A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A hereditary or acquired form of generalized dysfunction of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE without primary involvement of the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS. It is usually characterized by the tubular wasting of nutrients and salts (GLUCOSE; AMINO ACIDS; PHOSPHATES; and BICARBONATES) resulting in HYPOKALEMIA; ACIDOSIS; HYPERCALCIURIA; and PROTEINURIA.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia, playing a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism and amino acid homeostasis within various tissues and cells, including the brain, kidney, and immune cells.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.
A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)

Carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen: metabolic acidosis as a predictor of treatment requirements. (1/136)

A retrospective case note analysis was made of patients who received hyperbaric oxygen for carbon monoxide poisoning and were admitted to the Royal Naval Hospital Haslar between 1991 and 1995. Males predominated (38 v 10) as did cases of deliberate self poisoning (31 v 17). The most common presenting feature was unconsciousness, which is an indication for hyperbaric oxygen and therefore reflects referral patterns. If patients had not recovered completely after one hyperbaric exposure further treatments were given. The initial hydrogen ion concentration of those requiring more than one treatment was significantly higher than those who recovered after the first treatment. The initial carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) concentration showed only a trend to being higher in the multiple treatment group. Although metabolic acidosis is well recognised, its relationship to treatment requirements has not been shown previously. Initial COHb does not always correlate well with severity of poisoning which relates to the mechanism of toxicity of carbon monoxide: binding of carbon monoxide to the intracellular oxygen carrying proteins (for example cytochromes) rather than solely to haemoglobin. These findings are consistent with this mechanism and suggests that initial acidosis is a better predictor of treatment requirements and severity than initial COHb.  (+info)

Renal responses of trout to chronic respiratory and metabolic acidoses and metabolic alkalosis. (2/136)

Exposure to hyperoxia (500-600 torr) or low pH (4.5) for 72 h or NaHCO(3) infusion for 48 h were used to create chronic respiratory (RA) or metabolic acidosis (MA) or metabolic alkalosis in freshwater rainbow trout. During alkalosis, urine pH increased, and [titratable acidity (TA) - HCO(-)(3)] and net H(+) excretion became negative (net base excretion) with unchanged NH(+)(4) efflux. During RA, urine pH did not change, but net H(+) excretion increased as a result of a modest rise in NH(+)(4) and substantial elevation in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] efflux accompanied by a large increase in inorganic phosphate excretion. However, during MA, urine pH fell, and net H(+) excretion was 3.3-fold greater than during RA, reflecting a similar increase in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] and a smaller elevation in phosphate but a sevenfold greater increase in NH(+)(4) efflux. In urine samples of the same pH, [TA - HCO(-)(3)] was greater during RA (reflecting phosphate secretion), and [NH(+)(4)] was greater during MA (reflecting renal ammoniagenesis). Renal activities of potential ammoniagenic enzymes (phosphate-dependent glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and plasma levels of cortisol, phosphate, ammonia, and most amino acids (including glutamine and alanine) increased during MA but not during RA, when only alanine aminotransferase increased. The differential responses to RA vs. MA parallel those in mammals; in fish they may be keyed to activation of phosphate secretion by RA and cortisol mobilization by MA.  (+info)

In vitro metabolic and respiratory acidosis selectively inhibit osteoblastic matrix gene expression. (3/136)

Clinically, a decrease in blood pH may be due to either a reduction in bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(-)(3)], metabolic acidosis) or an increase in PCO(2) (respiratory acidosis). In mammals, metabolic acidosis induces a far greater increase in urine calcium excretion than respiratory acidosis. In cultured bone, metabolic acidosis induces a marked increase in calcium efflux and a decrease in osteoblastic collagen synthesis, whereas isohydric respiratory acidosis has little effect on either parameter. We have shown that metabolic acidosis prevents the normal developmental increase in the expression of RNA for matrix Gla protein and osteopontin in chronic cultures of primary murine calvarial bone cells (predominantly osteoblasts) but does not alter expression of osteonectin. To compare the effects of isohydric metabolic and respiratory acidosis on expression of these genes, bone cell cultures were incubated in medium at pH approximately 7.2 to model metabolic ([HCO(-)(3)], approximately 13 mM) or respiratory (PCO(2), approximately 80 mmHg) acidosis or at pH approximately 7.4 as a control. Cells were sampled at weeks 4, 5, and 6 to assess specific RNA content. At all time periods studied, both metabolic and respiratory acidosis inhibited the expression of RNA for matrix Gla protein and osteopontin to a similar extent, whereas there was no change in osteonectin expression. In contrast to the significant difference in the effects of metabolic and respiratory acidosis on bone calcium efflux and osteoblastic collagen synthesis, these two forms of acidosis have a similar effect on osteoblastic RNA expression of both matrix Gla protein and osteopontin. Thus, although several aspects of bone cell function are dependent on the type of acidosis, expression of these two matrix genes appears to be regulated by extracellular pH, independently of the type of acidosis.  (+info)

Oxygen therapy during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (4/136)

Venturi masks (VMs) and nasal prongs (NPs) are widely used to treat acute respiratory failure (ARF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, these devices were compared in terms of their potentiality to worsen respiratory acidosis and their capacity to maintain adequate (> 90%) arterial oxygenation (Sa,O2) through time (approximately 24 h). In a randomized cross-over study, 18 consecutive COPD patients who required hospitalization because of ARF were studied. After determining baseline arterial blood gas levels (on room air), patients were randomized to receive oxygen therapy through a VM or NPs at the lowest possible inspiratory oxygen fraction that resulted in an initial Sa,O2 of > or = 90%. Arterial blood gas levels were measured again 30 min later (on O2), and Sa,O2 recorded using a computer during the subsequent approximately 24 h. Patients were then crossed-over to receive O2 therapy by means of the alternative device (NPs or VM), and the same measurements obtained again in the same order. It was observed that both the VM and NPs improved arterial oxygen tension (p<0.0001) to the same extent (p=NS), without any significant effect upon arterial carbon dioxide tension or pH. However, despite this adequate initial oxygenation, Sa,O2 was < 90% for 3.7+/-3.8 h using the VM and for 5.4+/-5.9 h using NPs (p<0.05). Regression analysis showed that the degree of arterial hypoxaemia (p<0.05) and arterial hypercapnia (p<0.05) present before starting O2 therapy and, particularly, the initial Sa,O2 achieved after initiation of O2 therapy (p<0.0001) enabled the time (in h) that patients would be poorly oxygenated (Sa,O2 < 90%) on follow-up to be predicted. These findings suggest that, in order to maintain an adequate (> 90%) level of arterial oxygenation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and moderate acute respiratory failure: 1) the initial arterial oxygen saturation on oxygen should be maximized whenever possible by increasing the inspiratory oxygen fraction; 2) this strategy seems feasible because neither the VM nor NPs worsen respiratory acidosis significantly; and 3) the Venturi mask (better than nasal prongs) should be recommended.  (+info)

