Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.MELAS Syndrome: A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Alkalosis, Respiratory: A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Phenformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters: Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fanconi Syndrome: A hereditary or acquired form of generalized dysfunction of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE without primary involvement of the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS. It is usually characterized by the tubular wasting of nutrients and salts (GLUCOSE; AMINO ACIDS; PHOSPHATES; and BICARBONATES) resulting in HYPOKALEMIA; ACIDOSIS; HYPERCALCIURIA; and PROTEINURIA.RNA, Transfer, Leu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)GlutaminaseKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Dichloroacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.Diabetic Coma: A state of unconsciousness as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs in cases of extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA or extreme HYPOGLYCEMIA as a complication of INSULIN therapy.Hyperglycinemia, Nonketotic: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiencies in the mitochondrial GLYCINE cleavage system.Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma: A serious complication of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA; DEHYDRATION; serum hyperosmolarity; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA in the absence of KETOSIS and ACIDOSIS.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Ampyrone: A metabolite of AMINOPYRINE with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols. Ampyrone stimulates LIVER MICROSOMES and is also used to measure extracellular water.Toxaphene: A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

Decreased lactic acidosis and anemia after transfusion of o-raffinose cross-linked and polymerized hemoglobin in severe murine malaria. (1/290)

Severe anemia is a major cause of death in falciparum malaria. Blood transfusion increases survival in humans and in animal models of this disease. Because of logistic constraints and viral contamination of the blood supply, transfusions are frequently not practical in endemic regions. Modified hemoglobin is an effective O2 carrier in hemorrhagic shock. It is free of infectious contamination, may not require refrigeration, and because of its nitric oxide scavenging and small size, may have pharmacologic benefits in malaria. The effects of transfusions of modified hemoglobin in rats with high-grade parasitemia were evaluated. Modified hemoglobin decreased lactic acidosis and corrected anemia as well as transfusions with red blood cells; these findings may correlate with improved survival and suggest a possible proerythropoietic effect. Further study of this novel therapy is warranted.  (+info)

Incidence of lactic acidosis in metformin users. (2/290)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of lactic acidosis in a geographically defined population of metformin users. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was based on a historical cohort from the Saskatchewan Health administrative databases. Individuals with a metformin prescription dispensed between 1980 and 1995 inclusive were eligible for the cohort. Person-years of exposure were calculated. Cases were defined by hospital discharge with a diagnosis of acidosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code: 276.2) and confirmation by chart review of a blood lactate level > or = 5 mmol/l. Death registrations of individuals dying within 120 days of a metformin prescription were also reviewed. RESULTS: During the study period, 11,797 residents received one or more metformin prescriptions, resulting in 22,296 person-years of exposure. There were 10 subjects who had hospital discharges with a diagnosis of acidosis. However, primary record review revealed only two cases with laboratory findings of elevated blood lactate levels, for an incidence rate of 9 cases per 100,000 person-years of metformin exposure. In both cases, other factors besides metformin could have contributed to the lactic acidosis. No additional cases were found on review of death registrations. CONCLUSIONS: From 1980 through 1995, the incidence rate of lactic acidosis was 9 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 0-21) in patients dispensed metformin in Saskatchewan, Canada. This incidence rate was derived from a population with complete ascertainment of hospitalizations and deaths associated with lactic acidosis in metformin users. It is similar to previously published rates based on passive reporting of cases, and it is well below the lactic acidosis rate of 40-64 per 100,000 patient-years in patients prescribed phenformin.  (+info)

Nuclear DNA origin of mitochondrial complex I deficiency in fatal infantile lactic acidosis evidenced by transnuclear complementation of cultured fibroblasts. (3/290)

We have studied complex I (NADH-ubiquinone reductase) defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in 2 infants who died in the neonatal period from 2 different neurological forms of severe neonatal lactic acidosis. Specific and marked decrease in complex I activity was documented in muscle, liver, and cultured skin fibroblasts. Biochemical characterization and study of the genetic origin of this defect were performed using cultured fibroblasts. Immunodetection of 6 nuclear DNA-encoded (20, 23, 24, 30, 49, and 51 kDa) and 1 mitochondrial DNA-encoded (ND1) complex I subunits in fibroblast mitochondria revealed 2 distinct patterns. In 1 patient, complex I contained reduced amounts of the 24- and 51-kDa subunits and normal amounts of all the other investigated subunits. In the second patient, amounts of all the investigated subunits were severely decreased. The data suggest partial or extensive impairment of complex I assembly in both patients. Cell fusion experiments between 143B206 rho degrees cells, fully depleted of mitochondrial DNA, and fibroblasts from both patients led to phenotypic complementation of the complex I defects in mitochondria of the resulting cybrid cells. These results indicate that the complex I defects in the 2 reported cases are due to nuclear gene mutations.  (+info)

Blood lactate accumulation and muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise. (4/290)

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could allow insights into controversial issues related to blood lactate concentration ([La](b)) increases at submaximal workloads (). We combined, on five well-trained subjects [mountain climbers; peak O(2) consumption (VO(2peak)), 51.0 +/- 4.2 (SD) ml. kg(-1). min(-1)] performing incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer (30 W added every 4 min up to voluntary exhaustion), measurements of pulmonary gas exchange and earlobe [La](b) with determinations of concentration changes of oxygenated Hb (Delta[O(2)Hb]) and deoxygenated Hb (Delta[HHb]) in the vastus lateralis muscle, by continuous-wave NIRS. A "point of inflection" of [La](b) vs. was arbitrarily identified at the lowest [La](b) value which was >0.5 mM lower than that obtained at the following. Total Hb volume (Delta[O(2)Hb + HHb]) in the muscle region of interest increased as a function of up to 60-65% of VO(2 peak), after which it remained unchanged. The oxygenation index (Delta[O(2)Hb - HHb]) showed an accelerated decrease from 60- 65% of VO(2 peak). In the presence of a constant total Hb volume, the observed Delta[O(2)Hb - HHb] decrease indicates muscle deoxygenation (i.e., mainly capillary-venular Hb desaturation). The onset of muscle deoxygenation was significantly correlated (r(2) = 0.95; P < 0.01) with the point of inflection of [La](b) vs., i.e., with the onset of blood lactate accumulation. Previous studies showed relatively constant femoral venous PO(2) levels at higher than approximately 60% of maximal O(2) consumption. Thus muscle deoxygenation observed in the present study from 60-65% of VO(2 peak) could be attributed to capillary-venular Hb desaturation in the presence of relatively constant capillary-venular PO(2) levels, as a consequence of a rightward shift of the O(2)Hb dissociation curve determined by the onset of lactic acidosis.  (+info)

