Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Galactosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLAllergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.AmidohydrolasesCeramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Neutral Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.Sphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Glucosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 3.1.4.12.Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.PolysaccharidesGlycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.Sandhoff Disease: An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.Tay-Sachs Disease: An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset in infancy of an exaggerated startle response, followed by paralysis, dementia, and blindness. It is caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of the HEXOSAMINIDASE A resulting in lipid-laden ganglion cells. It is also known as the B variant (with increased HEXOSAMINIDASE B but absence of hexosaminidase A) and is strongly associated with Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry.G(M2) Ganglioside: A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.Hexosaminidase A: A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is a heteromeric protein comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase alpha subunit is a case of TAY-SACHS DISEASE. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.Gangliosidoses, GM2: A group of recessively inherited diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in the neuronal cells. Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES system or G(M2) ACTIVATOR PROTEIN leading to disruption of normal degradation of GANGLIOSIDES, a subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS.Hexosaminidase B: A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Gangliosidoses: A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Blood Group Incompatibility: An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).P Blood-Group System: A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
(1/12) Monocytic cell activation by Nonendotoxic glycoprotein from Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from gram-negative black-pigmented bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia activate cells from non-LPS-responsive C3H/HeJ mice, but it is still unclear whether this activity is due to the unique structure of LPS or to a minor component(s) responsible for the activity in the preparation. A nonendotoxic glycoprotein with bioactivity against cells from C3H/HeJ mice was purified from a hot phenol-water extract of P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and designated Prevotella glycoprotein (PGP). Treatment of human monocytic THP-1 cells with 22-oxyacalcitriol (OCT) induced maturation and marked expression of CD14 on the cells, but the cells constitutively expressed Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 on the cells irrespective of the treatment. PGP induced a high level of interleukin-8 production at doses of 100 ng/ml and higher in OCT-treated THP-1 cells compared with Salmonella LPS, and the production was significantly inhibited by anti-CD14 and anti-TLR2 but not anti-TLR4 antibodies. Consistent with this, TLR2-deficient murine macrophages did not respond to PGP. It was also shown that PGP activity on the THP-1 cells was LPS-binding protein dependent and was inhibited by a synthetic lipid A precursor IV(A). These results indicate that PGP activates monocytic cells in a CD14- and TLR2-dependent manner.  (+info)

(2/12) Structural elucidation of novel phosphocholine-containing glycosylinositol-phosphoceramides in filamentous fungi and their induction of cell death of cultured rice cells.

Novel ZGLs (zwitterionic glycosphingolipids) have been found in and extracted from the mycelia of filamentous fungi ( Acremonium sp.) isolated from soil. Five ZGLs (ZGL1-ZGL5) were structurally elucidated by sugar compositional analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and fast-atom bombardment MS. Their chemical structures were as follows: GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL1), Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL2), Man(alpha1-6)Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL3), PC-->6Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1- P -1Cer (ZGL4), and PC-->6Man(alpha1-6)Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL5) (where Cer is ceramide and PC is phosphocholine). In addition, one acidic glycosphingolipid, which was the precursor of ZGLs, was also characterized as inositol-phosphoceramide. The core structure of the ZGLs, GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1- P, is rather different from those found in other fungi, such as Man(alpha1-2)Ins1- P and Man(alpha1-6)Ins1- P. Interestingly, the terminal mannose residue of ZGL4 and ZGL5 was modified further with a PC group. The presence of PC-containing glycosylinositol-phosphoceramides has not been reported previously in any organism. The ceramide constituents of both ZGLs and acidic glycosphingolipid were essentially the same, and consisted of a 4-hydroxyoctadecasphinganine (phytosphingosine) as the sole sphingoid base and 2-hydroxytetracosanoic acid (>90%) as the major fatty acid. ZGLs were found to cause cell death in suspensions of cultured rice cells. The cell death-inducing activity of ZGLs is probably due to the characteristic glycan moiety of Man(alpha1-6)GlcN, and PC-containing ZGLs had high activity. This study is the first to demonstrate that fungal glycosylinositol-phosphoceramides induce cell death in cultured rice cells.  (+info)

(3/12) Role of multiple drug resistance protein 1 in neutral but not acidic glycosphingolipid biosynthesis.

