A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
'Mining' in medical terminology is not a commonly used term, but it can refer to the process of extracting or excavating minerals or other resources from the earth, which can have health impacts such as respiratory diseases and hearing loss among workers in the mining industry.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.

The structure of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans c(4)-cytochrome: a model for complex-induced electron transfer tuning. (1/101)

The study of electron transfer between the copper protein rusticyanin (RCy) and the c(4)-cytochrome CYC(41) of the acidophilic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has evidenced a remarkable decrease of RCy's redox potential upon complex formation. The structure of the CYC(41) obtained at 2.2 A resolution highlighted a specific glutamate residue (E121) involved in zinc binding as potentially playing a central role in this effect, required for the electron transfer to occur. EPR and stopped-flow experiments confirmed the strong inhibitory effect of divalent cations on CYC(41):RCy complex formation. A docking analysis of the CYC(41) and RCy structure allows us to propose a detailed model for the complex-induced tuning of electron transfer in agreement with our experimental data, which could be representative of other copper proteins involved in electron transfer.  (+info)

Respiratory isozyme, two types of rusticyanin of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. (2/101)

Among the members of the copper protein superfamily, the type I enzyme rusticyanin, which is found as an electron carrier in the oxidative respiratory chain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, is the only one to have both a high redox potential and acid stability. Here we report that two forms of the rusticyanin gene (rus) are present in the genomes of some strains of A. ferrooxidans. The more common form of rus (type-A) was found to be present in all six strains studied, including those harboring only a single copy of the gene. In addition a less common form (type-B) occurred in strains harboring multiple copies of the gene. The two genes were expressed as rusticyanin isozymes with differing surface charges due to differences in their amino acid composition. Still, the copper coordination sites were completely conserved, thereby maintaining the high redox potential necessary for an electron carrier.  (+info)

Immobilization of arsenite and ferric iron by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and its relevance to acid mine drainage. (3/101)

Weathering of the As-rich pyrite-rich tailings of the abandoned mining site of Carnoules (southeastern France) results in the formation of acid waters heavily loaded with arsenic. Dissolved arsenic present in the seepage waters precipitates within a few meters from the bottom of the tailing dam in the presence of microorganisms. An Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain, referred to as CC1, was isolated from the effluents. This strain was able to remove arsenic from a defined synthetic medium only when grown on ferrous iron. This A. ferrooxidans strain did not oxidize arsenite to arsenate directly or indirectly. Strain CC1 precipitated arsenic unexpectedly as arsenite but not arsenate, with ferric iron produced by its energy metabolism. Furthermore, arsenite was almost not found adsorbed on jarosite but associated with a poorly ordered schwertmannite. Arsenate is known to efficiently precipitate with ferric iron and sulfate in the form of more or less ordered schwertmannite, depending on the sulfur-to-arsenic ratio. Our data demonstrate that the coprecipitation of arsenite with schwertmannite also appears as a potential mechanism of arsenite removal in heavily contaminated acid waters. The removal of arsenite by coprecipitation with ferric iron appears to be a common property of the A. ferrooxidans species, as such a feature was observed with one private and three collection strains, one of which was the type strain.  (+info)

Coevolution of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase with its tRNA substrates. (4/101)

Glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GluRSs) occur in two types, the discriminating and the nondiscriminating enzymes. They differ in their choice of substrates and use either tRNAGlu or both tRNAGlu and tRNAGln. Although most organisms encode only one GluRS, a number of bacteria encode two different GluRS proteins; yet, the tRNA specificity of these enzymes and the reason for such gene duplications are unknown. A database search revealed duplicated GluRS genes in >20 bacterial species, suggesting that this phenomenon is not unusual in the bacterial domain. To determine the tRNA preferences of GluRS, we chose the duplicated enzyme sets from Helicobacter pylori and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. H. pylori contains one tRNAGlu and one tRNAGln species, whereas A. ferrooxidans possesses two of each. We show that the duplicated GluRS proteins are enzyme pairs with complementary tRNA specificities. The H. pylori GluRS1 acylated only tRNAGlu, whereas GluRS2 was specific solely for tRNAGln. The A. ferrooxidans GluRS2 preferentially charged tRNA(UUG)(Gln). Conversely, A. ferrooxidans GluRS1 glutamylated both tRNAGlu isoacceptors and the tRNA(CUG)(Gln) species. These three tRNA species have two structural elements in common, the augmented D-helix and a deletion of nucleotide 47. It appears that the discriminating or nondiscriminating natures of different GluRS enzymes have been derived by the coevolution of protein and tRNA structure. The coexistence of the two GluRS enzymes in one organism may lay the groundwork for the acquisition of the canonical glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase by lateral gene transfer from eukaryotes.  (+info)

Enzymatic synthesis of lipid A molecules with four amide-linked acyl chains. LpxA acyltransferases selective for an analog of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in which an amine replaces the 3"-hydroxyl group. (5/101)

