Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.MELAS Syndrome: A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Alkalosis, Respiratory: A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Phenformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters: Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fanconi Syndrome: A hereditary or acquired form of generalized dysfunction of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE without primary involvement of the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS. It is usually characterized by the tubular wasting of nutrients and salts (GLUCOSE; AMINO ACIDS; PHOSPHATES; and BICARBONATES) resulting in HYPOKALEMIA; ACIDOSIS; HYPERCALCIURIA; and PROTEINURIA.RNA, Transfer, Leu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)GlutaminaseKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Dichloroacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
(1/1411) Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat.

PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP.  (+info)

(2/1411) Arteriovenous differences for amino acids and lactate across kidneys of normal and acidotic rats.

1. Arteriovenous differences fro amino acids across kidneys of normal and chronically acidotic rats were measured. Glutamine was the only amino acid extracted in increased amounts in acidosis. There was a considerable production of serine by kidneys from both normal and acidotic rats. 2. The arterial blood concentration of glutamine was significantly decreased in acidotic animals. 3. The glutamine extracted by kidneys of acidotic rats was largely and probably exclusively derived from the plasma. 4. The blood lactate concentration was unchanged in acidosis, as was the uptake of lactate by the kidney.  (+info)

(3/1411) Abnormal ductus venosus blood flow: a clue to umbilical cord complication.

We report a case of umbilical cord complication causing, fetal hypoxemia and acidemia. At 30 weeks of gestation, the patient was referred because of slightly increased amniotic fluid volume and a non-reactive cardiotocogram. Biometry was appropriate for gestational age. Umbilical artery and fetal aortic Doppler findings were normal, whereas diastolic blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral artery were increased and the ductus venosus showed severely abnormal flow velocity waveforms with reversal of flow during atrial contraction. Since other reasons for fetal hypoxemia could be excluded, careful examination of the umbilical cord was performed. Traction of the hypercoiled umbilical cord due to its course around the fetal neck and shoulders was suspected. Cesarean section confirmed the sonographic findings and fetal blood gases revealed fetal acidemia. This case indicates that investigation of fetal venous blood flow may also help to identify fetal jeopardy due to reasons other than increased placental vascular resistance.  (+info)

(4/1411) Epidural analgesia with bupivacaine does not improve splanchnic tissue perfusion after aortic reconstruction surgery.

Inadequate splanchnic tissue perfusion is relatively common during and after aortic surgery. We hypothesized that vasodilation caused by thoracic epidural analgesia improves splanchnic blood flow and tissue perfusion after aortic surgery. In this prospective, randomized, controlled study, we studied 20 patients undergoing elective aortic-femoral or aortic-iliac reconstruction surgery. Gastric and sigmoid colon mucosal PCO2 and pH were measured during surgery. An epidural bolus of bupivacaine 40 mg followed by infusion of 15 mg h-1 was started after operation in 10 patients. After operation, splanchnic blood flow and gastric and sigmoid colon mucosal PCO2 and pH were measured before and 2 h after the start of epidural analgesia. During surgery, the gastric mucosal-arterial PCO2 difference remained stable, whereas the sigmoid mucosal-arterial PCO2 difference increased during aortic clamping but returned to pre-clamping values after declamping. After operation, epidural analgesia had no effect on gastric or sigmoid mucosal-arterial PCO2 differences or on splanchnic blood flow.  (+info)

(5/1411) Temporal differences in actions of calcium channel blockers on K+ accumulation, cardiac function, and high-energy phosphate levels in ischemic guinea pig hearts.

We investigated temporal differences in the protective action of three types of Ca2+ channel blockers in myocardial ischemia, focusing particularly on the blocking ability under depolarizing conditions. The effects of diltiazem, verapamil, and nifedipine on extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]e), acidosis, and level of metabolic markers were examined during 30-min global ischemia and postischemic left ventricular (LV) function in isolated guinea pig hearts. Diltiazem and verapamil, but not nifedipine, inhibited the late phase (15-30 min) of [K+]e elevation, whereas all three blockers delayed the onset of the early phase (0-8 min) of [K+]e elevation. Diltiazem and verapamil inhibited ischemic contracture and improved postischemic LV function to a greater extent. These differences appeared to be linked to preservation of ATP and creatine phosphate and delay of cessation of anaerobic glycolytic activity. Maneuvers to preserve energy sources during ischemia (decrease in external Ca2+ concentration or pacing at a lower frequency) attenuated the late phase of [K+]e elevation. Inhibition of LV pressure was potentiated 12- and 8.2-fold by diltiazem and verapamil, respectively, at 8.9 mM K+ as compared with 2.9 mM K+, whereas that by nifedipine was unchanged. These results indicate that the differential cardioprotection of Ca2+ channel blockers in the late period of ischemia correlates with preservation of high-energy phosphates as a result of different Ca2+ channel blocking abilities under high [K+]e conditions.  (+info)