Transfection studies have implicated the multiple drug resistance pump, MDR1, as a glucosyl ceramide translocase within the Golgi complex (Lala, P., Ito, S., and Lingwood, C. A. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 6246-6251). We now show that MDR1 inhibitors, cyclosporin A or ketoconazole, inhibit neutral glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in 11 of 12 cell lines tested. The exception, HeLa cells, do not express MDR1. Microsomal lactosyl ceramide and globotriaosyl ceramide synthesis from endogenous or exogenously added liposomal glucosyl ceramide was inhibited by cyclosporin A, consistent with a direct role for MDR1/glucosyl ceramide translocase activity in their synthesis. In contrast, cellular ganglioside synthesis in the same cells, was unaffected by MDR1 inhibition, suggesting neutral and acid glycosphingolipids are synthesized from distinct precursor glycosphingolipid pools. Metabolic labeling in wild type and knock-out (MDR1a, 1b, MRP1) mouse fibroblasts showed the same loss of neutral glycosphingolipid (glucosyl ceramide, lactosyl ceramide) but not ganglioside (GM3) synthesis, confirming the proposed role for MDR1 translocase activity. Cryo-immunoelectron microscopy showed MDR1 was predominantly intracellular, largely in rab6-containing Golgi vesicles and Golgi cisternae, the site of glycosphingolipid synthesis. These studies identify MDR1 as the major glucosyl ceramide flippase required for neutral glycosphingolipid anabolism and demonstrate a previously unappreciated dichotomy between neutral and acid glycosphingolipid synthesis.  (+info)

(4/12) Characterization of two novel pyruvylated glycosphingolipids containing 2'-aminoethylphosphoryl(-->6)-galactose from the nervous system of Aplysia kurodai.

Two novel acidic glycosphingolipids containing pyruvylated galactose were purified from the nervous tissue of Aplysia kurodai by successive Iatrobeads column chromatographies. By component analysis, sugar analysis, permethylation studies, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and proton magnetic resonance spectrometry, the structures of these acidic glycosphingolipids, named F-9 and FGL-I, were determined to be: [3,4-O-(S-1-carboxyethylidene)]Gal beta 1-->3 GalNAc alpha 1-->3[6'-O-(2-aminoethylphosphonyl)Gal alpha 1-->2] (2-aminoethylphosphoryl 1-->6)Gal beta 1-->4Glc beta 1-->1ceramide and [3,4-O-(S-1-carboxyethylidene)] Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc alpha 1-->3(Fuc alpha 1-->2)(2-aminoethylphosphonyl-->6 Gal beta 1-->4Glc beta 1-->1ceramide, octadeca-4-sphingenine and anteisononadeca-4-sphingenine. Thus, pyruvylated glycosphingolipids containing phosphoethanolamine in addition to or in place of 2-aminoethylphosphonate are present in the nervous system of Aplysia.  (+info)

(5/12) Characterization of neutral and acidic glycosphingolipids from the lectin-producing mushroom, Polyporus squamosus.

The polypore mushroom Polyporus squamosus is the source of a lectin that exhibits a general affinity for terminal beta-galactosides, but appears to have an extended carbohydrate-binding site with high affinity and strict specificity for the nonreducing terminal trisaccharide sequence NeuAcalpha2 --> 6Galbeta1 --> 4Glc/GlcNAc. In considering the possibility that the lectin's in vivo function could involve interaction with an endogenous glycoconjugate, it would clearly be helpful to identify candidate ligands among various classes of carbohydrate-containing materials expressed by P. squamosus. Since evidence has been accumulating that glycosphingolipids (GSLs) may serve as key ligands for some endogenous lectins in animal species, possible similar roles for fungal GSLs could be considered. For this study, total lipids were extracted from mature fruiting body of P. squamosus. Multistep fractionation yielded a major monohexosylceramide (CMH) component and three major glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) from the neutral and acidic lipids, respectively. These were characterized by a variety of techniques as required, including one- and two-dimensional (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, tandem-MS/collision-induced decay-MS, and ion trap-MS(n)); and component and methylation linkage analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The CMH was determined to be glucosylceramide having a typical ceramide consisting of 2-hydroxy fatty-N-acylated (4E,8E)-9-methyl-sphinga-4,8-dienine. The GIPCs were identified as Manalpha1 --> 2Ins1-P-1Cer (Ps-1), Galbeta1 --> 6Manalpha1 --> 2Ins1-P-1Cer (Ps-2), and Manalpha1 --> 3Fucalpha1 --> 2Galalpha1 --> 6Galbeta1 --> 6Manalpha1 -->2Ins1-P-1Cer (Ps-5), respectively (where Ins = myo-inositol, P = phosphodiester, and Cer = ceramide consisting mainly of long-chain 2-hydroxy and 2,3-dihydroxy fatty-N-acylated 4-hydroxy-sphinganines). Of these GSLs, Ps-2 could potentially interact with P. squamosus lectin, and further investigations will focus on determining the binding affinity, if any, of the lectin for the GIPCs isolated from this fungus.  (+info)

