The acceptable level ... Water Environment Research, page 53-59, Anderson, G.K. and Yang G. (1992)) Determination of Volatile Fatty Acids in ... of volatile fatty acids in environmental waters is up to 50,000 ppm. Titration provides rough results. However, it requires ...
*  Omega-3 carboxylic acids
... , like other omega-3 fatty acid based drugs, appears to reduce production of triglycerides in the liver ... Omega-3 carboxylic acids are derived from fish oil and are a purified mixture of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids ... In addition, as with other omega-3 fatty acids, taking omega-3 carboxylic acids puts people who are on anticoagulants at risk ... It appears that both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lower triglycerides, but DHA appears to raise ...
*  Branched chain fatty acids
... (BCFA) are usually saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches on the carbon chain. BCFAs ... Ran-Ressler RR, Devapatla S, Lawrence P, Brenna JT (2008). "Branched chain fatty acids are constituents of the normal healthy ...
*  Acid
Fluoroacetic acid Trifluoroacetic acid Chloroacetic acid Dichloroacetic acid Trichloroacetic acid Normal carboxylic acids are ... Examples of strong acids are hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydroiodic acid (HI), hydrobromic acid (HBr), perchloric acid (HClO4), ... Examples in organic acids include formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH) and benzoic acid (C6H5COOH). Polyprotic acids, ... Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) Fluorosulfuric acid (HSO3F) Nitric acid (HNO3) Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) Fluoroantimonic acid (HSbF6) ...
*  Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
... is a monthly academic journal published by Taylor & Francis since 2000, continuing the ...
*  List of unsaturated fatty acids
List of saturated fatty acids Carboxylic acid List of carboxylic acids Dicarboxylic acid Simopoulos, Artemis P. (2002). "Omega‐ ... β-eleostearic acid (beta-eleostearic's, beta-eleostearic acid) is a geometric isomer of α- eleostearic acid. IUPAC organization ... CAS Registry Number 6217-54-5. Herring acid (Herring's, Nisinic acid) is a 6,9,12,15,18,21-hexa unsaturated fatty acid with 24 ... and is a trans-2-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. C3H5 CO2H, IUPAC organization name (E)-but-2-enoic acid, trans -but-2-enoic acid ...
*  Vernolic acid
... (leukotoxin) is a long chain fatty acid that is monounsaturated and contains an epoxide. It is the cis epoxide ... In a variety of mammalian species, vernolic acid is made by the metabolism of linoleic acid by certain cytochrome P450 ... "Fatty acids. Part II. The nature of the oxygenated acid present in Vernonia anthelmintica (Willd.) seed oil". Journal of the ... Vernolic acid is not commonly found in plants in significant quantities, but some plants which do contain it are Vernonia, ...
*  Polyaspartic acid
... is produced industrially in both the acid form and as the sodium polyaspartate salt. Due to presence of ... Polyaspartic acid (PASA) is a biodegradable, water-soluble polymerized amino acid. It is a biodegradable replacement for water ... by bulk polycondensation of L-aspartic acid with an acid catalyst". Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 38 (1 ... "Study on the polymerization of aspartic acid catalyzed by phosphoric acid". Journal of Macromolecular Science-Pure and Applied ...
*  Boronic acid
A boronic acid is a compound related to boric acid in which one of the three hydroxyl groups is replaced by an alkyl or aryl ... Boronic acids act as Lewis acids. Their unique feature is that they are capable of forming reversible covalent complexes with ... In the Liebeskind-Srogl coupling a thiol ester is coupled with a boronic acid to produce a ketone. The boronic acid organic ... In 1860, Edward Frankland was the first to report the preparation and isolation of a boronic acid. Ethylboronic acid was ...
Acid-base homeostasis - Wikipedia  Acid-base homeostasis - Wikipedia
Acid ash hypothesis. References[edit]. *^ a b Hamm, LL; Nakhoul, N; Hering-Smith, KS (7 December 2015). "Acid-Base Homeostasis" ... ions, replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases.[11] This has the effect of damping the effect of pH ... pKa H2CO3 is the cologarithm of the acid dissociation constant of carbonic acid. It is equal to 6.1. ... An acid base nomogram for human plasma, showing the effects on the plasma pH when carbonic acid (partial pressure of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid-base_homeostasis
Entropy | Free Full-Text | Glyphosates Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut...  Entropy | Free Full-Text | Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut...