Inspiratory pressure support prolongs exercise induced lactataemia in severe COPD. (5/136)

BACKGROUND: A physiological benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is more probable if exercise is performed above the lactate threshold. This study was undertaken to investigate whether it was possible to extend the lactataemia of exercise using non-invasive inspiratory pressure support (IPS). METHODS: Plasma lactate levels were measured in eight men with severe COPD who performed two treadmill walks at an identical constant work rate to a condition of severe dyspnoea; the second walk was supported by IPS. RESULTS: Mean plasma lactate levels before the free and IPS assisted walks were 1.65 mmol/l and 1. 53 mmol/l, respectively (p = NS). Lactate levels increased during both walks to 2.96 mmol/l and 2.42 mmol/l, respectively (p = 0.01 for each) but the duration of the IPS assisted walk was significantly greater than the free walk (13.6 minutes versus 5.5 minutes, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe COPD can sustain exercise induced lactataemia for longer if assisted with IPS. This technique may prove to be a useful adjunct in pulmonary rehabilitation.  (+info)

One year period prevalence study of respiratory acidosis in acute exacerbations of COPD: implications for the provision of non-invasive ventilation and oxygen administration. (6/136)

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) reduces mortality and intubation rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) admitted to hospital with respiratory acidosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory acidosis in patients admitted with COPD, to draw inferences about oxygen therapy, and to determine the need for NIV services for acute COPD in typical UK hospitals. METHODS: This one year prospective prevalence study identified patients with COPD aged 45-79 years inclusive who were admitted to Leeds General Infirmary, St James's University, and Killingbeck Hospitals, Leeds between 1 March 1997 and 28 February 1998. The prevalence of respiratory acidosis and the relationship with oxygenation are described. Other outcomes included intensive care use and in hospital mortality. From this data population prevalence estimates were determined for respiratory acidosis, from which the need for NIV in a typical district general hospital was modelled. RESULTS: 983 patients were admitted, 11 of whom required immediate intubation. 20% of the remaining 972 had a respiratory acidosis. Acidosis was associated with subsequent admission to the intensive care unit (ICU): pH<7.25, OR 6.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19 to 31.11); pH 7.25-7.30, OR 8.73 (95% CI 2.11 to 36.06). pH was inversely correlated with arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) in the 47% of patients who were hypercapnic, with a PaO(2) of >10 kPa being associated with acidosis in most hypercapnic patients. 80% remained acidotic after initial treatment, giving an age/sex specific prevalence for England and Wales of 75 (95% CI 61 to 90)/100 000/year for men aged 45-79 years and 57 (95% CI 46 to 69)/100 000/year for women. Modelling the need for NIV for all COPD patients indicates that a typical UK hospital will admit 90 patients per year with acidosis of which 72 will require NIV. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute COPD the PaO(2) should be maintained at 7.3-10 kPa (SaO(2) 85-92%) to avoid the dangers of hypoxia and acidosis. If all COPD patients with a respiratory acidosis (pH<7.35) after initial treatment are offered NIV, a typical UK hospital will treat 72 patients per year.  (+info)

Cardiovascular responses to calcium administered intravenously to man during halothane anesthesia. (7/136)

Calcium chloride (7 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to six healthy volunteers anesthetized with halothane. Cardiovascular changes were measured during constant ventilation and anesthetic depth under three conditions: 1) respiratory alkalosis, 2) normocarbia, and 3) respiratory acidosis. At each Paco2, calcium infusion significantly increased cardiac index, left ventricular minute work index, and stroke index. Heart rate, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac pre-ejection period decreased. No significant change in mean arterial blood pressure or central venous pressure followed calcium administration, and no arrhythmias occurred. It is concluded that calcium administration increases myocardial performance, presumably by increasing the availability of intracellular calcium ion for actomyosin interaction.  (+info)

Fumonisin B(1) increases serum sphinganine concentration but does not alter serum sphingosine concentration or induce cardiovascular changes in milk-fed calves. (8/136)

Fumonisin B(1) is the most toxic and commonly occurring form of a group of mycotoxins that alter sphingolipid biosynthesis and induce leukoencephalomalacia in horses and pulmonary edema in pigs. Purified fumonisin B(1) (1 mg/kg, iv, daily) increased serum sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations and decreased cardiovascular function in pigs within 5 days. We therefore examined whether the same dosage schedule of fumonisin B(1) produced a similar effect in calves. Ten milk-fed male Holstein calves were instrumented to obtain blood and cardiovascular measurements. Treated calves (n = 5) were administered purified fumonisin B(1) at 1 mg/kg, iv, daily for 7 days and controls (n = 5) were administered 10 ml 0.9% NaCl, iv, daily. Each calf was euthanized on day 7. In treated calves, serum sphinganine concentration increased from day 3 onward (day 7, 0.237 +/- 0.388 micromol/l; baseline, 0.010 +/- 0.007 micromol/l; mean +/- SD), whereas, serum sphingosine concentration was unchanged (day 7, 0.044 +/- 0.065 micromol/l; baseline, 0.021 +/- 0.025 micromol/l). Heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, central venous pressure, plasma volume, base-apex electrocardiogram, arterial Po(2), and systemic oxygen delivery were unchanged in treated and control calves. Fumonisin-treated calves developed metabolic acidosis (arterial blood pH, 7.27 +/- 0.11; base excess, -9.1 +/- 7.6 mEq/l), but all survived for 7 days. We conclude that calves are more resistant to fumonisin B(1) cardiovascular toxicity than pigs.  (+info)

Acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess accumulation of acid in the body or when the body loses its ability to effectively regulate the pH level of the blood. The normal pH range of the blood is slightly alkaline, between 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH falls below 7.35, it is called acidosis.

Acidosis can be caused by various factors, including impaired kidney function, respiratory problems, diabetes, severe dehydration, alcoholism, and certain medications or toxins. There are two main types of acidosis: metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis.

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid or is unable to eliminate it effectively. This can be caused by conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, kidney failure, and ingestion of certain toxins.

