A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE consisting of chemoorganotrophic, straight rods with rounded ends. They are aerobic and acidophilic.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

Energy and electron transfer in the photosynthetic reaction center complex of Acidiphilium rubrum containing Zn-bacteriochlorophyll a studied by femtosecond up-conversion spectroscopy. (1/4)

A photosynthetic reaction center (RC) complex was isolated from a purple bacterium, Acidiphilium rubrum. The RC contains bacteriochlorophyll a containing Zn as a central metal (Zn-BChl a) and bacteriopheophytin a (BPhe a) but no Mg-BChl a. The absorption peaks of the Zn-BChl a dimer (P(Zn)), the accessory Zn-BChl a (B(Zn)), and BPhe a (H) at 4 K in the RC showed peaks at 875, 792, and 753 nm, respectively. These peaks were shorter than the corresponding peaks in Rhodobacter sphaeroides RC that has Mg-BChl a. The kinetics of fluorescence from P(Zn)(*), measured by fluorescence up-conversion, showed the rise and the major decay with time constants of 0.16 and 3.3 ps, respectively. The former represents the energy transfer from B(Zn)(*) to P(Zn), and the latter, the electron transfer from P(Zn) to H. The angle between the transition dipoles of B(Zn) and P(Zn) was estimated to be 36 degrees based on the fluorescence anisotropy. The time constants and the angle are almost equal to those in the Rb. sphaeroides RC. The high efficiency of A. rubrum RC seems to be enabled by the chemical property of Zn-BChl a and by the L168HE modification of the RC protein that modifies P(Zn).  (+info)

Preferential use of an anode as an electron acceptor by an acidophilic bacterium in the presence of oxygen. (2/4)

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Real-time PCR analysis of metabolic pathway of PHB in Acidiphilium cryptum DX1-1. (3/4)

The time, yield and related genes expression of PHB accumulation of Acidiphilium cryptum DX1-1 were investigated under four different initial C/N ratios 1.2, 2.4, 7.5, and 24. The results of time and yield of PHB accumulation show that the initial C/N ratio 2.4 was optimum for strain DX1-1 to accumulate PHB, both higher and lower initial C/N ratios did not favor that process. Based on the genome of Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, 13 PHB accumulation related genes in strain JF-5 were chosen and successfully cloned from strain DX1-1. The differential expression of the 13 functional genes, in different C/N ratios as cited above, was then studied by Real-time PCR. The results show that all the 13 genes were most upregulated when initial C/N ratio was 2.4, and among which the gene Acry_3030 encoding poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate polymerase and Acry_0626 encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase were much more upregulated than the other genes, which prove that they play the most important role for PHB accumulation and acetate is the main initial substance for PHB accumulation for strain DX1-1. Potential regulatory motifs analysis shows that the genes related to PHB accumulation are regulated by different promoters and that the motif had weak similarity to the model promoters, suggesting that PHB- metabolism in Acidiphilium cryptum may be mediated by a different mechanism.  (+info)

Draft genome sequence of the electricigen Acidiphilium sp. strain PM (DSM 24941). (4/4)

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'Acidiphilium' is a genus of bacteria that are characterized by their ability to thrive in highly acidic environments, typically with a pH between 1 and 5. These bacteria are gram-negative, motile, and rod-shaped, and they are commonly found in natural environments such as acid mine drainage, soil, and water. They are able to use a variety of organic compounds as their energy source and are often involved in the biogeochemical cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Some species of 'Acidiphilium' have been studied for their potential applications in bioremediation and other industrial processes.

Acetobacteraceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of converting ethanol into acetic acid, a process known as oxidative fermentation. These bacteria are commonly found in environments such as fruits, flowers, and the gut of insects. They are also used in the industrial production of vinegar and other products. Some members of this family can cause food spoilage or infections in humans with weakened immune systems.

Gram-negative chemolithotrophic bacteria are a type of bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances, such as nitrogen, sulfur, or iron compounds, in a process called chemolithotrophy. They are classified as gram-negative because they do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, which is a technique used to classify bacteria based on their cell wall structure.

Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which make them more resistant to certain antibiotics and chemical agents. The term "chemolithotrophic" refers to their ability to use inorganic chemicals as a source of energy, and they are often found in environments with high concentrations of these substances, such as soil, water, and waste treatment facilities.

Examples of gram-negative chemolithotrophic bacteria include species of the genera Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Thiobacillus, and Sulfurimonas, among others. These bacteria play important roles in the global nitrogen and sulfur cycles, contributing to the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite (Nitrosomonas) or nitrite to nitrate (Nitrobacter), and the oxidation of sulfide or elemental sulfur to sulfuric acid (Thiobacillus).

Thiobacillus is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of oxidizing inorganic sulfur compounds and sulfides to produce sulfuric acid. These bacteria play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon, particularly in environments like soil, water, and sediments. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various habitats such as acid mine drainage, sewage treatment plants, and even in the human respiratory system. Some species of Thiobacillus have been used in industrial applications for the bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils and wastewater treatment. However, they can also contribute to the corrosion of metals and concrete structures due to their acid production.

'Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans' is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of sulfur compounds. It is commonly found in acidic environments such as mines, caves, and soils with low pH levels. This bacterium plays a significant role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and contributes to the natural attenuation of metal/sulfide-containing mine wastes. It can survive in extremely acidic conditions, with some strains able to tolerate pH levels as low as 0.5.

The primary metabolic process of 'Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans' involves the oxidation of elemental sulfur or reduced sulfur compounds (such as sulfide, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate) to produce sulfuric acid. This results in a decrease in pH and an increase in the acidity of its environment. The bacterium can also use ferrous iron as an electron donor for growth, further contributing to the acidification process.

'Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans' has potential applications in various industrial processes, including bioleaching (the extraction of metals from ores using microorganisms), bioremediation (the use of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments), and wastewater treatment. However, its ability to acidify environments can also have negative consequences, such as accelerating corrosion in industrial settings or contributing to the formation of acid mine drainage.

Bacteriochlorophylls are a type of pigment that are found in certain bacteria and are used in photosynthesis. They are similar to chlorophylls, which are found in plants and algae, but have some differences in their structure and absorption spectrum. Bacteriochlorophylls absorb light at longer wavelengths than chlorophylls, with absorption peaks in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This allows bacteria that contain bacteriochlorophylls to carry out photosynthesis in environments with low levels of light or at great depths in the ocean where sunlight is scarce.

There are several different types of bacteriochlorophylls, including bacteriochlorophyll a, bacteriochlorophyll b, and bacteriochlorophyll c. These pigments play a role in the capture of light energy during photosynthesis and are involved in the electron transfer processes that occur during this process. Bacteriochlorophylls are also used as a taxonomic marker to help classify certain groups of bacteria.

Fluid waste disposal in a medical context refers to the proper and safe management of liquid byproducts generated during medical procedures, patient care, or research. These fluids can include bodily excretions (such as urine, feces, or vomit), irrigation solutions, blood, or other biological fluids.

The process of fluid waste disposal involves several steps:

1. Collection: Fluid waste is collected in appropriate containers that are designed to prevent leakage and contamination.
2. Segregation: Different types of fluid waste may require separate collection and disposal methods based on their infectious or hazardous nature.
3. Treatment: Depending on the type and volume of fluid waste, various treatments can be applied, such as disinfection, sterilization, or chemical neutralization, to reduce the risk of infection or harm to the environment and personnel.
4. Disposal: Treated fluid waste is then disposed of according to local regulations, which may involve transporting it to a designated waste management facility for further processing or disposal in a safe and environmentally friendly manner (e.g., deep well injection, incineration, or landfilling).
5. Documentation and tracking: Proper records should be maintained to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and to enable effective monitoring and auditing of the waste disposal process.