... we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by ... Samsel, A.; Seneff, S. Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: ... Samsel A, Seneff S. Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: ... Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/15/4/1416
The Truth About Alkalizing Your Blood  The Truth About Alkalizing Your Blood
Oxalic acid is one of the strongest organic acid in the body and is present in beer, corn, etc, when there is plenty of Mg, it ... When we exercise it produces acid, other bodily functions produces acid and the body has to manage it and get rid of it. If we ... A short discussion on the renal acid load might have been helpful to illustrate that acid ash plant foods, such as grains, are ... The vent prevents acid, which prevents organ damage. Eating alkaline prevents acid, which prevents organ damage, and possibly ...
more infohttp://drbenkim.com/ph-body-blood-foods-acid-alkaline.htm
FDA Grants Accelerated Approval to Ocaliva™ (Obeticholic Acid) for the Treatment of Patients with PBC Nasdaq:ICPT  FDA Grants Accelerated Approval to Ocaliva™ (Obeticholic Acid) for the Treatment of Patients with PBC Nasdaq:ICPT
Bile Acid Binding Resins. Bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, colestipol or colesevelam absorb and reduce bile ... FDA Grants Accelerated Approval to Ocaliva™ (Obeticholic Acid) for the Treatment of Patients with PBC. Email Print Friendly ... If taking bile acid binding resins, take Ocaliva at least 4 hours before or 4 hours after (or at as great an interval as ... About Ocaliva™ (obeticholic acid). Ocaliva is indicated in the United States for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis ( ...
more infohttps://globenewswire.com/news-release/2016/05/28/844143/0/en/FDA-Grants-Accelerated-Approval-to-Ocaliva-Obeticholic-Acid-for-the-Treatment-of-Patients-with-PBC.html
Hydrochloric acid - Wikipedia  Hydrochloric acid - Wikipedia
Hydrochloric acid is the preferred acid in titration for determining the amount of bases. Strong acid titrants give more ... Of the six common strong mineral acids in chemistry, hydrochloric acid is the monoprotic acid least likely to undergo an ... "hydrochloric acid". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-11-04.. *^ "Muriatic Acid" (pdf). PPG Industries. 2005. Retrieved ... Hydrochloric acid was known to European alchemists as spirits of salt or acidum salis (salt acid). Both names are still used, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrochloric_acid
Global Feed Amino Acids Market | Growth, Market Share, and Forecast to 2022  Global Feed Amino Acids Market | Growth, Market Share, and Forecast to 2022
Feed Amino Acids Market report is categorized by Livestock (Poultry, Aquaculture, Ruminants, Swine), Form (Liquid, Dry), Type ( ... Figure 1 Feed Amino Acids Market Segmentation. Figure 2 Feed Amino Acids: Livestock Segmentation. Figure 3 Feed Amino Acids ... 4.2 Feed Amino Acids Market, By Type & Region 4.3 Asia Pacific: Feed Amino Acids Market, By Livestock & Country 4.4 Feed Amino ... Table 18 Feed Amino Acids for Poultry Market Size, By Region, 2015 2022 (KT). Table 19 Feed Amino Acids for Swine Market Size, ...
more infohttps://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/feed-amino-acids-market-116585197.html
Vitamins for epilepsy | Cochrane  Vitamins for epilepsy | Cochrane
Folic acid was not associated with any consistent changes in serum phenytoin or phenobarbitone levels or improvement in the ... Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for drug-resistant epilepsy. *The use of melatonin as an adjunctive treatment for ... No evidence that folic acid, thiamine, vitamin D or vitamin E improve seizure control or prevent side effects for people with ... The studies reviewed investigated the use of folic acid, thiamine, vitamin D and vitamin E and were of poor methodological ...
more infohttp://www.cochrane.org/CD004304/EPILEPSY_vitamins-for-epilepsy
Chinese medicinal herbs for measles | Cochrane  Chinese medicinal herbs for measles | Cochrane
Measles (rubeola) is an infectious disease caused by multiplication of a single-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus of the ...
more infohttp://www.cochrane.org/CD005531/ARI_chinese-medicinal-herbs-for-measles
Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) | RTK inhibitor | Buy Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) from...  Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) | RTK inhibitor | Buy Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) from...
