A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A hereditary or acquired form of generalized dysfunction of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE without primary involvement of the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS. It is usually characterized by the tubular wasting of nutrients and salts (GLUCOSE; AMINO ACIDS; PHOSPHATES; and BICARBONATES) resulting in HYPOKALEMIA; ACIDOSIS; HYPERCALCIURIA; and PROTEINURIA.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia, playing a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism and amino acid homeostasis within various tissues and cells, including the brain, kidney, and immune cells.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.
A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.

Decreased lactic acidosis and anemia after transfusion of o-raffinose cross-linked and polymerized hemoglobin in severe murine malaria. (1/290)

Severe anemia is a major cause of death in falciparum malaria. Blood transfusion increases survival in humans and in animal models of this disease. Because of logistic constraints and viral contamination of the blood supply, transfusions are frequently not practical in endemic regions. Modified hemoglobin is an effective O2 carrier in hemorrhagic shock. It is free of infectious contamination, may not require refrigeration, and because of its nitric oxide scavenging and small size, may have pharmacologic benefits in malaria. The effects of transfusions of modified hemoglobin in rats with high-grade parasitemia were evaluated. Modified hemoglobin decreased lactic acidosis and corrected anemia as well as transfusions with red blood cells; these findings may correlate with improved survival and suggest a possible proerythropoietic effect. Further study of this novel therapy is warranted.  (+info)

Incidence of lactic acidosis in metformin users. (2/290)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of lactic acidosis in a geographically defined population of metformin users. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was based on a historical cohort from the Saskatchewan Health administrative databases. Individuals with a metformin prescription dispensed between 1980 and 1995 inclusive were eligible for the cohort. Person-years of exposure were calculated. Cases were defined by hospital discharge with a diagnosis of acidosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code: 276.2) and confirmation by chart review of a blood lactate level > or = 5 mmol/l. Death registrations of individuals dying within 120 days of a metformin prescription were also reviewed. RESULTS: During the study period, 11,797 residents received one or more metformin prescriptions, resulting in 22,296 person-years of exposure. There were 10 subjects who had hospital discharges with a diagnosis of acidosis. However, primary record review revealed only two cases with laboratory findings of elevated blood lactate levels, for an incidence rate of 9 cases per 100,000 person-years of metformin exposure. In both cases, other factors besides metformin could have contributed to the lactic acidosis. No additional cases were found on review of death registrations. CONCLUSIONS: From 1980 through 1995, the incidence rate of lactic acidosis was 9 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 0-21) in patients dispensed metformin in Saskatchewan, Canada. This incidence rate was derived from a population with complete ascertainment of hospitalizations and deaths associated with lactic acidosis in metformin users. It is similar to previously published rates based on passive reporting of cases, and it is well below the lactic acidosis rate of 40-64 per 100,000 patient-years in patients prescribed phenformin.  (+info)

Nuclear DNA origin of mitochondrial complex I deficiency in fatal infantile lactic acidosis evidenced by transnuclear complementation of cultured fibroblasts. (3/290)

We have studied complex I (NADH-ubiquinone reductase) defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in 2 infants who died in the neonatal period from 2 different neurological forms of severe neonatal lactic acidosis. Specific and marked decrease in complex I activity was documented in muscle, liver, and cultured skin fibroblasts. Biochemical characterization and study of the genetic origin of this defect were performed using cultured fibroblasts. Immunodetection of 6 nuclear DNA-encoded (20, 23, 24, 30, 49, and 51 kDa) and 1 mitochondrial DNA-encoded (ND1) complex I subunits in fibroblast mitochondria revealed 2 distinct patterns. In 1 patient, complex I contained reduced amounts of the 24- and 51-kDa subunits and normal amounts of all the other investigated subunits. In the second patient, amounts of all the investigated subunits were severely decreased. The data suggest partial or extensive impairment of complex I assembly in both patients. Cell fusion experiments between 143B206 rho degrees cells, fully depleted of mitochondrial DNA, and fibroblasts from both patients led to phenotypic complementation of the complex I defects in mitochondria of the resulting cybrid cells. These results indicate that the complex I defects in the 2 reported cases are due to nuclear gene mutations.  (+info)

Blood lactate accumulation and muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise. (4/290)

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could allow insights into controversial issues related to blood lactate concentration ([La](b)) increases at submaximal workloads (). We combined, on five well-trained subjects [mountain climbers; peak O(2) consumption (VO(2peak)), 51.0 +/- 4.2 (SD) ml. kg(-1). min(-1)] performing incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer (30 W added every 4 min up to voluntary exhaustion), measurements of pulmonary gas exchange and earlobe [La](b) with determinations of concentration changes of oxygenated Hb (Delta[O(2)Hb]) and deoxygenated Hb (Delta[HHb]) in the vastus lateralis muscle, by continuous-wave NIRS. A "point of inflection" of [La](b) vs. was arbitrarily identified at the lowest [La](b) value which was >0.5 mM lower than that obtained at the following. Total Hb volume (Delta[O(2)Hb + HHb]) in the muscle region of interest increased as a function of up to 60-65% of VO(2 peak), after which it remained unchanged. The oxygenation index (Delta[O(2)Hb - HHb]) showed an accelerated decrease from 60- 65% of VO(2 peak). In the presence of a constant total Hb volume, the observed Delta[O(2)Hb - HHb] decrease indicates muscle deoxygenation (i.e., mainly capillary-venular Hb desaturation). The onset of muscle deoxygenation was significantly correlated (r(2) = 0.95; P < 0.01) with the point of inflection of [La](b) vs., i.e., with the onset of blood lactate accumulation. Previous studies showed relatively constant femoral venous PO(2) levels at higher than approximately 60% of maximal O(2) consumption. Thus muscle deoxygenation observed in the present study from 60-65% of VO(2 peak) could be attributed to capillary-venular Hb desaturation in the presence of relatively constant capillary-venular PO(2) levels, as a consequence of a rightward shift of the O(2)Hb dissociation curve determined by the onset of lactic acidosis.  (+info)

Hypoxia-activated apoptosis of cardiac myocytes requires reoxygenation or a pH shift and is independent of p53. (5/290)

Ischemia and reperfusion activate cardiac myocyte apoptosis, which may be an important feature in the progression of ischemic heart disease. The relative contributions of ischemia and reperfusion to apoptotic signal transduction have not been established. We report here that severe chronic hypoxia alone does not cause apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in culture. When rapidly contracting cardiac myocytes were exposed to chronic hypoxia, apoptosis occurred only when there was a decrease in extracellular pH ([pH](o)). Apoptosis did not occur when [pH](o) was neutralized. Addition of acidic medium from hypoxic cultures or exogenous lactic acid stimulated apoptosis in aerobic myocytes. Hypoxia-acidosis-mediated cell death was independent of p53: equivalent apoptosis occurred in cardiac myocytes isolated from wild-type and p53 knockout mice, and hypoxia caused no detectable change in p53 abundance or p53-dependent transcription. Reoxygenation of hypoxic cardiac myocytes induced apoptosis in 25-30% of the cells and was also independent of p53 by the same criteria. Finally, equivalent levels of apoptosis, as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, were induced by ischemia-reperfusion, but not by ischemia alone, of Langendorff-perfused hearts from wild-type and p53 knockout mice. We conclude that acidosis, reoxygenation, and reperfusion, but not hypoxia (or ischemia) alone, are strong stimuli for programmed cell death that is substantially independent of p53.  (+info)

Actively phosphorylating mitochondria are more resistant to lactic acidosis than inactive mitochondria. (6/290)

Oxidative phosphorylation of isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria after exposure to lactic acidosis in either phosphorylating or nonphosphorylating states has been evaluated. Mitochondrial respiration and transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) were measured with pyruvate and malate as the substrates. The addition of lactic acid decreased the pH of the reaction medium from 7.5 to 6.4. When lactic acid was added to nonphosphorylating mitochondria, the subsequent maximal ADP-stimulated respiration decreased by 27% compared with that under control conditions (P < 0.05), and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) for ADP decreased to 10 microM vs. 20 microM (P < 0.05) in controls. In contrast, maximal respiration and ADP sensitivity were not affected when mitochondria were exposed to acidosis during active phosphorylation in state 3. Acidosis significantly increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption in state 4 (post-state 3), irrespective of when acidosis was induced. This effect of acidosis was attenuated in the presence of oligomycin. The addition of lactic acid during state 4 respiration decreased DeltaPsi(m) by 19%. The ratio between added ADP and consumed oxygen (P/O) was close to the theoretical value of 3 in all conditions. The addition of potassium lactate during state 3 (i.e., medium pH unchanged) had no effect on the parameters measured. It is concluded that lactic acidosis has different effects when induced on nonphosphorylating vs. actively phosphorylating mitochondria. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the influence of lactic acidosis on muscle aerobic energy production depends on the physiological conditions at the onset of acidity.  (+info)

A novel deficiency of mitochondrial ATPase of nuclear origin. (7/290)

