A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Chromatography, Thin Layer
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Biological Science Disciplines
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
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Natural Killer T-Cells
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.
Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C
An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.
A group of severe neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent wax-like lipid materials (CEROID; LIPOFUSCIN) in neurons. There are several subtypes based on mutations of the various genes, time of disease onset, and severity of the neurological defects such as progressive DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; and visual failure.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A
The classic infantile form of Niemann-Pick Disease, caused by mutation in SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE. It is characterized by accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS in the cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM and other cell throughout the body leading to cell death. Clinical signs include JAUNDICE, hepatosplenomegaly, and severe brain damage.
Monocytic cell activation by Nonendotoxic glycoprotein from Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2. (1/12)Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from gram-negative black-pigmented bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia activate cells from non-LPS-responsive C3H/HeJ mice, but it is still unclear whether this activity is due to the unique structure of LPS or to a minor component(s) responsible for the activity in the preparation. A nonendotoxic glycoprotein with bioactivity against cells from C3H/HeJ mice was purified from a hot phenol-water extract of P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and designated Prevotella glycoprotein (PGP). Treatment of human monocytic THP-1 cells with 22-oxyacalcitriol (OCT) induced maturation and marked expression of CD14 on the cells, but the cells constitutively expressed Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 on the cells irrespective of the treatment. PGP induced a high level of interleukin-8 production at doses of 100 ng/ml and higher in OCT-treated THP-1 cells compared with Salmonella LPS, and the production was significantly inhibited by anti-CD14 and anti-TLR2 but not anti-TLR4 antibodies. Consistent with this, TLR2-deficient murine macrophages did not respond to PGP. It was also shown that PGP activity on the THP-1 cells was LPS-binding protein dependent and was inhibited by a synthetic lipid A precursor IV(A). These results indicate that PGP activates monocytic cells in a CD14- and TLR2-dependent manner. (+info)
Structural elucidation of novel phosphocholine-containing glycosylinositol-phosphoceramides in filamentous fungi and their induction of cell death of cultured rice cells. (2/12)Novel ZGLs (zwitterionic glycosphingolipids) have been found in and extracted from the mycelia of filamentous fungi ( Acremonium sp.) isolated from soil. Five ZGLs (ZGL1-ZGL5) were structurally elucidated by sugar compositional analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and fast-atom bombardment MS. Their chemical structures were as follows: GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL1), Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL2), Man(alpha1-6)Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL3), PC-->6Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1- P -1Cer (ZGL4), and PC-->6Man(alpha1-6)Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL5) (where Cer is ceramide and PC is phosphocholine). In addition, one acidic glycosphingolipid, which was the precursor of ZGLs, was also characterized as inositol-phosphoceramide. The core structure of the ZGLs, GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1- P, is rather different from those found in other fungi, such as Man(alpha1-2)Ins1- P and Man(alpha1-6)Ins1- P. Interestingly, the terminal mannose residue of ZGL4 and ZGL5 was modified further with a PC group. The presence of PC-containing glycosylinositol-phosphoceramides has not been reported previously in any organism. The ceramide constituents of both ZGLs and acidic glycosphingolipid were essentially the same, and consisted of a 4-hydroxyoctadecasphinganine (phytosphingosine) as the sole sphingoid base and 2-hydroxytetracosanoic acid (>90%) as the major fatty acid. ZGLs were found to cause cell death in suspensions of cultured rice cells. The cell death-inducing activity of ZGLs is probably due to the characteristic glycan moiety of Man(alpha1-6)GlcN, and PC-containing ZGLs had high activity. This study is the first to demonstrate that fungal glycosylinositol-phosphoceramides induce cell death in cultured rice cells. (+info)