LpxA of Escherichia coli catalyzes the acylation of the glucosamine 3-OH group of UDP-GlcNAc, using R-3-hydroxymyristoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the donor substrate. We now demonstrate that LpxA in cell extracts of Mesorhizobium loti and Leptospira interrogans, which synthesize lipid A molecules containing 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-d-glucopyranose (GlcN3N) units in place of glucosamine, do not acylate UDP-GlcNAc. Instead, these LpxA acyltransferases require a UDP-Glc-NAc derivative (designated UDP 2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranose or UDP-GlcNAc3N), characterized in the preceding paper, in which an amine replaces the glucosamine 3-OH group. L. interrogans LpxA furthermore displays absolute selectivity for 3-hydroxylauroyl-ACP as the donor, whereas M. loti LpxA functions almost equally well with 10-, 12-, and 14-carbon 3-hydroxyacyl-ACPs. The substrate selectivity of L. interrogans LpxA is consistent with the structure of L. interrogans lipid A. The mechanism of L. interrogans LpxA appears to be similar to that of E. coli LpxA, given that the essential His(125) residue of E. coli LpxA is conserved and is also required for acyltransferase activity in L. interrogans. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (an organism that makes lipid A molecules containing both GlcN and GlcN3N) has an ortholog of LpxA that is selective for UDP-GlcNAc3N, but the enzyme also catalyzes the acylation of UDP-GlcNAc at a slow rate. E. coli LpxA acylates UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcNAc3N at comparable rates in vitro. However, UDP-GlcNAc3N is not synthesized in vivo, because E. coli lacks gnnA and gnnB. When the latter are supplied together with A. ferrooxidans lpxA, E. coli incorporates a significant amount of GlcN3N into its lipid A.  (+info)

Oxidation and transamination of the 3"-position of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by enzymes from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Role in the formation of lipid a molecules with four amide-linked acyl chains. (6/101)

Lipid A, a major component of the outer membranes of Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria, is usually constructed around a beta-1',6-linked glucosamine disaccharide backbone. However, in organisms like Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Leptospira interrogans, Mesorhizobium loti, and Legionella pneumophila, one or both glucosamine residues are replaced with the sugar 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-d-glucopyranose. We now report the identification of two proteins, designated GnnA and GnnB, involved in the formation of the 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-d-glucopyranose moiety. The genes encoding these proteins were recognized because of their location between lpxA and lpxB in A. ferrooxidans. Based upon their sequences, the 313-residue GnnA protein was proposed to catalyze the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of the glucosamine 3-OH of UDP-GlcNAc, and the 369-residue GnnB protein was proposed to catalyze the subsequent transamination to form UDP 2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranose (UDP-GlcNAc3N). Both gnnA and gnnB were cloned and expressed in E. coli using pET23c+. In the presence of l-glutamate and NAD(+), both proteins were required for the conversion of [alpha-(32)P]UDP-GlcNAc to a novel, less negatively charged sugar nucleotide shown to be [alpha-(32)P]UDP-GlcNAc3N. The latter contained a free amine, as judged by modification with acetic anhydride. Using recombinant GnnA and GnnB, approximately 0.4 mg of the presumptive UDP-GlcNAc3N was synthesized. The product was purified and subjected to NMR analysis to confirm the replacement of the GlcNAc 3-OH group with an equatorial NH(2). As shown in the accompanying papers, UDP-GlcNAc3N is selectively acylated by LpxAs of A. ferrooxidans, L. interrogans, and M. loti. UDP-GlcNAc3N may be useful as a substrate analog for diverse enzymes that utilize UDP-GlcNAc.  (+info)

Apparent redundancy of electron transfer pathways via bc(1) complexes and terminal oxidases in the extremophilic chemolithoautotrophic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. (7/101)

Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that can grow in the presence of either the weak reductant Fe(2+), or reducing sulfur compounds that provide more energy for growth than Fe(2+). We have previously shown that the uphill electron transfer pathway between Fe(2+) and NAD(+) involved a bc(1) complex that functions only in the reverse direction [J. Bacteriol. 182, (2000) 3602]. In the present work, we demonstrate both the existence of a bc(1) complex functioning in the forward direction, expressed when the cells are grown on sulfur, and the presence of two terminal oxidases, a bd and a ba(3) type oxidase expressed more in sulfur than in iron-grown cells, besides the cytochrome aa(3) that was found to be expressed only in iron-grown cells. Sulfur-grown cells exhibit a branching point for electron flow at the level of the quinol pool leading on the one hand to a bd type oxidase, and on the other hand to a bc(1)-->ba(3) pathway. We have also demonstrated the presence in the genome of transcriptionally active genes potentially encoding the subunits of a bo(3) type oxidase. A scheme for the electron transfer chains has been established that shows the existence of multiple respiratory routes to a single electron acceptor O(2). Possible reasons for these apparently redundant pathways are discussed.  (+info)

Regulation of the expression of the Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans rus operon encoding two cytochromes c, a cytochrome oxidase and rusticyanin. (8/101)

The regulation of the expression of the rus operon, proposed to encode an electron transfer chain from the outer to the inner membrane in the obligate acidophilic chemolithoautroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, has been studied at the RNA and protein levels. As observed by Northern hybridization, real-time PCR and reverse transcription analyses, this operon was more highly expressed in ferrous iron- than in sulfur-grown cells. Furthermore, it was shown by immunodetection that components of this respiratory chain are synthesized in ferrous iron- rather than in sulfur-growth conditions. Nonetheless, weak transcription and translation products of the rus operon were detected in sulfur-grown cells at the early exponential phase. The results strongly support the notion that rus-operon expression is induced by ferrous iron, in agreement with the involvement of the rus-operon-encoded products in the oxidation of ferrous iron, and that ferrous iron is used in preference to sulfur.  (+info)

"Acidithiobacillus" is a genus of bacteria that are capable of oxidizing sulfur compounds and obtaining energy from them. These bacteria are acidophilic, meaning they thrive in highly acidic environments, with optimum growth occurring at a pH between 2 and 4. They are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and mining environments that have been impacted by acid mine drainage.