We report a new type of fatal mitochondrial disorder caused by selective deficiency of mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase). A hypotrophic newborn from a consanguineous marriage presented severe lactic acidosis, cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly and died from heart failure after 2 days. The activity of oligomycin-sensitive ATPase was only 31-34% of the control, both in muscle and heart, but the activities of cytochrome c oxidase, citrate synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase were normal. Electrophoretic and western blot analysis revealed selective reduction of ATPase complex but normal levels of the respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. The same selective deficiency of ATPase was found in cultured skin fibroblasts which showed similar decreases in ATPase content, ATPase hydrolytic activity and level of substrate-dependent ATP synthesis (20-25, 18 and 29-33% of the control, respectively). Pulse-chase labelling of patient fibroblasts revealed low incorporation of [(35)S]methionine into assembled ATPase complexes, but increased incorporation into immunoprecipitated ATPase subunit beta, which had a very short half-life. In contrast, no difference was found in the size and subunit composition of the assembled and newly produced ATPase complex. Transmitochondrial cybrids prepared from enucleated fibroblasts of the patient and rho degrees cells derived from 143B. TK(-)human osteosarcoma cells fully restored the ATPase activity, ATP synthesis and ATPase content, when compared with control cybrids. Likewise, the pattern of [(35)S]methionine labelling of ATPase was found to be normal in patient cybrids. We conclude that the generalized deficiency of mitochondrial ATPase described is of nuclear origin and is caused by altered biosynthesis of the enzyme.  (+info)

A missense mutation of cytochrome oxidase subunit II causes defective assembly and myopathy. (8/290)

We report the first missense mutation in the mtDNA gene for subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). The mutation was identified in a 14-year-old boy with a proximal myopathy and lactic acidosis. Muscle histochemistry and mitochondrial respiratory-chain enzymology demonstrated a marked reduction in COX activity. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses with COX subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies showed a pattern suggestive of a primary mtDNA defect, most likely involving CO II, for COX subunit II (COX II). mtDNA-sequence analysis demonstrated a novel heteroplasmic T-->A transversion at nucleotide position 7,671 in CO II. This mutation changes a methionine to a lysine residue in the middle of the first N-terminal membrane-spanning region of COX II. The immunoblot studies demonstrated a severe reduction in cross-reactivity, not only for COX II but also for the mtDNA-encoded subunit COX III and for nuclear-encoded subunits Vb, VIa, VIb, and VIc. Steady-state levels of the mtDNA-encoded subunit COX I showed a mild reduction, but spectrophotometric analysis revealed a dramatic decrease in COX I-associated heme a3 levels. These observations suggest that, in the COX protein, a structural association of COX II with COX I is necessary to stabilize the binding of heme a3 to COX I.  (+info)

Acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess accumulation of acid in the body or when the body loses its ability to effectively regulate the pH level of the blood. The normal pH range of the blood is slightly alkaline, between 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH falls below 7.35, it is called acidosis.

Acidosis can be caused by various factors, including impaired kidney function, respiratory problems, diabetes, severe dehydration, alcoholism, and certain medications or toxins. There are two main types of acidosis: metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis.

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid or is unable to eliminate it effectively. This can be caused by conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, kidney failure, and ingestion of certain toxins.

Respiratory acidosis, on the other hand, occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the body, leading to an accumulation of acid. This can be caused by conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sedative overdose.

Symptoms of acidosis may include fatigue, shortness of breath, confusion, headache, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment for acidosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and dialysis.

Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by an excess accumulation of lactic acid in the body. Lactic acid is a byproduct produced in the muscles and other tissues during periods of low oxygen supply or increased energy demand. Under normal circumstances, lactic acid is quickly metabolized and cleared from the body. However, when the production of lactic acid exceeds its clearance, it can lead to a state of acidosis, where the pH of the blood becomes too acidic.

Lactic acidosis can be caused by several factors, including:

* Prolonged exercise or strenuous physical activity
* Severe illness or infection
* Certain medications, such as metformin and isoniazid
* Alcoholism
* Hypoxia (low oxygen levels) due to lung disease, heart failure, or anemia
* Inherited metabolic disorders that affect the body's ability to metabolize lactic acid

Symptoms of lactic acidosis may include rapid breathing, fatigue, muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Severe cases can lead to coma, organ failure, and even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition and providing supportive care, such as administering intravenous fluids and bicarbonate to help restore normal pH levels.

Respiratory acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when the lungs are not able to remove enough carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body, leading to an increase in the amount of CO2 in the bloodstream and a decrease in the pH of the blood. This can happen due to various reasons such as chronic lung diseases like emphysema or COPD, severe asthma attacks, neuromuscular disorders that affect breathing, or when someone is not breathing deeply or frequently enough, such as during sleep apnea or drug overdose.

Respiratory acidosis can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, coma and even death. Treatment for respiratory acidosis depends on the underlying cause but may include oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, or mechanical ventilation to help support breathing.

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to properly excrete acid into the urine, leading to an accumulation of acid in the bloodstream. This results in a state of metabolic acidosis.

There are several types of RTA, but renal tubular acidosis type 1 (also known as distal RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability of the distal tubules to acidify the urine, leading to an inability to lower the pH of the urine below 5.5, even in the face of metabolic acidosis. This results in a persistently alkaline urine, which can lead to calcium phosphate stones and bone demineralization.

Type 1 RTA is often caused by inherited genetic defects, but it can also be acquired due to various kidney diseases, drugs, or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of type 1 RTA may include fatigue, weakness, muscle cramps, decreased appetite, and vomiting. Treatment typically involves alkali therapy to correct the acidosis and prevent complications.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste and is commonly used in cooking as a leavening agent.

In a medical context, sodium bicarbonate is used as a medication to treat conditions caused by high levels of acid in the body, such as metabolic acidosis. It works by neutralizing the acid and turning it into a harmless salt and water. Sodium bicarbonate can be given intravenously or orally, depending on the severity of the condition being treated.

It is important to note that sodium bicarbonate should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly. These may include fluid buildup in the body, electrolyte imbalances, and an increased risk of infection.

Alkalosis is a medical condition that refers to an excess of bases or a decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood, leading to a higher than normal pH level. The normal range for blood pH is typically between 7.35 and 7.45. A pH above 7.45 indicates alkalosis.

Alkalosis can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Metabolic alkalosis: This type of alkalosis occurs due to an excess of bicarbonate (HCO3-) in the body, which can result from conditions such as excessive vomiting, hyperventilation, or the use of certain medications like diuretics.
2. Respiratory alkalosis: This form of alkalosis is caused by a decrease in carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood due to hyperventilation or other conditions that affect breathing, such as high altitude, anxiety, or lung disease.

Symptoms of alkalosis can vary depending on its severity and underlying cause. Mild alkalosis may not produce any noticeable symptoms, while severe cases can lead to muscle twitching, cramps, tremors, confusion, and even seizures. Treatment for alkalosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and restoring the body's normal pH balance through medications or other interventions as necessary.

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and can be produced by combining ammonia (NH3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Ammonium chloride is commonly used as a source of hydrogen ions in chemical reactions, and it has a variety of industrial and medical applications.

In the medical field, ammonium chloride is sometimes used as a expectorant to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract, making it easier to cough up and clear from the lungs. It may also be used to treat conditions such as metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body that can lead to symptoms such as confusion, muscle twitching, and irregular heartbeat.

However, it is important to note that ammonium chloride can have side effects, including stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and should not be taken in large amounts or for extended periods of time without medical supervision.

Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a rare inherited mitochondrial disorder that affects the body's energy production mechanisms. It is characterized by a combination of symptoms including recurrent headaches, vomiting, seizures, vision loss, hearing impairment, muscle weakness, and stroke-like episodes affecting primarily young adults.

The condition is caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), most commonly the A3243G point mutation in the MT-TL1 gene. The symptoms of MELAS syndrome can vary widely among affected individuals, even within the same family, due to the complex inheritance pattern of mtDNA.

MELAS syndrome is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory tests, and genetic testing. Treatment is supportive and aimed at managing individual symptoms as they arise.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

An acid-base imbalance refers to a disturbance in the normal balance of acids and bases in the body, which can lead to serious health consequences. The body maintains a delicate balance between acids and bases, which is measured by the pH level of the blood. The normal range for blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45, with a pH below 7.35 considered acidic and a pH above 7.45 considered basic or alkaline.

Acid-base imbalances can occur due to various factors such as lung or kidney disease, diabetes, severe infections, certain medications, and exposure to toxins. The two main types of acid-base imbalances are acidosis (excess acid in the body) and alkalosis (excess base in the body).

Acidosis can be further classified into respiratory acidosis (caused by impaired lung function or breathing difficulties) and metabolic acidosis (caused by an accumulation of acid in the body due to impaired kidney function, diabetes, or other conditions).

Alkalosis can also be classified into respiratory alkalosis (caused by hyperventilation or excessive breathing) and metabolic alkalosis (caused by excessive loss of stomach acid or an excess intake of base-forming substances).

Symptoms of acid-base imbalances may include confusion, lethargy, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, nausea, vomiting, and muscle weakness. If left untreated, these conditions can lead to serious complications such as coma, seizures, or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the imbalance and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or fluid and electrolyte replacement.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic complication characterized by the triad of hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone bodies. It primarily occurs in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 1, but it can also be seen in some people with diabetes mellitus type 2, particularly during severe illness or surgery.

The condition arises when there is a significant lack of insulin in the body, which impairs the ability of cells to take up glucose for energy production. As a result, the body starts breaking down fatty acids to produce energy, leading to an increase in ketone bodies (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) in the bloodstream. This process is called ketosis.