(6/1411) Rapid saline infusion produces hyperchloremic acidosis in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery.

BACKGROUND: Changes in acid-base balance caused by infusion of a 0.9% saline solution during anesthesia and surgery are poorly characterized. Therefore, the authors evaluated these phenomena in a dose-response study. METHODS: Two groups of 12 patients each who were undergoing major intraabdominal gynecologic surgery were assigned randomly to receive 0.9% saline or lactated Ringer's solution in a dosage of 30 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1). The pH, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, lactate, and total protein were measured in 30-min intervals. The serum bicarbonate concentration was calculated using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and also using the Stewart approach from the strong ion difference and the amount of weak plasma acid. The strong ion difference was calculated as serum sodium + serum potassium - serum chloride - serum lactate. The amount of weak plasma acid was calculated as the serum total protein concentration in g/dl x 2.43. RESULTS: Infusion of 0.9% saline, but not lactated Ringer's solution, caused a metabolic acidosis with hyperchloremia and a concomitant decrease in the strong ion difference. Calculating the serum bicarbonate concentration using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or the Stewart approach produced equivalent results. CONCLUSIONS: Infusion of approximately 30 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1) saline during anesthesia and surgery inevitably leads to metabolic acidosis, which is not observed after administration of lactated Ringer's solution. The acidosis is associated with hyperchloremia.  (+info)

(7/1411) Evaluation of signals activating ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in a model of muscle wasting.

The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system is stimulated in conditions causing muscle atrophy. Signals initiating this response in these conditions are unknown, although glucocorticoids are required but insufficient to stimulate muscle proteolysis in starvation, acidosis, and sepsis. To identify signals that activate this system, we studied acutely diabetic rats that had metabolic acidosis and increased corticosterone production. Protein degradation was increased 52% (P < 0.05), and mRNA levels encoding ubiquitin-proteasome system components, including the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E214k, were higher (transcription of the ubiquitin and proteasome subunit C3 genes in muscle was increased by nuclear run-off assay). In diabetic rats, prevention of acidemia by oral NaHCO3 did not eliminate muscle proteolysis. Adrenalectomy blocked accelerated proteolysis and the rise in pathway mRNAs; both responses were restored by administration of a physiological dose of glucocorticoids to adrenalectomized, diabetic rats. Finally, treating diabetic rats with insulin for >/=24 h reversed muscle proteolysis and returned pathway mRNAs to control levels. Thus acidification is not necessary for these responses, but glucocorticoids and a low insulin level in tandem activate the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system.  (+info)

(8/1411) Changes in intracellular Na+ and pH in rat heart during ischemia: role of Na+/H+ exchanger.

The role of the Na+/H+ exchanger in rat hearts during ischemia and reperfusion was investigated by measurements of intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and intracellular and extracellular pH. Under our standard conditions (2-Hz stimulation), 10 min of ischemia caused no significant rise in [Na+]i but an acidosis of 1.0 pH unit, suggesting that the Na+/H+ exchanger was inactive during ischemia. This was confirmed by showing that the Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor methylisobutyl amiloride (MIA) had no effect on [Na+]i or on intracellular pH during ischemia. However, there was a short-lived increase in [Na+]i of 8.2 +/- 0.6 mM on reperfusion, which was reduced by MIA, showing that the Na+/H+ exchanger became active on reperfusion. To investigate the role of metabolic changes, we measured [Na+]i during anoxia. The [Na+]i did not change during 10 min of anoxia, but there was a small, transient rise of [Na+]i on reoxygenation, which was inhibited by MIA. In addition, we show that the Na+/H+ exchanger, tested by sodium lactate exposure, was inhibited during anoxia. These results show that the Na+/H+ exchanger is inhibited during ischemia and anoxia, probably by an intracellular metabolic mechanism. The exchanger activates rapidly on reperfusion and can cause a rapid rise in [Na+]i.  (+info)