It is essential to handle fluid waste disposal carefully to minimize the risk of infection, protect the environment, and maintain regulatory compliance. Healthcare facilities must adhere to strict guidelines and regulations regarding fluid waste management to ensure the safety of patients, staff, and the community.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Base composition in genetics refers to the relative proportion of the four nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, so the base composition is often expressed in terms of the ratio of adenine + thymine (A-T) to guanine + cytosine (G-C). This ratio can vary between species and even between different regions of the same genome. The base composition can provide important clues about the function, evolution, and structure of genetic material.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

"Acidiphilium angustum sp. nov., Acidiphilium facilis sp. nov., and Acidiphilium rubrum sp. nov.: Acidophilic Heterotrophic ... Kishimoto (N.), Kosako (Y.), Wakao (N.), Tano (T.) and Hiraishi (A.): Transfer of Acidiphilium facilis and Acidiphilium ... its transfer to the genus Acidiphilium as Acidiphilium acidophilum comb. Nov. -- HIRAISHI et al. 48 (4): 1389 -- International ... The name Acidiphilium derives from: Neo-Latin noun acidum (from Latin adjective acidus, sour), an acid; Neo-Latin neuter gender ...
... is a species of heterotrophic bacteria, the type species of its genus. It is gram-negative, aerobic, ... LPSN Type strain of Acidiphilium cryptum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ... Bilgin, Azize Azra; Silverstein, JoAnn; Jenkins, Joy D. (2004). "Iron respiration by Acidiphilium cryptum at pH 5". FEMS ... Harrison, A. P. (1981). "Acidiphilium cryptum gen. nov., sp. nov., Heterotrophic Bacterium From Acidic Mineral Environments". ...
2006 Acidiphilium Harrison 1981 Acidisoma Belova et al. 2009 Acidisphaera Hiraishi et al. 2000 Acidocella Kishimoto et al. 1996 ...
"Restriction endonuclease AfaI from Acidiphilium facilis, a new isoschizomer of RsaI: purification and properties". Biochim ... "Isolation and identification of restriction endonuclease Aor51HI from Acidiphilium organovorum 51H". Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (2 ... "Restriction endonuclease Aor13HI from Acidiphilium organovorum 13H, a new isoschizomer of BspMII: Purification and ...
1996, , formerly a member of the genus Acidiphilium A. facilis (Wichlacz et al. 1986) Kishimoto et al. 1996, type species of ... the genus, formerly a member of the genus Acidiphilium Bacterial taxonomy Microbiology Classification of Genera AC entry in ...
... sulfane sulfur of persulfides is the actual substrate of the sulfur-oxidizing enzymes from Acidithiobacillus and Acidiphilium ...
There are two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Blastomonas (synonym: ...
... limits aquatic life to specially-adapted Acidiphilium bacteria. Above ground, acid gases create acid rain and acid fog, causing ...
... coccobacilli Part of the major acidophilic alphaproteobacterial group with the genera Acidiphilium and Rhodopila The name ...
Acidiphilium sp.3.2Sup5, Klebsiella pneumoniae L17, Thermincola sp.strain JR, Pichia anomala. Reduced oxidoreductase enzymes at ...
... versutus to Paracoccus Thiobacillus acidophilus to Acidiphilium Thiobacillus intermedius, Thiobacillus ...
Acidiphilium MeSH B03.440.400.425.100.550 - Gluconobacter MeSH B03.440.400.425.100.550.550 - Gluconobacter oxydans MeSH B03.440 ... Acidiphilium MeSH B03.660.050.663.050.400 - Gluconacetobacter MeSH B03.660.050.663.050.400.500 - Gluconacetobacter xylinus MeSH ...
"Acidiphilium angustum sp. nov., Acidiphilium facilis sp. nov., and Acidiphilium rubrum sp. nov.: Acidophilic Heterotrophic ... Kishimoto (N.), Kosako (Y.), Wakao (N.), Tano (T.) and Hiraishi (A.): Transfer of Acidiphilium facilis and Acidiphilium ... its transfer to the genus Acidiphilium as Acidiphilium acidophilum comb. Nov. -- HIRAISHI et al. 48 (4): 1389 -- International ... The name Acidiphilium derives from: Neo-Latin noun acidum (from Latin adjective acidus, sour), an acid; Neo-Latin neuter gender ...