TKI258 Dilactic acid) , Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) cost , Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) ... Keywords:buy Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) , Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) Supplier , ... manufacturer , order Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) , Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) ... Dovitinib Dilactic acid (TKI258 Dilactic acid) ON SALE RTK inhibitor. 0 Customer Reviews ...
more infohttp://www.adooq.com/dovitinib-dilactic-acid-tki258-dilactic-acid.html
Chebulagic acid|CAS 23094-71-5 Buy Chebulagic acid from supplier medchemexpress.com  Chebulagic acid|CAS 23094-71-5 Buy Chebulagic acid from supplier medchemexpress.com
Chebulagic acid is a COX-LOX dual inhibitor isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz, on angiogenesis. ...Quality ... Chebulagic acid exert anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects. [1] [2] Chebulagic acid also show a protective effect ... Chebulagic acid Cat. No.: HY-N1996 Purity: 98.19% Data Sheet SDS Handling Instructions ... Chebulagic acid inhibit the LPS-induced upregulation of TNF-α and IL-1β in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, LPS- ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/Chebulagic-acid.html
Natural Cures for Acid Reflux | Natural Health Remedies  Natural Cures for Acid Reflux | Natural Health Remedies
Natural Cures for Acid Reflux. Leave a reply » For those suffering from the occasional heartburn to those suffering from GERD, ... Tags: acid-reflux Health. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 Feed. Both comments and pings are ... To solve acid reflux, we could be over-drinking water that has low level chemicals or heavy metals but that eventually add up ... The natural way to curing acid reflux or heartburn is indeed the safest way. However, we need to be knowledgeable about the ...
more infohttp://naturalhealthremedies.org/natural-cures-for-acid-reflux/
A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef | Nutrition Journal | Full Text  A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef | Nutrition Journal | Full Text
Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) ( ... Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and ... There are two essential fatty acids (EFAs) in human nutrition: α-linolenic acid (αLA), an omega-3 fatty acid; and linoleic acid ... and the long-chain fatty acids including arachidonic acid (C20:4), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), docosanpetaenoic acid (C22:5 ...
more infohttps://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-9-10
Fatty acids - Wikimedia Commons  Fatty acids - Wikimedia Commons
Diunsaturated fatty acids[edit]. Triunsaturated fatty acids[edit]. Polyunsaturated fatty acids[edit]. Comparison[edit]. Deutsch ... Unsaturated fatty acids[edit]. Cis fatty acids[edit]. Monounsaturated fatty acids[edit]. * ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids[edit]. Trans fatty acids[edit]. Monounsaturated fatty acids[edit]. * ... 2 Unsaturated fatty acids *2.1 Cis fatty acids *2.1.1 Monounsaturated fatty acids ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acids
Nucleic Acids | Encyclopedia.com  Nucleic Acids | Encyclopedia.com
... are a family of macromolecules that includes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ) and multiple forms of ribonucleic acid (RNA ). DNA, ... Nucleic acid. Two nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) , are found in living things which ... Nucleic Acid. Two nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), are found in living things which serve ... Nucleic Acids. Nucleic acids are a family of macromolecules that includes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ) and multiple forms of ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/nucleic-acids
amino acids  amino acids
... aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and serine), the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, organic acids, and amino acids is ... Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs). Aromatic amino acids. Other indispensable amino acids ... Glucogenic and Ketogenic Amino Acids. Glucogenic Amino Acids. Ketogenic Amino Acids. Conditionally Amino Acids That Can Be Both ... Amino acids that are used to make proteins are referred to as "proteinogenic" amino acids. Twenty core amino acids are all that ...
more infohttp://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=129
Amino Acids: Carnitine  Amino Acids: Carnitine
Carnitine has only recently been noted as an important amino acid (the L- form only) essential to our health. It is found in ... Carnitine has only recently been noted as an important amino acid (the L- form only) essential to our health. It is found in ... Carnitine is stored primarily in the skeletal muscles and heart, where it is needed to transform fatty acids into energy for ... With carnitine's effect on fatty acids and energy production, especially in the heart and muscles, it is now known as a ...