The genus "Acidithiobacillus" includes several species, such as "A. ferrooxidans," "A. thiooxidans," and "A. caldus." These bacteria play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and iron, contributing to the weathering of minerals and the formation of acidic environments. They have also been used in industrial applications, such as the bioleaching of metals from ores and the treatment of wastewaters containing high concentrations of heavy metals.

'Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans' is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of sulfur compounds. It is commonly found in acidic environments such as mines, caves, and soils with low pH levels. This bacterium plays a significant role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and contributes to the natural attenuation of metal/sulfide-containing mine wastes. It can survive in extremely acidic conditions, with some strains able to tolerate pH levels as low as 0.5.

The primary metabolic process of 'Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans' involves the oxidation of elemental sulfur or reduced sulfur compounds (such as sulfide, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate) to produce sulfuric acid. This results in a decrease in pH and an increase in the acidity of its environment. The bacterium can also use ferrous iron as an electron donor for growth, further contributing to the acidification process.

'Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans' has potential applications in various industrial processes, including bioleaching (the extraction of metals from ores using microorganisms), bioremediation (the use of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments), and wastewater treatment. However, its ability to acidify environments can also have negative consequences, such as accelerating corrosion in industrial settings or contributing to the formation of acid mine drainage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Tetrathionic Acid is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound with the formula S4O62-. It's an acidic oxyanion of sulfur with the sulfur in the +5 oxidation state. It is not related to human health or medicine directly. If you have any questions about a medical topic, I'd be happy to help with that instead!

Sulfur is not typically referred to in the context of a medical definition, as it is an element found in nature and not a specific medical condition or concept. However, sulfur does have some relevance to certain medical topics:

* Sulfur is an essential element that is a component of several amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes and other biological processes in the body.
* Sulfur-containing compounds, such as glutathione, play important roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification in the body.
* Some medications and supplements contain sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used topically for pain relief and inflammation.
* Sulfur baths and other forms of sulfur-based therapies have been used historically in alternative medicine to treat various conditions, although their effectiveness is not well-established by scientific research.

It's important to note that while sulfur itself is not a medical term, it can be relevant to certain medical topics and should be discussed with a healthcare professional if you have any questions or concerns about its use in medications, supplements, or therapies.

Gammaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of Gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several important pathogens that can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Some examples of Gammaproteobacteria include Escherichia coli (a common cause of food poisoning), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections), Vibrio cholerae (the causative agent of cholera), and Yersinia pestis (the bacterium that causes plague).

Gammaproteobacteria are characterized by their single flagellum, which is used for motility, and their outer membrane, which contains lipopolysaccharides that can elicit an immune response in host organisms. They are found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the guts of animals. Some species are capable of fixing nitrogen, making them important contributors to nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

It's worth noting that while Gammaproteobacteria includes many pathogenic species, the majority of proteobacteria are not harmful and play important roles in various ecological systems.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

Thiobacillus is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of oxidizing inorganic sulfur compounds and sulfides to produce sulfuric acid. These bacteria play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon, particularly in environments like soil, water, and sediments. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various habitats such as acid mine drainage, sewage treatment plants, and even in the human respiratory system. Some species of Thiobacillus have been used in industrial applications for the bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils and wastewater treatment. However, they can also contribute to the corrosion of metals and concrete structures due to their acid production.

In the context of medicine and toxicology, sulfides refer to inorganic or organic compounds containing the sulfide ion (S2-). Sulfides can be found in various forms such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), metal sulfides, and organic sulfides (also known as thioethers).

Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas with a characteristic rotten egg smell. It can cause various adverse health effects, including respiratory irritation, headaches, nausea, and, at high concentrations, loss of consciousness or even death. Metal sulfides, such as those found in some minerals, can also be toxic and may release hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2) when heated or reacted with acidic substances.

Organic sulfides, on the other hand, are a class of organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. They can occur naturally in some plants and animals or be synthesized in laboratories. Some organic sulfides have medicinal uses, while others may pose health risks depending on their concentration and route of exposure.

It is important to note that the term "sulfide" has different meanings in various scientific contexts, so it is essential to consider the specific context when interpreting this term.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mining" is not a term that has a widely accepted medical definition. It is most commonly associated with the extraction of minerals from the earth in the field of geology and mining engineering. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Tungsten compounds refer to chemical substances that contain tungsten (W, atomic number 74) in its ionic or molecular form. Tungsten is a heavy metal and exists in several oxidation states, most commonly +6, +4, and +2. Tungsten compounds have various applications in industrial, medical, and technological fields.