Hypoxia-activated apoptosis of cardiac myocytes requires reoxygenation or a pH shift and is independent of p53. (5/290)

Ischemia and reperfusion activate cardiac myocyte apoptosis, which may be an important feature in the progression of ischemic heart disease. The relative contributions of ischemia and reperfusion to apoptotic signal transduction have not been established. We report here that severe chronic hypoxia alone does not cause apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in culture. When rapidly contracting cardiac myocytes were exposed to chronic hypoxia, apoptosis occurred only when there was a decrease in extracellular pH ([pH](o)). Apoptosis did not occur when [pH](o) was neutralized. Addition of acidic medium from hypoxic cultures or exogenous lactic acid stimulated apoptosis in aerobic myocytes. Hypoxia-acidosis-mediated cell death was independent of p53: equivalent apoptosis occurred in cardiac myocytes isolated from wild-type and p53 knockout mice, and hypoxia caused no detectable change in p53 abundance or p53-dependent transcription. Reoxygenation of hypoxic cardiac myocytes induced apoptosis in 25-30% of the cells and was also independent of p53 by the same criteria. Finally, equivalent levels of apoptosis, as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, were induced by ischemia-reperfusion, but not by ischemia alone, of Langendorff-perfused hearts from wild-type and p53 knockout mice. We conclude that acidosis, reoxygenation, and reperfusion, but not hypoxia (or ischemia) alone, are strong stimuli for programmed cell death that is substantially independent of p53.  (+info)

Actively phosphorylating mitochondria are more resistant to lactic acidosis than inactive mitochondria. (6/290)

Oxidative phosphorylation of isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria after exposure to lactic acidosis in either phosphorylating or nonphosphorylating states has been evaluated. Mitochondrial respiration and transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) were measured with pyruvate and malate as the substrates. The addition of lactic acid decreased the pH of the reaction medium from 7.5 to 6.4. When lactic acid was added to nonphosphorylating mitochondria, the subsequent maximal ADP-stimulated respiration decreased by 27% compared with that under control conditions (P < 0.05), and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) for ADP decreased to 10 microM vs. 20 microM (P < 0.05) in controls. In contrast, maximal respiration and ADP sensitivity were not affected when mitochondria were exposed to acidosis during active phosphorylation in state 3. Acidosis significantly increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption in state 4 (post-state 3), irrespective of when acidosis was induced. This effect of acidosis was attenuated in the presence of oligomycin. The addition of lactic acid during state 4 respiration decreased DeltaPsi(m) by 19%. The ratio between added ADP and consumed oxygen (P/O) was close to the theoretical value of 3 in all conditions. The addition of potassium lactate during state 3 (i.e., medium pH unchanged) had no effect on the parameters measured. It is concluded that lactic acidosis has different effects when induced on nonphosphorylating vs. actively phosphorylating mitochondria. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the influence of lactic acidosis on muscle aerobic energy production depends on the physiological conditions at the onset of acidity.  (+info)

A novel deficiency of mitochondrial ATPase of nuclear origin. (7/290)

We report a new type of fatal mitochondrial disorder caused by selective deficiency of mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase). A hypotrophic newborn from a consanguineous marriage presented severe lactic acidosis, cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly and died from heart failure after 2 days. The activity of oligomycin-sensitive ATPase was only 31-34% of the control, both in muscle and heart, but the activities of cytochrome c oxidase, citrate synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase were normal. Electrophoretic and western blot analysis revealed selective reduction of ATPase complex but normal levels of the respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. The same selective deficiency of ATPase was found in cultured skin fibroblasts which showed similar decreases in ATPase content, ATPase hydrolytic activity and level of substrate-dependent ATP synthesis (20-25, 18 and 29-33% of the control, respectively). Pulse-chase labelling of patient fibroblasts revealed low incorporation of [(35)S]methionine into assembled ATPase complexes, but increased incorporation into immunoprecipitated ATPase subunit beta, which had a very short half-life. In contrast, no difference was found in the size and subunit composition of the assembled and newly produced ATPase complex. Transmitochondrial cybrids prepared from enucleated fibroblasts of the patient and rho degrees cells derived from 143B. TK(-)human osteosarcoma cells fully restored the ATPase activity, ATP synthesis and ATPase content, when compared with control cybrids. Likewise, the pattern of [(35)S]methionine labelling of ATPase was found to be normal in patient cybrids. We conclude that the generalized deficiency of mitochondrial ATPase described is of nuclear origin and is caused by altered biosynthesis of the enzyme.  (+info)

A missense mutation of cytochrome oxidase subunit II causes defective assembly and myopathy. (8/290)

We report the first missense mutation in the mtDNA gene for subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). The mutation was identified in a 14-year-old boy with a proximal myopathy and lactic acidosis. Muscle histochemistry and mitochondrial respiratory-chain enzymology demonstrated a marked reduction in COX activity. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses with COX subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies showed a pattern suggestive of a primary mtDNA defect, most likely involving CO II, for COX subunit II (COX II). mtDNA-sequence analysis demonstrated a novel heteroplasmic T-->A transversion at nucleotide position 7,671 in CO II. This mutation changes a methionine to a lysine residue in the middle of the first N-terminal membrane-spanning region of COX II. The immunoblot studies demonstrated a severe reduction in cross-reactivity, not only for COX II but also for the mtDNA-encoded subunit COX III and for nuclear-encoded subunits Vb, VIa, VIb, and VIc. Steady-state levels of the mtDNA-encoded subunit COX I showed a mild reduction, but spectrophotometric analysis revealed a dramatic decrease in COX I-associated heme a3 levels. These observations suggest that, in the COX protein, a structural association of COX II with COX I is necessary to stabilize the binding of heme a3 to COX I.  (+info)