Respiratory acidosis, on the other hand, occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the body, leading to an accumulation of acid. This can be caused by conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sedative overdose.

Symptoms of acidosis may include fatigue, shortness of breath, confusion, headache, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment for acidosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and dialysis.

Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by an excess accumulation of lactic acid in the body. Lactic acid is a byproduct produced in the muscles and other tissues during periods of low oxygen supply or increased energy demand. Under normal circumstances, lactic acid is quickly metabolized and cleared from the body. However, when the production of lactic acid exceeds its clearance, it can lead to a state of acidosis, where the pH of the blood becomes too acidic.

Lactic acidosis can be caused by several factors, including:

* Prolonged exercise or strenuous physical activity
* Severe illness or infection
* Certain medications, such as metformin and isoniazid
* Alcoholism
* Hypoxia (low oxygen levels) due to lung disease, heart failure, or anemia
* Inherited metabolic disorders that affect the body's ability to metabolize lactic acid

Symptoms of lactic acidosis may include rapid breathing, fatigue, muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Severe cases can lead to coma, organ failure, and even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition and providing supportive care, such as administering intravenous fluids and bicarbonate to help restore normal pH levels.

Respiratory acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when the lungs are not able to remove enough carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body, leading to an increase in the amount of CO2 in the bloodstream and a decrease in the pH of the blood. This can happen due to various reasons such as chronic lung diseases like emphysema or COPD, severe asthma attacks, neuromuscular disorders that affect breathing, or when someone is not breathing deeply or frequently enough, such as during sleep apnea or drug overdose.

Respiratory acidosis can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, coma and even death. Treatment for respiratory acidosis depends on the underlying cause but may include oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, or mechanical ventilation to help support breathing.

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to properly excrete acid into the urine, leading to an accumulation of acid in the bloodstream. This results in a state of metabolic acidosis.

There are several types of RTA, but renal tubular acidosis type 1 (also known as distal RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability of the distal tubules to acidify the urine, leading to an inability to lower the pH of the urine below 5.5, even in the face of metabolic acidosis. This results in a persistently alkaline urine, which can lead to calcium phosphate stones and bone demineralization.

Type 1 RTA is often caused by inherited genetic defects, but it can also be acquired due to various kidney diseases, drugs, or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of type 1 RTA may include fatigue, weakness, muscle cramps, decreased appetite, and vomiting. Treatment typically involves alkali therapy to correct the acidosis and prevent complications.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste and is commonly used in cooking as a leavening agent.

In a medical context, sodium bicarbonate is used as a medication to treat conditions caused by high levels of acid in the body, such as metabolic acidosis. It works by neutralizing the acid and turning it into a harmless salt and water. Sodium bicarbonate can be given intravenously or orally, depending on the severity of the condition being treated.

It is important to note that sodium bicarbonate should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly. These may include fluid buildup in the body, electrolyte imbalances, and an increased risk of infection.

Alkalosis is a medical condition that refers to an excess of bases or a decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood, leading to a higher than normal pH level. The normal range for blood pH is typically between 7.35 and 7.45. A pH above 7.45 indicates alkalosis.

Alkalosis can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Metabolic alkalosis: This type of alkalosis occurs due to an excess of bicarbonate (HCO3-) in the body, which can result from conditions such as excessive vomiting, hyperventilation, or the use of certain medications like diuretics.
2. Respiratory alkalosis: This form of alkalosis is caused by a decrease in carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood due to hyperventilation or other conditions that affect breathing, such as high altitude, anxiety, or lung disease.

Symptoms of alkalosis can vary depending on its severity and underlying cause. Mild alkalosis may not produce any noticeable symptoms, while severe cases can lead to muscle twitching, cramps, tremors, confusion, and even seizures. Treatment for alkalosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and restoring the body's normal pH balance through medications or other interventions as necessary.

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and can be produced by combining ammonia (NH3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Ammonium chloride is commonly used as a source of hydrogen ions in chemical reactions, and it has a variety of industrial and medical applications.

In the medical field, ammonium chloride is sometimes used as a expectorant to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract, making it easier to cough up and clear from the lungs. It may also be used to treat conditions such as metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body that can lead to symptoms such as confusion, muscle twitching, and irregular heartbeat.

However, it is important to note that ammonium chloride can have side effects, including stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and should not be taken in large amounts or for extended periods of time without medical supervision.

Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a rare inherited mitochondrial disorder that affects the body's energy production mechanisms. It is characterized by a combination of symptoms including recurrent headaches, vomiting, seizures, vision loss, hearing impairment, muscle weakness, and stroke-like episodes affecting primarily young adults.

The condition is caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), most commonly the A3243G point mutation in the MT-TL1 gene. The symptoms of MELAS syndrome can vary widely among affected individuals, even within the same family, due to the complex inheritance pattern of mtDNA.

MELAS syndrome is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory tests, and genetic testing. Treatment is supportive and aimed at managing individual symptoms as they arise.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

An acid-base imbalance refers to a disturbance in the normal balance of acids and bases in the body, which can lead to serious health consequences. The body maintains a delicate balance between acids and bases, which is measured by the pH level of the blood. The normal range for blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45, with a pH below 7.35 considered acidic and a pH above 7.45 considered basic or alkaline.

Acid-base imbalances can occur due to various factors such as lung or kidney disease, diabetes, severe infections, certain medications, and exposure to toxins. The two main types of acid-base imbalances are acidosis (excess acid in the body) and alkalosis (excess base in the body).

Acidosis can be further classified into respiratory acidosis (caused by impaired lung function or breathing difficulties) and metabolic acidosis (caused by an accumulation of acid in the body due to impaired kidney function, diabetes, or other conditions).

Alkalosis can also be classified into respiratory alkalosis (caused by hyperventilation or excessive breathing) and metabolic alkalosis (caused by excessive loss of stomach acid or an excess intake of base-forming substances).

Symptoms of acid-base imbalances may include confusion, lethargy, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, nausea, vomiting, and muscle weakness. If left untreated, these conditions can lead to serious complications such as coma, seizures, or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the imbalance and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or fluid and electrolyte replacement.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic complication characterized by the triad of hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone bodies. It primarily occurs in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 1, but it can also be seen in some people with diabetes mellitus type 2, particularly during severe illness or surgery.

The condition arises when there is a significant lack of insulin in the body, which impairs the ability of cells to take up glucose for energy production. As a result, the body starts breaking down fatty acids to produce energy, leading to an increase in ketone bodies (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) in the bloodstream. This process is called ketosis.