more infohttp://www.healthy.net/Health/Article/Carnitine/1943
Amino Acids: Leucine  Amino Acids: Leucine
Leucine may help metabolized to produce energy, as can isoleucine and valine, the other branched-chain amino acids during ...
more infohttp://www.healthy.net/scr/article.aspx?Id=1962
fatty acids | University of Cambridge  fatty acids | University of Cambridge
Some saturated fatty acids may present a bigger risk to diabetes than others 06 Aug 2014 The relationship between saturated fat ... New evidence raises questions about the link between fatty acids and heart disease. 18 Mar 2014 Study finds that the current ... The study found that saturated fatty acids can be associated with both an increased and decreased risk of developing the ... level of evidence does not clearly support guidelines restricting saturated fatty acid consumption to reduce coronary risk nor ...
more infohttp://www.cam.ac.uk/subjects/fatty-acids
Category:Carboxylic acids - Wikimedia Commons  Category:Carboxylic acids - Wikimedia Commons
For the conjugate bases of carboxylic acids, RCO2−, see Category:Carboxylate ions. For salts of carboxylic acids, RCO2M, see ... Molecules containing such a functional group are also called carboxylic acids or organic acids, although there are other ... In chemistry, carboxylic acids are acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group. ... carboxylic acid-transporting ATPase activity (cargo),. carboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity (cargo),. carboxylic ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Carboxylic_acids?uselang=de
amino acids Archives - ExtremeTech  amino acids Archives - ExtremeTech
If this is indeed the case, it in turn suggests that these wandering amino acids may have played a vital role in the synthesis ... The new-found presence of this complex organic molecule, iso-propyl cyanide, is a good indicator that amino acids themselves ... have discovered large quantities of organic molecules at the center of the Milky Way that resemble life-bearing amino acids in ...
more infohttps://www.extremetech.com/tag/amino-acids
  • Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the individual fatty acid profiles tend to be more instructive than broad lipid classifications with respect to subsequent impacts on serum cholesterol, and should therefore be considered when making dietary recommendations for the prevention of CVD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carnitine is stored primarily in the skeletal muscles and heart, where it is needed to transform fatty acids into energy for muscular activity. (healthy.net)
  • Carnitine is utilized to transport fatty acids into the cell and across the mitochondrial membranes into our cellular energy factories, the mitochondria. (healthy.net)
  • With carnitine's effect on fatty acids and energy production, especially in the heart and muscles, it is now known as a nutrient that protects us from cardiovascular disease. (healthy.net)
  • The study found that saturated fatty acids can be associated with both an increased and decreased risk of developing the disease, depending on the type of fatty acids present in the blood. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Study finds that the current level of evidence does not clearly support guidelines restricting saturated fatty acid consumption to reduce coronary risk nor does it support high consumption of polyunsaturated fats - such as omega 3 or omega 6 - to reduce coronary heart disease. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are fats that are essential to the diet because the body cannot produce them. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Essential fatty acids are extremely important nutrients for health. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Essential fatty acids are unsaturated fats. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scientists classify essential fatty acids into two types, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids , depending on their chemical composition. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Technically, the omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, and two others called EPA and DHA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids are more common in the American diet than the omega-3 EFAs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Both types of EFAs, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, are necessary in a healthy diet. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hydrogenated oils are highly refined by industrial processes, and contain toxic by-products and trans-fatty acids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Trans-fatty acids are fat molecules with chemically altered structures, and are believed to have several detrimental effects on the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many health professionals, including those at the World Heath Organization, have protested against the use of hydrogenated oils in food and the consumption of trans-fatty acids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Health conditions linked to the consumption of trans-fatty acids and hydrogenated oils include cancer, heart disease, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity , immune system disorders, decreased sperm counts, and infant development problems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids or fats. (greenfacts.org)
  • Fatty acids are the organic building blocks (small molecules that link together to form long chains) of fats which are used by the body for energy and tissue development. (greenfacts.org)
  • Fatty acids can be saturated, polyunsaturated or monounsaturated, depending on the presence/absence of one or more pair of carbon-carbon double bonds within the molecule. (greenfacts.org)