In DKA, the excessive production of ketone bodies results in metabolic acidosis, which is characterized by a lower than normal pH level in the blood (< 7.35) and an elevated serum bicarbonate level (< 18 mEq/L). The hyperglycemia in DKA is due to both increased glucose production and decreased glucose utilization by cells, which can lead to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.

Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include excessive thirst, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, fruity breath odor, and altered mental status. If left untreated, DKA can progress to coma and even lead to death. Treatment typically involves administering insulin, fluid replacement, and electrolyte management in a hospital setting.

Lactates, also known as lactic acid, are compounds that are produced by muscles during intense exercise or other conditions of low oxygen supply. They are formed from the breakdown of glucose in the absence of adequate oxygen to complete the full process of cellular respiration. This results in the production of lactate and a hydrogen ion, which can lead to a decrease in pH and muscle fatigue.

In a medical context, lactates may be measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and metabolic status. Elevated levels of lactate in the blood, known as lactic acidosis, can indicate poor tissue perfusion or hypoxia, and may be seen in conditions such as sepsis, cardiac arrest, and severe shock. It is important to note that lactates are not the primary cause of acidemia (low pH) in lactic acidosis, but rather a marker of the underlying process.

Hypercapnia is a state of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the blood, typically defined as an arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. It is often associated with conditions that impair gas exchange or eliminate CO2 from the body, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe asthma, respiratory failure, or certain neuromuscular disorders. Hypercapnia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory acidosis, coma, and even death if not promptly treated.

Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess base (bicarbonate) and/or a decrease in carbon dioxide in the body. This leads to an increase in pH level of the blood, making it more alkaline than normal. Respiratory alkalosis is usually caused by conditions that result in hyperventilation, such as anxiety, lung disease, or high altitude. It can also be caused by certain medications and medical procedures. Symptoms of respiratory alkalosis may include lightheadedness, confusion, and tingling in the fingers and toes. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition.

Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in various biological processes. In the context of medicine and biochemistry, lactic acid is primarily discussed in relation to muscle metabolism and cellular energy production. Here's a medical definition for lactic acid:

Lactic acid (LA): A carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C3H6O3 that plays a crucial role in anaerobic respiration, particularly during strenuous exercise or conditions of reduced oxygen availability. It is formed through the conversion of pyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), when there is insufficient oxygen to complete the final step of cellular respiration in the Krebs cycle. The accumulation of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and muscle fatigue. Additionally, lactic acid serves as a vital intermediary in various metabolic pathways and is involved in the production of glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

Potassium citrate is a medication and dietary supplement that contains potassium and citrate. Medically, it is used to treat and prevent kidney stones, as well as to manage metabolic acidosis in people with chronic kidney disease. Potassium citrate works by increasing the pH of urine, making it less acidic, which can help to dissolve certain types of kidney stones and prevent new ones from forming. It is also used as an alkalizing agent in the treatment of various conditions that cause acidosis.

In addition to its medical uses, potassium citrate is also found naturally in some fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, and spinach. It is often used as a food additive and preservative, and can be found in a variety of processed foods and beverages.

It's important to note that taking too much potassium citrate can lead to high levels of potassium in the blood, which can be dangerous. Therefore, it is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and talk to your doctor before taking this medication if you have any medical conditions or are taking any other medications.

Phenformin is a medication that was previously used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called biguanides, which work to decrease the amount of glucose produced by the liver and increase the body's sensitivity to insulin. However, phenformin was associated with an increased risk of lactic acidosis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by an excessive buildup of lactic acid in the bloodstream. As a result, it is no longer available or recommended for use in most countries, including the United States.

A Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter (NHA) is a type of membrane transport protein that exchanges sodium ions (Na+) and protons (H+) across a biological membrane. It is also known as a Na+/H+ antiporter or exchanger. This exchange mechanism plays a crucial role in regulating pH, cell volume, and intracellular sodium concentration within various cells and organelles, including the kidney, brain, heart, and mitochondria.

In general, NHA transporters utilize the energy generated by the electrochemical gradient of sodium ions across a membrane to drive the uphill transport of protons from inside to outside the cell or organelle. This process helps maintain an optimal intracellular pH and volume, which is essential for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

There are several isoforms of Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporters found in different tissues and organelles, each with distinct physiological roles and regulatory mechanisms. Dysfunction or alterations in NHA activity have been implicated in various pathophysiological conditions, such as hypertension, heart failure, neurological disorders, and cancer.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Sodium-bicarbonate symporters, also known as sodium bicarbonate co-transporters, are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of both sodium ions (Na+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) across the cell membrane in the same direction. These transporters play a crucial role in maintaining acid-base balance in the body by regulating the concentration of bicarbonate ions, which is an important buffer in the blood and other bodily fluids.

The term "symporter" refers to the fact that these proteins transport two or more different molecules or ions in the same direction across a membrane. In this case, sodium-bicarbonate symporters co-transport one sodium ion and one bicarbonate ion together, usually using a concentration gradient of sodium to drive the uptake of bicarbonate.

These transporters are widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidneys, where they help reabsorb bicarbonate ions from the urine back into the bloodstream, and the gastrointestinal tract, where they contribute to the absorption of sodium and bicarbonate from food and drink. Dysfunction of sodium-bicarbonate symporters has been implicated in several diseases, including renal tubular acidosis and hypertension.

In medical terms, acids refer to a class of chemicals that have a pH less than 7 and can donate protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical reactions. In the context of human health, acids are an important part of various bodily functions, such as digestion. However, an imbalance in acid levels can lead to medical conditions. For example, an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach can cause gastritis or peptic ulcers, while an accumulation of lactic acid due to strenuous exercise or decreased blood flow can lead to muscle fatigue and pain.

Additionally, in clinical laboratory tests, certain substances may be tested for their "acidity" or "alkalinity," which is measured using a pH scale. This information can help diagnose various medical conditions, such as kidney disease or diabetes.

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is not a substance that is typically found within the human body. It is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula HCl. In a medical context, it might be mentioned in relation to gastric acid, which helps digest food in the stomach. Gastric acid is composed of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride dissolved in water. The pH of hydrochloric acid is very low (1-2) due to its high concentration of H+ ions, making it a strong acid. However, it's important to note that the term 'hydrochloric acid' does not directly refer to a component of human bodily fluids or tissues.

Hypokalemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally low potassium levels in the blood, specifically when the concentration falls below 3.5 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Potassium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate heart function, nerve signals, and muscle contractions.

Hypokalemia can result from various factors, including inadequate potassium intake, increased potassium loss through the urine or gastrointestinal tract, or shifts of potassium between body compartments. Common causes include diuretic use, vomiting, diarrhea, certain medications, kidney diseases, and hormonal imbalances.

Mild hypokalemia may not cause noticeable symptoms but can still affect the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. More severe cases can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, cramps, paralysis, heart rhythm abnormalities, and in rare instances, respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and replenishing potassium levels through oral or intravenous (IV) supplementation, depending on the severity of the condition.

Hyperkalemia is a medical condition characterized by an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum, specifically when the concentration exceeds 5.0-5.5 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter). Potassium is a crucial intracellular ion that plays a significant role in various physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and heart rhythm regulation.

Mild to moderate hyperkalemia might not cause noticeable symptoms but can still have harmful effects on the body, particularly on the cardiovascular system. Severe cases of hyperkalemia (potassium levels > 6.5 mEq/L) can lead to potentially life-threatening arrhythmias and heart failure.

Hyperkalemia may result from various factors, such as kidney dysfunction, hormonal imbalances, medication side effects, trauma, or excessive potassium intake. Prompt identification and management of hyperkalemia are essential to prevent severe complications and ensure proper treatment.

Fanconi syndrome is a medical condition that affects the proximal tubules of the kidneys. These tubules are responsible for reabsorbing various substances, such as glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes, back into the bloodstream after they have been filtered through the kidneys.

In Fanconi syndrome, there is a defect in the reabsorption process, causing these substances to be lost in the urine instead. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including:

* Polyuria (excessive urination)
* Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
* Dehydration
* Metabolic acidosis (an imbalance of acid and base in the body)
* Hypokalemia (low potassium levels)
* Hypophosphatemia (low phosphate levels)
* Vitamin D deficiency
* Rickets (softening and weakening of bones in children) or osteomalacia (softening of bones in adults)

Fanconi syndrome can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including genetic disorders, kidney diseases, drug toxicity, and heavy metal poisoning. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, as well as managing symptoms such as electrolyte imbalances and acid-base disturbances.

A transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries the amino acid leucine is referred to as "tRNA-Leu." This specific tRNA molecule recognizes and binds to a codon (a sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA) during protein synthesis or translation. In this case, tRNA-Leu can recognize and pair with any of the following codons: UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, and CUG. Once bound to the mRNA at the ribosome, leucine is added to the growing polypeptide chain through the action of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes that catalyze the attachment of specific amino acids to their corresponding tRNAs. This ensures the accurate and efficient production of proteins based on genetic information encoded in mRNA.

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a type of ion channel protein found in nerve cells (neurons) that are activated by acidic environments. They are composed of homomeric or heteromeric combinations of six different subunits, designated ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3, and ASIC4. These channels play important roles in various physiological processes, including pH homeostasis, nociception (pain perception), and mechanosensation (the ability to sense mechanical stimuli).