In DKA, the excessive production of ketone bodies results in metabolic acidosis, which is characterized by a lower than normal pH level in the blood (< 7.35) and an elevated serum bicarbonate level (< 18 mEq/L). The hyperglycemia in DKA is due to both increased glucose production and decreased glucose utilization by cells, which can lead to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.

Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include excessive thirst, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, fruity breath odor, and altered mental status. If left untreated, DKA can progress to coma and even lead to death. Treatment typically involves administering insulin, fluid replacement, and electrolyte management in a hospital setting.

Lactates, also known as lactic acid, are compounds that are produced by muscles during intense exercise or other conditions of low oxygen supply. They are formed from the breakdown of glucose in the absence of adequate oxygen to complete the full process of cellular respiration. This results in the production of lactate and a hydrogen ion, which can lead to a decrease in pH and muscle fatigue.

In a medical context, lactates may be measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and metabolic status. Elevated levels of lactate in the blood, known as lactic acidosis, can indicate poor tissue perfusion or hypoxia, and may be seen in conditions such as sepsis, cardiac arrest, and severe shock. It is important to note that lactates are not the primary cause of acidemia (low pH) in lactic acidosis, but rather a marker of the underlying process.

Hypercapnia is a state of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the blood, typically defined as an arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. It is often associated with conditions that impair gas exchange or eliminate CO2 from the body, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe asthma, respiratory failure, or certain neuromuscular disorders. Hypercapnia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory acidosis, coma, and even death if not promptly treated.

Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess base (bicarbonate) and/or a decrease in carbon dioxide in the body. This leads to an increase in pH level of the blood, making it more alkaline than normal. Respiratory alkalosis is usually caused by conditions that result in hyperventilation, such as anxiety, lung disease, or high altitude. It can also be caused by certain medications and medical procedures. Symptoms of respiratory alkalosis may include lightheadedness, confusion, and tingling in the fingers and toes. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition.

Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in various biological processes. In the context of medicine and biochemistry, lactic acid is primarily discussed in relation to muscle metabolism and cellular energy production. Here's a medical definition for lactic acid:

Lactic acid (LA): A carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C3H6O3 that plays a crucial role in anaerobic respiration, particularly during strenuous exercise or conditions of reduced oxygen availability. It is formed through the conversion of pyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), when there is insufficient oxygen to complete the final step of cellular respiration in the Krebs cycle. The accumulation of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and muscle fatigue. Additionally, lactic acid serves as a vital intermediary in various metabolic pathways and is involved in the production of glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

Potassium citrate is a medication and dietary supplement that contains potassium and citrate. Medically, it is used to treat and prevent kidney stones, as well as to manage metabolic acidosis in people with chronic kidney disease. Potassium citrate works by increasing the pH of urine, making it less acidic, which can help to dissolve certain types of kidney stones and prevent new ones from forming. It is also used as an alkalizing agent in the treatment of various conditions that cause acidosis.

In addition to its medical uses, potassium citrate is also found naturally in some fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, and spinach. It is often used as a food additive and preservative, and can be found in a variety of processed foods and beverages.

It's important to note that taking too much potassium citrate can lead to high levels of potassium in the blood, which can be dangerous. Therefore, it is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and talk to your doctor before taking this medication if you have any medical conditions or are taking any other medications.

Phenformin is a medication that was previously used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called biguanides, which work to decrease the amount of glucose produced by the liver and increase the body's sensitivity to insulin. However, phenformin was associated with an increased risk of lactic acidosis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by an excessive buildup of lactic acid in the bloodstream. As a result, it is no longer available or recommended for use in most countries, including the United States.

A Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter (NHA) is a type of membrane transport protein that exchanges sodium ions (Na+) and protons (H+) across a biological membrane. It is also known as a Na+/H+ antiporter or exchanger. This exchange mechanism plays a crucial role in regulating pH, cell volume, and intracellular sodium concentration within various cells and organelles, including the kidney, brain, heart, and mitochondria.

In general, NHA transporters utilize the energy generated by the electrochemical gradient of sodium ions across a membrane to drive the uphill transport of protons from inside to outside the cell or organelle. This process helps maintain an optimal intracellular pH and volume, which is essential for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

There are several isoforms of Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporters found in different tissues and organelles, each with distinct physiological roles and regulatory mechanisms. Dysfunction or alterations in NHA activity have been implicated in various pathophysiological conditions, such as hypertension, heart failure, neurological disorders, and cancer.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Sodium-bicarbonate symporters, also known as sodium bicarbonate co-transporters, are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of both sodium ions (Na+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) across the cell membrane in the same direction. These transporters play a crucial role in maintaining acid-base balance in the body by regulating the concentration of bicarbonate ions, which is an important buffer in the blood and other bodily fluids.

The term "symporter" refers to the fact that these proteins transport two or more different molecules or ions in the same direction across a membrane. In this case, sodium-bicarbonate symporters co-transport one sodium ion and one bicarbonate ion together, usually using a concentration gradient of sodium to drive the uptake of bicarbonate.

These transporters are widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidneys, where they help reabsorb bicarbonate ions from the urine back into the bloodstream, and the gastrointestinal tract, where they contribute to the absorption of sodium and bicarbonate from food and drink. Dysfunction of sodium-bicarbonate symporters has been implicated in several diseases, including renal tubular acidosis and hypertension.

In medical terms, acids refer to a class of chemicals that have a pH less than 7 and can donate protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical reactions. In the context of human health, acids are an important part of various bodily functions, such as digestion. However, an imbalance in acid levels can lead to medical conditions. For example, an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach can cause gastritis or peptic ulcers, while an accumulation of lactic acid due to strenuous exercise or decreased blood flow can lead to muscle fatigue and pain.

Additionally, in clinical laboratory tests, certain substances may be tested for their "acidity" or "alkalinity," which is measured using a pH scale. This information can help diagnose various medical conditions, such as kidney disease or diabetes.

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is not a substance that is typically found within the human body. It is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula HCl. In a medical context, it might be mentioned in relation to gastric acid, which helps digest food in the stomach. Gastric acid is composed of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride dissolved in water. The pH of hydrochloric acid is very low (1-2) due to its high concentration of H+ ions, making it a strong acid. However, it's important to note that the term 'hydrochloric acid' does not directly refer to a component of human bodily fluids or tissues.

Hypokalemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally low potassium levels in the blood, specifically when the concentration falls below 3.5 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Potassium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate heart function, nerve signals, and muscle contractions.