(6/12) Activation of invariant NKT cells by toll-like receptor 9-stimulated dendritic cells requires type I interferon and charged glycosphingolipids.

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of innate lymphocytes that recognize lipid antigens in the context of CD1d and mediate potent immune regulatory functions via the rapid production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). We investigated whether diverse Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals in myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) could differentially stimulate iNKT cells. Together with the lipopolysaccharide-detecting receptor TLR4, activation of the nucleic acid sensors TLR7 and TLR9 in DCs were particularly potent in stimulating iNKT cells to produce IFN-gamma, but not IL-4. iNKT cell activation in response to TLR9 stimulation required combined synthesis of type I interferon and de novo production of charged beta-linked glycosphingolipid(s) by DCs. In addition, DCs stimulated via TLR9 activated both iNKT cells and NK cells in vivo and protected mice against B16F10-induced melanoma metastases. These data underline the role of TLR9 in iNKT cell activation and might have relevance to infectious diseases and cancer.  (+info)

(7/12) Invariant Valpha14 natural killer T cell activation by edible mushroom acidic glycosphingolipids.

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells regulate multi-immune response through Th1/Th2 cytokine release triggered by the recognition of CD1d-restricted glycosphingolipid antigens. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of mushroom (Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii) presented by murine CD1d-transfected rat basophilic leukocytes induced interleukin-2 (IL-2) release from iNKT hybridoma cells. AGL-1, one of the AGLs, containing mannose at the non-reducing ends, induced CD1d-dependent IL-2 release. Al-though alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) presented by CD11c-positive cells induced both interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-4 release, all of AGLs presented by CD11c-positive cells and AGL-1 presented by B cells induced IL-4 release from iNKT hybridoma cells. A single intravenous injection of AGLs into B6 mice induced only a little elevation of IL-4 in serum but repeated intravenous injection of AGLs induced prolonged retention of IL-4 in serum; therefore, these results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs might contribute to the retention of immunohomeostasis through the minimum induction of iNKT cell activation in vivo.  (+info)

(8/12) Structure of phosphonoglycosphingolipid containing pyruvylated galactose in nerve fibers of Aplysia kurodai.

A phosphonoglycosphingolipid, designated as FGL-IIb, was identified in nerve fibers of Aplysia kurodai by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (Abe, S., Araki, S., and Satake, M. (1986) Biomed. Res. (Tokyo) 7, 47-51). FGL-IIb was isolated from the nervous system of A. kurodai by Iatrobeads column chromatography using three solvent systems. Pyruvic acid was identified by thin layer chromatography as its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone and established by permethylation studies to be attached as a ketal to O-3 and O-4 of the terminal galactose of the oligosaccharide chain in FGL-IIb. By sugar analysis, permethylation studies, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and proton magnetic resonance spectrometry, the structure of FGL-IIb was concluded to be [3,4-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)]Gal beta 1----3GalNAc alpha 1----3(Fuc alpha 1----2) (2-aminoethylphosphonyl----6)Gal beta 1----4Glc beta 1----1ceramide. Its major aliphatic components were palmitic acid, octadeca-4-sphingenine and anteisononadeca-4-sphingenine. This is the first report of the occurrence of pyruvylated galactose as a constituent of animal sphingolipid.  (+info)