Examples of tungsten compounds include:

* Tungstic acid (WO3·2H2O)
* Sodium polytungstate (Na6WO6)
* Calcium tungstate (CaWO4)
* Tungsten carbide (WC)
* Tungsten hexafluoride (WF6)

Tungsten compounds have been used in medical imaging, such as X-ray machines and CT scanners, due to their high density and ability to absorb X-rays. They are also used in the production of surgical instruments, dental alloys, and other medical devices. However, some tungsten compounds can be toxic or carcinogenic, so proper handling and disposal are essential.

Acetobacteraceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of converting ethanol into acetic acid, a process known as oxidative fermentation. These bacteria are commonly found in environments such as fruits, flowers, and the gut of insects. They are also used in the industrial production of vinegar and other products. Some members of this family can cause food spoilage or infections in humans with weakened immune systems.

Ferrous compounds are inorganic substances that contain iron (Fe) in its +2 oxidation state. The term "ferrous" is derived from the Latin word "ferrum," which means iron. Ferrous compounds are often used in medicine, particularly in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia due to their ability to provide bioavailable iron to the body.

Examples of ferrous compounds include ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, and ferrous fumarate. These compounds are commonly found in dietary supplements and multivitamins. Ferrous sulfate is one of the most commonly used forms of iron supplementation, as it has a high iron content and is relatively inexpensive.

It's important to note that ferrous compounds can be toxic in large doses, so they should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Overdose can lead to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and potentially fatal consequences if left untreated.

Organomercury compounds are organic chemical compounds that contain at least one mercury atom bonded to carbon. These compounds can be divided into two main categories: those with a covalent bond between carbon and mercury (carbon-mercury bonds), and those with a coordination bond where mercury acts as a ligand to a metal center.

The carbon-mercury bonds are typically found in organometallic compounds, which contain at least one direct bond between a carbon atom and a metal. Examples of organomercury compounds include methylmercury (CH3Hg+) and phenylmercury (C6H5Hg+). These types of organomercury compounds are often used in industry as catalysts, fungicides, and disinfectants. However, they can be highly toxic to humans and the environment, particularly methylmercury which is a potent neurotoxin that can accumulate in the food chain.

The coordination compounds of mercury are those where mercury acts as a ligand, binding to a metal center through a coordinate covalent bond. These types of organomercury compounds are less common and tend to be less toxic than those with carbon-mercury bonds. They may be used in some chemical reactions or as reagents in laboratory settings.

It is important to note that exposure to organomercury compounds should be avoided, as they can have serious health effects even at low levels of exposure.

Azurin is a small protein with a blue copper center, which is involved in electron transfer reactions. It is produced by the bacterium *Pseudomonas aeruginosa*, and has been studied for its potential role in wound healing and as an anticancer agent. The name "azurin" comes from the fact that this protein has a bright blue color due to its copper ion content.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Iron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain iron (Fe) combined with other elements. Iron is an essential mineral for the human body, playing a crucial role in various bodily functions such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production.

There are several types of iron compounds, including:

1. Inorganic iron salts: These are commonly used in dietary supplements and fortified foods to treat or prevent iron deficiency anemia. Examples include ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, and ferric iron.
2. Heme iron: This is the form of iron found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and fish. It is more easily absorbed by the body compared to non-heme iron from plant sources.
3. Non-heme iron: This is the form of iron found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. It is not as well-absorbed as heme iron but can be enhanced by consuming it with vitamin C or other organic acids.

It's important to note that excessive intake of iron compounds can lead to iron toxicity, which can cause serious health problems. Therefore, it's essential to follow recommended dosages and consult a healthcare professional before taking any iron supplements.

Proteobacteria is a major class of Gram-negative bacteria that includes a wide variety of pathogens and free-living organisms. This class is divided into six subclasses: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta proteobacteria. Proteobacteria are characterized by their single circular chromosome and the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in their outer membrane. They can be found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Some notable examples of Proteobacteria include Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia pestis.

In the context of medicine, Mercury does not have a specific medical definition. However, it may refer to:

1. A heavy, silvery-white metal that is liquid at room temperature. It has been used in various medical and dental applications, such as therapeutic remedies (now largely discontinued) and dental amalgam fillings. Its use in dental fillings has become controversial due to concerns about its potential toxicity.
2. In microbiology, Mercury is the name of a bacterial genus that includes the pathogenic species Mercury deserti and Mercury avium. These bacteria can cause infections in humans and animals.

It's important to note that when referring to the planet or the use of mercury in astrology, these are not related to medical definitions.

Sulfites are a group of chemical compounds that contain the sulfite ion (SO3−2), which consists of one sulfur atom and three oxygen atoms. In medical terms, sulfites are often used as food additives or preservatives, serving to prevent bacterial growth and preserve the color of certain foods and drinks.

Sulfites can be found naturally in some foods, such as wine, dried fruits, and vegetables, but they are also added to a variety of processed products like potato chips, beer, and soft drinks. While sulfites are generally considered safe for most people, they can cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with asthma or a sensitivity to sulfites.