Hypokalemia can result from various factors, including inadequate potassium intake, increased potassium loss through the urine or gastrointestinal tract, or shifts of potassium between body compartments. Common causes include diuretic use, vomiting, diarrhea, certain medications, kidney diseases, and hormonal imbalances.

Mild hypokalemia may not cause noticeable symptoms but can still affect the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. More severe cases can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, cramps, paralysis, heart rhythm abnormalities, and in rare instances, respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and replenishing potassium levels through oral or intravenous (IV) supplementation, depending on the severity of the condition.

Hyperkalemia is a medical condition characterized by an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum, specifically when the concentration exceeds 5.0-5.5 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter). Potassium is a crucial intracellular ion that plays a significant role in various physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and heart rhythm regulation.

Mild to moderate hyperkalemia might not cause noticeable symptoms but can still have harmful effects on the body, particularly on the cardiovascular system. Severe cases of hyperkalemia (potassium levels > 6.5 mEq/L) can lead to potentially life-threatening arrhythmias and heart failure.

Hyperkalemia may result from various factors, such as kidney dysfunction, hormonal imbalances, medication side effects, trauma, or excessive potassium intake. Prompt identification and management of hyperkalemia are essential to prevent severe complications and ensure proper treatment.

Fanconi syndrome is a medical condition that affects the proximal tubules of the kidneys. These tubules are responsible for reabsorbing various substances, such as glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes, back into the bloodstream after they have been filtered through the kidneys.

In Fanconi syndrome, there is a defect in the reabsorption process, causing these substances to be lost in the urine instead. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including:

* Polyuria (excessive urination)
* Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
* Dehydration
* Metabolic acidosis (an imbalance of acid and base in the body)
* Hypokalemia (low potassium levels)
* Hypophosphatemia (low phosphate levels)
* Vitamin D deficiency
* Rickets (softening and weakening of bones in children) or osteomalacia (softening of bones in adults)

Fanconi syndrome can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including genetic disorders, kidney diseases, drug toxicity, and heavy metal poisoning. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, as well as managing symptoms such as electrolyte imbalances and acid-base disturbances.

A transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries the amino acid leucine is referred to as "tRNA-Leu." This specific tRNA molecule recognizes and binds to a codon (a sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA) during protein synthesis or translation. In this case, tRNA-Leu can recognize and pair with any of the following codons: UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, and CUG. Once bound to the mRNA at the ribosome, leucine is added to the growing polypeptide chain through the action of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes that catalyze the attachment of specific amino acids to their corresponding tRNAs. This ensures the accurate and efficient production of proteins based on genetic information encoded in mRNA.

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a type of ion channel protein found in nerve cells (neurons) that are activated by acidic environments. They are composed of homomeric or heteromeric combinations of six different subunits, designated ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3, and ASIC4. These channels play important roles in various physiological processes, including pH homeostasis, nociception (pain perception), and mechanosensation (the ability to sense mechanical stimuli).

ASICs are permeable to both sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) ions. When the extracellular pH decreases, the channels open, allowing Na+ and Ca2+ ions to flow into the neuron. This influx of cations can depolarize the neuronal membrane, leading to the generation of action potentials and neurotransmitter release.

In the context of pain perception, ASICs are activated by the acidic environment in damaged tissues or ischemic conditions, contributing to the sensation of pain. In addition, some ASIC subunits have been implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory processes. Dysregulation of ASIC function has been associated with various pathological conditions, including neuropathic pain, ischemia, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine, which is a type of amino acid, into glutamate and ammonia. This reaction is an essential part of nitrogen metabolism in many organisms, including humans. There are several forms of glutaminase found in different parts of the body, with varying properties and functions.

In humans, there are two major types of glutaminase: mitochondrial and cytosolic. Mitochondrial glutaminase is primarily found in the kidneys and brain, where it plays a crucial role in energy metabolism by converting glutamine into glutamate, which can then be further metabolized to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a major source of cellular energy.

Cytosolic glutaminase, on the other hand, is found in many tissues throughout the body and is involved in various metabolic processes, including nucleotide synthesis and protein degradation.

Glutaminase activity has been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, where some tumors have been shown to have elevated levels of glutaminase expression, allowing them to use glutamine as a major source of energy and growth. Inhibitors of glutaminase are currently being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a chemical compound with the formula CCl2CO2H. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a reagent in organic synthesis and as a laboratory research tool. DCA is also a byproduct of water chlorination and has been found to occur in low levels in some chlorinated drinking waters.

In the medical field, DCA has been studied for its potential anticancer effects. Preclinical studies have suggested that DCA may be able to selectively kill cancer cells by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes involved in cell metabolism. However, more research is needed to determine whether DCA is safe and effective as a cancer treatment in humans.

It is important to note that DCA is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a cancer treatment. It should only be used in clinical trials or under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Nephrocalcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium salts in the renal parenchyma, specifically within the tubular epithelial cells and interstitium of the kidneys. This process can lead to chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and ultimately impaired renal function if left untreated.

The condition is often associated with metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism, distal renal tubular acidosis, or hyperoxaluria; medications like loop diuretics, corticosteroids, or calcineurin inhibitors; and chronic kidney diseases. The diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis is typically made through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or X-ray. Treatment usually involves addressing the underlying cause, modifying dietary habits, and administering medications to control calcium levels in the body.

The rumen is the largest compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. It is a specialized fermentation chamber where microbes break down tough plant material into nutrients that the animal can absorb and use for energy and growth. The rumen contains billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which help to break down cellulose and other complex carbohydrates in the plant material through fermentation.

The rumen is characterized by its large size, muscular walls, and the presence of a thick mat of partially digested food and microbes called the rumen mat or cud. The animal regurgitates the rumen contents periodically to chew it again, which helps to break down the plant material further and mix it with saliva, creating a more favorable environment for fermentation.

The rumen plays an essential role in the digestion and nutrition of ruminant animals, allowing them to thrive on a diet of low-quality plant material that would be difficult for other animals to digest.