ASICs are permeable to both sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) ions. When the extracellular pH decreases, the channels open, allowing Na+ and Ca2+ ions to flow into the neuron. This influx of cations can depolarize the neuronal membrane, leading to the generation of action potentials and neurotransmitter release.

In the context of pain perception, ASICs are activated by the acidic environment in damaged tissues or ischemic conditions, contributing to the sensation of pain. In addition, some ASIC subunits have been implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory processes. Dysregulation of ASIC function has been associated with various pathological conditions, including neuropathic pain, ischemia, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine, which is a type of amino acid, into glutamate and ammonia. This reaction is an essential part of nitrogen metabolism in many organisms, including humans. There are several forms of glutaminase found in different parts of the body, with varying properties and functions.

In humans, there are two major types of glutaminase: mitochondrial and cytosolic. Mitochondrial glutaminase is primarily found in the kidneys and brain, where it plays a crucial role in energy metabolism by converting glutamine into glutamate, which can then be further metabolized to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a major source of cellular energy.

Cytosolic glutaminase, on the other hand, is found in many tissues throughout the body and is involved in various metabolic processes, including nucleotide synthesis and protein degradation.

Glutaminase activity has been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, where some tumors have been shown to have elevated levels of glutaminase expression, allowing them to use glutamine as a major source of energy and growth. Inhibitors of glutaminase are currently being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a chemical compound with the formula CCl2CO2H. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a reagent in organic synthesis and as a laboratory research tool. DCA is also a byproduct of water chlorination and has been found to occur in low levels in some chlorinated drinking waters.

In the medical field, DCA has been studied for its potential anticancer effects. Preclinical studies have suggested that DCA may be able to selectively kill cancer cells by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes involved in cell metabolism. However, more research is needed to determine whether DCA is safe and effective as a cancer treatment in humans.

It is important to note that DCA is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a cancer treatment. It should only be used in clinical trials or under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Nephrocalcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium salts in the renal parenchyma, specifically within the tubular epithelial cells and interstitium of the kidneys. This process can lead to chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and ultimately impaired renal function if left untreated.

The condition is often associated with metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism, distal renal tubular acidosis, or hyperoxaluria; medications like loop diuretics, corticosteroids, or calcineurin inhibitors; and chronic kidney diseases. The diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis is typically made through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or X-ray. Treatment usually involves addressing the underlying cause, modifying dietary habits, and administering medications to control calcium levels in the body.

The rumen is the largest compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. It is a specialized fermentation chamber where microbes break down tough plant material into nutrients that the animal can absorb and use for energy and growth. The rumen contains billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which help to break down cellulose and other complex carbohydrates in the plant material through fermentation.

The rumen is characterized by its large size, muscular walls, and the presence of a thick mat of partially digested food and microbes called the rumen mat or cud. The animal regurgitates the rumen contents periodically to chew it again, which helps to break down the plant material further and mix it with saliva, creating a more favorable environment for fermentation.

The rumen plays an essential role in the digestion and nutrition of ruminant animals, allowing them to thrive on a diet of low-quality plant material that would be difficult for other animals to digest.

"Plasmodium berghei" is a species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which are the causative agents of malaria. This particular species primarily infects rodents and is not known to naturally infect humans. However, it is widely used in laboratory settings as a model organism to study malaria and develop potential interventions, such as drugs and vaccines, due to its similarities with human-infecting Plasmodium species.

The life cycle of P. berghei involves two hosts: an Anopheles mosquito vector and a rodent host. The parasite undergoes asexual reproduction in the red blood cells of the rodent host, leading to the symptoms of malaria, such as fever, anemia, and organ damage. When an infected mosquito bites another rodent, the parasites are transmitted through the saliva and infect the new host, continuing the life cycle.

While P. berghei is not a direct threat to human health, studying this species has contributed significantly to our understanding of malaria biology and the development of potential interventions against this devastating disease.

Malaria is not a medical definition itself, but it is a disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Here's a simple definition:

Malaria: A mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, characterized by cycles of fever, chills, and anemia. It can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. The five Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi.

The American Hospital Association (AHA) is a national organization that represents and serves hospitals, healthcare networks, and their patients and communities. The AHA advocates for hospital and health system issues at the federal level, provides information and education resources to its members, and collaborates with other organizations to improve the overall state of healthcare in the United States.

The mission of the AHA is to advance the health of individuals and communities by providing leadership and advocacy that promotes the best practices and policies for hospitals and health systems. The organization works to ensure that hospitals have the resources they need to provide high-quality care, and it seeks to address the challenges facing the healthcare industry, such as rising costs, access to care, and health disparities.

The AHA is made up of a diverse group of members, including community hospitals, academic medical centers, children's hospitals, and long-term care facilities. The organization provides a range of services to its members, including policy analysis, advocacy, education, and research. It also offers various publications, conferences, and networking opportunities to help members stay informed and connected.

Overall, the American Hospital Association plays an important role in shaping healthcare policies and practices in the United States, working to ensure that hospitals have the resources they need to provide high-quality care to their patients and communities.

Click chemistry is a term used to describe a group of chemical reactions that are fast, high-yielding, and highly selective. These reactions typically involve the formation of covalent bonds between two molecules in a simple and efficient manner, often through the use of a catalyst. The concept of click chemistry was first introduced by K. B. Sharpless, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2001 for his work on chiral catalysis.

In the context of medical research and drug development, click chemistry has emerged as a valuable tool for rapidly synthesizing and optimizing small molecule compounds with therapeutic potential. By using click chemistry reactions to quickly and efficiently link different chemical building blocks together, researchers can rapidly generate large libraries of potential drug candidates and then screen them for biological activity. This approach has been used to discover new drugs for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders.

One common type of click chemistry reaction is the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, which involves the reaction between an azide and an alkyne to form a triazole ring. This reaction is highly selective and can be carried out under mild conditions, making it a popular choice for chemical synthesis in the life sciences. Other types of click chemistry reactions include the Diels-Alder cycloaddition, the thiol-ene reaction, and the Staudinger ligation.

Overall, click chemistry has had a significant impact on medical research and drug development by enabling the rapid and efficient synthesis of complex small molecule compounds with therapeutic potential. Its versatility and selectivity make it a powerful tool for researchers seeking to discover new drugs and better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease.