  • Saturated fatty acids are often found in animal fats and, eaten in high quantities, can raise cholesterol levels. (greenfacts.org)
  • Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in nuts, seafood and certain vegetable oils and can lower cholesterol levels. (greenfacts.org)
  • Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that are required in the human diet and that the body cannot make on its own and thus must obtain from food. (greenfacts.org)
  • The specific members of this group are called polyunsaturated fatty acids, or PUFAs. (whfoods.com)
  • Trans fatty acids (TFAs), occur both naturally in foods and can be formed or added to foods during manufacture. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • How much trans fatty acids do we eat? (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • However, the monitoring study also found that intakes of saturated fatty acids are higher than recommended for the Australian and New Zealand populations (see below). (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Are trans fatty acids identified on food labels? (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • However, TFAs must be declared on a label if the manufacturer makes a nutrition content claim about cholesterol or saturated, trans, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, omega-3, omega-6 or omega-9 fatty acids. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • What is happening in other countries about trans fatty acids? (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • While we are consuming levels of TFAs well below the WHO recommendation, we are still exceeding the recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the New Zealand Food and Nutrition Guidelines that saturated and trans fatty acids combined contribute no more than 10 per cent of our daily energy intake. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • The main contribution to this is our high intake of saturated fatty acids. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • According to the 2011/12 Australian Health Survey, the mean contribution of saturated and trans fatty acids to daily energy intake was 12% and 12.2% for males and females aged 19 years and above, respectively. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • The most recent national nutrition survey for New Zealand adults, the 2008‒09 Adult Nutrition Survey, also found high intakes of saturated fatty acids. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • The mean contribution of saturated fatty acids to daily energy intake was 13.1% for both males and females aged 15 years and above. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Carbohydrates Glucose acts as an anti fatty acid agent, possibly because of the glyceryl compounds resulting from its metabolism. (chestofbooks.com)
  • These groups can react with carboxylic acids and phosphoric acid to form esters. (rsc.org)
  • In organic chemistry, the chloroacetic acids (systematic name chloroethanoic acids) are three related chlorocarbon carboxylic acids: Chloroacetic acid (chloroethanoic acid), CH2ClCOOH Dichloroacetic acid (dichloroethanoic acid), CHCl2COOH Trichloroacetic acid (trichloroethanoic acid), CCl3COOH As the number of chlorine atoms increases, the electronegativity of that end of the molecule increases, and the molecule adopts a progressively more ionic character: its density, boiling point and acidity all increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) (C18:1 t11), a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3) FAs on a g/g fat basis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aqua regia , a mixture consisting of hydrochloric and nitric acids, prepared by dissolving sal ammoniac in nitric acid, was described in the works of Pseudo-Geber , a 13th-century European alchemist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the Max Planck institute in Germany have discovered large quantities of organic molecules at the center of the Milky Way that resemble life-bearing amino acids in their complexity. (extremetech.com)
  • The process may continue, building up nucleic acid molecules. (rsc.org)
  • The amino acids polymerized through the amphoteric group serve as building materials for the bigger protein molecules. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Beyond these simple amino acids, are two groups, energetically active, which have a second energetic center with a negative or positive character in their molecules. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Identification is often by high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector or by LC-MS. Alternatively they can be derivatised to make them volatile and therefore suitable for GC-MS. Curcumin can be hydrolyzed (alkaline) to yield two molecules of ferulic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies reviewed investigated the use of folic acid, thiamine, vitamin D and vitamin E and were of poor methodological quality. (cochrane.org)
  • Nine studies (331 participants) investigated folic acid. (cochrane.org)
  • Folic acid was not associated with any consistent changes in serum phenytoin or phenobarbitone levels or improvement in the mean motor conduction velocities of peripheral nerves. (cochrane.org)
  • Folic acid is a necessary element needed for correct neural tube development. (angelfire.com)
  • Studies have shown that by taking folic acid "before" pregnancy, nearly 70% of all neural tube defects can be prevented. (angelfire.com)
  • Folic Acid can significantly reduce the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect,but does not totally eliminate the possibility. (angelfire.com)
  • It is difficult to get enough folic acid by diet alone. (angelfire.com)
  • In fact, in order to get 4 mgs of folic acid(the recommended dosage for those who have had a previous child with a NTD), you would need to drink 80 glasses of orange juice or have 100 servings of broccoli. (angelfire.com)