*  Diabetic ketoacidosis
Metabolic acidosis may occur in people with diabetes for other reasons, such as poisoning with ethylene glycol or paraldehyde. ... The ketone bodies, however, have a low pKa and therefore turn the blood acidic (metabolic acidosis). The body initially buffers ... Likely factors in the development of cerebral edema are dehydration, acidosis and low carbon dioxide levels; in addition, the ... mild acidosis and ketonemia may occur in this state, but not to the extent observed in DKA. There is a degree of overlap ...
*  Distal renal tubular acidosis
... (dRTA) or Type 1 renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is the classical form of RTA, being the first ... Renal tubular acidosis Proximal renal tubular acidosis Ifosfamide Laing CM, Toye AM, Capasso G, Unwin RJ (2005). "Renal tubular ... 2000). "Band 3 mutations, renal tubular acidosis and South-East Asian ovalocytosis in Malaysia and Papua New Guinea: loss of up ... McCurdy DK, Frederic M, Elkinton JR (1968). "Renal tubular acidosis due to amphotericin B". N. Engl. J. Med. 278 (3): 124-30. ...
*  Renal tubular acidosis
The metabolic acidosis caused by RTA is a normal anion gap acidosis. Play media An overview of types 1, 2, and 4 is presented ... Charles II of Spain, who is speculated to have suffered with dRTA Hyperchloremic acidosis Hypokalemic acidosis Laing CM, Toye ... The word acidosis refers to the tendency for RTA to cause an excess of acid, which lowers the blood's pH. When the blood pH is ... Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that involves an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the ...
*  Delta ratio
This means a combined high anion gap metabolic acidosis and a pre-existing either respiratory acidosis or metabolic alkalosis ( ... Result 4: if the result of the ratio is greater than 2 in a high anion gap metabolic acidosis, it is usually because there was ... Delta ratio is a formula that can be used to assess elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis and to evaluate whether a mixed acid ... The anion gap (AG) is calculated first and if an anion gap is present, results in either a high anion gap metabolic acidosis ( ...
*  Acidosis
An increase in the production of other acids may also produce metabolic acidosis. For example, lactic acidosis may occur from: ... Nervous system involvement may be seen with acidosis and occurs more often with respiratory acidosis than with metabolic ... such as either renal tubular acidosis or the renal acidosis of renal failure, which is associated with an accumulation of urea ... Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35 (except in the fetus - see below), while its counterpart (alkalosis ...
*  Hyperchloremic acidosis
... is a form of metabolic acidosis associated with a normal anion gap, a decrease in plasma bicarbonate ... DDB 11673 NIH - Renal Tubular Acidosis Kellum JA (February 2002). "Fluid resuscitation and hyperchloremic acidosis in ... V bicarbonate Anion gap Metabolic acidosis Pseudohypoaldosteronism "Hyperchloremic Acidosis: Practice Essentials, Etiology, ... In general, the cause of a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a loss of base, either a gastrointestinal loss or a renal loss ...
*  Hypokalemic acidosis
... is a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis that has various direct and associated symptoms. Symptoms are ... The main causes of hypokalemic acidosis are systemic disorders that can be divided into: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as ... acetazolamide Dialysis, in the post-treatment Diarrhea Renal tubular acidosis Treated DKA with insulin therapy VIPoma. ...
*  Metabolic acidosis
Together with respiratory acidosis, it is one of the two general causes of acidemia. Terminology : Acidosis refers to a process ... Longstanding chronic metabolic acidosis leads to osteoporosis and can cause fractures. Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body ... 16 mmol/L) can indicate particular types of metabolic acidosis, particularly certain poisons, lactate acidosis, and ... as dialysis may clear both the intoxication and the acidosis. Trauma triad of death Metabolic alkalosis Respiratory acidosis ...
*  Respiratory acidosis
... can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the ... Acidosis Alkalosis Arterial blood gas Chemical equilibrium pCO2 pH pKa Metabolic acidosis Metabolic alkalosis Respiratory ... The expected change in pH with respiratory acidosis can be estimated with the following equations: Acute respiratory acidosis: ... Acute respiratory acidosis: HCO3− increases 1 mEq/L for each 10 mm Hg rise in PaCO2. Chronic respiratory acidosis: HCO3− rises ...
*  Congenital lactic acidosis