*  Endoglycosylceramidase
"A novel glycosphingolipid-degrading enzyme cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of neutral and acidic ... glycosphingolipids". J. Biol. Chem. 261 (30): 14278-82. PMID 3771534. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D09)
... glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.025 --- acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.025.060 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.525.200 --- ceramides MeSH D09.400.410.420.525.200.250 --- cerebrosides MeSH ...
*  Pleurotus eryngii
Nozaki H, Itonori S, Sugita M, Nakamura K, Ohba K, Suzuki A, Kushi Y (Aug 2008), "Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D10)
... glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.570.877.360.025 --- acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.570.877.360.025.060 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH ... acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.390.470.025.060 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D10.390.470.025.475 --- gangliosides MeSH D10.390. ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.390.470.675.200 --- ceramides MeSH D10.390.470.675.200.250 --- cerebrosides MeSH D10.390. ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.570.877.360.612.200 --- ceramides MeSH D10.570.877.360.612.200.250 --- cerebrosides MeSH ...
*  Ceramide
In the case of glycosphingolipids, exohydrolases acting at acidic pH optima cause the stepwise release of monosaccharide units ... Constitutive degradation of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids takes place in the acidic subcellular compartments, the late ... such as sphingomyelin and the complex glycosphingolipids. ...
*  GPR65
In the presence of psychosine, however, the levels of cAMP increased at a shifted, more acidic pH range. As such, psychosine ... as well as several other related glycosphingolipids. However, the specific binding of psychosine to GPR65 has been contested as ... It was found that overexpression of GPR65 prevents tumor cell death in acidic conditions in vitro and facilitates tumor growth ... After myocardial infarction, anaerobic respiration and severe inflammation occurs-both of which are accompanied by an acidic ...
*  Epidermis
An acidic pH (around 5.0) and low amounts of water make it hostile to many microorganic pathogens. The presence of non- ... For example glycosphingolipids become ceramides and phospholipids become free fatty acids. spinous layer (stratum spinosum) ... glycosphingolipids, free sterols, phospholipids and catabolic enzymes. Langerhans cells, immunologically active cells, are ...
*  Avadhesha Surolia
Srinivas VR, Acharya S, Rawat S, Sharma V; Surolia A (2000). "The primary structure of the acidic lectin from winged bean ( ... Surolia has elucidated the role of glycosphingolipids as biological receptors through studies on lectin-glycolipid interactions ... Patanjali S.R., Sajjan S. U.; Surolia A. (1988). "Erythrocyte-binding studies on an acidic lectin from winged bean ( ...
*  Sulfatide
However, this is only under acidic conditions not neutral conditions. To fully understand the role of sulfatide in the cycle of ... MAL forms complexes with sulfatide and other glycosphingolipids, and these complexes have been shown to play a role in apical ...
*  Lipid signaling
This could have immense effects on the signaling functions of ceramide because it is known that ceramide generated by acidic ... 2007). "Glycosphingolipid synthesis requires FAPP2 transfer of glucosylceramide". Nature. 449 (7158): 62-67. doi:10.1038/ ... In addition to their role as building blocks of biological membranes, glycosphingolipids have long attracted attention because ... Glucosylceramides (GluCer) are the most widely distributed glycosphingolipids in cells serving as precursors for the formation ...
Sphingolipid Ceramide N-Deacylase | SCDase | Sphingolipid Hydrolysis  Sphingolipid Ceramide N-Deacylase | SCDase | Sphingolipid Hydrolysis
SCDase acts on various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin; however, it exhibits low activity with ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Glycobiology/Glycobiology_Enzymes_and_Reagents/SCDase
Sphingolipid Ceramide N-Deacylase | SCDase | Sphingolipid Hydrolysis  Sphingolipid Ceramide N-Deacylase | SCDase | Sphingolipid Hydrolysis
SCDase acts on various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin; however, it exhibits low activity with ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/CA/Products/Glycobiology/Glycobiology_Enzymes_and_Reagents/SCDase
Frontiers | Glucosylceramide Synthase Is Involved in Development of Invariant Natural Killer T Cells | Immunology  Frontiers | Glucosylceramide Synthase Is Involved in Development of Invariant Natural Killer T Cells | Immunology