  • In the United States, we now fortify many of our grain products, such as bread, to help prevent neural tube defects, but it is still important to take a daily vitamin containing folic acid! (angelfire.com)
  • The Foundation has pledged to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects by at least 30% by the year 2001 through its new, multi-year Folic Acid Campaign. (angelfire.com)
  • The simplest is called alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA. Like most vitamins, ALA is especially important in our diet because our bodies cannot make it from scratch. (whfoods.com)
  • The new-found presence of this complex organic molecule, iso-propyl cyanide, is a good indicator that amino acids themselves are floating throughout the interstellar medium. (extremetech.com)
  • Diferulic acids (also known as dehydrodiferulic acids) are organic compounds that have the general chemical formula C20H18O8, they are formed by dimerisation of ferulic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leucine may help metabolized to produce energy, as can isoleucine and valine, the other branched-chain amino acids during periods of fasting or starvation. (healthy.net)
  • Even neutral salts however, tend to be significantly toxic, because the ions interfere in biological processes (such as the citric acid cycle) that normally process plain acetate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • When you ingest foods and liquids, the end products of digestion and assimilation of nutrients often results in an acid or alkaline-forming effect - the end products are sometimes called acid ash or alkaline ash. (drbenkim.com)
  • No group of nutrients is more challenging to describe than amino acids! (whfoods.org)
  • Aqueous buffer solutions will react with strong acids or strong bases by absorbing excess hydrogen H + ions, or hydroxide OH − ions, replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, you will find recommended food sources for different types of amino acids (including branched chain, sulfur-containing, aromatic, and others) in the Summary of Food Sources section of this article. (whfoods.org)
  • Arginine, lysine and histidine displayed an analgesic effect upon alkaline pain, while glutamic acid and methionine had this effect upon acid pain. (chestofbooks.com)
  • If this is indeed the case, it in turn suggests that these wandering amino acids may have played a vital role in the synthesis of life on other planets in the galaxy. (extremetech.com)
  • Curcumin and curcuminoids, though having a structure resembling diferulic acids', are not formed that way but through a condensation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • So there are two main forces at work on a daily basis that can disrupt the pH of your body fluids - these forces are the acid or alkaline-forming effects of foods and liquids that you ingest, and the acids that you generate through regular metabolic activities. (drbenkim.com)
  • Deep-fried foods, which are cooked in oil that is altered by very high temperatures, also contain transfatty acids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ocaliva is an agonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor expressed in the liver and intestine and a key regulator of bile acid, inflammatory, fibrotic and metabolic pathways. (globenewswire.com)
  • The effect could be related more to the basic tendency of these substances to act through metabolic changes, than to a direct influence upon the acid base systemic balance. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The basic objectives of the report are to define, segment, and project the global market size for feed amino acids on the basis of type, livestock, form, and region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Included in the group are 8,5'-DiFA (DC) (or decarboxylated form) and 8,8'-DiFA (THF) (or tetrahydrofuran form), which are not true diferulic acids, but probably have a similar biological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferulic acid can also form trimers and tetramers, known as triferulic and tetraferulic acids respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diferulic acids are thought to have a structural function in plant cell walls, where they form cross-links between polysaccharide chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactic acid is named after the Latin word 'lac', which means milk. (syvum.com)
  • Sulfuric acid is used in the manufacture of many car batteries. (syvum.com)
  • The chemical formula of Sulfuric acid is H 2 SO 4 . (syvum.com)
  • Chloroacetic acid is mainly made by hydrolysing trichloroethylene in the presence of sulfuric acid: CCl2= CHCl + 2 H2O → CH2ClCOOH + 2 HCl Dichloroacetic acid is manufactured in small quantities by reducing trichloroacetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both, top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the size of the global feed amino acids market and to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Part of the difficulty in determining our need for individual amino acids involves the interconversion of amino acids that is constantly taking place in our body. (whfoods.org)
  • Chebulagic acid is a COX-LOX dual inhibitor isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz, on angiogenesis. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Inhibition of Angiogenesis In Vitro by Chebulagic Acid: A COX-LOX Dual Inhibitor. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Hydronium ions are the only positively-charged ions (cations) formed when an acid dissolves in water. (syvum.com)
  • The proper balance between the acids and bases (i.e. the pH) in the ECF is crucial for the normal physiology of the body, and cellular metabolism . (wikipedia.org)