... can be caused by mutations on the X chromosome or in mitochondrial DNA. Congenital lactic acidosis ... Congenital lactic acidosis (CLA) is a rare disease caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that affect the ability of ... Though lactic acidosis can be a complication of other congenital diseases, when it occurs in isolation it is typically caused ... There is no proven treatment for congenital lactic acidosis. Treatments that are occasionally used or that are under ...
*  Proximal renal tubular acidosis
... (pRTA) or Type 2 Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a type of RTA caused by a failure of the ... Renal tubular acidosis Distal renal tubular acidosis Rodriguez Soriano J, Boichis H, Stark H, Edelmann CM (1967). "Proximal ... Matsuo N, Tsuchiya Y, Cho H, Nagai T, Tsuji A (1986). "Proximal renal tubular acidosis in a child with type 1 glycogen storage ... As with dRTA, reversal of the chronic acidosis should reverse bone demineralization. Thiazide diuretics can also be used as ...
*  Normal anion gap acidosis
In renal physiology, normal anion gap acidosis, and less precisely non-anion gap acidosis, is an acidosis that is not ... hyperchloremic acidosis) or increased excretion of bicarbonate. High anion gap metabolic acidosis "Metabolic Acidosis: Acid- ... The most common cause of normal anion gap acidosis is diarrhea with a renal tubular acidosis being a distant second. The ... metabolic acidosis. The pathophysiology of increased chloride concentration is the following: fluid secreted into the gut lumen ...
*  High anion gap metabolic acidosis
... is a form of metabolic acidosis characterized by a high anion gap (a medical value based on ... metabolic acidosis) is present. The list of agents that cause high anion gap metabolic acidosis is similar to but broader than ... Lactic acidosis E - Ethylene glycol (Note: Ethanol is sometimes included in this mnemonic as well, although the acidosis caused ... When acidosis is present on blood tests, the first step in determining the cause is determining the anion gap. If the anion gap ...
*  Tumor lysis syndrome
Lactic acidosis. Pretreatment spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome. This entity is associated with acute kidney failure due to uric ... result in severe metabolic derangements (e.g., hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, lactic aci- dosis, and the acute tumor lysis ...
*  Ringer's lactate solution
It may also be used to treat metabolic acidosis in cases other than those caused by lactic acidosis and to wash the eye ... Ringer's lactate solution has a lower rate of acidosis as compared with normal saline. Use is generally safe in pregnancy and ... Kraut, JA; Madias, NE (11 December 2014). "Lactic acidosis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (24): 2309-19. doi: ... Ringer's lactate solution is used because the by-products of lactate metabolism in the liver counteract acidosis, which is a ...
*  Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism
by plasma acidosis. by the stretch receptors located in the atria of the heart. by adrenoglomerulotropin, a lipid factor, ...
*  Streptococcus bovis
S. bovis is commonly found in the alimentary tract of cattle, sheep, and other ruminants, and may cause ruminal acidosis or ... doi:10.1046/j.1344-3941.2002.00044.x. "Subacute Ruminal Acidosis". The Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 2008-09-10. Horner, ... and subsequent development of adverse conditions such as ruminal acidosis or feedlot bloat. "Taxonomy Browser - Streptococcus ... with special reference to rumen acidosis". Animal Science Journal. 73 (5): 313-325. ...
*  Exercise intolerance
Haller, R.G (1989). "Exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis, and abnormal cardiopulmonary regulation in exercise associated with ... muscle fatigue and lactic acidosis. Exercise tolerance reflects the combined capacity of components in the oxygen cascade to ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes
SLC5A2 Renal tubular acidosis with deafness; 267300; ATP6B1 Renal tubular acidosis, distal, AD; 179800; SLC4A1 Renal tubular ... SLC4A1 Renal tubular acidosis, distal, autosomal recessive; 602722; ATP6V0A4 Renal tubular acidosis, proximal, with ocular ... MCM6 Lactic acidosis, fatal infantile; 245400; SUCLG1 Lacticacidemia due to PDX1 deficiency; 245349; PDX1 LADD syndrome; 149730 ... with renal tubular acidosis; 259730; CA2 Osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive 4; 611490; CLCN7 Osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive ...
*  Adverse effect
Lactic acidosis associated with the use of stavudine (Zerit, for HIV therapy) or metformin (for diabetes) Mania caused by ... "Metformin and Fatal Lactic Acidosis". Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013. Patten, S. B.; ... Mokrzycki, M. H.; Harris, C.; May, H.; Laut, J.; Palmisano, J. (2000). "Lactic Acidosis Associated with Stavudine ...