Metformin has been widely used as a first-line agent to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious adverse effect in patients treated with metformin. Recent studies noted a correlation between metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis. Continuous renal replacement therapy for the treatment of metformin-associated lactic acidosis has been documented in some case reports; however, there is currently no specific treatment for metformin-associated lactic acidosis. A 70-year-old Japanese woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to an emergency room with metformin-associated lactic acidosis. She was found to be hypotensive and laboratory examinations revealed severe lactic acidosis: pH 6.618, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood 17.3 mmHg, bicarbonate 1.7 mmol/L, and lactate 18 mmol/L. Severe acidemia persisted despite supportive care including intravenously administered fluids, sodium bicarbonate, antibiotics, and vasopressors. Continuous renal replacement
Metformin is the most commonly used oral antihyperglycemic drug in type 2 diabetes. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is a rare but severe
WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS. Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metformin- associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (,5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally ,5 mcg/mL (see PRECAUTIONS).. Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic ...
Following publication of our article in Critical Care [1], the following error was brought to our attention. The sentence that reads "The rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure also increases hemoglobin affinity for oxygen and may, therefore, decrease oxygen delivery" is incorrect. The words "increases" and "decrease" were reversed.. The correct sentence should read: "The rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure also decreases hemoglobin affinity for oxygen and may, therefore, increase oxygen delivery." The original article also unfortunately published with the incorrect cover date. This was published with a cover date December 2015 whereas this should have been January 2016. This has been updated. ...
renal failure. Clinical Therapeutics, 159, 87-89. It is important to assess the patients renal Laforest, C., Saint-Marcoux, F., Amiel, J-B., Pichon, N., & function before any diagnostic tests that involve Merle, L. (2013). Monitoring of metformin-induced lactic acidosis in a diabetic patient with acute kidney failure and effect injection of ICM. If the patients renal function is of hemodialysis. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology compromised, the physician should be notified before the procedure. Many health care institutions have Lalau, J.D. (2010). Lactic acidosis induced by metformin: Incidence, management and prevention. Drug Safety, 33, 727- developed policies for pre-diagnostic test screening, which include assessing the patients renal function. 10) Safadi, R., Dranitzki-Ethalel, M., Popovtzer, M., & Ben-Yehuda, Monitor for any signs of lactic acidosis such as A. (1996). Metformin-induced lactic acidosis associated with tachycardia, hypotension, stupor, and coma5 post acute ...
Metformin improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes without causing weight gain or hypoglycemia and is the only oral hypoglycemic drug that has reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a randomized trial (1). However, metformin might increase the risk for lactic acidosis. For this reason, many prescribing guidelines suggest that metformin be contraindicated in patients at higher-than-average risk for lactic acidosis. Salpeter and colleagues hoped to compare the incidence of lactic acidosis in metformin users with those taking other medications or placebo, but this proved impossible because not a single case of lactic acidosis was found in any of these studies. Although many of the included studies did not specifically exclude persons with renal, hepatic, cardiac, or pulmonary disease, it is possible that not enough persons with these comorbid conditions were enrolled in the studies to allow accurate risk estimates. In Saskatchewan, where comprehensive, linkable databases of ...
This signs and symptoms information for Lactic Acidosis has been gathered from various sources, may not be fully accurate, and may not be the full list of Lactic Acidosis signs or Lactic Acidosis symptoms. Furthermore, signs and symptoms of Lactic Acidosis may vary on an individual basis for each patient. Only your doctor can provide adequate ...
SUMMARY. The first reported case of lactic acidosis secondary to severe anemia with complete and immediate reversal of the acidosis after transfusion with packed red blood cells is described in a patient with pernicious anemia. Experimental evidence that severe anemia can cause widespread tissue hypoxia is cited. The pathophysiology, causal classification, and diagnosis of lactic acidosis are reviewed. ...
There have been post-marketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate … Read More "Xigduo". ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pyruvate-dehydrogenase complex in ataxic patients. T2 - Enzyme deficiency in ataxic encephalopathy plus lactic acidosis and normal activity in Friedreich ataxia. AU - Uziel, G.. AU - Bottacchi, E.. AU - Moschen, G.. AU - Giovanardi-Rossi, P.. AU - Cardace, G.. AU - Di Donato, S.. PY - 1982/12. Y1 - 1982/12. N2 - Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) activity was measured in cultured fibroblasts from 12 patients with Friedreichs ataxia (FA), and in 1 patient with lactic acidosis and ataxia. The activities obtained after extraction of PDHC by different methods were compared. Triton-X-100 extraction yielded enzyme activities 5 to 10 times greater than those obtained with the older methods. With this sensitive technique, PDHC activity was markedly deficient in fibroblasts from the patient with lactic acidosis and ataxia but it was normal in the fibroblasts from FA patients. Mg++activation of the PDHC in FA fibroblasts was normal.. AB - Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) activity ...
Lactic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much lactic acid and cannot metabolize it quickly enough. The condition can be a medical emergency. The onset of lactic acidosis might be rapid and occur within minutes or hours, or gradual, happening over a period of days. The best way to treat lactic acidosis is to f
This study provides a unique opportunity to prospectively assess the relationship of lactic acidemia with liver dysfunction and to determine whether lactic acidemia and liver dysfunction are likely to be secondary to NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity. If lactic acidemia and hepatic fatty infiltration (steatosis) in this study population are secondary to NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity, withdrawal of NRTI medications can be expected to result in partial improvement or resolution of these findings. Furthermore, this study will examine the possible additive ill effects of NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity on liver function in individuals coinfected with hepatitis C.. This study is designed both as a stand-alone ACTG protocol providing an NRTI-sparing regimen and as a study coenrollable simultaneously with A5116.. Patients enrolling in A5133 as a stand-alone study: Patients on NRTI-containing regimens with elevated lactates and ALTs are enrolled into a single open-label NRTI-sparing ...
This study provides a unique opportunity to prospectively assess the relationship of lactic acidemia with liver dysfunction and to determine whether lactic acidemia and liver dysfunction are likely to be secondary to NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity. If lactic acidemia and hepatic fatty infiltration (steatosis) in this study population are secondary to NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity, withdrawal of NRTI medications can be expected to result in partial improvement or resolution of these findings. Furthermore, this study will examine the possible additive ill effects of NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity on liver function in individuals coinfected with hepatitis C.. This study is designed both as a stand-alone ACTG protocol providing an NRTI-sparing regimen and as a study coenrollable simultaneously with A5116.. Patients enrolling in A5133 as a stand-alone study: Patients on NRTI-containing regimens with elevated lactates and ALTs are enrolled into a single open-label NRTI-sparing ...