In the medical field, sulfites may also be used as medications to treat certain conditions. For example, they may be used as a vasodilator to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow during heart surgery or as an antimicrobial agent in some eye drops. However, their use as a medication is relatively limited due to the potential for adverse reactions.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable, and extremely toxic gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. It is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various industrial processes and is also found in some natural sources like volcanoes, hot springs, and swamps.

In the medical context, hydrogen sulfide is known to have both toxic and therapeutic effects on the human body. At high concentrations, it can cause respiratory failure, unconsciousness, and even death. However, recent studies have shown that at low levels, hydrogen sulfide may act as a signaling molecule in the human body, playing a role in various physiological processes such as regulating blood flow, reducing inflammation, and protecting against oxidative stress.

It's worth noting that exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide can be life-threatening, and immediate medical attention is required in case of exposure.

A pulpotomy is a dental procedure that involves the removal of the pulp tissue from the crown portion of a tooth, while leaving the vital pulp tissue in the root canals. This procedure is typically performed on primary teeth (baby teeth) that have been damaged due to decay or trauma, but still have a healthy root canal system.

The goal of a pulpotomy is to preserve the vitality of the remaining tooth structure and prevent premature exfoliation of the primary tooth. After removing the infected or inflamed pulp tissue from the crown, a medicated dressing is placed over the remaining pulpal tissue in the root canals to promote healing and maintain the tooth's vitality.

A stainless steel crown is then typically placed over the tooth to provide additional protection and support. A pulpotomy can help alleviate pain, prevent further infection, and maintain the natural space for the permanent tooth to erupt properly.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Sulfuric acid is not a medical term, but instead a chemical compound with the formula H2SO4. It's one of the most important industrial chemicals, being a strong mineral acid with numerous applications.

If you are asking for a definition related to human health or medicine, I can tell you that sulfuric acid has no physiological role in humans. Exposure to sulfuric acid can cause irritation and burns to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Prolonged exposure may lead to more severe health issues. However, it is not a term typically used in medical diagnoses or treatments.