"Phenformin-Induced Lactic Acidosis in an Older Diabetic Patient: A recurrent drama (phenformin and lactic acidosis)". Diabetes ... L isomers as acidosis progresses. Measures for preventing lactic acidosis in ruminants include avoidance of excessive amounts ... the cause of clinically serious lactic acidosis is different from the causes described above. In domesticated ruminants, lactic ... The mortality of lactic acidosis in people taking metformin was previously reported to be 50%, but in more recent reports this ...
... can be caused by mutations on the X chromosome or in mitochondrial DNA. Congenital lactic acidosis ... Congenital lactic acidosis is a rare disease caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that affect the ability of cells ... Though lactic acidosis can be a complication of other congenital diseases, when it occurs in isolation it is typically caused ... "Congenital Lactic Acidosis". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2015-11-05. (Orphaned articles from ...
Lactic acidosis". Am J Med. 30 (6): 840-848. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(61)90172-3. PMID 13716482. Baron, D. N. (January 1977). " ... The main theme is type B, lactic acidosis of other origins, which is considered fully with an analysis of all published causes ... Williams, Roger (1976). "Review of Clinical and Biochemical Aspects of Lactic Acidosis by R. D. Cohen and H. F. Woods". Br Med ... Cohen and H. Frank Woods introduced in 1976 what is now called the Cohen-Woods classification of the causes of lactic acidosis ...
Kraut JA, Madias NE (December 2014). "Lactic acidosis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (24): 2309-2319. doi:10.1056/ ... It may also be used to treat metabolic acidosis and to wash the eye following a chemical burn. It is given by intravenous ... Ringer's lactate solution has a lower rate of acidosis as compared with normal saline. Use is generally safe in pregnancy and ... The lactate is metabolized into bicarbonate by the liver, which can help correct metabolic acidosis. Ringer's lactate solution ...
result in severe metabolic derangements (e.g., hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, lactic acidosis, and the acute tumor lysis syndrome ... Lactic acidosis. Pretreatment spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome. This entity is associated with acute kidney failure due to uric ...
Haller, R.G (1989). "Exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis, and abnormal cardiopulmonary regulation in exercise associated with ... muscle fatigue and lactic acidosis. Riboflavin-responsive exercise intolerance caused by mutations of the SLC25A32 gene ... Since lactic acid stimulates respiration, after rehabilitative training exercising, ventilation is lower, respiration is slowed ... High intensity rehabilitative exercise training Increasing the fitness of muscles decreases the amount of lactic acid released ...
CPT2 Myopathy with lactic acidosis, hereditary; 255125; ISCU Myopathy, actin, congenital, with excess of thin myofilaments; ... MCM6 Lactic acidosis, fatal infantile; 245400; SUCLG1 Lacticacidemia due to PDX1 deficiency; 245349; PDX1 LADD syndrome; 149730 ... SLC5A2 Renal tubular acidosis with deafness; 267300; ATP6B1 Renal tubular acidosis, distal, AD; 179800; SLC4A1 Renal tubular ... SLC4A1 Renal tubular acidosis, distal, autosomal recessive; 602722; ATP6V0A4 Renal tubular acidosis, proximal, with ocular ...
Lactic acidosis associated with the use of stavudine (Zerit, for HIV therapy) or metformin (for diabetes) Mania caused by ... "Metformin and Fatal Lactic Acidosis". Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013. Patten SB, Neutel ... Mokrzycki MH, Harris C, May H, Laut J, Palmisano J (January 2000). "Lactic acidosis associated with stavudine administration: a ...
"The myth of lactic acidosis". "Metformin toxicity". Smith AD, Datta SP, Smith GH, Campbell PN, Bentley R, eds. (1997). Oxford ... The cycle's importance is based on preventing lactic acidosis during anaerobic conditions in the muscle. However, normally, ... The drug metformin can cause lactic acidosis in patients with kidney failure because metformin inhibits the hepatic ... February 2014). "Metformin accumulation: lactic acidosis and high plasmatic metformin levels in a retrospective case series of ...
Boyd JH, Walley KR (August 2008). "Is there a role for sodium bicarbonate in treating lactic acidosis from shock?". Current ... The accumulating lactate causes lactic acidosis. The Compensatory stage (Stage 2) is characterised by the body employing ... lactic acidosis, oliguria, or an acute alteration in mental status. Patients who are receiving inotropic or vasopressor agents ... As a result of the acidosis, the person will begin to hyperventilate in order to rid the body of carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 ...
... a form of metabolic acidosis. Lactic acidosis during exercise may occur due to the H+ from ATP hydrolysis (ATP4− + H2O → ADP3 ... lactic acid, or (−)-lactic acid. A mixture of the two in equal amounts is called DL-lactic acid, or racemic lactic acid. Lactic ... Lactic acid is chiral, consisting of two enantiomers. One is known as L-lactic acid, (S)-lactic acid, or (+)-lactic acid, and ... D-Lactic acid and L-lactic acid have a higher melting point. Lactic acid produced by fermentation of milk is often racemic, ...
The most common causes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis are: ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, kidney failure, and toxic ... Lactic acidosis E - Ethylene glycol (Note: Ethanol is sometimes included in this mnemonic as well, although the acidosis caused ... Lactic acidosis results from excess formation and decreased metabolism of lactate, which occurs during states of anaerobic ... Toxins that result in acidic metabolites may trigger lactic acidosis. Rhabdomyolysis, a muscle-wasting disease, is a rare cause ...
... subsequently develops ischemic colitis and lactic acidosis. Multiple dysfunction syndrome is the presence of altered organ ...
Lactic acidosis almost never occurs with metformin exposure during routine medical care. Rates of metformin-associated lactic ... The most serious potential adverse effect of metformin is lactic acidosis; this complication is rare, and seems to be related ... A systematic review concluded no data exists to definitively link metformin to lactic acidosis. Metformin is generally safe in ... The clinical significance of this is unknown, though, and the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is most commonly ...
Alshayeb, Hala; Showkat, Arif; Wall, Barry M. (December 2010). "Lactic acidosis in restrained cocaine intoxicated patients". ... Hick, J. L.; Smith, S. W.; Lynch, M. T. (March 1999). "Metabolic acidosis in restraint-associated cardiac arrest: a case series ... correcting acidosis in the blood of the victim, which proved effective in their small scale study. A 2010 article in the ...
Lactic acid and uric acid levels may be normal. However, lactic acidosis may occur during fasting. Because symptoms of GSD6 are ...
Lactic acid enters the blood stream, causing acidification in a condition known as lactic acidosis.[citation needed] The most ... patients usually show severe hyperventillation due to profound metabolic acidosis mostly related to lactic acidosis. Metabolic ... Resolution of lactic acidosis is observed in patients with E1 alpha enzyme subunit mutations that reduce enzyme stability. ... It is expected that most cases will be of mild severity and have a clinical presentation involving lactic acidosis. Male ...
Its primary clinical finding is lactic acidosis. Such PCDC mutations, leading to subsequent deficiencies in NAD and FAD ... Gupta, N.; Rutledge, C. (2019). "Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency: An Unusual Cause of Recurrent Lactic Acidosis in a ...
However, the use in lactic acidosis is contraindicated. Sodium lactate may induce panic attacks in persons with existing panic ... and potassium lactate are salts derived from the neutralization of lactic acid and most commercially used lactic acids are ... Such dairy-type lactic acid generally goes back into dairy products, such as ice cream and cream cheese, rather than into non- ... Moreover, although the lactic-acid starter culture to ferment corn or beets may contain milk, sodium lactate does not contain ...
... lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), Juvenile myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke. Mutations in ... Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a condition that affects many of the ... "Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes". Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of ... Common clinical manifestations include myopathy, hypotonia, and encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and hypertrophic ...
In one report, the toxic oral dose was 329 ± 30 mg/day in 24 patients who developed lactic acidosis on buformin. Another group ... Buformin was withdrawn from the market in many countries due to an elevated risk of causing lactic acidosis (although not the ... Verdonck LF, Sangster B, van Heijst AN, de Groot G, Maes RA (1981). "Buformin concentrations in a case of fatal lactic acidosis ... Berger W, Mehnert-Aner S, Mülly K, Heierli C, Ritz R (December 1976). "[10 cases of lactic acidosis during biguanide therapy ( ...
Recovery from profound lactic acidosis, hyperthermia, and rhabdomyolysis". The American Journal of Medicine. 74 (3): 507-512. ... metabolic acidosis, and respiratory acidosis. During seizures, mydriasis (abnormal dilation), exophthalmos (protrusion of the ...
... the presence or absence of lactic acidosis; (4) any associated hyperketosis or hypoketosis; and (5) any associated liver ... Serum electrolytes calculate the anion gap to determine presence of metabolic acidosis; typically, patients with glycogen- ... storage disease type 0 (GSD-0) have an anion gap in the reference range and no acidosis. See the Anion Gap calculator. Serum ... with hyperglycemia and lactic acidemia. Serum glucose levels are measured to document the degree of hypoglycemia. ...
... causes lactic acidosis and hyperammonaemia. Lactic acidosis may then lead to liver failure, ... Characteristic features include developmental delay and a buildup of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis). Increased ... In some cases, episodes of lactic acidosis are triggered by an illness or periods without food. Children with pyruvate ... Affected infants have severe lactic acidosis, a build-up of ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia), and liver failure. They ...
Convulsions lead to lactic acidosis, hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis. These are followed by postictal depression. Death comes ...
This propagates tissue ischemia and worsens lactic acidosis. If not corrected, there will be worsening hemodynamic compromise ... Cells switch from aerobic metabolism to anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactic acidosis. As sympathetic drive increases, ... Tachypnoea owing to hypoxia and acidosis, general weakness caused by hypoxia and acidosis, thirst induced by hypovolaemia, and ... this also leads to other tissues being further deprived of oxygen causing more lactic acid production and worsening acidosis. ...
Lactic acidosis usually causes a ratio of 1.6. Result 2: if the delta ratio is somewhere between low (. ... metabolic acidosis) is present. The anion gap (AG) without potassium is calculated first and if a metabolic acidosis is present ... results in either a high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) or a normal anion gap acidosis (NAGMA). A low anion gap is ... This means a combined high anion gap metabolic acidosis and a pre-existing either respiratory acidosis or metabolic alkalosis ( ...
An increase in the production of other acids may also produce metabolic acidosis. For example, lactic acidosis may occur from: ... Metabolic acidosis may result from either increased production of metabolic acids, such as lactic acid, or disturbances in the ... Nervous system involvement may be seen with acidosis and occurs more often with respiratory acidosis than with metabolic ... such as either renal tubular acidosis or the acidosis of kidney failure, which is associated with an accumulation of urea and ...