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... results in a reduced serum pH that is due to metabolic and not respiratory dysfunction. Typically the serum ... Metabolic acidosis can lead to acidemia, which is defined as arterial blood pH that is lower than 7.35. Acidemia and acidosis ... The adverse effects of acute versus chronic metabolic acidosis also differ, with acute metabolic acidosis impacting the ... or lactic acid in lactic acidosis). A state of chronic metabolic acidosis, lasting several weeks to years, can be the result of ...
... metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory alkalosis. One or a combination of these ... is almost always partially compensated by a respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation). Similarly, a respiratory acidosis can be ... They refer to the customary effect of a component, respiratory or metabolic. Acidosis would cause an acidemia on its own (i.e. ... ISBN 0-7216-0146-4. Brandis K. "Acid-base physiology". Respiratory acidosis: definition. Stewart's original text at acidbase. ...
In cases of respiratory acidosis, the infused bicarbonate ion drives the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer of plasma to the left ... "Respiratory Acidosis: Treatment & Medication". emedicine. 26 March 2020. Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh S, Ali-Hassan-Sayegh S, Popov A ( ... HCO3− is used for treatment of hyperkalemia, as it will drive K+ back into cells during periods of acidosis. Since sodium ... to reduce the risk of ruminal acidosis in cattle". Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 86 (3): 429-437. doi:10.4141/A06-014. " ...
ISBN 978-0-521-57098-5. "Respiratory acidosis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2021-05-10. " ... failure to expel carbon dioxide may cause respiratory acidosis (meaning bodily fluids and blood become too acidic thereby ... Therefore a patient suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning may experience severe hypoxia and acidosis in addition to the ... cells switch to anaerobic respiration which if prolonged may significantly increase lactic acid leading to metabolic acidosis. ...
It can be associated with chronic respiratory acidosis. Hyperchloremia (having too much chloride) usually does not produce ... Levitin, H; Branscome, W; Epstein, FH (December 1958). "The pathogenesis of hypochloremia in respiratory acidosis". J. Clin. ... Human respiratory systems can be protected from chlorine gas by gas masks with activated charcoal or other filters, which makes ... Chlorine is a toxic gas that attacks the respiratory system, eyes, and skin. Because it is denser than air, it tends to ...
It can be associated with chronic respiratory acidosis. If it occurs together with metabolic alkalosis (decreased blood acidity ... Levitin H, Branscome W, Epstein FH (December 1958). "The pathogenesis of hypochloremia in respiratory acidosis". J. Clin. ...
Metabolic acidosis is compounded by respiratory failure. Patients may also present with hypothermia. In the past, alcohol was ... In addition to respiratory failure and accidents caused by its effects on the central nervous system, alcohol causes ... Acute alcohol poisoning is a medical emergency due to the risk of death from respiratory depression or aspiration of vomit if ... After a very high level of consumption[vague], the respiratory system becomes depressed and the person will stop breathing. ...
... a condition known as respiratory acidosis occurs. The body tries to maintain homeostasis by increasing the respiratory rate, a ... In the context of arterial blood gases, the most common occurrence will be that of respiratory acidosis. Carbon dioxide is ... The respiratory pathway tries to compensate for the change in pH in a matter of 2-4 hours. If this is not enough, the metabolic ... 7.4, it is a primary respiratory disorder. If pCO2 & pH are moving in same direction i.e., pCO2 ↑when pH is >7.4 or pCO2 ↓ when ...
Salicylic acid overdose can lead metabolic acidosis with compensatory respiratory alkalosis. In people presenting with an acute ...
It experiences respiratory acidosis and hyperglycemia after prolonged exposure to air; however, these levels eventually return ...
... respiratory acidosis, and respiratory alkalosis. Hypoventilation exists when the ratio of carbon dioxide production to alveolar ... If pH is also less than 7.35 this is respiratory acidosis. Hyperventilation exists when the same ratio decreases - less than ... The partial pressure of carbon dioxide, along with the pH, can be used to differentiate between metabolic acidosis, metabolic ... If the pH is also greater than 7.45 this is respiratory alkalosis. Alveolar-arterial gradient Diffusing capacity Pulmonary ...
... potentially both respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis) in addition to the toxicities of excess carbon monoxide ... Treatment with sodium bicarbonate is controversial as acidosis may increase tissue oxygen availability. Treatment of acidosis ... Cells respond by switching to anaerobic metabolism, causing anoxia, lactic acidosis, and eventual cell death. The rate of ... Another mechanism involves effects on the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme chain that is responsible for effective tissue ...
Skeletal muscle respiratory chain defect (electron transport chain [ETC]): A type of metabolic myopathy, this can result in ... Haller, R.G (1989). "Exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis, and abnormal cardiopulmonary regulation in exercise associated with ... The mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III catalyses electron transfer to cytochrome c. Complex III is embedded in the ... Van de Weert-van Leeuwen, Pauline (2013). "Infection, inflammation and exercise in cystic fibrosis". Respiratory Research. 14 ( ...
Hypoxemia, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, respiratory acidosis and increased intracranial pressure may supervene. One ...
Provision of intubation and oxygen respiration in case of respiratory arrest or paralysis. Checking of diuresis and kidney ... control of acidosis with sodium bicarbonate ( pH of urine 7.5 ). In case of spasms, intravenous administration of diazepam. ...
In this situation the hypercapnia can also be accompanied by respiratory acidosis. Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure may ... Inability of the lungs to clear carbon dioxide, or inhalation of elevated levels of CO2, leads to respiratory acidosis. ... resulting in respiratory acidosis. Clinically, the effect of hypercapnia on pH is estimated using the ratio of the arterial ... Very severe respiratory failure, in which hypercapnia may also be present, is often treated with extracorporeal membrane ...
Patients in shock often experience respiratory distress due to pulmonary edema (e.g., in cardiogenic shock). Lactic acidosis ... Respiratory therapy/respiratory physiotherapy may be beneficial in some cases of respiratory failure. Type 1 respiratory ... Respiratory stimulants such as doxapram are now rarely used. There is tentative evidence that in those with respiratory failure ... Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon ...
This causes hypoxia and respiratory acidosis which can lead to pulmonary hypertension. It has a ground glass appearance on an x ... The study of respiratory disease is known as pulmonology. A physician who specializes in respiratory disease is known as a ... It can present widely from a mild respiratory infection to respiratory failure. Since there is no medication to treat the ... Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract ...
... respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Additionally, a respiratory and a ... A decrease in blood pH due to respiratory depression is called respiratory acidosis. An increase in blood pH due to ... This type of disturbance is called a metabolic acidosis. In the case of metabolic acidosis, the new buffer line lies below the ... such as respiratory acidosis followed by a compensatory shift towards metabolic alkalosis. To understand how changes in ...
... or respiratory acidosis with renal compensation if too high (more than +2 mEq/L) metabolic acidosis, or respiratory alkalosis ... For example, inadequate ventilation, a respiratory problem, causes a buildup of CO2, hence respiratory acidosis; the kidneys ... It can be caused by Compensation for primary respiratory acidosis Excessive loss of HCl in gastric acid by vomiting Renal ... In summary, the kidneys partially compensate for respiratory acidosis by raising blood bicarbonate. A high base excess, thus ...
The two different types of fetal acidosis are respiratory acidosis or metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis occurs when ... An abnormal decreases in pH, on the other hand, is shown that there may be a potential risk of acidosis in fetus if the pH is ... Metabolic acidosis is caused by anaerobic cell metabolism due to hypoxia. Anaerobic metabolism results in the production of ... A low pH and high level of lactate indicate that there is acidosis, which in turn is associated with hypoxia. ...
... and respiratory acidosis. Hypoventilation is not synonymous with respiratory arrest, in which breathing ceases entirely and ... Respiratory stimulants such as nikethamide were traditionally used to counteract respiratory depression from CNS depressant ... A new respiratory stimulant drug called BIMU8 is being investigated which seems to be significantly more effective and may be ... If the respiratory depression occurs from opioid overdose, usually an opioid antagonist, most likely naloxone, will be ...
Jackson, D. C. (2004). "Surviving extreme lactic acidosis: the role of calcium lactate formation in the anoxic turtle". ... Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 144 (2-3): 173-178. doi:10.1016/j.resp.2004.06.020. PMID 15556100. S2CID 33342583. ...
CO2 will also accumulate in the tissues of the body, resulting in respiratory acidosis. Under ideal conditions (i.e., if pure ... The consequent rise in CO2 tension and drop in pH result in stimulation of the respiratory centre in the brain which eventually ... The accumulation of carbon dioxide in the lungs will eventually irritate and trigger impulses from the respiratory center part ... ‌ Nunn, J. F. (1993). Applied Respiratory Physiology (4th ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-1336-X. Look up apnea in ...
2000). "The treatment of acidosis in acute lung injury with tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane (THAM)". American Journal of ... Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 161 (4): 1149-1153. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.161.4.9906031. PMID 10764304. Hoste, EA; ... given in intensive care for its properties as a buffer for the treatment of severe metabolic acidosis in specific circumstances ... is used as alternative to sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of metabolic acidosis. MOPS HEPES MES Common buffer compounds ...
The RAS helped stabilize patients with severe hypercarbic respiratory acidosis while providing lung protective ventilation. By ... the RAS had been used on 75 COVID-19 patients where there was a selective issue with hypercarbic respiratory acidosis. ... This eventually led to the development of the Hemolung Respiratory Assist System (RAS), a device that could potentially replace ... By 2012, ALung's clinical trials on the Hemolung found that the RAS improved patients respiratory statuses and reduced arterial ...
... deranged acid-base balance due to respiratory acidosis, and death. Many people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have ... The slight rise in PaCO2 stimulates the respiratory centre in the brain, creating the impulse to take another breath. In some ... Lumb, AB (2000). Nunn's Applied Respiratory Physiology (5th ed.). Butterworth Heinemann. p. 533. ISBN 0-7506-3107-4. Abdo, ...
"Fatal Lactic Acidosis in Infancy with a Defect of Complex III of the Respiratory Chain". Pediatric Research. 25 (5): 553-559. ...
Both men's cause of death was listed as "Respiratory Acidosis due to Carbon Dioxide Poisoning". The Johnson Sea Link accident ...
Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the ... The expected change in pH with respiratory acidosis can be estimated with the following equations: Acute respiratory acidosis: ... Acute respiratory acidosis: HCO3− increases 1 mEq/L for each 10 mm Hg rise in PaCO2. Chronic respiratory acidosis: HCO3− rises ... Chronic respiratory acidosis: Change in pH = 0.03 X ((40 − PaCO2)/10) Respiratory acidosis does not have a great effect on ...
Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when your lungs cant remove all of the carbon dioxide produced by your body. ... Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when your lungs cant remove all of the carbon dioxide produced by your body. ... Some people with chronic respiratory acidosis get acute respiratory acidosis when a serious illness worsens their condition and ... Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when your lungs cant remove all of the carbon dioxide produced by your body. ...
Respiratory acidosis occurs when the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pa CO2) is elevated above the normal range (> ... Respiratory acidosis may result from an acute or chronic process and may occur at any age. Acute respiratory acidosis can be ... encoded search term (Pediatric Respiratory Acidosis) and Pediatric Respiratory Acidosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Causes of respiratory acidosis related to central nervous system (CNS) respiratory drive suppression include the following:. * ...
A publicly available article also appearing in PubMed about Respiratory Acidosis ... Respiratory acidosis can be subcategorized as acute, chronic, or acute and chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, there is a ... The use of respiratory stimulants has not been shown to be effective in treating respiratory acidosis. Medroxyprogesterone has ... Respiratory acidosis is a state in which there is usually a failure of ventilation and an accumulation of carbon dioxide. The ...
Respiratory acidosis occurs when the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pa CO2) is elevated above the normal range (> ... Respiratory acidosis may result from an acute or chronic process and may occur at any age. Acute respiratory acidosis can be ... encoded search term (Pediatric Respiratory Acidosis) and Pediatric Respiratory Acidosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Causes of respiratory acidosis related to central nervous system (CNS) respiratory drive suppression include the following:. * ...
Respiratory acidosis unspecified remains indexed to E87.29 (Other acidosis).. Definitions. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs ... New codes related to respiratory acidosis are now in place.. Acute respiratory acidosis is now indexed to J96.02 (Acute ... Chronic respiratory acidosis is now indexed to J96.12 (Chronic respiratory failure with hypercapnia). ... Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when your lungs cant remove all of the carbon dioxide produced by your body. ...