... albertensis, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Acidithiobacillus cuprithermicus, Acidithiobacillus ferrianus, ... Acidithiobacillus ferridurans, Acidithiobacillus ferriphilus, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, ... Acidithiobacillus are chemolithoautotrophs that can occur as acidophilic, mesophilic, or mesothermophilic. Acidithiobacillus ... Acidithiobacillus sulfuriphilus, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. A. ferooxidans is the most widely studied of the genus, but ...
All three Acidithiobacillus species were differentiated by phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences. The size and sequence ... Type strain of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short description ... Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, formerly known as Thiobacillus thiooxidans until its reclassification into the newly designated ... Most of the information about Acidithiobacillus comes from experimental and genome-based analyses of two other related species ...
"Acidithiobacillus caldus" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Acidithiobacillus caldus SM-1 Type strain of Acidithiobacillus ... Acidithiobacillus caldus formerly belonged to the genus Thiobacillus prior to 2000, when it was reclassified along with a ... The meaning of the prefix acidi- in the name Acidithiobacillus comes from the Latin word acidus, signifying that members of ... Most of what is known about the genus Acidithiobacillus comes from experimentation and genomic analyses of two of its species: ...
... is a bacterium that sustains its life cycle at extremely low pH values, and it is one of the ... Quatrini, Raquel; Johnson, D. Barrie (2019). "Microbe of the month: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans". Trends in Microbiology. 27 ... "Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans metabolism: from genome sequence to industrial applications". BMC Genomics. 9: 597. doi:10.1186/ ...
Acidithiobacillus bacteria produce sulfuric acid; Acidothiobacillus thiooxidans frequently damages sewer pipes. Ferrobacillus ... In presence of oxygen, aerobic bacteria like Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiobacillus thioparus, and Thiobacillus ...
Power, Ian M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Southam, Gordon (2010). "Bioleaching of Ultramafic Tailings by Acidithiobacillus spp. For ...
Zhan Y, Yang M, Zhang S, Zhao D, Duan J, Wang W, Yan L (March 2019). "Iron and sulfur oxidation pathways of Acidithiobacillus ... Acidithiobacillus are chemolithoautrophics, Gram-negative road-shaped bacteria, using energy from the oxidation of iron and ... Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is abundant in natural environments associated with pyritic ore bodies, coal deposits, and their ... December 2008). "Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans metabolism: from genome sequence to industrial applications". BMC Genomics. 9 ( ...
Yarzábal A, Appia-Ayme C, Ratouchniak J, Bonnefoy V (July 2004). "Regulation of the expression of the Acidithiobacillus ... Taha TM, Kanao T, Takeuchi F, Sugio T (November 2008). "Reconstitution of iron oxidase from sulfur-grown Acidithiobacillus ... "The high-molecular-weight cytochrome c Cyc2 of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an outer membrane protein". Journal of ... "Extending the models for iron and sulfur oxidation in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans". BMC Genomics. 10 ...
fungi and sulfur removal from coal with Acidithiobacillus sp.. The extraction can occur at the mine site, from waste water ... Genera such as Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum bacteria, and Thermoplasmatales archaea, are present in syntrophic ... Other bacteria also implicated in AMD include Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Sulfobacillus ... particularly Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (synonym Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). These bacteria can accelerate pyritic ...
In particular, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a key contributor to pyrite oxidation. Metal mines may generate highly acidic ... Colonization of pyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans under pH-neutral conditions". Geobiology. 1 (1): 81-90. doi:10.1046/j. ...
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thioparus can oxidize sulfur to sulfite by means of an oxygenase enzyme, ... Thurston RS, Mandernack KW, Shanks WC (2010). "Laboratory chalcopyrite oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans: Oxygen and ... Outside these families, other SOB described belong to the genera Acidithiobacillus, Aquaspirillum, Aquifex, Bacillus, ... as well as in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The archaeon Acidianus ambivalens appears to possess both an ADP-dependent and an ...
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is able to oxidize the Fe2+ in to Fe3+. Chemical oxidation of the copper ore with ferric (Fe3+) ... Using Bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans to leach copper from mine tailings has improved recovery rates and ... In the microbial leaching process Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and relatives are able to attack and make soluble the ... Using Bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans to leach copper from mine tailings has improved recovery rates and ...
The genus Acidithiobacillus, part of the Gammaproteobacteria until it was transferred to class Acidithiobacillia in 2013, was ... which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The currently ... Acidithiobacillus, Thermithiobacillus Alphaproteobacteria: Brucella, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Caulobacter, Rickettsia, ...
Chi, A. (2007). "Periplasmic proteins of the extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans: a high throughput proteomics analysis ... "Volatilization of Mercury under Acidic Conditions from Mercury-polluted Soil by a Mercury-resistant Acidithiobacillus ...
Kelly DP; Wood AP (2000). "Reclassification of some species of Thiobacillus to the newly designated genera Acidithiobacillus ... or Thermithiobacillus or Acidithiobacillus (in the Acidithiobacillia). The very loosely defined "species" Thiobacillus ... and Thiobacillus albertensis to Acidithiobacillus Thiobacillus aquaesulis to Annwoodia aquaesulis. Thiobacillus neapolitanus to ...
Acidithiobacillus, Thermithiobacillus spp. are unable to oxidise ferrous iron or iron-containing minerals. The genome sequence ... "Reclassification of some species of Thiobacillus to the newly designated genera Acidithiobacillus gen. nov., Halothiobacillus ...
The genera Acidithiobacillus and Thermithiobacillus of the class Acidithiobacillia, Halothiobacillus of the class ... "Reclassification of some species of Thiobacillus to the newly designated genera Acidithiobacillus gen. nov., Halothiobacillus ...
"Reclassification of some species of Thiobacillus to the newly designated genera Acidithiobacillus gen. nov., Halothiobacillus ...
... quinone oxidoreductase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans: insights into sulfidotrophic respiration and detoxification". ...
Meruane G, Vargas T (2003). "Bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in the pH range 2.5-7.0" ( ...
The bacterial culture is a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum ...
... dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from the chemolithotroph Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 214 (1 ...
He expanded his lab's work to include multiple microbiological species, including Neisseria, Plasmodia, and Acidithiobacillus ...
Acidithiobacillus), on the other hand, can produce sulfuric acid, and can be involved in corrosion of concrete. Zebra mussels ...
Studies in Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans and Acidithiobacillus caldus". Microorganisms. 3 (4): 707-724. doi:10.3390/ ...