Role of multiple drug resistance protein 1 in neutral but not acidic glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. (3/12)Transfection studies have implicated the multiple drug resistance pump, MDR1, as a glucosyl ceramide translocase within the Golgi complex (Lala, P., Ito, S., and Lingwood, C. A. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 6246-6251). We now show that MDR1 inhibitors, cyclosporin A or ketoconazole, inhibit neutral glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in 11 of 12 cell lines tested. The exception, HeLa cells, do not express MDR1. Microsomal lactosyl ceramide and globotriaosyl ceramide synthesis from endogenous or exogenously added liposomal glucosyl ceramide was inhibited by cyclosporin A, consistent with a direct role for MDR1/glucosyl ceramide translocase activity in their synthesis. In contrast, cellular ganglioside synthesis in the same cells, was unaffected by MDR1 inhibition, suggesting neutral and acid glycosphingolipids are synthesized from distinct precursor glycosphingolipid pools. Metabolic labeling in wild type and knock-out (MDR1a, 1b, MRP1) mouse fibroblasts showed the same loss of neutral glycosphingolipid (glucosyl ceramide, lactosyl ceramide) but not ganglioside (GM3) synthesis, confirming the proposed role for MDR1 translocase activity. Cryo-immunoelectron microscopy showed MDR1 was predominantly intracellular, largely in rab6-containing Golgi vesicles and Golgi cisternae, the site of glycosphingolipid synthesis. These studies identify MDR1 as the major glucosyl ceramide flippase required for neutral glycosphingolipid anabolism and demonstrate a previously unappreciated dichotomy between neutral and acid glycosphingolipid synthesis. (+info)
Characterization of two novel pyruvylated glycosphingolipids containing 2'-aminoethylphosphoryl(-->6)-galactose from the nervous system of Aplysia kurodai. (4/12)Two novel acidic glycosphingolipids containing pyruvylated galactose were purified from the nervous tissue of Aplysia kurodai by successive Iatrobeads column chromatographies. By component analysis, sugar analysis, permethylation studies, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and proton magnetic resonance spectrometry, the structures of these acidic glycosphingolipids, named F-9 and FGL-I, were determined to be: [3,4-O-(S-1-carboxyethylidene)]Gal beta 1-->3 GalNAc alpha 1-->3[6'-O-(2-aminoethylphosphonyl)Gal alpha 1-->2] (2-aminoethylphosphoryl 1-->6)Gal beta 1-->4Glc beta 1-->1ceramide and [3,4-O-(S-1-carboxyethylidene)] Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc alpha 1-->3(Fuc alpha 1-->2)(2-aminoethylphosphonyl-->6 Gal beta 1-->4Glc beta 1-->1ceramide, octadeca-4-sphingenine and anteisononadeca-4-sphingenine. Thus, pyruvylated glycosphingolipids containing phosphoethanolamine in addition to or in place of 2-aminoethylphosphonate are present in the nervous system of Aplysia. (+info)
Characterization of neutral and acidic glycosphingolipids from the lectin-producing mushroom, Polyporus squamosus. (5/12)The polypore mushroom Polyporus squamosus is the source of a lectin that exhibits a general affinity for terminal beta-galactosides, but appears to have an extended carbohydrate-binding site with high affinity and strict specificity for the nonreducing terminal trisaccharide sequence NeuAcalpha2 --> 6Galbeta1 --> 4Glc/GlcNAc. In considering the possibility that the lectin's in vivo function could involve interaction with an endogenous glycoconjugate, it would clearly be helpful to identify candidate ligands among various classes of carbohydrate-containing materials expressed by P. squamosus. Since evidence has been accumulating that glycosphingolipids (GSLs) may serve as key ligands for some endogenous lectins in animal species, possible similar roles for fungal GSLs could be considered. For this study, total lipids were extracted from mature fruiting body of P. squamosus. Multistep fractionation yielded a major monohexosylceramide (CMH) component and three major glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) from the neutral and acidic lipids, respectively. These were characterized by a variety of techniques as required, including one- and two-dimensional (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, tandem-MS/collision-induced decay-MS, and ion trap-MS(n)); and component and methylation linkage analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The CMH was determined to be glucosylceramide having a typical ceramide consisting of 2-hydroxy fatty-N-acylated (4E,8E)-9-methyl-sphinga-4,8-dienine. The GIPCs were identified as Manalpha1 --> 2Ins1-P-1Cer (Ps-1), Galbeta1 --> 6Manalpha1 --> 2Ins1-P-1Cer (Ps-2), and Manalpha1 --> 3Fucalpha1 --> 2Galalpha1 --> 6Galbeta1 --> 6Manalpha1 -->2Ins1-P-1Cer (Ps-5), respectively (where Ins = myo-inositol, P = phosphodiester, and Cer = ceramide consisting mainly of long-chain 2-hydroxy and 2,3-dihydroxy fatty-N-acylated 4-hydroxy-sphinganines). Of these GSLs, Ps-2 could potentially interact with P. squamosus lectin, and further investigations will focus on determining the binding affinity, if any, of the lectin for the GIPCs isolated from this fungus. (+info)
Activation of invariant NKT cells by toll-like receptor 9-stimulated dendritic cells requires type I interferon and charged glycosphingolipids. (6/12)Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of innate lymphocytes that recognize lipid antigens in the context of CD1d and mediate potent immune regulatory functions via the rapid production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). We investigated whether diverse Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals in myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) could differentially stimulate iNKT cells. Together with the lipopolysaccharide-detecting receptor TLR4, activation of the nucleic acid sensors TLR7 and TLR9 in DCs were particularly potent in stimulating iNKT cells to produce IFN-gamma, but not IL-4. iNKT cell activation in response to TLR9 stimulation required combined synthesis of type I interferon and de novo production of charged beta-linked glycosphingolipid(s) by DCs. In addition, DCs stimulated via TLR9 activated both iNKT cells and NK cells in vivo and protected mice against B16F10-induced melanoma metastases. These data underline the role of TLR9 in iNKT cell activation and might have relevance to infectious diseases and cancer. (+info)