"Acidiphilium" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Acidiphilium" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Acidiphilium" by people in Profiles. ...
The heterotroph Acidiphilium cryptum was grown in the presence of 13C-labeled galactose, together with the iron- and sulfur- ... Elucidation of carbon transfer in a mixed culture of Acidiphilium cryptum and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans using protein- ...
CyhoeddwydReductive dissolution of ferric iron minerals by Acidiphilium SJH.. Bridge, T. A. & Johnson, D. B., 1 Gorff 2000, Yn ... CyhoeddwydElucidation of carbon transfer in a mixed culture of Acidiphilium cryptum and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans using ... evidence for constitutive and inducible enzyme systems in Acidiphilium spp.. Johnson, D. B. & Bridge, T. A., 1 Chwef 2002, Yn: ...
Read chapter 2 A Sketch of the Chemistry Behind Known Carbon-based Life on Earth: The search for life in the solar system and beyond has to date been gov...
Bacteria Acidiphilium cryptum. 5.2 (7.6 hours with 300 mM Al2(SO4)3). Hours. 106583. Fischer J, Quentmeier A.... ...
Bacteria Acidiphilium cryptum. 5.2 (7.6 hours with 300 mM Al2(SO4)3). Hours. 106583. Fischer J, Quentmeier A.... ...
Acidiphilium RSV_genus905 Bacteria;Proteobacteria;Alphaproteobacteria;Rhodospirillales;Acetobacteraceae;Acidisoma RSV_genus906 ...
Host Lineage: Acidiphilium cryptum; Acidiphilium; Acetobacteraceae; Rhodospirillales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria. General ... Acidiphilium cryptum was first isolated from a supposedly pure culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. This organism, a ... Query: NC_009484:429269:441407 Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5 chromosome, complete genome. Start: 441407, End: 442804, Length: 1398 ... Acidiphilium multivorum AIU301, complete genome. putative glycosyltransferase. 3e-08. 60.5. NC_015593:2841856:2865432. 2865432 ...
Production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and extracellular polymeric substances from glycerol by the acidophile Acidiphilium ...
Acidiphilium rubrum. 2. Agrobacterium sp.. 2. Alcaligenes hydrogenophilus. 2. Alphabaculovirus. 2. Arabidopsis. 2. ...
Acidiphilium angustum. Type Strain. ATCC® 35903™. August 8, 2023. 4.4 Mb. Download. ... Acidiphilium cryptum. Type Strain. ATCC® 33463™. February 25, 2023. 4.4 Mb. Download. ...
Acidiphilium multivorum AIU301. 4. TrbF. 326404743. Trb. NC_015186. Acidiphilium multivorum AIU301. ...
gi,326404747,ref,YP_004284829.1, conjugal transfer protein TrbE [Acidiphilium multivorum AIU301]. ... gi,326402148,ref,NC_015186.1,:c2863419-2860699 Acidiphilium multivorum AIU301, complete genome. ...
Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5 Bacteria normal 0.278198 n/a -. NC_011365 Gdia_2013 protease Do 49.62 ...
Thiobacillus Acidiphilium Xanthomonas Bradyrhizobium). The biofilms did not contain a significant presence of photosynthetic ...
Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5 Bacteria normal 1 n/a -. NC_010814 Glov_3106 ABC transporter related 41.7 ...
101] studied a bacterium named Acidiphilium sp. And biofilm formed on graphite-like substrates. According to their results, AFM ... Physicochemical Characterization of Acidiphilium Sp. Biofilms. Chemphyschem 2013, 14, 1237-1244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ...
Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5 chromosome, complete genome. 30S ribosomal protein S15. NC_015186:597695:603489. NC_015186:597695. ... Acidiphilium multivorum AIU301, complete genome. 30S ribosomal protein S15. NC_021150:4311902:4317504. NC_021150:4311902. ...
The coexistence relationship of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and Acidiphilium spp. was ...
AIMS: To compare the abilities of two obligately acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria, Acidiphilium acidophilum and Acidiphilium ... Whole cell protein profiles of Acidiphilium SJH were very similar, regardless of the DO status of the growth medium, while ... SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Ferric iron reduction by Acidiphilium spp. may occur in oxygen-containing as well as ... The specific rates of ferric iron reduction by fermenter-grown Acidiphilium SJH were unaffected by dissolved oxygen (DO) ...