*  Electrolyte imbalance
Acidosis Alkalosis Dehydration Malnutrition Starvation. ...
*  Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state
Metabolic acidosis is absent or mild. A temporary state of confusion (delirium) is also more common in HHS than DKA. HHS also ...
*  Glutathione synthetase
In humans, defects in GSS are inherited in an autosomal recessive way and are the cause of severe metabolic acidosis, 5- ... In order to treat metabolic acidosis, severely affected patients are given large amounts of bicarbonate and antioxidants such ... Kraut JA, Madias NE (May 2010). "Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management". Nature Reviews. Nephrology. 6 ... Physiological symptoms include metabolic acidosis, neurological defects, and increased susceptibility to pathogenic infections ...
*  Acid-base homeostasis
If the accompanying alkalosis overwhelms the acidosis then an alkalaemia results; whereas if the acidosis is greater than the ... or a respiratory acidosis can be completely or partially corrected by a metabolic alkalosis. Whether an acidosis causes and ... metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory alkalosis. One or a combination these conditions ... The terms acidosis and alkalosis should always be qualified by an adjective to indicate the cause of the disturbance: " ...
*  Weakness
R. Robergs; F. Ghiasvand; D. Parker (2004). "Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis". Am J Physiol Regul Integr ...
Acidosis, Renal Tubular - DrugBank  Acidosis, Renal Tubular - DrugBank
Also known as: Renal tubular acidosis / RTA / Renal acidosis tubular / Hypokalemic nephropathy / Acidosis renal tubular ... Potassium citrate is used to treat a kidney stone condition called renal tubular acidosis. Potassium Citrate is indicated also ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/indications/DBCOND0001374
Respiratory Acidosis - Causes Of Respiratory Acidosis  Respiratory Acidosis - Causes Of Respiratory Acidosis
To acquaint yourself on the causes of respiratory acidosis, read on. ... Respiratory acidosis is a serious clinical complication that can be potentially fatal. ... Respiratory acidosis is a clinical condition, triggered by excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in the body that disrupts the pH ... Respiratory acidosis is a serious clinical complication that can be potentially fatal. To acquaint yourself on the causes of ...
more infohttp://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/respiratory-acidosis-11079.html
Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA)-Causes-Types-Diagnosis-Treatment-Complications  Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA)-Causes-Types-Diagnosis-Treatment-Complications
Renal tubular acidosis causes include Addison s disease, drugs, mineralcorticoid deficiency. ... Renal tubular acidosis/RTA results in acid content of the blood being higher than normal and that of the urine lower than ... Renal Tubular Acidosis is treated using alkaline agents like sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate or potassium citrate. In ... Renal tubular acidosis is a condition where the kidneys are unable to maintain the acid base balance in the body due to defect ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/renal-tubular-acidosis.htm
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode (MELAS) | Radiology Case | Radiopaedia.org  Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode (MELAS) | Radiology Case | Radiopaedia.org
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a rare inherited disorder that results in ... Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode (MELAS). Case contributed by Dr Oyedepo Victor ... Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a rare inherited disorder that results in ... 2. Henry C, Patel N, Shaffer W, Murphy L, Park J, Spieler B. Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy With Lactic Acidosis and Stroke- ...
more infohttps://radiopaedia.org/cases/mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episode-melas
distal Renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) - Medical Need  distal Renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) - Medical Need
distal Renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) SLC4A1-associated distal renal tubular acidosis is a kidney (renal) disorder that ... Often, people who initially have incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis develop metabolic acidosis later in life. ... This chemical imbalance is called metabolic acidosis. The inability to remove acids from the body often results in slowed ... In addition, most children and adults with SLC4A1-associated distal renal tubular acidosis have excess calcium in the urine ( ...