Invariant Valpha14 natural killer T cell activation by edible mushroom acidic glycosphingolipids. (7/12)Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells regulate multi-immune response through Th1/Th2 cytokine release triggered by the recognition of CD1d-restricted glycosphingolipid antigens. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of mushroom (Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii) presented by murine CD1d-transfected rat basophilic leukocytes induced interleukin-2 (IL-2) release from iNKT hybridoma cells. AGL-1, one of the AGLs, containing mannose at the non-reducing ends, induced CD1d-dependent IL-2 release. Al-though alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) presented by CD11c-positive cells induced both interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-4 release, all of AGLs presented by CD11c-positive cells and AGL-1 presented by B cells induced IL-4 release from iNKT hybridoma cells. A single intravenous injection of AGLs into B6 mice induced only a little elevation of IL-4 in serum but repeated intravenous injection of AGLs induced prolonged retention of IL-4 in serum; therefore, these results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs might contribute to the retention of immunohomeostasis through the minimum induction of iNKT cell activation in vivo. (+info)
Structure of phosphonoglycosphingolipid containing pyruvylated galactose in nerve fibers of Aplysia kurodai. (8/12)A phosphonoglycosphingolipid, designated as FGL-IIb, was identified in nerve fibers of Aplysia kurodai by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (Abe, S., Araki, S., and Satake, M. (1986) Biomed. Res. (Tokyo) 7, 47-51). FGL-IIb was isolated from the nervous system of A. kurodai by Iatrobeads column chromatography using three solvent systems. Pyruvic acid was identified by thin layer chromatography as its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone and established by permethylation studies to be attached as a ketal to O-3 and O-4 of the terminal galactose of the oligosaccharide chain in FGL-IIb. By sugar analysis, permethylation studies, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and proton magnetic resonance spectrometry, the structure of FGL-IIb was concluded to be [3,4-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)]Gal beta 1----3GalNAc alpha 1----3(Fuc alpha 1----2) (2-aminoethylphosphonyl----6)Gal beta 1----4Glc beta 1----1ceramide. Its major aliphatic components were palmitic acid, octadeca-4-sphingenine and anteisononadeca-4-sphingenine. This is the first report of the occurrence of pyruvylated galactose as a constituent of animal sphingolipid. (+info)
Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
Cyclophilin D (referred to as HsCypD) was obtained from the freshwater pearl mussel (Hyriopsis schlegelii). The full-length cDNA was 2 671 bp, encoding a protein consisting of 367 amino acids. HsCypD was determined to be a hydrophilic intracellular protein with 10 phosphorylation sites and four tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, but no signal peptide. The core sequence region YKGCIFHRIIKDFMVQGG is highly conserved in vertebrates and invertebrates. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that CypD from all species had a common origin, and HsCypD had the closest phylogenetic relationship with CypD from Lottia gigantea ...
A New Species of Capillaria (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the Intestine of the Marine Fish Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii...
A new nematode species, Capillaria acanthopagri n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the intestine of the marine fish (black porgy) Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Bleeker) from coastal waters of the western north Pacific Ocean off Kochi, Shikoku Island, Japan. The new species, belonging to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987, differs from other congeneric species of this subgenus from marine fishes (with the exception of C. navonae Timi, Rossin and Lanfranchi, 2006) mainly in the length (204-285 µm), shape, and structure of the spicule; and except for C. cooperi Johnston and Mawson, 1945, in markedly small body measurements (males and females 3-4 and 6-10 mm long, respectively). It is characterized by the presence of 33-43 elongate stichocytes; a heavily sclerotized spicule with rough transverse grooves; a spinous spicular sheath; and by eggs measuring 27-30 × 57-60 µm, without protruding polar plugs. Capillaria acanthopagri n. sp. is the first known species of Neocapillaria ...
Polyporus squamosus - Dryads Saddle (Polyporale images)
APHOTOFUNGI - Photographic Stock Image Library Page for Polyporus squamosus - Dryads Saddle (Polyporale images). A-P-H-O-T-O - Furthering environmental awareness and education through the medium of photography.
Porogobius schlegelii : fisheries
Espinhos dorsais (total): 7; Raios dorsais moles (total): 9-10; Espinhos anais 1; Raios anais moles: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: each side of lower jaw with a recurved canine tooth approximately midway along its length (Ref. 57403). Outer row of teeth on lower jaw ending posteriorly in one or more long, recurved teeth (Ref. 79590). Angle of mouth reaching to below anterior margin of eye; 30-35 ctenoid scales in longitudinal series (including about 2-3 scales on caudal fin base), 9 scales in rearward transverse series; 1st dorsal fin: VI; 2nd dorsal fin: I,9 (infrequently 10); anal fin: I,8-9; pectoral fins: 19; pelvic fins just reaching to anus, relatively broad but with thin membrane between spines; caudal fin with 17 segmented rays (usually 14 of which are branched) (Ref. 57403, 79590). Coloration: Preserved specimens: very pale (whitish in alcohol); body covered with numerous small, black spots, larger and more close-set on dorsum; lateral part of head with a dark band running in a crescent from above ...