We have now analyzed the GSL composition of DP thymocytes and shown that GlcCer represented the sole neutral GSL and the acidic ... We have now analyzed the GSL composition of DP thymocytes and shown that GlcCer represented the sole neutral GSL and the acidic ... Glycosphingolipids (GSL) were implicated to serve as endogenous ligands. However, further in vivo investigations were hampered ... Glycosphingolipids (GSL) were implicated to serve as endogenous ligands. However, further in vivo investigations were hampered ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00848/full
Complex Lipids Flashcards by S S | Brainscape  Complex Lipids Flashcards by S S | Brainscape
An oligosaccharide containing one to several acidic sugar derivatives attached to ceramide makes what? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/complex-lipids-2234710/packs/3818415
LIPID MAPS Lipidomics Gateway  LIPID MAPS Lipidomics Gateway
Acidic glycosphingolipids [SP06] Gangliosides [SP0601]. Sulfoglycosphingolipids (sulfatides) [SP0602]. Glucuronosphingolipids [ ...
more infohttp://lipidmaps.org/data/classification/LM_classification_exp.php?category=4
Search Results -   - 20 Results - Digital Library  Search Results - - 20 Results - Digital Library
Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids that contain sialic acid. The high concentration of gangliosides in the central ... The most basic isozyme was more stable than the more acidic isozymes (lower pi values) at pH extremes, at high ionic strength, ... The simultaneous release in ammonia along with the spontaneous shift to more acidic isozymes and changes in the specific ... there was a spontaneous generation of the more acidic isozymes with electrophoretic properties identical to those found in vivo ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/search/?sort=creator&q5=&searchType=advanced&t5=dc_subject&fq=str_degree_department%3ADepartment+of+Biochemistry
Endoglycosylceramidase - Wikipedia  Endoglycosylceramidase - Wikipedia
"A novel glycosphingolipid-degrading enzyme cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of neutral and acidic ... glycosphingolipids". J. Biol. Chem. 261 (30): 14278-82. PMID 3771534. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endoglycosylceramidase
Lipid Metabolism sub-cluster 51  Lipid Metabolism sub-cluster 51
Two acidic glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) derived from mouse macrophage membranes and separated by thin-layer chromatography ... Structural analysis and immunohistochemical localization of two acidic glycosphingolipids from the porcine, ... ... The acidic glycolipid fraction (AF) of the porcine, parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum , consisted of two subfractions. The major ... Characterization of cytostatically active glycosphingolipids isolated from thioglycollate-elicited murine macrophages. Schaade ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/14/Lipid-Metabolism/sub-51-p9.html
nature.com search  nature.com search
Endogenous pore-forming protein complex targets acidic glycosphingolipids in lipid rafts to initiate endolysosome regulation * ... Rights & permissionsfor article Endogenous pore-forming protein complex targets acidic glycosphingolipids in lipid rafts to ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Jin%20Yang%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=2df20a7e-f755-4c07-807e-06e46e8c4a04
Diverse Endogenous Antigens for Mouse NKT Cells: Self-Antigens That Are Not Glycosphingolipids | The Journal of Immunology  Diverse Endogenous Antigens for Mouse NKT Cells: Self-Antigens That Are Not Glycosphingolipids | The Journal of Immunology
A novel glycosphingolipid-degrading enzyme cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of neutral and acidic ... glycosphingolipid. HPTLC. high-performance thin layer chromatography. iGb3. isoglobotrihexosyl ceramide. iNKT cell. invariant ... Cell wall glycosphingolipids of Sphingomonas paucimobilis are CD1d-specific ligands for NKT cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 35: 1692- ... Glycosphingolipids are required for sorting melanosomal proteins in the Golgi complex. J. Cell Biol. 155: 369-380. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/186/3/1348.long
glycosphingolipid biosynthetic process - Semantic Scholar  glycosphingolipid biosynthetic process - Semantic Scholar
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycosphingolipid, a compound with residues of sphingoid and ... Role of multiple drug resistance protein 1 in neutral but not acidic glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. ... glycosphingolipid biosynthetic process. Known as: glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, glycosphingolipid anabolism, ... glycosphingolipid synthesis (More). The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycosphingolipid, a ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/glycosphingolipid-biosynthetic-process/685741