more infohttp://medicalneed.com/patients/renal-tubular-acidosis/
distal Renal Tubular Acidosis (dRTA) - Medical Need  distal Renal Tubular Acidosis (dRTA) - Medical Need
distal Renal Tubular Acidosis (dRTA). SLC4A1-associated distal renal tubular acidosis is a kidney (renal) disorder that ... Often, people who initially have incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis develop metabolic acidosis later in life. ... leading to metabolic acidosis and the other features of complete distal renal tubular acidosis. It is not clear why some people ... In autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis, both copies of the SLC4A1 gene are mutated, so all of the protein ...
more infohttp://medicalneed.com/healthcare-professionals/renal-tubular-acidosis/
Best Respiratory Acidosis Doctor in Kolkata, Respiratory Acidosis Doctors | Credihealth  Best Respiratory Acidosis Doctor in Kolkata, Respiratory Acidosis Doctors | Credihealth
Get guidance from medical experts to select respiratory acidosis specialist in Kolkata from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com ... Find the best respiratory acidosis doctors in Kolkata. ... Best doctors for respiratory-acidosis in Kolkata List of best ... Need help in choosing respiratory acidosis doctor in Kolkata? The medical expert will guide you for all hospital needs ... Need help in choosing respiratory acidosis doctor in Kolkata? The medical expert will guide you for all hospital needs ...
more infohttps://www.credihealth.com/doctors/kolkata/respiratory-acidosis
Renal tubular acidosis, food allergy, IgA and IgG deficiency in Mexican children | Clinical and Translational Allergy | Full...  Renal tubular acidosis, food allergy, IgA and IgG deficiency in Mexican children | Clinical and Translational Allergy | Full...
There is quite a few reports about food allergy and renal tubular acidosis, as an allergen trigger of the mechanism of acidosis ... 29 patients had distal renal tubular acidosis (96%) 1 patient with proximal renal tubular acidosis. About food allergies, cow's ... In Mexican children population we have found a link between food allergy and renal tubular acidosis, being a food allergen as ... To describe the association between food allergy, renal tubular acidosis and IgA and IgG deficiency, there is a serial case ...
more infohttps://ctajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2045-7022-1-S1-P111
Bicarbonate Supplementation  Bicarbonate Supplementation
Type 1 Renal Tubular Acidosis Type 2 Renal Tubular Acidosis Sodium Bicarbonate Type 4 Renal Tubular Acidosis ... Oral Preparations for Renal Tubular Acidosis * Potassium Citrate (Polycitra). *Concentration: 500 mg per 5 ml ... Oral Dosing in Renal Tubular Acidosis * Distal RTA (low dose): 1-2 meq/kg/day ... Sodium Bicarbonate in Severe Metabolic Acidosis Tromethamine Urine Alkalinization Vasopressin Receptor Antagonist ...
more infohttp://www.fpnotebook.com/Renal/Pharm/BcrbntSplmntn.htm
Diabetic ketoacidosis facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Diabetic ketoacidosis  Diabetic ketoacidosis facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Diabetic ketoacidosis
Lactic acidosis- A serious condition caused by the build up of lactic acid in the blood, causing it to become excessively ... Acidosis- A condition that causes the pH of the blood to drop and become more acidic. ... ketoacidosis (kee-toh-asid-oh-sis) n. a condition in which acidosis is accompanied by ketosis, such as occurs in type 1 ... Diagnosis requires the demonstration of hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and acidosis. DKA is established if the patient's urine ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/diabetic-ketoacidosis
Potassium Citrate: The Contributions of Dr. Charles Pak | Kidney Stone Evaluation And Treatment Program  Potassium Citrate: The Contributions of Dr. Charles Pak | Kidney Stone Evaluation And Treatment Program
Renal Tubular Acidosis. I have far more often read about, or talked about, or taught about this disease than encountered it in ... I cannot but believe these plugs will reduce the ability of the kidneys to make an acid urine, so the renal tubular acidosis is ... I do not believe that incomplete renal tubular acidosis is a coherent clinical entity. Patients with calcium phosphate stones ...
more infohttps://kidneystones.uchicago.edu/potassium-citrate-the-contributions-of-charles-pak-md/
Renal Tubular Acidosis  Renal Tubular Acidosis
... Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you will be leaving ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/WillisKnighton/en/parents/renal-tubular-acidosis.html?view=rr
Renal Tubular Acidosis  Renal Tubular Acidosis