Porogobius schlegelii : fisheries
Espinas dorsales (total): 7; Radios blandos dorsales (total): 9-10; Espinas anales 1; Radios blandos anales: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: each side of lower jaw with a recurved canine tooth approximately midway along its length (Ref. 57403). Outer row of teeth on lower jaw ending posteriorly in one or more long, recurved teeth (Ref. 79590). Angle of mouth reaching to below anterior margin of eye; 30-35 ctenoid scales in longitudinal series (including about 2-3 scales on caudal fin base), 9 scales in rearward transverse series; 1st dorsal fin: VI; 2nd dorsal fin: I,9 (infrequently 10); anal fin: I,8-9; pectoral fins: 19; pelvic fins just reaching to anus, relatively broad but with thin membrane between spines; caudal fin with 17 segmented rays (usually 14 of which are branched) (Ref. 57403, 79590). Coloration: Preserved specimens: very pale (whitish in alcohol); body covered with numerous small, black spots, larger and more close-set on dorsum; lateral part of head with a dark band running in a crescent ...
Formation of Novel Polysaccharides by Bradyrhizobium japonicum Bacteroids in Soybean Nodules - CORE
Certain strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum form a previously unknown polysaccharide in the root nodules of soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). The polysaccharide accumulates inside of the symbiosome membrane-the plant-derived membrane enclosing the bacteroids. In older nodules (60 days after planting), the polysaccharide occupies most of the symbiosome volume and symbiosomes become enlarged so that there is little host cytoplasm in infected cells. The two different groups of B. japonicum which produce different types of polysaccharide in culture produce polysaccharides of similar composition in nodules. Polysaccharide formed by group I strains (e.g., USDA 5 and USDA 123) is composed of rhamnose, galactose, and 2-O-methylglucuronic acid, while polysaccharide formed by group II strains (e.g., USDA 31 and USDA 39) is composed of rhamnose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. That the polysaccharide is a bacterial product is indicated by its composition plus the fact that polysaccharide formation is ...
Eyelash Viper (Bothriechis schlegelii) | about animals
The Eyelash Viper is a deadly snake who lives in the rainforest of Central America. The name is due to a set of scales over its eyes that resemble eyelashes
X-Rays of my Femur in Philippines
We have yet to discover what the lump is on my back, it could be fat, nerve bundle, or a muscle bundle, and I suppose something else. There is an outside chance it is cancer, but normally cancer grows larger and I am told is a black mass or something. They cannot see the lump with the MRI, or at least Doctor Barnabe was not able to locate ...
A repeated chromosomal DNA sequence is amplified as a circular extrachromosomal molecule in rice (Oryza sativa L.) | IRIS UNIPV
The plasmid pE10 is a pBR322-derived plasmid carrying a 4.5 kb rice (Oryza sativa L.) repeated DNA sequence. The cloned sequence has been shown to be amplified in cultured rice cells. The analysis of practically intact chromosomal rice DNA molecules by pulsed field gel electrophoresis has now shown that the amplification is associated with the appearance of extrachromosomal molecules. In fact, pE10 hybridizes exclusively with unfractionated DNA from leaf protoplasts, while it recognizes predominantly an extrachromosomal DNA molecule (ECD) of about 45 kb and its multiples in the case of protoplasts from cultured cells. Insensitivity to the action of the exonuclease Bal31 suggests that the molecule is circular. Analysis of restriction endonuclease products with both standard horizontal and pulsed field gel electrophoresis suggest that the extrachromosomal DNA, and its chromosomal counterpart, is composed of tandemly repeated units of about 7 kb. Thus, the smaller extrachromosomal circle should ...
Peripheral nerve bundle, SEM - Stock Image C035/8607 - Science Photo Library
Peripheral nerve bundle. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a freeze-fractured sample of tissue containing a peripheral nerve bundle (centre). Within the bundle, single nerve fibres (purple) are surrounded by myelin sheaths (yellow). These are formed by the Schwann cells (pink). Also forming the bundle are reticular fibres (grey), a form of connective tissue. The nerve bundle is surrounded by perineural cells (orange), with a cell nucleus (red) at lower centre. Peripheral nerves are those outside the central nervous system (CNS). Magnification: x4700 when printed at 10 centimetres across. - Stock Image C035/8607
THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS IN SPECIFIC GANGLIA AND NERVE BUNDLES OF THE LOBSTER<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS IN SPECIFIC GANGLIA AND NERVE BUNDLES OF THE LOBSTER. AU - Aprison, M. H.. AU - Mcbride, W. J.. AU - Freeman, A. R.. PY - 1973/7. Y1 - 1973/7. N2 - Using the technique of measuring DNP amino acid methyl esters by gas liquid chromatography, the distribution of alanine, proline, glycine, GABA, glutamate and aspartate was determined in individual ganglia and the associated nerve bundles between these ganglia after isolation from the nervous system of the lobster, Homarus americanus. The brain or supraesophageal ganglion (27.2 mg) and the next 5 thoracic ganglia (varying from 24 to 10 mg in a rostral caudal direction) as well as the nerve bundles connecting these ganglia were used. GABA and aspartate values varied the most among the individual ganglia; highest values were found in the second and third thoracic ganglia. The levels of alanine, proline, glycine and glutamate varied very little from ganglion to ganglion; however, the values for ...