Members of the chemotrophic Acidithiobacillus genus are able to oxidize a vast range of reduced sulfur compounds, but are ... Studies in Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans and Acidithiobacillus caldus". Microorganisms. 3 (4): 707-724. doi:10.3390/ ...
"rus - Rusticyanin precursor - Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (strain ATCC 23270 / DSM 14882 / CIP 104768 / NCIMB 8455) - rus ... also known as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans). Rusticyanin is also found in the membrane-bound form in the ...
... of non-sulfidic ores by layering of waste sulfides and elemental sulfur, colonized by Acidithiobacillus spp., has ... Bioleaching can involve numerous ferrous iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria, including Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (formerly ... known as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (formerly known as Thiobacillus thiooxidans). As a ...
The Acidithiobacillales are an order of bacteria within the class Acidithiobacillia and comprises the genera Acidithiobacillus ... Reclassification of some species of Thiobacillus to the newly designated genera Acidithiobacillus gen. nov., Halothiobacillus ...
"The sulfane sulfur of persulfides is the actual substrate of the sulfur-oxidizing enzymes from Acidithiobacillus and ...
Acidithiobacillus albertensis, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Acidithiobacillus cuprithermicus, Acidithiobacillus ferrianus, ... Acidithiobacillus ferridurans, Acidithiobacillus ferriphilus, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, ... Acidithiobacillus are chemolithoautotrophs that can occur as acidophilic, mesophilic, or mesothermophilic. Acidithiobacillus ... Acidithiobacillus sulfuriphilus, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. A. ferooxidans is the most widely studied of the genus, but ...
... followed by a comparative analysis with other Acidithiobacillus species whose genomes are publically available. The At. ... followed by a comparative analysis with other Acidithiobacillus species whose genomes are publically available. The At. ... been identified that could be responsible for the phenotypic differences of this strain compared to other Acidithiobacillus ... been identified that could be responsible for the phenotypic differences of this strain compared to other Acidithiobacillus ...
... in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans BY-3 were investigated in this work. Grains of the mineral were incubated for ...
Acidithiobacillus. *Baculovirus. Volume 1, 2006. *Foreword to Safety Assessment of Transgenic Organisms ...
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans protein. Multicopper oxidase CueO. A0A2I8S2K0_9ENTR (A0A2I8S2K0). Citrobacter freundii complex sp ...
keywords = "Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Iron-oxidizing bacterium, Mercury, Resistance, Volatilization of mercury",. author ... title = "Volatilization of Mercury under Acidic Conditions from Mercury-polluted Soil by a Mercury-resistant Acidithiobacillus ... T1 - Volatilization of Mercury under Acidic Conditions from Mercury-polluted Soil by a Mercury-resistant Acidithiobacillus ... Volatilization of Mercury under Acidic Conditions from Mercury-polluted Soil by a Mercury-resistant Acidithiobacillus ...
CyhoeddwydAcidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Quatrini, R. & Johnson, D. B., 1 Maw 2019, Yn: Trends in Microbiology. 27, 3, t. 282- ... CyhoeddwydAcidithiobacillus ferriphilus sp. nov.: a facultatively anaerobic iron- and sulfur-metabolising extreme acidophile. ... CyhoeddwydGenome Analysis of the Psychrotolerant Acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans CF27. Talla, E., Hedrich, S., Ji, B. ... CyhoeddwydDetection, identification and typing of Acidithiobacillus species and strains: a review. Nuñez, H., Covarrubias, P. C ...
5f shows the growth of a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans at various pH values ... sulphide minerals (Table I), mesophilic bacteria e.g. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (previously. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans), ... Simultaneous Culture and Biomachining of Copper in MAC Medium: A Comparison between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and ... value of 2e2.5 is needed for the growth and bioleaching functionality of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ...
Elucidation of carbon transfer in a mixed culture of Acidiphilium cryptum and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans using protein- ... and sulfur-oxidizing autotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Cultures were harvested at five time points, proteins extracted ...
Vanadium Bioleaching Behavior by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans from a Vanadium-Bearing Shale by Dunpei Wei ... This study investigated bioleaching behavior of vanadium from a vanadium-bearing shale using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A ... This study investigated bioleaching behavior of vanadium from a vanadium-bearing shale using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A ...
ICE Afe 1, an Actively Excising Genetic Element from the Biomining Bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Journal of ...
Bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. 20 (70 hours with addition of 200 mM aluminum sulfate). Hours. 106585. Fischer J, ...
Luptakova, A., Prascakova, M. and Kotulicova, I. (2012) Occurrence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Bacteria in Sulfide ...
Microbial genomic adaptations to salinity, pH and temperature, and how groups of Acidithiobacillus inhabit diverse hot springs ...
N. Stamford, C. Santos and S. Dias, "Phosphate Rock Biofertiliser with Acidithiobacillus and Rhizobia Improves Nodulation and ...
A brief history of the nature, use and technology of binders in ancient constructions and buildings is outlined, including the apparent chronological discontinuities related to technological developments. The skilled and clever use of mineral resources is at the base of the technical achievements related to architectural activities, from simple adobe to high-performance modern concrete. It is argued that among pre-industrial binders the Roman pozzolanic mortars were highly optimized materials, skillfully prepared and very durable. Their innovative use in architecture is one of the keys of the successful expansion of the Roman Empire. The role of mineralogy and mineral reactions is emphasized in terms of: (1) the preparation and manufacturing of the binding materials; (2) the hardening process and the development of the physical properties of the binder; and (3) the archaeometric reconstruction of the ancient materials. ...
Effects of copper exposure on expression of glutathione-related genes in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans . Curr Microbiol 2011, ...
Biotechnological research of the dynamics of the cultivation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in different environments in ...
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993, complete genome. Type. unknown Shape. circular GC content. 59% ...
Reclassification of some species of Thiobacillus to the newly designated genera Acidithiobacillus gen. nov., Halothiobacillus ...
Sulfur Metabolism in the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus. D) Na2CO3 molecular compounds. 2011-09-22 · 8) The solid ...
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans derives the energy for their metabolism from ferrous iron oxidation process which can be ... Bioleaching of Metal from Electronic Wastes Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ... In this study the ability of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, on the biorecovery of heavy metals in shake flask has been ... investigated The adaptation of the Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans to a kind of heavy metal such as Nickel, Cobalt, Vanadium, ...