Acidosis tubular renal. Each time our internal organs do something, such as digesting food or healing damaged tissue, chemical ... Over time, untreated acidosis can lead to long-term problems like bone disease, kidney disease, and kidney failure. ... Type 1 RTA, or distal renal tubular acidosis, is the most common kind of RTA. Distal means that the defect is relatively far ... Type 2 RTA, or proximal renal tubular acidosis, happens when the damage or defect is relatively close to the start of the ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/KidsHealthDemo/en/parents/renal-tubular-acidosis.html
What is metabolic acidosis?  What is metabolic acidosis?
Metabolic acidosis should be considered a sign of an underlying disease process. Identification of this und... more ... Metabolic acidosis is a clinical disturbance characterized by an increase in plasma acidity. ... Drugs & Diseases , Emergency Medicine , Metabolic Acidosis in Emergency Medicine Q&A What is metabolic acidosis?. Updated: Oct ... encoded search term (What is metabolic acidosis?) and What is metabolic acidosis? What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/768268-156559/what-is-metabolic-acidosis
How is metabolic acidosis treated?  How is metabolic acidosis treated?
Drugs & Diseases , Emergency Medicine , Metabolic Acidosis in Emergency Medicine Q&A How is metabolic acidosis treated?. ... encoded search term (How is metabolic acidosis treated?) and How is metabolic acidosis treated? What to Read Next on Medscape. ... Metabolic acidosis status and mortality in patients on the end stage of renal disease. J Transl Int Med. 2016 Dec 1. 4 (4):170- ... Metabolic acidosis can be reversed by treating the underlying condition or by replacing the bicarbonate. The decision to give ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/768268-156593/how-is-metabolic-acidosis-treated
Hyperchloremic Acidosis Differential Diagnoses  Hyperchloremic Acidosis Differential Diagnoses
... in particular the renal tubular acidoses (RTAs). It also addresses approaches to the diagnosis and management of these ... This article covers the pathophysiology and causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidoses, ... encoded search term (Hyperchloremic Acidosis) and Hyperchloremic Acidosis What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Hyperchloremic Acidosis Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Oct 18, 2018 * Author: Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/240809-differential
Compensated acidosis definition | Drugs.com  Compensated acidosis definition | Drugs.com
Definition of compensated acidosis. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... compensated acidosis. Definition: an acidosis in which the pH of body fluids is normal; compensation is achieved by respiratory ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/compensated-acidosis.html
What is acidosis? | Reference.com  What is acidosis? | Reference.com
Metabolic acidosis happens when kidneys do not eliminate acid properly, and respiratory acidosis... ... Acidosis is the occurrence of body fluids containing an excessive amount of acid, states Healthline. ... What is lactic acidosis?. A: Lactic acidosis is a condition that is characterized by a buildup of lactic acid due to the poor ... Metabolic acidosis happens when kidneys do not eliminate acid properly, and respiratory acidosis occurs when lungs retain an ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/health/acidosis-23561468699f9ab4
Ketosis & Acidosis | LIVESTRONG.COM  Ketosis & Acidosis | LIVESTRONG.COM
Lactic acidosis is a common side effect of diabetic medication called metformin, but also can occur as a side effect of AIDS, ... When you have too much acid in your system, you can develop acidosis. The acid build-up can take place in your kidneys or lungs ... As acidosis progresses, you can smell acetone on your breath. Symptoms usually appear quickly, so you should seek emergency ... Diabetics may be prone to ketosis or acidosis when insulin levels drop below healthy levels or when ketones build up in the ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/449496-ketosis-acidosis/
Lactic Acidosis  | Definition | AIDSinfo  Lactic Acidosis | Definition | AIDSinfo
If left untreated, lactic acidosis can be fatal. Symptoms, if any, can include nausea, abdominal pain, muscle ache and weakness ... Lactic acidosis may be caused by advanced HIV infection or antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. ... Lactic Acidosis Lactic Acidosis Speaker A condition in which lactic acid builds up in the blood. If left untreated, lactic ... Lactic acidosis may be caused by advanced HIV infection or antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. ...
more infohttps://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/glossary/797/lactic-acidosis