beverlyrayner.com - Optic Nerve Bundle: afterimages
This work suggests the neurological network that gathers and transmits visual signals from the world into our brains. I am fascinated by the chemical and physical systems that transport and house idea
Phys.org - nerve bundle
Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine
The enterins inhibit the contractile activity of the anterior aorta of Aplysia kurodai | Journal of Experimental Biology
The anterior aorta of Aplysia is innervated by nerves arising from the abdominal ganglion (Sawada et al., 1981a). The vulvar nerve is one of the nerves innervating the anterior aorta, in which axons of some identifiable motoneurons or modulatory neurons for the anterior aorta are contained (Sawada et al., 1981a, 1984c). The phasic contraction evoked by the vulvar nerve stimulation was inhibited by the enterins. At least, one of the mechanisms for the inhibition seems to be activation of K+ conductance of the muscle membrane. We found that the enterins hyperpolarize the membrane potential of the muscle fibers via the activation of 4-AP-sensitive K+ channels. Sensitivity of the K+ channels to 4-AP is quite high, and EC50 of 4-AP was,10-6 mol l-1. The value is comparable to another highly 4-AP-sensitive K+ channel described in the accessory radula closer muscle of Aplysia (Brezina et al., 1994). The enterin-induced hyperpolarization of the muscle membrane should, in principle, reduce the ...
CC: CCSD:43026 AU: Taga S; Mangeney M; Tursz T; Wiels J TI: Differential regulation of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in phenotypically distinct Burkitts lymphoma cell lines CT: Int J Cancer (1995) 61: 261-267 [PMID:7705957] BS: (CN) human, (disease) Burkitts lymphoma, (cell line) BL10, Daudi, Ramos, Ly47, Ly67, MUTU III, BL36 TN: GM2 MT: ganglioside MT: glycolipid MT: glycosphingolipid SB: Westra B DA: 23-09-1995 FC: f7673cea SI: CBank:16359 ---------------- structure: b-D-GalpNAc-(1-4)+ , b-D-Galp-(1-4)-b-D-Glcp-(1-1)-Ceramide , a-D-Neup5Ac-(2-3)+ ================end of record ...
Macrophage-stimulating activity of exo-biopolymer from cultured rice bran with Monascus pilosus<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage-stimulating activity of exo-biopolymer from cultured rice bran with Monascus pilosus. AU - Yu, K. W.. AU - Kim, Y. S.. AU - Shin, K. S.. AU - Kim, J. M.. AU - Suh, H. J.. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported in part by a grant from Serombio Co. and Agricultural Research Promotion Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Forest, Korea.. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - To find a new use of rice bran, five fungi were examined for the production of exo-biopolymer with macrophage-stimulating activity from rice bran. Among the exo-biopolymers produced from the cultures, Monascus pilosus had the most potent macrophage stimulating activity in a liquid culture rather than in a solid culture. In order to improve the yield of exo-biopolymer with macrophage-stimulating activity, a suitable medium for exo-biopolymer was tested in submerged culture of M. pilosus. The highest amount of exo-biopolymer (13.9 mg/mL) was obtained in a medium containing rice bran as an only carbon ...
Chemical composition and bioactive properties of the wild mushroom Polyporus squamosus (Huds.) Fr: a study with samples from...
In Eastern Europe, wild mushrooms are widely collected in mountain areas and used for their medicinal properties or as healthy foods. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition (nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids and tocopherols) and bioactive propert
Resolution of the: Ingenta Connect
In this study, DNA analyses were employed to verify the identity of six morphologically similar species that occur in the coastal waters of Taiwan: the black seabream complex (Acanthopagrus latus, Acanthopagrus schlegelii, Acanthopagrus sivicolus, Acanthopagrus taiwanensis, Acanthopagrus chinshira and Acanthopagrus pacificus). Amplified fragment‐length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses clearly distinguished the same six species that are morphologically diagnosable based on subtle differences in scale counts and anal‐fin colouration. In contrast, mitochondrial DNA analyses based on cytochrome b gene sequences did not distinguish individuals of A. schlegelii and A. sivicolus, reflecting either historical introgression or recent speciation and incomplete sorting of their mitochondrial lineages. Phylogenetic relationships among these six north‐west Pacific Ocean species of Acanthopagrus analysed using AFLP data were consistent with scale rows above the lateral line (TRac), sperm ultrastructure and ...