In four patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS) in which mutated mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid was seen, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and angiopathy was demonstrated by echocardiogra
A 30-yr-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with zidovudine developed biopsy-proven mitochondrial myopathy. Chronic lactic acidosis (lactate, 10 +/- 1 mmol/L) persisted for more than 5 wk. Liver function tests were normal, but the concentration of lactose rose to 16.1 mmol/L when 500 mmol of ethanol was infused. The concentration of lactose rose by only 1.5 mmol/L with maximally tolerated exercise. If this mitochondrial lesion compromised flux through the electron transport system, increased turnover of ATP with exercise should have exacerbated the degree of lactic acidosis because of increased need to regenerate ATP via glycolysis. Two possible explanations will be discussed: first, there was both a rapid rate of production of lactic acid in affected muscles in conjunction and an equally rapid rate of removal by uninvolved organs. Second, there was a low net rate of production of lactic acid in involved muscles despite the exercise. ...
Several abstracts were available on the incidence and natural history of hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis. Graeme Moyle [Abs 98] presented cross sectional data on lactic acid measurements obtained from patients in his clinic between Aug 1999 to June 2001. Of a total of 4361 lactate measurements performed on 2069 patients, 8.7% had lactates > 2.5 mmol/l while 0.8% (9 individuals) had severe hyperlactatemia defined as > 5 mmol/l. The median lactate in 1239 subjects receiving antiretroviral medications for at least 4 months was 1.4 mmol/l whereas in the population of 253 HIV-positive untreated individuals the median lactate as 1.1 mmol/l. The results of repeat measurements in individuals with high lactates indicated that a single elevated lactate had limited predictive value suggesting that many elevations of lactates were transient. In contrast, in those with normal lactate levels, there was a high predictive value for subsequent normal levels. Events were more common with ddI based regimens, ...
This eMedTV resource looks at a life-threatening potential side effect of metformin: lactic acidosis. This page describes some of the symptoms of lactic acidosis and lists some of the factors that can increase your risk of developing this condition.
Severe anemia (SA, hemoglobin <6 g/dl) is a leading cause of pediatric hospital admission in Africa, with significant in-hospital mortality. The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood (20 ml/kg) for transfusion, but this is commonly associated with a frequent need for repeat transfusion and poor outcome. Evidence is lacking on what hemoglobin threshold criteria for intervention and volume are associated with the optimal survival outcomes. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a higher volume of whole blood (30 ml/kg; Tx30: n = 78) against the standard volume (20 ml/kg; Tx20: n = 82) in Ugandan children (median age 36 months (interquartile range (IQR) 13 to 53)) for 24-hour anemia correction (hemoglobin >6 g/dl: primary outcome) and 28-day survival. Median admission hemoglobin was 4.2 g/dl (IQR 3.1 to 4.9). Initial volume received followed the randomization
Lactic acidosis can cause potentially fatal symptoms of metabolic acidosis, a dangerous condition that diabetics with poorly maintained blood sugar are already at high risk for, states Healthline....
Statistics about Mitochondrial myopathy - lactic acidosis as a medical condition including prevalence, incidence, death rates, and social and hospital statistics.
We report three families presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and multiple defects of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activities. By direct sequencing of the candidate gene MTO1, encoding the mitochondrial-tRNA modifier 1, or whole exome sequencing analysis, we identified novel missense mutations. All MTO1 mutations were predicted to be deleterious on MTO1 function. Their pathogenic role was experimentally validated in a recombinant yeast model, by assessing oxidative growth, respiratory activity, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and complex IV activity. In one case, we also demonstrated that expression of wt MTO1 could rescue the respiratory defect in mutant fibroblasts. The severity of the yeast respiratory phenotypes partly correlated with the different clinical presentations observed in MTO1 mutant patients, although the clinical outcome was highly variable in patients with the same mutation and seemed also to depend on timely start of pharmacological ...
Lactate Control Solution for Accutrend Analyser. After about 25 tests, it is recommended to use the Control Solution to make sure you are getting the most accurate test results possible. Accutrend BM lactate control solution is used to check the function of the Accutrend Plus, Accusport and Accutrend Lactate measuring devices. BM lactate test strips are required to perform the test.
Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause lactic acidosis. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are severe and quick to appear, and usually occur when other health problems not related to the medicine are present and are very severe, such as a heart attack or kidney failure. Symptoms of lactic acidosis include abdominal or stomach discomfort, decreased appetite; diarrhea; fast or shallow breathing; a general feeling of discomfort; severe muscle pain or cramping; and unusual sleepiness, tiredness, or weakness. If symptoms of lactic acidosis occur, you should get immediate emergency medical help. Metformin can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). However, this can also occur if you delay or miss a meal or snack, drink alcohol, exercise more than usual, cannot eat because of nausea or vomiting, take certain medicines, or take metformin with another type of diabetes medicine. The symptoms of low blood sugar must be treated before they lead to unconsciousness (passing out). Different people ...
In our study, 5 of 50,048 type 2 diabetic patients (1 per 10,000 subjects) developed lactic acidosis while exposed to metformin, of whom only 1 patient used metformin alone, whereas 4 patients used metformin and another oral antidiabetes agent concomitantly. In only one patient on metformin, no acute deterioration of a medical condition known to be a risk factor for lactic acidosis could be identified. However, in addition to hypertensive heart disease, this patient suffered from liver cirrhosis, which is associated with impaired clearance of lactic acid and thereby predisposes to lactic acidosis. One case subject was exposed to a sulfonylurea only. The case group was too small for formal analysis, but the crude incidence rates were 3.3 and 4.8 per 100,000 person-years for current users of metformin or of sulfonylureas, respectively. Thus, there was no greater risk of lactic acidosis among metformin users compared with users of other oral antidiabetes drugs (3,17).. The term ...
Risk of lactic acidosis with metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus answers are found in the Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause a condition called lactic acidosis. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are severe, appear quickly, and usually occur when other health problems are present, such as a heart attack or kidney failure. Symptoms of lactic acidosis include abdominal or stomach discomfort, decreased appetite, diarrhea, fast or shallow breathing, a general feeling of discomfort, muscle pain or cramping, and unusual sleepiness, tiredness, or weakness. If symptoms of lactic acidosis occur, you should get immediate emergency medical help. Pancreatitis (swelling and inflammation of the pancreas) may occur while you are using this medicine. Check with your doctor right away if you have sudden and severe stomach pain, chills, constipation, nausea, vomiting, fever, or lightheadedness. If you are rapidly gaining weight, having shortness of breath, chest pain, extreme tiredness or weakness, irregular breathing, irregular heartbeat, or excessive swelling of the hands, wrist, ...