Symptoms include lactic acidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and neonatal hypotonia; afflicted patients die within the first ... a fatal disorder of oxidative phosphorylation symptomized by lactic acidosis, neonatal hypotonia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ...
Williams, Roger (25 September 1976). "Review of Clinical and Biochemical Aspects of Lactic Acidosis by R. D. Cohen and H. F. ... Baron, D. N. (January 1977). "Review of Clinical and Biochemical Aspects of Lactic Acidosis". J Clin Pathol. 30 (1): 92. doi: ...
"Phenformin-Induced Lactic Acidosis in an Older Diabetic Patient: A recurrent drama (phenformin and lactic acidosis)". Diabetes ... L isomers as acidosis progresses. Measures for preventing lactic acidosis in ruminants include avoidance of excessive amounts ... the cause of clinically serious lactic acidosis is different from the causes described above. In domesticated ruminants, lactic ... The mortality of lactic acidosis in people taking metformin was previously reported to be 50%, but in more recent reports this ...
Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels become low in cells within the areas of the body where metabolism takes place or in ... Lactic acidosis refers to lactic acid build up in the bloodstream. ... Lactic acidosis refers to lactic acid build up in the bloodstream. Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels become low in ... The most common cause of lactic acidosis is severe medical illness in which blood pressure is low and too little oxygen is ...
... lactic acid is the normal endpoint of the anaerobic breakdown of glucose in the tissues. The lactate exits the cells and is ... Lactic acidosis in disease. Lactic acidosis occurring from associated, underlying diseases, known as type B1 lactic acidosis, ... Medicines and toxins in lactic acidosis. Medicinal and toxic causes of lactic acidosis, specifically, type B2 lactic acidosis, ... Types of lactic acidosis. Cohen and Woods divided lactic acidosis into 2 categories, type A and type B. [5, 7] ...
Learn more from WebMD about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for lactic acidosis. ... Lactic acidosis occurs when lactic acid accumulates in the bloodstream. ... drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS can cause lactic acidosis. If you are on any of these medications and have any symptoms of lactic ... Lactic Acidosis and Exercise: What You Need to Know. Medically Reviewed by Carol DerSarkissian, MD. on January 17, 2022 ...
Lactic acidosis is a medical condition driven by heightened lactic acid levels in the bloodstream. The primary causes are ... What is lactic acidosis?. Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by high levels of lactic acid in the bloodstream ... Causes and risk factors for lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is caused by elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood due to ... Lactic Acidosis. * Frontiers in Medicine. Incidence and Associated Risk Factors for Lactic Acidosis Induced by Linezolid ...
... Pediatr Neurosci. 1989;15(1):28-35. doi: 10.1159/000120437. ...
... typically occurs when lactic acid production exceeds clearance, often in the setting of impaired tissue ... Lactic acidosis Print Images (3) Contributors: Amirah Khan MD, Christine Osborne MD, Paritosh Prasad MD. Other Resources ... including D-lactic acid. Because of slow metabolism of D-lactic acid, systemic absorption leads to elevated plasma D-lactic ... The diagnosis of lactic acidosis is made when the serum lactate level is , 4 mmol/L. It is the most common cause of metabolic ...
... Arch Neurol ... lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes in muscle and blood. Main outcome measure: Correlation between clinical, pathologic, ...
... lactic acidosis in such patients17 and significantly improves survival in a rodent model of malaria associated lactic acidosis. ... 1988) Fatal lactic acidosis due to deficiency of E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J Inherit Metab Dis 11:207 ... 1992) A controlled trial of dichloroacetate treatment in patients with lactic acidosis. N Engl J Med 327:1564-1569. and the DCA ... 1981) Lactic acidosis due to pyruvate carboxylase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis 4:57-58. ...
... hypercapnic acidosis -0.53±0.07; hydrochloric acidosis -0.65±0.06; lactic acidosis -0.27±0.05. These findings in human plasma ... hypercapnic acidosis -0.53±0.07; hydrochloric acidosis -0.65±0.06; lactic acidosis -0.27±0.05. These findings in human plasma ... Schaer, H; Bachmann, U (1974). Ionized calcium in acidosis: differential effect of hypercapnic and lactic acidosis. British ... It is concluded that differences in the behaviour of ionized calcium between hypercapnic and lactic acidosis might contribute ...
Plasmodium berghei Infection: Dichloroacetate Improves Survival in Rats with Lactic Acidosis Holloway PA., Knox K., Bajaj N., ... Identifying prognostic factors of severe metabolic acidosis and uraemia in African children with severe falciparum malaria ...
Lactic acidosis answers are found in the Diagnosaurus powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web ... https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114268/all/Lactic_acidosis. Zeiger RFR. Lactic Acidosis [ ... Zeiger, Roni F.. "Lactic Acidosis." Diagnosaurus, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. Emergency Central, emergency. ... unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114268/all/Lactic_acidosis. Zeiger RFR. Lactic acidosis. Diagnosaurus. McGraw- ...
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Amrein, K., Ribitsch, W., Otto, R. et al. Severe lactic acidosis reversed by thiamine within 24 hours. Crit Care 15, 457 (2011 ... Severe lactic acidosis reversed by thiamine within 24 hours. *Karin Amrein. 1, ... We report the case of a 56-year-old man with profound lactic acidosis that resolved rapidly after thiamine infusion. He was ... Thiamine deficiency is an underdiagnosed cause of lactic acidosis, although treatment is safe, inexpensive, and readily ...
Tag Archives: Albuterol-Induced Lactic Acidosis. Albuterol-Induced Lactic Acidosis: A Case Report ... Category: Clinical Vignette Proceedings of UCLA Healthcare Volume 16 (2012) Tags: Albuterol-Induced Lactic Acidosis, Berman, ...
... -idiopathic -tissue hypoxia such as septic shock, hemorrhagic shock, cardiogenic ... Differential diagnosis of lactic acidosis -idiopathic -tissue hypoxia such as septic shock, hemorrhagic shock, cardiogenic ...
lactic Acidosis In The Postictal State].. 1. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2015;159:A9068. [Lactic acidosis in the postictal state]. ... Lactic Acidosis - Cancer Therapy Advisor. Hyperlactatemia, anion gap metabolic acidosis, strong ion gap metabolic acidosis ... whereas lactic acidosis is generally defined as a serum lactate concentration above 4 mmol/L. Lactic acidosis is the most ... Lactic acidosis occurs when lactic acid production exceeds lactic acid clearance. The increase in lactate production is usually ...
Find helpful nutritional deficiency lactic acidosis information with videos from the NHCAA. We help you identify the cause of ...
Lactic Acidosis: What You Need To Know. Lactic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis that begins in the kidneys. People with ... Lactic Acidosis: Symptoms, Causes, And Treatment. Lactic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much lactic acid and cannot ... Most forms of lactic acidosis are caused by too much L-lactate. Lactic acidosis has many causes and can often be treated. But ... Lactic Acidosis. Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the ...
In the acute state, respiratory compensation of acidosis occurs by hyperventilation resulting in a relative reduction in PaCO2. ... Metabolic acidosis is defined as a state of decreased systemic pH resulting from either a primary increase in hydrogen ion (H+ ... encoded search term (Acute Lactic Acidosis) and Acute Lactic Acidosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Lactic acidosis, identified by a state of acidosis and an elevated plasma lactate concentration is one type of anion gap ...
Phenylbutyrate also prevented lactic acidosis in mice in which the condition had been induced by removal of part of the liver. ... The treatment may have wider applications, because lactic acidosis is a secondary effect of other pathologies. "Therefore, ... However, clinical trials are necessary to demonstrate whether repurposing of phenylbutyrate can treat lactic acidosis in ... Cite this: Phenylbutyrate May Be Repurposed to Treat Lactic Acidosis - Medscape - Mar 06, 2013. ...
Learn about the potential effects of stopping metformin on lactic acidosis, a rare but serious side effect of this medication. ... What is lactic acidosis?. Lactic acidosis is a condition in which there is a buildup of lactic acid in the bloodstream. It can ... What is lactic acidosis?. Lactic acidosis is a condition characterized by the buildup of lactic acid in the blood. It occurs ... What is Lactic Acidosis?. Lactic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much lactic acid or cannot effectively remove it ...
Ketoacidosis and Lactic Acidosis are two distinct metabolic acidosis conditions. Ketoacidosis usually occurs in those who ... Lactic Acidosis:. *The condition is known as lactic acidosis. Its characterized by a rise in the levels of lactic acid in the ... What is Lactic Acidosis?. Lactic Acidosis can be described as a health disorder characterized by the build-up of lactic acid ... Lactic Acidosis vs. Other Causes:. * Finding the root cause of lactic acidosis (Type A or Type B) requires a thorough ...
Mechanisms responsible for lactic acidosis in sepsis. *Endogenous catecholamine release and use of catecholamine inotropes ...
What is lactic acidosis and can it happen to me? Lactic acidosis is caused by a buildup of lactic acid in the blood. Lactic ... Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting. In a patient with lactic acidosis who is ... The risk of lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patients age. The risk of lactic acidosis ... Lactic Acidosis. Lactic acidosis is a rare, but serious, metabolic complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation ...
Lactic Acidosis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... D-Lactic acidosis D-Lactic acidosis is an unusual form of lactic acidosis in which excess D-lactic acid is produced. D-lactic ... Type A lactic acidosis Type A lactic acidosis, the most serious form, occurs when lactic acid is overproduced in ischemic ... Lactic acidosis is a high anion gap metabolic acidosis Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic acidosis is primary reduction in ...
Metformin may rarely cause a serious, life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis. ... What is Lactic acidosis4 ?. Lactic acidosis is when lactic acid builds up in the bloodstream faster than it can be removed. ... Metformin and Iodinated Contrast: Lactic Acidosis Warning. Have you wondered about the liquid given before a CT scan1 or X-ray ... The most common cause of lactic acidosis is intense exercise. However, it can also be caused by certain diseases, such as:. * ...
... but serious side effect called lactic acidosis (a buildup of lactic acid in the blood) that can cause death. Lactic acidosis is ... Lactic Acidosis: Explain the risks of lactic acidosis, its symptoms, and conditions that predispose to its development. Advise ... 5.1 Lactic Acidosis. There have been postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These ... WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS. Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, ...
Lactic acidosis is a condition associated with lowering of pH of blood and body tissues caused due to accumulation of D-lactate ... Metformin And Lactic Acidosis. Experts suggest that lactic acidosis may be associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, which is ... Heavy metal toxicity can also lead to lactic acidosis. Some suggest that lactic acidosis can also result from the deficiency of ... Lactic acidosis is a condition which is associated with lowering of pH of blood and body tissues (i.e. acidosis), which is ...