Interaction of Single Viruslike Particles with Vesicles Containing Glycosphingolipids
Glycosphingolipids are involved in the first steps of virus-cell interaction, where they mediate specific recognition of the host cell membrane. We have employed total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy to explore the interaction kinetics between individual unlabeled noroviruslike particles, which are attached to a glycosphingolipid-containing lipid bilayer, and fluorescent vesicles containing different types and concentrations of glycosphingolipids. Under association equilibrium, the vesicle-binding rate is found to be kinetically limited, yielding information on the corresponding activation energy. The dissociation kinetics are logarithmic over a wide range of time. The latter is explained by the vesicle-size-related distribution of the dissociation activation energy. The biological, pharmaceutical, and diagnostic relevance of the study is briefly discussed.. ...
Researchers create motor nerve bundle from iPS cells that could help treat illnesses - The Mainichi
A team of researchers from the University of Tokyo has successfully managed to create a bundle of motor nerves using human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, it has been learned.
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Biosynthesis of proteins, nucleic acids and glycosphingolipids by synchronized KB cells<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biosynthesis of proteins, nucleic acids and glycosphingolipids by synchronized KB cells. AU - Chatterjee, Subroto. AU - Sweeley, Charles C.. AU - Velicer, Leland F.. PY - 1973/9/18. Y1 - 1973/9/18. N2 - The biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids and various types of proteins and nucleic acids at specific periods of the cell cycle was studied by using synchronized KB cells. Maximum incorporation of radioactive galactose, leucine and thymidine into several proteins and nucleic acids occurred as has been reported previously (6,11). Maximum incorporation of D-1[14C] galactose into glycosphingolipids was observed during the M and G-1 phases. There was a 5 fold increase in the levels of gangliosides and combined neutral glycosphingolipids during the M and G-1 phases. Thus, regulated biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids and macromolecules might be important in the cyclic expression of some of the functional properties which are characteristic of these compounds.. AB - The biosynthesis of ...
Centrophorus squamosus (Deepwater Spiny Dogfish, Leafscale Gulper Shark, Nilsons Deepsea Dogfish)
Centrophorus squamosus is an important component of deep-water fisheries in certain areas within its range. This shark has been exploited commercially for many years. In Japan exploitation peaked during World War II, because of the high percentage of squalene in its liver, but quickly declined due to decreasing numbers caught. Deep-water fisheries (longlining and trawling) which catch large quantities of this species are found in the eastern Atlantic, e.g., off Ireland, Spain, Portugal and France (Iglesias and Paz 1995, Clarke et al. 2001, Girard and De Buit 1999). For example, this species is targeted heavily by the Portuguese deep-water longline fishery for which exploitation peaked in 1986 (600 tonnes) and has been steadily declining since then (Correia and Smith, in prep). The catches of the mixed trawl fishery off Rockall Trough and Porcupine Bank in the eastern Atlantic, which consist predominantly of this species and Centroscymnus coelolepis, increased from 302 tonnes in 1991 to 3,284 ...
Cyberknife Treatment--Side Effects | Cancer Survivors Network
Welcome to the forum. I had CyberKnife treatment in June and have had zero side effects. After CK, some men (about 4%) experience a mild degree of bowel toxicity (they have loose stools) and urinary urgency (they feel like they have to go to the toilet frequently). Both of these symptoms tend to pass within a few days or weeks of treatment. Urinary urgency can be treated with Flomax or in mild cases, Advil. Nerve sparing is not really a term used with CyberKnife. I assume youre wondering if you can still have sex afterward. The nerves really dont come into play with CK, although very long term effects of SBRT on the nerve bundles that encase the prostate is unknown, other forms of radiation frequently have the effect of damaging these nerve bundles several months to years after being irradiated. They typical radiation dose pattern for the prostate using CK avoids concentrating radiation dosages at or near the nerve bundles, but since it is an external source of radiation there is some ...
Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Size, Share, Development by 2024 - Cryptocurrency News
LP INFORMATION offers a latest published report on Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis and Forecast 2019-2025 delivering key insights and providing a competitive advantage to clients through a detailed report.. According to this study, over the next five years the Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market will register a xx% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ xx million by 2024, from US$ xx million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment business, shared in Chapter 3.. Click to view the full report TOC, figure and tables:. https://www.lpinformationdata.com/reports/214783/global-multiple-drug-resistance-bacterial-infection. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market by product type, ...
Neutral Glycosphingolipids - Glycosphingolipids | Sigma-Aldrich
For more information on Neural Glycosphingolipids please browse our online Glycobiology Analysis Manual.