Lactic acidosis treatment is a method of treating a condition in which lactic acid levels in a persons bloodstream rise too fast...
Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) - induced lactic acidosis: A potentially life threatening but preventable complication in HIV/AIDS patients receiving Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase
Mitochondrial Neurodevelopmental Disorder, with Abnormal Movements and Lactic Acidosis, with or without Seizures - Ontology Report - Rat Genome Database
Managing patients with lactic acidosis, especially the type A variety, is really hard! Usually they have multiple problems, are septic, hypotensive, often on
Anxiety & Lactic Acidosis & Prominent Sulci Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Hypoxia. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Today we had Dr. Darren Schmidt on the show to talk about a subject that could be the lynch pin for all chronic degenerative diseases. In fact according to his studies over 150 disease processes are tied to lactic acidosis.. What is lactic acidosis you say? Well Dr. Darren Schmidt explained that lactic acidosis is commonly known as simply "dirty blood". How would your blood being dirty cause disease? What does that even mean diry blood? Does that mean your blood has actual dirt in it? No.. It means that your blood could be filled with parasites, plastics (or other endocrine disruptors), viruses, fungi, bacteria or other pathogens that cause the blood to become too think and unable to transfer oxygen and light correctly.. When your blood has all these toxins and chemicals in it, its not able to do its job. So what can you do to clean up your blood and reverse lactic acidosis in your body?. Well luckily Dr. Darren Schmidt talked specifically about B-vitamins and how they can help clean the ...
You should not use this medication if you are allergic to metformin, or if you are in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment with insulin). If you need to have any type of x-ray or CT scan using a dye that is injected into your veins, you will need to temporarily stop taking metformin. Some people develop lactic acidosis while taking metformin. Early symptoms may get worse over time and this condition can be fatal. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, slow or uneven heart rate, dizziness, or feeling very weak or tired. Some people develop a life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis while taking metformin. You may be more likely to develop lactic acidosis if you have liver or kidney disease, congestive heart failure, a severe infection, if you are dehydrated, or if you drink large amounts of alcohol. Talk with ...
It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure that this medicine is working properly and to decide if you should continue to use it. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects. If you are rapidly gaining weight, having shortness of breath, chest pain or discomfort, extreme tiredness or weakness, irregular breathing, irregular heartbeat, or excessive swelling of the hands, wrist, ankles, or feet, check with your doctor immediately. These may be symptoms of heart problems or fluid retention (too much water in the body). Let your doctor or dentist know you are taking this medicine. Your doctor may advise you to stop taking this medicine before you have major surgery or diagnostic tests, especially tests that use a contrast dye. Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are severe and appear quickly. Lactic acidosis usually occurs when other ...
BaracludeTM (BEAR ah klude). (generic name = entecavir). Tablets and Oral Solution. Read the Patient Information that comes with BARACLUDE before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking with your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment.. What is the most important information I should know about BARACLUDE?. 1.Some people who have taken medicines like BARACLUDE (a nucleoside analogue) have developed a serious condition called lactic acidosis (buildup of an acid in the blood). Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency and must be treated in the hospital. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following signs of lactic acidosis.. • You feel very weak or tired.. • You have unusual (not normal) muscle pain.. • You have trouble breathing.. • You have stomach pain with nausea and vomiting.. • You feel cold,especially in your arms and legs.. • You feel ...
Common uses. This medicine is a biguanide-type medicine used along with a diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes. This medicine works by helping restore your bodys proper response to the insulin you naturally produce, and by decreasing the amount of sugar that your liver makes and that your stomach/intestines absorb. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent heart disease, strokes, kidney disease, blindness, circulation problems, and sexual function problems. This medicine may be used to treat other conditions as determined by your doctor.. Before using. WARNING: Metformin may rarely cause a condition called lactic acidosis, which is sometimes fatal. Seek immediate medical attention if you develop any symptoms of lactic acidosis including unusual tiredness, severe drowsiness, cold skin, muscle pain, breathing trouble or rapid breathing, or unusually slow or irregular heartbeat. Lactic acidosis is more likely to occur in patients who have heart ...
Serial clinical and metabolic changes were monitored in 115 Gambian children (1.5-12 years old) with severe malaria. Fifty-three children (46%) had cerebral malaria (coma score | or = 2) and 21 (18%) died. Admission geometric mean venous blood lactate concentrations were almost twice as high in fatal cases as in survivors (7.1 mmol/L vs. 3.6 mmol/L; P | 0.001) and were correlated with levels of tumour necrosis factor (r = 0.42, n = 79; P | 0.0001) and interleukin 1-alpha (r = 0.6, n = 34; P | 0.0001). Admission blood venous glucose concentrations were lower in fatal cases than survivors (3.2 mmol/L, vs. 5.8 mmol/L; P | 0.0001). Treatment with quinine was associated with significantly more episodes of post-admission hypoglycaemia when compared with artemether or chloroquine. After treatment, lactate concentrations fell rapidly in survivors but fell only slightly, or rose, in fatal cases. Plasma cytokine levels fluctuated widely after admission. Sustained hyperlactataemia (raised lactate concentrations, 4
Renal tubular dysfunction has occurred in at least one patient (72). Mucocutaneous responses. Occasional erythema, macules, and papules have been observed in patients taking d4T (65). Esophageal ulcers are also rarely seen. Lipoatrophy. Lipoatrophy is associated with mitochondrial toxicity, lactic acidemia, and insulin resistance. Switching from stavudine or zidovudine to abacavir can lead to modest increases in limb fat, but clinical lipoatrophy does not resolve (73-75). Neuromuscular weakness/respiratory failure. Robbins, V. W. Snyder, and R. DAquila. 2003. " N Engl J Med 349: 2304-2315. 14. De Clercq, E. 2002. New anti-HIV agents and targets. Med Res Reviews 22: 531-565. 15. Anonymous. 2003. " MMWR 52: 1155-1157. 16. Enserink, M. 2003. " Science 302: 1141-1142. Chapter 2 Antiretroviral Drugs to Treat Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections INTRODUCTION In less than two decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically progressed from a little-known or understood infection to the ...
Quality control solution for Cholesterol Test Strips. For use with the Roche Accutrend and Accutrend Plus.. Please note that the product supplied is the Control Solution only and not the testing device. ...
The Pneumotox website uses cookies. By accessing or using our website, you consent to the collection, use and disclosure of the garnered information in accordance with our privacy policy. ...