Design of a covalently bonded glycosphingolipid microarray | SpringerLink  Design of a covalently bonded glycosphingolipid microarray | SpringerLink
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are well known ubiquitous constituents of all eukaryotic cell membranes, yet their normal biological ... A novel glycosphingolipid-degrading enzyme cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of neutral and acidic ... Glycosphingolipid Glycolipid Ganglioside Glycan Lectin Antibody Microarray Glycan array This is a preview of subscription ... Zhang, X., Kiechle, F.L.: Review: glycosphingolipids in health and disease. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 34, 3-13 (2004)PubMedGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10719-011-9359-9
Human Anti-Glycosphingolipids Antibodies in Guillain-Barré Syndrome<...  Human Anti-Glycosphingolipids Antibodies in Guillain-Barré Syndrome<...
... especially certain acidic GSLs such as gangliosides and sulfoglycolipids, in patients with GBS. These anti-acidic GSL ... especially certain acidic GSLs such as gangliosides and sulfoglycolipids, in patients with GBS. These anti-acidic GSL ... especially certain acidic GSLs such as gangliosides and sulfoglycolipids, in patients with GBS. These anti-acidic GSL ... especially certain acidic GSLs such as gangliosides and sulfoglycolipids, in patients with GBS. These anti-acidic GSL ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/human-anti-glycosphingolipids-antibodies-in-guillain-barr%C3%A9-syndro
List of MeSH codes (D09) - Wikipedia  List of MeSH codes (D09) - Wikipedia
... glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.025 --- acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.025.060 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.525.200 --- ceramides MeSH D09.400.410.420.525.200.250 --- cerebrosides MeSH ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D09)
800-342-3595 | Disialoganglioside GD1b (NH4+salt) | Lipids and Biochemicals - Matreya, LLC.  800-342-3595 | Disialoganglioside GD1b (NH4+salt) | Lipids and Biochemicals - Matreya, LLC.
Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids that form lipid rafts in the outer leaflet of the cell plasma membrane, especially ... Gangliosides1 are acidic glycosphingolipids that form lipid rafts in the outer leaflet of the cell plasma membrane, especially ...
more infohttps://www.matreya.com/bvmodules/producttemplates/matreya/product.aspx?productid=1501
Ganglioside-Linked Terminal Sialic Acid Moieties on Murine Macrophages Function as Attachment Receptors for Murine Noroviruses ...  Ganglioside-Linked Terminal Sialic Acid Moieties on Murine Macrophages Function as Attachment Receptors for Murine Noroviruses ...
Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids (GSL) that are composed of ceramide and oligosaccharide side chains that contain one ... Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids that can contain SA moieties and serve as attachment factors for many viruses, including ... Caveolar structure and protein sorting are maintained in NIH 3T3 cells independent of glycosphingolipid depletion. Arch. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/83/9/4092?ijkey=e229ed69057b98db0c82d0933fec1fbefd23ec0e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
2018 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code E75.0: GM2 gangliosidosis  2018 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code E75.0: GM2 gangliosidosis
... a subclass of acidic glycosphingolipids.. Code History *2016 (effective 10/1/2015): New code (first year of non-draft ICD-10-CM ...
more infohttps://www.icd10data.com/ICD10CM/Codes/E00-E89/E70-E88/E75-/E75.0
800-342-3595 | Disialoganglioside GD2 (NH4+salt) | Lipids and Biochemicals - Matreya, LLC.  800-342-3595 | Disialoganglioside GD2 (NH4+salt) | Lipids and Biochemicals - Matreya, LLC.
Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids that form lipid rafts in the outer leaflet of the cell plasma membrane, especially ... Gangliosides1 are acidic glycosphingolipids that form lipid rafts in the outer leaflet of the cell plasma membrane, especially ...
more infohttps://www.matreya.com/bvmodules/producttemplates/matreya/product.aspx?productid=1527
Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling | Nutrition...  Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling | Nutrition...
Nozaki H, Itonori S, Sugita M, Nakamura K, Ohba K, Suzuki A, Kushi Y: Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine ... Kim GY, Roh SI, Ahn SC, Oh YH, Lee JD, Park YM: Alleviation of experimental septic shock in mice by acidic polysaccharide ... α- and β-glucans in lyophilized oyster mushrooms and OMC were determined by acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis using the Mushroom ... Glycosphingolipid, isolated from Pleurotus eryngii, induced secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4 from T-cells [25], whereas β-glucan ...