Comparative genomic analysis of two novel plasmids from Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans strain PQ33. Ccorahua, R., Eca, A., ... An exported rhodanese-like protein is induced during growth of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in metal sulfides and different ... Differential protein expression during growth of Acidithiobacillus ferooxidans on ferrous iron, sulfur compounds, or metal ... Physiological and comparative genomic analysis of Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans PQ33 provides psychrotolerant fitness evidence ...
Host Lineage: Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans; Acidithiobacillus; Acidithiobacillaceae; Acidithiobacillales; Proteobacteria; ... Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993, complete genome. 79.3934 %. Subject ←→ Query. 34.1338. NC_007947:1556437*. ... Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993, complete genome. 75.7292 %. Subject ←→ Query. 31.8701. NC_012779:1449500*. ... Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans SS3 chromosome, complete genome. 76.4216 %. Subject ←→ Query. 33.2624. NC_012779:2064582. ...
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Spec. S-S-H.neap-635-a-A-19. Halothiobacillus neapolitanus. ...
In 2000, Kelly and Wood established Thiobacillus thiooxidans as the basonym of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (Waksman and Joffe ... Reclassification of some species of Thiobacillus to the newly designated genera Acidithiobacillus gen. nov., Halothiobacillus ...
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. alpha Proteobacteria. Alphaproteobacteria. beta Proteobacteria. Betaproteobacteria. delta ...
  • Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (basonym Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) can be isolated from iron-sulfur minerals such as pyrite deposits, oxidising iron and sulfur as energy sources to support autotrophic growth and producing ferric iron and sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reclassification of some species of Thiobacillus to the newly designated genera Acidithiobacillus gen. nov. (namesforlife.com)
  • Biotechnological research of the dynamics of the cultivation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in different environments in view of their use in medicine and biotechnology. (bas.bg)
  • strain CF27, new sequences were generated, and an update assembly and functional annotation were undertaken, followed by a comparative analysis with other Acidithiobacillus species whose genomes are publically available. (frontiersin.org)
  • CF27 have been identified that could be responsible for the phenotypic differences of this strain compared to other Acidithiobacillus species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Volatilization of mercury under acidic conditions from soil polluted with mercuric chloride (1.5 mg Hg/kg soil) was studied with resting cells of a mercury-resistant strain, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans SUG 2-2. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 2005) assigned the genus Acidithiobacillus Kelly and Wood 2000 to this order. (dsmz.de)
  • Acidithiobacillus are chemolithoautotrophs that can occur as acidophilic, mesophilic, or mesothermophilic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species of Acidithiobacillus are utilized in bioleaching and biomining. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heterotroph Acidiphilium cryptum was grown in the presence of 13 C-labeled galactose, together with the iron- and sulfur-oxidizing autotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans . (jiomics.com)
  • Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has emerged as an economically significant bacterium in the field of biohydrometallurgy, in the leaching of sulfide ores since its discovery in 1950 by Colmer, Temple and Hinkle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans derives the energy for their metabolism from ferrous iron oxidation process which can be affected by the presence of heavy metals in the medium. (sharif.edu)
  • In this study the ability of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, on the biorecovery of heavy metals in shake flask has been investigated The adaptation of the Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans to a kind of heavy metal such as Nickel, Cobalt, Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tungsten and the mixture of the. (sharif.edu)
  • Agronomic effectiveness of biofertilizers with phosphate rock, sulphur and Acidithiobacillus for yam bean grown on Brazilian tableland acidic soil.Bioresour. (edu.pl)
  • Bioelectrochemical Changes During the Early Stages of Chalcopyrite Interaction with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum sp. (preprints.org)
  • Acidithiobacillus ferooxidans , Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (oxidises sulphur compounds only) and Leptospirillum ferooxidans (oxidizes iron substrates only). (upt.ro)
  • Among the tailings bacteria, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans are of the most-studied ones for the bioleaching and bioremediation of elements. (ac.ir)
  • The gene encoding a putative high-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) from the strictly acidophilic and chemolithoautotrophic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 33020 has been cloned and sequenced. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG), Crystal structure of NifX-associated protein of unknown function (YP_002425942.1) from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 at 2.00 A resolution. (expasy.org)
  • Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 chromosome, complete genome. (wishartlab.com)
  • Acidithiobacillus caldus can also grow mixotrophically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persulfide Dioxygenase From Acidithiobacillus caldus: Variable Roles of Cysteine Residues and Hydrogen Bond Networks of the Active Site. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • and Acidithiobacillus caldus may metabolize elemental sulfur as an intermediate species in the oxidation of pyritic sulfide to sulfate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A perfect example is copper mining, nearly 25% of which is today performed with the organism Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans that leaches copper from mine tailings. (opensourceecology.org)
  • use Acetobacteraceae 2000-2003 MH - Acidithiobacillus UI - D042763 MN - B3.440.400.425.103 MN - B3.660.250.15 MS - A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. (nih.gov)
  • Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is commonly found in acid mine drainage and mine tailings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species of Acidithiobacillus are utilized in bioleaching and biomining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optimization was done using model organisms Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Sulfolobus metallicus and a mesophilic enrichment culture. (tuni.fi)
  • Bioinformatic prediction and experimental verification of Fur-regulated genes in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. (cienciavida.org)
  • 14. Biological extraction of realgar by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and its in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities. (nih.gov)
  • The γ-proteobacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans lives in extremely acidic conditions (pH 2) and, unlike most organisms, is confronted with an abundant supply of soluble iron. (cienciavida.org)
  • Several novel lineages were identified within the archaeal Thermoplasmatales order associated with the pyrite slump, and the Red Pool (pH 1.4) contained the only population of Acidithiobacillus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine the tRNA preferences of GluRS, we chose the duplicated enzyme sets from Helicobacter pylori and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Aerobes including Acidithiobacillus and Azoarcus, Acidithiobacillus, Thiothrix, Thiovirga and Sulfurimonas were found in the upper oxidised layer. (ru.ac.za)