Since researching D-lactic acid, I have just received some enlightening news. To begin with, my book talks much in the Brain Connection and in the Autism Connection chapters about the effect on behavior of too much D-lactic acid being absorbed into the bloodstream as a result of bacterial growth - even good guy bacter
Endotoxemia causes hypotension characterized by vasodilation and resistance to vasopressor agents. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these changes are unclear. The ATP-regulated K+ (K+ATP) channel has recently been found to be an important modulator of vascular smooth muscle tone which may transduce local metabolic changes into alterations of vascular flow. We report here that in endotoxic hypotension, the sulfonylurea glyburide, a specific inhibitor for the K+ATP channel, caused vasoconstriction and restoration of blood pressure. Glyburide also induced vasoconstriction and restoration of blood pressure in the vasodilatory hypotension caused by hypoxic lactic acidosis, while it was ineffective in the hypotension induced by sodium nitroprusside. Thus, vasodilation and hypotension in septic shock are, at least in part, due to activation of the K+ATP channel in vascular smooth muscle, and anaerobic metabolism with acidosis is a sufficient stimulus for channel activation. Because anaerobic ...
With the availability of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), one of the limitations of treatment safety is the occurrence of adverse events associated with antiretroviral agents. The aim of this study was to ...
Hypersensitivity, hyperglycemic coma, ketoacidosis, kidney failure, liver disease, heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, respiratory failure, dehydration, infectious diseases, extensive surgery and trauma, alcoholism, reduced-calorie diet (less than 1000 kcal / day), lactic acidosis (including history), pregnancy, breastfeeding. The drug is not prescribed to take 2 days before a surgery, radioisotope and X-ray examinations, CAT scanning (CT). Glucophage is contraindicated in patients over 60 y.o., or doing hard physical work (risk of lactic acidosis increases). Farces will be enured. Trover has been wed before upto the lynetta. Roturiers have traditionally trafficced on the feudality. Rappel had fulfilled. Contraindications Hypersensitivity, hyperglycemic coma, ketoacidosis, kidney failure, liver disease, heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, respiratory failure, dehydration, infectious diseases, extensive surgery and trauma, alcoholism, reduced-calorie diet (less than 1000 kcal / ...
Before you begin taking a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.. Alcohol intake: Large amounts of alcohol or regular use of alcohol increases the risk of developing lactic acidosis when taking metformin. People taking this medication should avoid excessive alcohol intake.. Blood glucose control: People taking this medication who have a fever, experience trauma, or have surgery may experience a temporary loss of blood glucose control. At such times, it may be necessary to stop this medication and temporarily inject insulin. This medication may be started again after the problem is resolved.. Congestive heart failure (CHF): Congestive heart failure can increase the risk of lactic acidosis caused by metformin. For this reason, this medication is not ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
SGLT2 inhibitors used to treat diabetes have common side effects like yeast infections and runny nose, but amputations and ketoacidosis may also occur.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The following is not a full list of side effects. Side effects cannot be anticipated. If any develop or change in intensity, tell your healthcare provider as soon as possible. Only your healthcare provider can determine if it is safe for you to continue taking this medication.. Janumet XR can cause a rare, but serious condition called lactic acidosis (a build-up of an acid in the blood). This is a medical emergency and must be treated in the hospital. Stop taking Janumet XR and call your healthcare provider right away if you feel very weak or tired; have unusual muscle pain, trouble breathing, sleepiness or you sleep longer than usual; develop sudden stomach or intestinal problems with nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea; feel cold, especially in your arms and legs; experience dizziness or lightheadedness; or have a slow or irregular heartbeat. You have a higher chance of getting lactic acidosis if you have kidney or liver problems; have heart failure that requires treatment with medicines; drink a ...
Lactic acidosis. Pretreatment spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome. This entity is associated with acute kidney failure due to uric ... result in severe metabolic derangements (e.g., hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, lactic aci- dosis, and the acute tumor lysis ...
It may also be used to treat metabolic acidosis in cases other than those caused by lactic acidosis and to wash the eye ... Kraut, JA; Madias, NE (11 December 2014). "Lactic acidosis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (24): 2309-19. doi: ... Ringer's lactate solution has a lower rate of acidosis as compared with normal saline. Use is generally safe in pregnancy and ... Ringer's lactate solution is used because the by-products of lactate metabolism in the liver counteract acidosis, which is a ...
Haller, R.G (1989). "Exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis, and abnormal cardiopulmonary regulation in exercise associated with ... muscle fatigue and lactic acidosis. Exercise tolerance reflects the combined capacity of components in the oxygen cascade to ... Since lactic acid stimulates respiration, after rehabilitative training exercising, ventilation is lower, respiration is slowed ... High intensity rehabilitative exercise training Increasing the fitness of muscles decreases the amount of lactic acid released ...
CPT2 Myopathy with lactic acidosis, hereditary; 255125; ISCU Myopathy, actin, congenital, with excess of thin myofilaments; ... MCM6 Lactic acidosis, fatal infantile; 245400; SUCLG1 Lacticacidemia due to PDX1 deficiency; 245349; PDX1 LADD syndrome; 149730 ... SLC5A2 Renal tubular acidosis with deafness; 267300; ATP6B1 Renal tubular acidosis, distal, AD; 179800; SLC4A1 Renal tubular ... SLC4A1 Renal tubular acidosis, distal, autosomal recessive; 602722; ATP6V0A4 Renal tubular acidosis, proximal, with ocular ...
Lactic acidosis associated with the use of stavudine (Zerit, for HIV therapy) or metformin (for diabetes) Mania caused by ... "Metformin and Fatal Lactic Acidosis". Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013. Patten, S. B.; ... Mokrzycki, M. H.; Harris, C.; May, H.; Laut, J.; Palmisano, J. (2000). "Lactic Acidosis Associated with Stavudine ...
Other names for this syndrome include Finnish lethal neonatal metabolic syndrome (FLNMS); lactic acidosis, Finnish, with ... GRACILE is an acronym for growth retardation, amino aciduria (amino acids in the urine), cholestasis, iron overload, lactic ...
Stage 4 the patient is vasopressor dependent and oliguric or anuric; subsequently develops ischemic colitis and lactic acidosis ...
Lactic acidosis arises from impairment of gluconeogenesis. Lactic acid is generated both in the liver and muscle and is ... A further effect of chronic lactic acidosis in GSD I is hyperuricemia, as lactic acid and uric acid compete for the same renal ... For mild acidosis, an effective fluid is 10% dextrose in ½ normal saline with 20 mEq/l KCl, but if acidosis is severe, 75-100 ... The inability to generate and release glucose soon results in hypoglycemia, and occasionally in lactic acidosis fulminant ...
Lactic acid and uric acid levels may be normal. However, lactic acidosis may occur during fasting. Phosphorylase kinase ...
... patients usually show severe hyperventillation due to profound metabolic acidosis mostly related to lactic acidosis. Metabolic ... Resolution of lactic acidosis is observed in patients with E1 alpha enzyme subunit mutations that reduce enzyme stability. ... It is expected that most cases will be of mild severity and have a clinical presentation involving lactic acidosis. Prenatal ... The metabolic form appears as lactic acidosis. The neurological form of PDCD contributes to hypotonia, poor feeding, lethargy ...