Multiple drug resistance | Article about multiple drug resistance by The Free Dictionary
Looking for multiple drug resistance? Find out information about multiple drug resistance. in biology: see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all... Explanation of multiple drug resistance
Structure elucidation of glycosphingolipids and gangliosides u...
Structure elucidation of glycosphingolipids and gangliosides using high-performance tandem mass spectrometry.: Glycosphingolipids and gangliosides have been inv
In the case of glycosphingolipids, exohydrolases acting at acidic pH optima cause the stepwise release of monosaccharide units ... Constitutive degradation of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids takes place in the acidic subcellular compartments, the late ... such as sphingomyelin and the complex glycosphingolipids. ...
List of MeSH codes (D09)
... glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.025 - acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.025.060 - antigens, cd15 MeSH ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.525.200 - ceramides MeSH D09.400.410.420.525.200.250 - cerebrosides MeSH ...
List of MeSH codes (D10)
... glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.570.877.360.025 - acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.570.877.360.025.060 - antigens, cd15 MeSH ... acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.390.470.025.060 - antigens, cd15 MeSH D10.390.470.025.475 - gangliosides MeSH D10.390. ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.390.470.675.200 - ceramides MeSH D10.390.470.675.200.250 - cerebrosides MeSH D10.390. ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.570.877.360.612.200 - ceramides MeSH D10.570.877.360.612.200.250 - cerebrosides MeSH ...
Nozaki H, Itonori S, Sugita M, Nakamura K, Ohba K, Suzuki A, Kushi Y (Aug 2008), "Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction ...
An acidic pH (around 5.0) and low amounts of water make the epidermis hostile to many microorganic pathogens. Non-pathogenic ... For example glycosphingolipids become ceramides and phospholipids become free fatty acids. spinous layer (stratum spinosum) ... glycosphingolipids, free sterols, phospholipids and catabolic enzymes. Langerhans cells, immunologically active cells, are ...
Srinivas VR, Acharya S, Rawat S, Sharma V; Surolia A (2000). "The primary structure of the acidic lectin from winged bean ( ... Surolia has elucidated the role of glycosphingolipids as biological receptors through studies on lectin-glycolipid interactions ... Patanjali S.R., Sajjan S. U.; Surolia A. (1988). "Erythrocyte-binding studies on an acidic lectin from winged bean ( ...
This could have immense effects on the signaling functions of ceramide because it is known that ceramide generated by acidic ... 2007). "Glycosphingolipid synthesis requires FAPP2 transfer of glucosylceramide". Nature. 449 (7158): 62-67. doi:10.1038/ ... In addition to their role as building blocks of biological membranes, glycosphingolipids have long attracted attention because ... Glucosylceramides (GluCer) are the most widely distributed glycosphingolipids in cells serving as precursors for the formation ...
For example glycosphingolipids become ceramides and phospholipids become free fatty acids.. *spinous layer (stratum ... An acidic pH (around 5.0) and low amounts of water make the epidermis hostile to many microorganic pathogens. ... glycosphingolipids, free sterols, phospholipids and catabolic enzymes. Langerhans cells, immunologically active cells, are ...
Zwitterionic and acidic glycosphingolipids of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo
Therefore, eight of the 12 major glycosphingolipids, accounting for 64% of lipid-linked carbohyd … ... Defining glycosphingolipid structures in species amenable to genetic manipulation, such as Drosophila melanogaster, provides a ... Zwitterionic and acidic glycosphingolipids of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo Eur J Biochem. 2000 Jun;267(12):3549-58. doi: ... Furthermore, acidic species account for a larger proportion of total glycosphingolipid, and PEtn substitution of GlcNAc is more ...
Complex Lipids Flashcards by S S | Brainscape
1. Structure Flashcards by Patrick Robbins | Brainscape
Tommaso R.I. Cataldi - PubMed - NCBI
LIPID MAPS® Lipidomics Gateway
G(M3) Ganglioside | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Glycosphingolipids [D09.400.410.420]. *Acidic Glycosphingolipids [D09.400.410.420.025]. *Gangliosides [D09.400.410.420.025.475] ... Glycosphingolipids are modulators of disease pathogenesis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun ... Glycosphingolipid-functionalized nanoparticles recapitulate CD169-dependent HIV-1 uptake and trafficking in dendritic cells. ...
LIPID MAPS® Lipidomics Gateway
LIPID MAPS® Lipidomics Gateway
LIPID MAPS® Lipidomics Gateway
Search Results - - 20 Results - Digital Library
Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids that contain sialic acid. The high concentration of gangliosides in the central ... The most basic isozyme was more stable than the more acidic isozymes (lower pi values) at pH extremes, at high ionic strength, ... The simultaneous release in ammonia along with the spontaneous shift to more acidic isozymes and changes in the specific ... there was a spontaneous generation of the more acidic isozymes with electrophoretic properties identical to those found in vivo ...