Too much lactic acid in your blood (lactic acidosis). Lactic acidosis is a serious medical emergency that can lead to death. ... Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis. Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal ... Lactic Acidosis/Hepatomegaly With Steatosis. Advise patients that lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis have ... Lactic Acidosis And Severe Hepatomegaly With Steatosis. Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal ...
  • It is a form of metabolic acidosis, in which excessive acid accumulates due to a problem with the body's oxidative metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms in humans include all those of typical metabolic acidosis (nausea, vomiting, generalized muscle weakness, and laboured and deep breathing). (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic acidosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With a persistent oxygen debt and overwhelming of the body's buffering abilities (whether from long-term dysfunction or excessive production), hyperlacticaemia and metabolic acidosis ensue, commonly referred to as lactic acidosis. (medscape.com)
  • By the turn of the 20th century, many physicians recognized that patients who are critically ill could exhibit metabolic acidosis unaccompanied by elevation of ketones or other measurable anions. (medscape.com)
  • Lactic acidosis, on the other hand, is associated with major metabolic dysregulation, tissue hypoperfusion, the effects of certain drugs or toxins, and congenital abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • It also occurs as a result on markedly increased transient metabolic demand (eg, postseizure lactic acidosis). (medscape.com)
  • 4 mmol/L. It is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis and can be associated with an anion gap metabolic acidosis or mixed acid-base disorder. (logicalimages.com)
  • Because of slow metabolism of D-lactic acid, systemic absorption leads to elevated plasma D-lactic acid levels and metabolic acidosis. (logicalimages.com)
  • Patients present with episodic metabolic acidosis as well as altered mental status, ataxia, loss of memory, or slurred speech. (logicalimages.com)
  • and repeat ABG after 2 hr. to see if acidosis resolved This patient has an acidic pH with a decrease in his bicarbonate concentration suggestive of metabolic acidosis. (diabetestalk.net)
  • A post-seizure increased anion gap metabolic acidosis is suggestive of lactic acidosis. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Metabolic acidosis is defined as a state of decreased systemic pH resulting from either a primary increase in hydrogen ion (H + ) or a reduction in bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) concentrations. (medscape.com)
  • The underlying etiology of metabolic acidosis is classically categorized into those that cause an elevated anion gap (AG) (see the Anion Gap calculator) and those that do not. (medscape.com)
  • Lactic acidosis, identified by a state of acidosis and an elevated plasma lactate concentration is one type of anion gap metabolic acidosis and may result from numerous conditions. (medscape.com)
  • Ketoacidosis and Lactic Acidosis are two distinct metabolic acidosis conditions. (keydifference.info)
  • Yes, ketoacidosis, as well as lactic acidosis, are two distinct medical conditions, even though they both cause metabolic acidosis as well as an unnatural change in blood pH. (keydifference.info)
  • This condition is distinct from metabolic acidosis, which affects individuals with diabetes. (simple-remedies.com)
  • Her initial laboratory examination revealed severe kidney injury with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 67.5 mg/dL and creatinine of 10.17 mg/dL and she had metabolic acidosis with a high lactate level: pH 6.618, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO 2 ) 17.3 mmHg, bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) 1.7 mmol/L, and lactate 18 mmol/L (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nonspecific laboratory findings include metabolic and lactic acidosis (1-2). (cdc.gov)
  • The older related and now withdrawn drug phenformin carried a much higher risk of lactic acidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metformin is known to increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in individuals with kidney or liver problems. (thesitesale.com)
  • These data indicate that the risk of lactic acidosis with Imeglimin treatment may be lower than with Metformin and confirm that the underlying mechanisms of action are distinct, supporting its potential utility for patients with predisposing conditions. (hal.science)
  • In rare chronic forms of lactic acidosis caused by mitochondrial disease, a specific diet or dichloroacetate may be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactic acidosis typically occurs when lactic acid production exceeds clearance, often in the setting of impaired tissue oxygenation and defective mitochondrial oxygenation. (logicalimages.com)
  • To study and describe a large family with the tRNA Leu(UUR) point mutation at position 3243 in mitochondrial DNA, which is associated with the syndrome of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical evaluation, muscle biopsy, and mitochondrial DNA point mutation quantitation of the syndrome of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes in muscle and blood. (nih.gov)
  • The term congenital lactic acidosis (CLA) refers to a group of inborn errors of mitochondrial metabolism variably characterised by progressive neuromuscular deterioration and accumulation of lactate and hydrogen ions in blood, urine and/or cerebrospinal fluid, frequently resulting in early death. (bmj.com)
  • A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that mitochondrial neurodevelopmental disorder with abnormal movements and lactic acidosis and with or without seizures (NEMMLAS) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the WARS2 gene ( 604733 ) on chromosome 1p12. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Other causes of lactic acidosis are rare congenital disorders where mitochondrial don't function adequately. (simple-remedies.com)
  • Clinicians believe that mitochondrial toxicity caused by the long term use of the drug can trigger lactic acidosis. (simple-remedies.com)
  • This has been associated with several long-term mitochondrial toxicities, which include lactic acidosis and pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy, and lipoatrophy. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Long-term ketogenic diet therapy improves mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS): A case report. (bvsalud.org)
  • mitochondrial encephalopathy , lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), a rare form of dementia . (medicinenet.com)
  • If you are on any of these medications and have any symptoms of lactic acidosis, get medical help immediately. (webmd.com)
  • If you start to feel the symptoms of lactic acidosis while exercising, begin warming down right away. (webmd.com)
  • If you feel burning and other symptoms of lactic acidosis while exercising, this is your body's way of saying stop. (webmd.com)
  • The symptoms of lactic acidosis can vary, but may include weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, and abdominal pain. (thesitesale.com)
  • Symptoms and signs of lactic acidosis are dominated by those of the underlying disorder (eg, shock in Type A, toxin ingestion in Type B). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Neurologic symptoms, including confusion, ataxia, and slurred speech, occur after a high-carbohydrate ingestion and are characteristic of D-lactic acidosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Mold can cause SEVERE symptoms and lactic acid acidosis. (huzzaz.com)
  • Congenital lactic acidosis is secondary to inborn errors of metabolism, such as defects in gluconeogenesis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, or the respiratory chain. (medscape.com)
  • Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including stavudine and other antiretrovirals. (wikidoc.org)
  • When the kidneys are unable to remove metformin from the body efficiently, it can accumulate and lead to lactic acidosis. (thesitesale.com)
  • However, in some cases, metformin can lead to lactic acidosis, especially if the drug is not properly monitored or if there are underlying health issues. (thesitesale.com)
  • Heavy metal toxicity can also lead to lactic acidosis. (simple-remedies.com)
  • The most common cause of lactic acidosis is severe medical illness in which blood pressure is low and too little oxygen is reaching the body's tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thiamine deficiency is an underdiagnosed cause of lactic acidosis, although treatment is safe, inexpensive, and readily available. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since metformin is the underlying cause of lactic acidosis in these cases, discontinuing the medication is necessary to prevent further accumulation of lactic acid. (thesitesale.com)
  • Lactic acidosis is caused by elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood due to several factors used to characterize the two types of lactic acidosis: type A and type B. Lactic acidosis type A is a common type resulting from an inadequate supply of oxygen to the blood tissue. (healthnews.com)
  • Metformin and Lactic Acidosis: Can Stopping the Medication Reverse the Condition? (thesitesale.com)
  • It is essential to understand the relationship between metformin and lactic acidosis to determine whether stopping the medication can reverse the condition. (thesitesale.com)
  • The development of lactic acidosis depends on the magnitude of hyperlactatemia, the buffering capacity of the body, and the coexistence of other conditions that produce tachypnea and alkalosis (eg, liver disease, sepsis). (medscape.com)
  • Although comorbidities such as liver, kidney, and heart diseases are strongly associated with lactic acidosis, trauma or adverse reaction to medication can also contribute to the development of lactic acidosis. (healthnews.com)
  • Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a rare but important etiology of lactic acidosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, having lactic acidosis due to sepsis means the doctor will take a targeted approach to managing sepsis. (healthnews.com)
  • Type A lactic acidosis - Associated with tissue hypoperfusion caused by circulatory failure from shock, which can be due to many things including sepsis, heart failure, hypovolemia, neurologic compromise, or respiratory failure. (logicalimages.com)
  • Incremento de la concentración sanguínea de LACTATO asociada frecuentemente a CHOQUE SÉPTICO, LESIONES PULMONARES, SEPSIS Y TOXICIDAD MEDICAMENTOSA, Cuando la hiperlactatemia se asocia a pH bajo se denomina ACIDOSIS LÁCTICA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Those diagnosed with lactic acidosis had a mean BMI of 32.38 (interquartile range [IQR] = 29.4 to 35) at the time of toxicity and had been receiving HAART for a mean of 12.1 months (IQR = 7 to 20.8). (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Lactic acidosis is typically the result of an underlying acute or chronic medical condition, medication, or poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Go to Acute Lactic Acidosis for complete information on this topic. (medscape.com)
  • If it does not resolve, then look for other potential Choice A, B and C: Use of bicarbonate in the treatment of lactic acidosis is very controversial and is recommended only in severe acute acidosis with pH (diabetestalk.net)
  • In the acute state, respiratory compensation of acidosis occurs by hyperventilation resulting in a relative reduction in PaCO 2 . (medscape.com)
  • People who have uncontrolled diabetes, or liver, kidney, or heart diseases are at a higher risk of developing lactic acidosis than those without these comorbidities. (healthnews.com)
  • Lactic acidosis can occur due to the liver and kidneys' inability to filter lactic acid from the blood and break it down into glucose, the body's main energy source. (healthnews.com)
  • Also, lactic acid filtered by the kidneys and liver is converted into glucose, the body's energy source. (healthnews.com)