Its primary clinical finding is lactic acidosis. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency Izard T, Aevarsson A, Allen MD, Westphal AH ...
However, the use in lactic acidosis is contraindicated. It can cause panic attacks in patients with existing panic disorder. ... and potassium lactate are salts derived from the neutralization of lactic acid and most commercially used lactic acids are ... Such dairy-type lactic acid generally goes back into dairy products, such as ice cream and cream cheese, rather than into non- ... Moreover, although the lactic-acid starter culture to ferment corn or beets may contain milk, sodium lactate does not contain ...
... the presence or absence of lactic acidosis; (4) any associated hyperketosis or hypoketosis; and (5) any associated liver ... Serum electrolytes calculate the anion gap to determine presence of metabolic acidosis; typically, patients with glycogen- ... storage disease type 0 (GSD-0) have an anion gap in the reference range and no acidosis. See the Anion Gap calculator. Serum ... with hyperglycemia and lactic acidemia. Serum glucose levels are measured to document the degree of hypoglycemia. ...
The lactic acidosis occurred only in patients with a buformin plasma level of greater than 0.60 µg/ml and was rare in patients ... In one report, the toxic oral dose was 329 ± 30 mg/day in 24 patients who developed lactic acidosis on buformin. Another group ... Buformin was withdrawn from the market in many countries due to an elevated risk of causing lactic acidosis (although not the ... 28 Jan 2007 Wittmann P, Haslbeck M, Bachmann W, Mehnert H. [Lactic acidosis in diabetics on biguanides (author's translation)] ...
Heart failure with lactic acidosis syndrome has been observed. Cardiac abnormalities are an aspect of the WE, which was not ... Focal lactic acidosis also causes secondary oedema, oxidative stress, inflammation and white matter damage. Despite its name, ... Rosen A, van Kuilenburg A, Assmann B, Kuhlen M, Borkhardt A (May 2011). "Severe encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, vegetative ... epilepsy and stupor lactic acidosis memory impairment, amnesia, depression, psychosis hypothermia, polyneuropathy, ...
"Phenformin-induced lactic acidosis in an older diabetic patient: a recurrent drama (phenformin and lactic acidosis)". Diabetes ... but was withdrawn due to lactic acidosis risk. Buformin also was withdrawn due to lactic acidosis risk. Metformin is usually ... as patients are at an increased risk of lactic acidosis. Phenformin (DBI) was used from 1960s through 1980s, ... "Buformin concentrations in a case of fatal lactic acidosis". Diabetologia. 20 (1): 45-6. doi:10.1007/BF01789112. PMID 7202882. ...
The assumption was lactic acid had a "pickling" effect on muscles, inhibiting their ability to contract. The impact of lactic ... R. Robergs; F. Ghiasvand; D. Parker (2004). "Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis". Am J Physiol Regul Integr ... producing lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. Contrary to common belief, lactic acid accumulation doesn't actually cause the ... Lactic acid also has a negating effect on the chloride ions in the muscles, reducing their inhibition of contraction and ...
2005). "Thiamine-responsive congenital lactic acidosis: clinical and biochemical studies". Pediatr. Neurol. 33 (2): 98-104. doi ...
Alshayeb H (2010) Lactic Acidosis in Restrained Cocaine Intoxicated Patients. Tennessee Medicine. Nov-Dec. 37-39. Chan TC, ... 25(5) 710-12 Hick, J.L., Smith, S.W., Lynch, M.T. (1999) 'Metabolic Acidosis In Restraint Associated Cardiac Arrest: A Case ... One group of doctors has presented a method of resuscitation, correcting acidosis in the blood of the victim, which proved ...
Lactic acidosis then occurs as a consequence of anaerobic metabolism. Initially, acute cyanide poisoning causes a red or ruddy ...
Laboratory studies showed 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria and mild lactic acidosis. Many case studies since then have presented ...
Lactic acidosis then occurs as a consequence of anaerobic metabolism. An oral dosage as small as 200-300 mg can be fatal. ...
Lactic acidosis occurs predominantly in paracetomol (also known as acetaminophen) overdose. Hyperdynamic circulation, with ... resulting in tissue hypoxia and lactic acidosis. Pulmonary complications occur in up to 50% of patients. Severe lung injury and ...
Most people with MELAS have a buildup of lactic acid in their bodies, a condition called lactic acidosis. Increased acidity in ... Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is one of the family of mitochondrial ... Pavlakis SG, Phillips PC, DiMauro S, De Vivo DC, Rowland LP (1984). "Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, ... Hirano M, Pavlakis SG (1994). "Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS): ...
The use of nucleoside drugs such as abacavir can very rarely cause lactic acidosis. Signs of lactic acidosis include fast or ... More severe side effects include hypersensitivity, liver damage, and lactic acidosis. Genetic testing can indicate whether a ... lactic acidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and lipodystrophy. People with liver disease should be cautious about using abacavir ...
Common clinical manifestations include myopathy, hypotonia, and encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and hypertrophic ...
Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a rare but important etiology of lactic acidosis. Continuous renal replacement therapy ... Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious adverse effect in patients treated with metformin. Recent studies noted a correlation ... The concentration of metformin detected was 77.5 mg/L, which is one of the highest in metformin-associated lactic acidosis ... She was found to be hypotensive and laboratory examinations revealed severe lactic acidosis: pH 6.618, partial pressure of ...
Lactic acidosis- A serious condition caused by the build up of lactic acid in the blood, causing it to become excessively ... Lactic acid is a by-product of glucose metabolism.. Metabolism- The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body ... Acidosis- A condition that causes the pH of the blood to drop and become more acidic. ... ketoacidosis (kee-toh-asid-oh-sis) n. a condition in which acidosis is accompanied by ketosis, such as occurs in type 1 ...
People who suffer from lactic acidosis should seek medical care immediately. What causes diabetes: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is ...
They had low pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme activity but most did not have lactic acidosis. Patients were deficient in ...
Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels, become low in cells within the areas of the body where metabolism takes place. ... Lactic acidosis refers to lactic acid build up in the bloodstream. ... Lactic acidosis refers to lactic acid build up in the bloodstream. Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels, become low in ... The most common cause of lactic acidosis is severe medical illness in which blood pressure is low and too little oxygen is ...
... questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis ... Many people with MELAS have a buildup of lactic acid in their bodies (lactic acidosis). This can lead to vomiting, abdominal ... Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) affects many parts of the body, particularly ... Is there a link between mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and a person who is ...
Congenital lactic acidosis can be caused by mutations on the X chromosome or in mitochondrial DNA. Congenital lactic acidosis ... Congenital lactic acidosis (CLA) is a rare disease caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that affect the ability of ... Though lactic acidosis can be a complication of other congenital diseases, when it occurs in isolation it is typically caused ... There is no proven treatment for congenital lactic acidosis. Treatments that are occasionally used or that are under ...