Sorption of ferrous iron by EPS from the acidophilic bacterium Acidiphilium Sp.: A mechanism proposal Revista de metalurgia, ...
... its transfer to the genus Acidiphilium as Acidiphilium acidophilum comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:1389-1398 [View Article][ ...
2006) associated a number of Alphaproteobacteria, predominantly Acidiphilium and Acidocella, with natural oil seepages. The ...
... application of small-subunit rRNA probes for assessment of selected Thiobacillus species and members of the genus Acidiphilium ...
Glenn, A.W.; Roberto, F.F.; Ward, T.E. 1992: Transformation of Acidiphilium by electroporation and conjugation. Canadian ...
Reducing Bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5. In: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus. Vol. 2 (2002) Issue 3 . - pp. 57-67. ...
... either solely or in mixed cultures including other bacteria such as Acidiphilium sp, Leptospirillum sp, and Sulfobacillus sp ( ...
... sulfane sulfur of persulfides is the actual substrate of the sulfur-oxidizing enzymes from Acidithiobacillus and Acidiphilium ...
... determination of the novel Zn-containing bacteriochlorophyll in Acidiphilium rubrum. Photomed. Photobiol. 20, 75-80. ...
  • Acidiphilium cryptum gen. nov., sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heterotroph Acidiphilium cryptum was grown in the presence of 13 C-labeled galactose, together with the iron- and sulfur-oxidizing autotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans . (jiomics.com)
  • General Information: Acidiphilium cryptum strain JF-5 was isolated under iron-reducing conditions from coal mine lake sediment and is able to grow by coupling the reduction of iron to the oxidation of glucose. (up.ac.za)
  • Acidiphilium cryptum was first isolated from a supposedly pure culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. (up.ac.za)
  • Acidiphilium is a genus in the phylum Pseudomonadota (Bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogeny and photosynthetic features of Thiobacillus acidophilus and related acidophilic bacteria: its transfer to the genus Acidiphilium as Acidiphilium acidophilum comb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequencing showed that Cyanobacteria streptophyta and Proteobacteria acidiphilium species were dominant in mid-level and high-level arsenic environments, and Cyanobacteria tramenophiles was a dominant species in the control environments. (carroll.edu)
  • The coexistence relationship of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and Acidiphilium spp. (sustech.edu.cn)
  • Kishimoto (N.), Kosako (Y.), Wakao (N.), Tano (T.) and Hiraishi (A.): Transfer of Acidiphilium facilis and Acidiphilium aminolytica to the genus Acidocella gen. nov., and emendation of the genus Acidiphilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sorption of ferrous iron by EPS from the acidophilic bacterium Acidiphilium Sp. (ucm.es)
  • Kishimoto (N.), Kosako (Y.), Wakao (N.), Tano (T.) and Hiraishi (A.): Transfer of Acidiphilium facilis and Acidiphilium aminolytica to the genus Acidocella gen. nov., and emendation of the genus Acidiphilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only 1.0-5.3% relative 13 C abundances were found in heterotrophic Acidiphilium and Acidocella under oxic conditions. (ufz.de)
  • Data from initial experiments showed that dissolution of pyrite could be reduced by between 57 and 75% by "bioshrouding" the mineral with three different species of heterotrophic acidophiles (Acidiphilium, Acidocella and Acidobacterium spp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • HN - 2004 MH - Acidiphilium UI - D041801 MN - B3.440.400.425.100.110 MN - B3.660.50.10.20 MS - A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE consisting of chemoorganotrophic, straight rods with rounded ends. (nih.gov)