  • The liver then processes and converts lactic acid into a substance called lactate, which is then cleared from the body. (thesitesale.com)
  • Phenylbutyrate also prevented lactic acidosis in mice in which the condition had been induced by removal of part of the liver. (medscape.com)
  • The drug may also be helpful to alleviate lactate acidosis in nongenetic conditions, such as asphyxia , liver disease, and ischemia. (medscape.com)
  • A third type, D-lactic acidosis (D-lactate encephalopathy) is an unusual form of lactic acidosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Arg82*) in COX16 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, encephalopathy and severe fatal lactic acidosis, and isolated complex IV deficiency. (amsterdamumc.org)
  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dichloroacetate in children with lactic acidosis due to severe malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • She was found to be hypotensive and laboratory examinations revealed severe lactic acidosis: pH 6.618, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood 17.3 mmHg, bicarbonate 1.7 mmol/L, and lactate 18 mmol/L. Severe acidemia persisted despite supportive care including intravenously administered fluids, sodium bicarbonate, antibiotics, and vasopressors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dialysis may also be useful when severe lactic acidosis exists in the setting of renal failure or congestive heart failure and, additionally, with severe metformin intoxication. (medscape.com)
  • Metformin is a widely used biguanide T2D therapy, associated with rare but serious events of lactic acidosis, in particular with predisposing conditions (e.g., renal failure or major surgery). (hal.science)
  • Thus, hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis may be associated with acidemia, a normal pH, or alkalemia. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, 2.0% of patients developed moderate to severe symptomatic hyperlactatemia, with 7 (1.0%), all female, diagnosed with lactic acidosis. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Female gender (P = 0.008) and being overweight, namely having a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 25 (P = 0.001), were predictive for the development of moderate to severe symptomatic hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Risk factors for the development of moderate to severe symptomatic hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis appear to be multifactorial but include female gender and having a BMI of greater than 25. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • When hyperlactatemia is associated with low body pH (acidosis) it is LACTIC ACIDOSIS. (bvsalud.org)
  • In 1925, Clausen identified the accumulation of lactic acid in blood as a cause of acid-base disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Lactic acidosis is a condition which is associated with lowering of pH of blood and body tissues (i.e. acidosis), which is caused due to accumulation of D-lactate. (simple-remedies.com)
  • In a dog model of major surgery, Metformin or Imeglimin (30-1000 mg/kg) was acutely administered, only Metformin-induced lactate accumulation and pH decrease leading to lactic acidosis with fatality at the highest dose. (hal.science)
  • Recent studies noted a correlation between metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Is ketoacidosis different from lactic acidosis? (keydifference.info)
  • Experts suggest that lactic acidosis may be associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, which is associated with use of some forms of anti-diabetic drugs like phenformin. (simple-remedies.com)
  • Signs of lactic acidosis could consist of muscle weakness fast breathing, abdominal pain nausea, as well as an altered state of mind. (keydifference.info)
  • The diagnosis is made on biochemical analysis of blood (often initially on arterial blood gas samples), and once confirmed, generally prompts an investigation to establish the underlying cause to treat the acidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present case had one of the highest metformin concentrations in metformin-associated lactic acidosis successfully treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, and serum metformin concentrations may be useful for the diagnosis of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by a build-up of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, with formation of an excessively low pH in the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactic acidosis refers to lactic acid build up in the bloodstream. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But this lactate or lactic acid can build up in your bloodstream faster than you can burn it off. (webmd.com)
  • It is characterized by excessive amounts of lactic acid in the bloodstream due to oxygen deprivation. (healthnews.com)
  • Lactic acidosis is a medical condition driven by heightened levels of lactic acid in the bloodstream caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen to the body tissue or an altered metabolism mediated by drugs or toxins. (healthnews.com)
  • Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Lactic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much lactic acid or cannot effectively remove it from the bloodstream. (thesitesale.com)
  • Lactic Acidosis can be described as a health disorder characterized by the build-up of lactic acid within the bloodstream. (keydifference.info)
  • In case of lactic acidosis, inadequate supply of oxygen interferes with the cells ability to synthesize ATP to meet its requirements, which results in glycolysis. (simple-remedies.com)
  • Some medical conditions can also bring on lactic acidosis, including: Vitamin B deficiency Shock Some drugs, including metformin, a drug used to treat diabetes, and all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS can cause lactic acidosis. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Some suggest that lactic acidosis can also result from the deficiency of vitamin B1 or thiamine. (simple-remedies.com)
  • This report describes a case of severe lactic acidosis associated with a suspected succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in a 5-month-old Chihuahua. (huji.ac.il)
  • The human metabolism produces about 20 mmol/kg of lactic acid every 24 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • If left untreated, lactic acidosis can lead to organ damage and even death. (thesitesale.com)
  • Lactic acidosis can be fatal if left untreated. (justicecounts.com)
  • Several decades later, Huckabee's seminal work firmly established that lactic acidosis frequently accompanies severe illnesses and that tissue hypoperfusion underlies the pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • However, it typically occurs when the body produces excessive amounts of lactic acid, than desired. (healthnews.com)
  • Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious condition that occurs when there is an excessive buildup of lactic acid in the blood. (thesitesale.com)
  • While it is generally well-tolerated, there have been rare cases where metformin can cause lactic acidosis, especially in individuals with impaired kidney function. (thesitesale.com)
  • Lactic acid treatment reduces the production of pro-inflammatories and increases the production of anti-inflammatories in the body. (healthnews.com)
  • Levitra is a prescription medication for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Visit us online today metformin lactic acidosis presentation . (onlinehome.us)
  • this caused by accelerated production of lactic acid in muscle and reduced hepatic lactate uptake however this post ictal lactic acidosis is transeint and resloves without treatment within 60 to 90 min so best intervention is to observe with 60 to 90 min. (diabetestalk.net)
  • However, this post-ictal lactic acidosis is transient and resolves without treatment within 60 to 90 minutes. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Treatment may involve intravenous fluids to hydrate the body and improve blood flow, as well as medications to help remove excess lactic acid from the blood. (thesitesale.com)
  • If lactic acidosis is suspected, individuals should seek medical help promptly to receive appropriate treatment. (thesitesale.com)
  • Initial treatment of lactic acidosis predicates an understanding of basic resuscitation and the ability to have testing modalities present to identify the elevation. (medscape.com)
  • The treatment may have wider applications, because lactic acidosis is a secondary effect of other pathologies. (medscape.com)
  • A single intravenous dose of DCA rapidly improved lactic acidosis in African children with severe malaria, suggesting that DCA may be a useful adjunct in the initial treatment of these patients, and may increase their chance of survival by improving a major complication of their illness. (ox.ac.uk)
  • however, there is currently no specific treatment for metformin-associated lactic acidosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Continuous renal replacement therapy is advantageous for the treatment of hemodynamically unstable patients with metformin-associated lactic acidosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once lactic acidosis has developed, medical intervention is typically required to correct the acid-base imbalance and support organ function. (thesitesale.com)
  • Quantitative organic acid analysis showed marked elevations of urine lactic acid, pyruvic acid and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (or 4-hydroxybutyric acid) concentrations. (huji.ac.il)
  • Numerous etiologies may be responsible for the presence of lactic acidosis, most commonly circulatory failure and hypoxia. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Lactic acidosis is associated with mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). (elsevierpure.com)
  • In "type A" lactic acidosis, the production of lactate is attributable to insufficient oxygen for aerobic metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels become low in cells within the areas of the body where metabolism takes place or in response to sympathetic overactivity related to epinephrine-type substances or exercise. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lactic acid is produced when the body generates energy anaerobically (i.e., without oxygen). (healthnews.com)
  • Cells produce lactic acid to generate additional energy in the absence of oxygen during intense physical activity. (healthnews.com)
  • Type A lactic acidosis, the most serious form, occurs when lactic acid is overproduced in ischemic tissue-as a byproduct of anaerobic generation of ATP ( adenosine triphosphate) during oxygen deficit. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Lactic acidosis may not necessarily produce acidemia in a patient. (medscape.com)
  • Some drugs, including metformin , a drug used to treat diabetes , and all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drugs used to treat HIV /AIDS can cause lactic acidosis. (webmd.com)
  • As mentioned earlier, lactic acidosis is characterized by an excess of serum lactate when lactate production is augmented, lactate utilization and clearance are decreased, or both. (medscape.com)
  • If your lactic acidosis is caused by a disease or medication, talk to your doctor. (webmd.com)
  • Learn about the potential effects of stopping metformin on lactic acidosis, a rare but serious side effect of this medication. (thesitesale.com)
  • In cases of metformin-induced lactic acidosis, it is important to determine whether stopping the medication can reverse the condition. (thesitesale.com)
  • Lactic acidosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication that can occur as a side effect of metformin, a medication commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes. (thesitesale.com)
  • Stopping metformin is a crucial step in managing lactic acidosis associated with the medication. (thesitesale.com)
  • In general lactic acidosis is classified into Type A, which is associated with decreased oxygenation and Type B which is attributed to underlying disease, medication or intoxication or genetic disorder. (simple-remedies.com)