In patients with shortness of breath and clear lungs, consider metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalis as a potential cause ... Patients with MALA will have a low pH, a high-anion gap metabolic acidosis and high lactate levels ... LITFL: Metformin-Associated Lactic Acidosis. LITFL: Metformin. The Poison Review: 6 Pearls About Metformin and Lactic Acidosis ...
D-lactic acidosis is a form of lactic acidosis that occurs from overproduction of D-lactate by intestinal bacteria. It is ... encoded search term (What is D-lactic acidosis?) and What is D-lactic acidosis? What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult ... D-lactic acidosis is a form of lactic acidosis that occurs from overproduction of D-lactate by intestinal bacteria. It is ... What is D-lactic acidosis?. Updated: Oct 10, 2018 * Author: Christie P Thomas, MBBS, FRCP, FASN, FAHA; Chief Editor: Vecihi ...
... which supported a multifactorial aetiology for lactic acidosis. Advanced age and cardiovascular and renal disease are absolute ... Phenformin and lactic acidosis.. Br Med J 1976; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6001.70 (Published 10 January 1976) Cite ... patients who presented with diabetes and a changed state of consciousness satisfied the criteria for lactic acidosis. Sixteen ...
... ANSWER When you exercise, your body uses oxygen to break down glucose for ... From: Lactic Acidosis and Exercise: What You Need to Know WebMD Medical Reference ... But this lactate or lactic acid can build up in your bloodstream faster than you can burn it off. The point when lactic acid ... What are the symptoms of lactic acidosis?. NEXT QUESTION: What medical conditions can cause lactic acidosis? ...
Lactic acidosis, prostaglandin E1, and colchicine. Br Med J 1978; 1 :651 ... Lactic acidosis, prostaglandin E1, and colchicine.. Br Med J 1978; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6113.651-a (Published ...
If left untreated, lactic acidosis can be fatal. Symptoms, if any, can include nausea, abdominal pain, muscle ache and weakness ... Lactic acidosis may be caused by advanced HIV infection or antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. ... A condition in which lactic acid builds up in the blood. ... Lactic Acidosis Lactic Acidosis Speaker A condition in which ... If left untreated, lactic acidosis can be fatal. Symptoms, if any, can include nausea, abdominal pain, muscle ache and weakness ...
D-Lactic acidosis was diagnosed on the basis of a D-lactate level of 8.2 mmol/L (normal, 0 to 0.25) obtained during an episode ... D-Lactic acidosis is a potentially fatal clinical condition seen in patients with a short small intestine and an intact colon. ... D-lactic acidosis: pathologic consequence of saprophytism.. Vella A1, Farrugia G. ... Increased awareness of D-lactic acidosis is necessary for prompt and appropriate treatment. The pathophysiology and treatment ...
Lactic acidosis is an uncommon but potentially fatal adverse effect. The reported frequency of lactic acidosis is 0.06 per 1000 ... Biguanide-associated lactic acidosis. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:2333-6. *Gowardman JR, Havill J. Fatal metformin induced lactic ... Doctors should suspect lactic acidosis in patients presenting with acidosis, but without evidence of hypoperfusion or hypoxia. ... Post-surgical lactic acidosis caused the death of a 70-year-old man whose metformin was not withdrawn at the time of surgery. ...
mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. *mitochondrial myopathy, lactic acidosis, ... Most people with MELAS have a buildup of lactic acid in their bodies, a condition called lactic acidosis. Increased acidity in ... Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a condition that affects many of the ... Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke (MELAS). Rev Neurol Dis. 2005 Winter;2(1):30-4. Review. ...
In the acute state, respiratory compensation of acidosis occurs by hyperventilation resulting in a relative reduction in PaCO2. ... Metabolic acidosis is defined as a state of decreased systemic pH resulting from either a primary increase in hydrogen ion (H+ ... Acute Lactic Acidosis) and Acute Lactic Acidosis What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Acute Lactic ... What is included in emergency treatment of lactic acidosis?. What is the role of thiamine in the treatment of lactic acidosis? ...
Lactic acidosis can cause potentially fatal symptoms of metabolic acidosis, a dangerous condition that diabetics with poorly ... Whether caused by low blood sugar levels or medication, lactic acidosis in diabetics is life-threatening. Both lactic acidosis ... This is called lactic acidosis.. Diabetics are especially prone to another subtype of metabolic acidosis, called diabetic ... Lactic acidosis can cause potentially fatal symptoms of metabolic acidosis, a dangerous condition that diabetics with poorly ...
Biguanide-induced lactic acidosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis. We ... Phenformin and lactic acidosis: a case report and review.. Kwong SC1, Brubacher J. ... Phenformin was removed from the U.S. market 20 years ago because of a high incidence of lactic acidosis. Unfortunately, this ... Risk factors for the development of lactic acidosis include renal deficiency, hepatic disease, cardiac disease, and drug ...
Congenital lactic acidosis is a rare form of lactic acidosis. The word "congenital" means that the underlying condition that ... Congenital lactic acidosis affects males and females in equal numbers. The exact incidence of congenital lactic acidosis is ... increases risk of developing lactic acidosis is present at birth. In most cases, the cause of congenital lactic acidosis is due ... Lactic acidosis can have many different causes and is often present in severely ill patients hospitalized in intensive care ...
It is similar to previously published rates based on passive reporting of cases, and it is well below the lactic acidosis rate ... In both cases, other factors besides metformin could have contributed to the lactic acidosis. No additional cases were found on ... OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of lactic acidosis in a geographically defined population ... CONCLUSIONS: From 1980 through 1995, the incidence rate of lactic acidosis was 9 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 0-21) in ...
Mitochondrial toxicity and one of its symptoms called lactic acidosis have been highlighted recently as a previously ... can lead to lactic acidosis, a life-threatening condition caused by too much lactate. In early stages of lactic acidosis, ... Mitochondrial Toxicity and Lactic Acidosis. Healthy cells normally produce lactate, its a natural by-product when mitochondria ... Mitochondrial toxicity and one of its symptoms called lactic acidosis have been highlighted recently as a previously ...
CONCLUSIONS Lactic acidosis occurs regularly, although infrequently, among persons with type 2 diabetes, at rates similar to ... OBJECTIVE To provide a context for the interpretation of lactic acidosis risk among patients using metformin, we measured rates ... The medical conditions with which both metformin-associated and naturally occurring lactic acidosis cooccur are also its ... The observed association between metformin and lactic acidosis may be coincidental rather than causal. This possibility merits ...
Lactic acidosis treatment is a method of treating a condition in which lactic acid levels in a persons bloodstream rise too ... In some cases, lactic acidosis treatment is necessary. For example, a person may develop lactic acidosis because of a genetic ... Lactic acidosis is a condition in which lactic acid levels in a persons bloodstream rise at too fast a rate. When this happens ... Some patients with lactic acidosis may have pain and bloating in the abdominal area.. ...
B lactic acidosis from her malignancy and hepatic dysfunction contributing a significant role in her refractory lactic acidosis ... Refractory Lactic Acidosis in Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung. Daniel J. Oh,1 Ellen Dinerman,1 Andrew H. Matthews,1 Abraham W. ... Her lactic acidosis worsened in the setting of subsequent septic and hypovolemic shock but, even after successful resuscitation ... K. S. Rao, R. Mehta, and J. Ferlinz, "Unusual presentation of cancer-induced lactic acidosis," Postgraduate Medical Journal, ...
more