Respiratory Acidosis কীভাবে হয়?. যখন Type 2 respiratory failure হয়, তখন ফুসফুস শরীরে তৈরি হওয়া CO2 ঠিকভাবে বাইরে বের করতে ... Pathophysiology of Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis ।। হাবিজাবি ২৬. Respiratory Acidosis:. Lungs ঠিকমত গ্যাস বিনিময় করে CO2 ও O2 ... Respiratory acidosis এ অল্প মাত্রার অক্সিজেন দেওয়া (বেশি মাত্রায় দেওয়া যাবে না, কারণ incresed pCO2 respiratory centre কে ... Acidosis হলেই H+ concentration বাড়বে (,40 nmol/L) অর্থাৎ pH কমবে (,7.4)।. অন্যদিকে Respiratory acidosis এ রক্তে CO2 জমে গিয়ে ...
Respiratory Acidosis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Respiratory acidosis is carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation (hypercapnia) due to a decrease in respiratory rate and/or ... Respiratory acidosis involves a decrease in respiratory rate and/or volume (hypoventilation). ... Symptoms and Signs of Respiratory Acidosis Symptoms and signs depend on the rate and degree of Pco2 increase. CO2 rapidly ...
... respiratory acidosis results. The pH of human blood and ... respiratory acidosis that is acute. This happens when your ... When should someone with severe respiratory acidosis seek emergency care?. Respiratory acidosis that is acute might be lethal. ... Reproductive acidosis, both acute and chronic. Some individuals experience persistent respiratory acidosis and a co-occurring ... The best way to avoid respiratory acidosis. Avoiding probable causes of acidosis is the most effective strategy to stop the ...
Pulmonary edema or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). *Acidosis. *Acute kidney injury ...
... and pulmonary hypoplasia resulting in hypercarbia and respiratory acidosis ... Acidosis and alkalosis correction. Acidosis can act as a pulmonary vasoconstrictor and should be avoided. The use of sodium ... ECMO for neonatal respiratory failure. Semin Perinatol. 2005 Feb. 29(1):15-23. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Wung JT, James LS, Kilchevsky E, James E. Management of infants with severe respiratory failure and persistence of the fetal ...
Acute respiratory distress syndrome. 44 (45.8). Acidosis. 36 (37.5). Disseminated intravascular coagulation. 30 (31.2). ...
... www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/acid-base-regulation-and-disorders/respiratory-acidosis. ... The respiratory centers in the lower brain stem and spinal cord send signals that stimulate the lungs, breathing muscles, and ... Ikeda, K., Kawakami, K., Onimaru, H., Okada, Y., Yokota, S., Koshiya, N. … Koizumi, H. (2017). The respiratory control ... suggest that this may improve autonomic nervous system function and also benefit the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. ...
Acidosis. *Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). *Acute Upper Respiratory Infection. *Acute Venous Embolism Thrombosis ...
Metabolic Acidosis. Steven Mensack. Chapter 16.. Respiratory Acidosis. Steven Mensack. Chapter 17.. Metabolic Alkalosis. Steven ... Respiratory Alkalosis. Steven Mensack. SECTION TWO CRITICAL CARE SUPPORT. Chapter 19.. Oxygen Therapy and Toxicity. Ann Marie ... Respiratory Distress. Daniel V. Hecht. Chapter 43.. Seizures I: Pathophysiology. Theresa OToole. Chapter 44.. Seizures II: ...
Respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis can be assessed further to determine if the condition is acute or chronic; ... Table 1. Indicators of Chronic and Acute Respiratory Acidosis and Respiratory Alkalosis (Open Table in a new window) ... Metabolic acidosis is divided into anion gap metabolic acidosis and non-anion gap metabolic acidosis; these two categories have ... Table 1. Indicators of Chronic and Acute Respiratory Acidosis and Respiratory Alkalosis ...
acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis; metabolic alkalosis; respiratory acidosis; respiratory alkalosis; mixed acid-base ...
Respiratory Failure (11 profiles as of 4/9/17). *Respiratory Conditions *Acidosis ...
Effects of simulated respiratory and metabolic acidosis/alkalosis on pH(i) in isolated type I carotid body cells from the ... Effects of simulated respiratory and metabolic acidosis/alkalosis on pH(i) in isolated type I carotid body cells from the ...
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation is indicated in patients with worsening acidosis ... Improves respiratory acidosis and decreases respiratory rate, breathlessness, need for intubation, mortality, and length of ... Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation improves respiratory acidosis and decreases respiratory rate, breathlessness, need ... Use in patients with worsening respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia when oxygenation via high-flow mask is inadequate. ...
Now we determine if your patient has respiratory or metabolic acidosis. Look at their pH, PaCO2, and HCO3-. ... Now, we determine if your patient has respiratory or metabolic acidosis. Look at their pH, PaCO2, and HCO3-. Then its ... If you established that your patient has either Respiratory Acidosis or Alkalosis, then is their HCO3- outside of 22-26? If yes ... If you established that your patient has either Metabolic Acidosis or Alkalosis, then is their CO2 outside of 35-45? If yes ...
... recovery and follow-up care for Lactic acidosis. ... Learn about Lactic acidosis, find a doctor, complications, ... Respiratory failure. *Sepsis (severe infection). Some medicines can rarely cause lactic acidosis:. *Beta adrenergic agonist ... Lactic acidosis refers to lactic acid build up in the bloodstream. Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels become low in ... Metabolic acidosis. In: Feehally J, Floege J, Tonelli M, Johnson RJ, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 6th ed. ...
Ethylene glycols CNS effects can cause respiratory depression, and metabolic acidosis can result in hyperventilation and ... Respiratory. Very high levels of inhaled ethylene glycol vapors can irritate the upper respiratory tract. Levels higher than 80 ... Stage 2: From 12 to 48 hours, metabolites produce severe acidosis with compensatory hyperventilation. The acidosis is primarily ... Respiratory Protection: Respirable concentrations of ethylene glycol are significant only when the liquid is heated (e.g., ...
Acute Upper Respiratory Infection x. Anemia x. Acidosis ... View other providers who treat Acute Upper Respiratory ...
The patient was intubated and placed on mechanical ventilator support to maintain SPO2 , 95%; respiratory acidosis and ... On Hospital Day 8, the patient had worsening dyspnea with a respiratory rate of 43 BPM and a pulse rate of 114 BPM. High flow ... The patient was cachectic at admission and had mild dyspnea with a respiratory rate (RR) of 20-25/min. He had a history of ... On Hospital Day 13, the patient progressed to acute respiratory failure and loss of consciousness with SPO2 at 74%, and PCO2 ...
View other providers who treat Acidosis Acute Lower Respiratory Infection ...
Respiratory distress syndrome, Type 1. *Acidosis. Another condition frequently missed is holoprosencephaly (HPE), the failure ...
Metabolic or Respiratory Acidosis Antikaliuretic therapy should be instituted only with caution in severely ill patients in ... whom respiratory or metabolic acidosis may occur, such as patients with cardiopulmonary disease or poorly controlled diabetes. ... Shifts in acid-base balance alter the ratio of extracellular/intracellular potassium, and the development of acidosis may be ...

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