more infohttps://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-10-52
Glycobiology  Glycobiology
The enzyme acts on various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin; however, it exhibits low activity on ... cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids, producing intact ... glycosphingolipids, and other glycan-containing biological molecules. ...
more infohttps://cellartis.com/products/protein-research/glycobiology
Mostafa Zarei - Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies - FRIAS  Mostafa Zarei - Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies - FRIAS
... assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for analysis of neutral and acidic glycosphingolipids" Anal Bioanal Chem ... and structural elucidation of human erythrocytes neutral glycosphingolipid mixture" Anal Chem; 80 (2008): 4711-4722. * Equal ...
more infohttp://www.frias.uni-freiburg.de/de/das-institut/archiv-frias/school-of-lifenet/wissenschaftliche-mitarbeiter/zarei
Glycolipids - Physics LibreTexts  Glycolipids - Physics LibreTexts
Acidic glycosphingolipids: These lipids are negatively charged at physiological pH which is provided by N-acetylneuraminic acid ... Glycosphingolipids. Glycosphingolipids are a class of glycolipids which contain ceramide as the lipid complex. Ceramides are ... Glycosphingolipids are derived from lactosylceramide (LacCer; β-D-galactosyl(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-ceramide) where the first step ... Glycosphingolipids in the plasma membrane can cluster with cholesterol to for rafts which contains less phospholipids relative ...
more infohttps://phys.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_California_Davis/UCD%3A_Biophysics_241_-_Membrane_Biology/Lipids_Types/Glycolipids
Glycosphingolipids, Chemistry of - CHEMICAL BIOLOGY  Glycosphingolipids, Chemistry of - CHEMICAL BIOLOGY
... - reflects the multidimensional character of chemical biology, focusing in ... Role of Multiple Drug Resistance Protein 1 in neutral but not acidic glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 2004; 279: ... Chemical Modification of Glycosphingolipids. Studies on the chemical modification of GSLs are not extensive. The sialic acid of ... Inhibitors of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. L-cycloserine is an inhibitor of serine palmitoyl transferase (85), the first ...
more infohttp://schoolbag.info/chemistry/chemical_biology/173.html
Observational, retrospective study of a large cohort of patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C in the Czech Republic: a...  Observational, retrospective study of a large cohort of patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C in the Czech Republic: a...
... acidic lipids (with cresyl violet); glycosphingolipids (with periodic acid-Schiff); and apolar components (with Sudan Black B ... Lysosomal storage in central neurons was dominated by accumulation of glycosphingolipids, and thus was different from that seen ... One was rapidly frozen for histochemical analyses including detection of phospholipids, sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids, ... acidic lipids, and apolar components and lipopigments [13], one was fixed with 4% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin for ...
more infohttps://ojrd.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13023-014-0140-6
G(M2) Ganglioside
      - Ganglioside GM2
     Summary Report | CureHunter  G(M2) Ganglioside - Ganglioside GM2 Summary Report | CureHunter
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 ... Glycosphingolipids: 554*Acidic Glycosphingolipids: 16*Gangliosides: 1633*G(M2) Ganglioside: 179*lysoganglioside G(M2): 3 ... Glycosphingolipids: 554*Acidic Glycosphingolipids: 16*Gangliosides: 1633*G(M2) Ganglioside: 179*lysoganglioside G(M2): 3 ... Glycosphingolipids: 554*Acidic Glycosphingolipids: 16*Gangliosides: 1633*G(M2) Ganglioside: 179*lysoganglioside G(M2): 3 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD005678-G-M2--Ganglioside-Ganglioside-GM2.do
  • spinous layer (stratum spinosum) Keratinocytes become connected through desmosomes and start produce lamellar bodies, from within the Golgi, enriched in polar lipids, glycosphingolipids, free sterols, phospholipids and catabolic enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), a synthetic glycosphingolipid (GSL) that has some minor structural modifications from a compound originally isolated from a marine sponge, is the most well-known Ag for i NKT cells ( 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It was found that overexpression of GPR65 prevents tumor cell death in acidic conditions in vitro and facilitates tumor growth in vivo. (wikipedia.org)