Frontiers | Structural diversity and biological significance of glycosphingolipids in pathogenic and opportunistic fungi |...
Fungal GSLs can be divided in two major classes: neutral GSLs, galactosyl- and glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and acidic GSLs, the ... Fungal GSLs can be divided in two major classes: neutral GSLs, galactosyl- and glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and acidic GSLs, the ... Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are ubiquitous membrane components and have key roles in biological systems, acting as second ... Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are ubiquitous membrane components and have key roles in biological systems, acting as second ...
Glycosphingolipids | SpringerLink
The enzymes involved in the stepwise degradation of = sphingolipids are exo-hydrolases with optimal activity at acidic pH. A = ... Niemann-Pick disease type C is an exception in that = this complex (glycosphingo-) lipid storage disease is not caused by an = ... Poorthuis B., Aerts J. (2008) Glycosphingolipids. In: Blau N., Duran M., Gibson K. (eds) Laboratory Guide to the Methods in ... enzyme deficiency, but can be considered as a (glycosphingo-)lipid = trafficking defect caused by a deficiency of one of two ...
Lipid Metabolism sub-cluster 51
Two acidic glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) derived from mouse macrophage membranes and separated by thin-layer chromatography ... Structural analysis and immunohistochemical localization of two acidic glycosphingolipids from the porcine, ... ... The acidic glycolipid fraction (AF) of the porcine, parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum , consisted of two subfractions. The major ... Characterization of cytostatically active glycosphingolipids isolated from thioglycollate-elicited murine macrophages. Schaade ...
Sphingolipid Ceramide N-Deacylase | SCDase | Sphingolipid Hydrolysis
JCI - Normalizing glycosphingolipids restores function in CD4+ T cells from lupus patients
Cells were washed in neutral or acidic PBS, and lipid internalization was calculated as a ratio of the two. As a control, cells ... Normalizing glycosphingolipids restores function in CD4+ T cells from lupus patients Georgia McDonald,1 Shantal Deepak,1 Laura ... Glycosphingolipid functions. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011;3(7):a004788.. View this article via: PubMed Google Scholar ... Glycosphingolipids and mitochondria: role in apoptosis and disease. Glycoconj J. 2004;20(9):579-588.. View this article via: ...
Observational, retrospective study of a large cohort of patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C in the Czech Republic: a...
... acidic lipids (with cresyl violet); glycosphingolipids (with periodic acid-Schiff); and apolar components (with Sudan Black B ... Lysosomal storage in central neurons was dominated by accumulation of glycosphingolipids, and thus was different from that seen ... One was rapidly frozen for histochemical analyses including detection of phospholipids, sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids, ... acidic lipids, and apolar components and lipopigments , one was fixed with 4% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin for ...
JCI - Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder-associated biomarker
Glycosphingolipid storage leads to the enhanced degradation of the B cell receptor in Sandhoff disease mice. J Inherit Metab ... Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder-associated biomarker. Danielle te Vruchte,1 Anneliese O. ... Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after ... Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and ...
Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology
Diverse Endogenous Antigens for Mouse NKT Cells: Self-Antigens That Are Not Glycosphingolipids | The Journal of Immunology
A novel glycosphingolipid-degrading enzyme cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of neutral and acidic ... glycosphingolipid. HPTLC. high-performance thin layer chromatography. iGb3. isoglobotrihexosyl ceramide. iNKT cell. invariant ... Cell wall glycosphingolipids of Sphingomonas paucimobilis are CD1d-specific ligands for NKT cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 35: 1692- ... Glycosphingolipids are required for sorting melanosomal proteins in the Golgi complex. J. Cell Biol. 155: 369-380. ...
Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers and Development of Sequence...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Ganglioside GD2 (d18:1/18:0) (HMDB0004926)
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and ... Ganglioside GD2 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids ... belongs to the class of organic compounds known as galnacb1-4galb1-4glc- (ganglio series). These are neutral glycosphingolipids ... Ganglioside GD2 (d18:1/18:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Ganglioside GM1 (18:1/12:0) (HMDB0004853)
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and ... Ganglioside GM1 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids ... Ganglioside GM1 (18:1/12:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more ... These are neutral glycosphingolipids in which the root sequence is GalNAcb1-4Galb1-4Glc. ...
Endoglycosylceramidase - Wikipedia
Integrative Bone Metabolomics-Lipidomics Strategy for Pathological Mechanism of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Mouse Model |...
Under the continuous action of acidic hydrolase, glycosphingolipid can be degraded into ceramide, which is an inhibitor of ... Glycosphingolipids, components of the cell membrane, play an important role in tissue development and function and can regulate ... Glycosphingolipids are considered to be essential for the formation of osteoblasts induced by RANKL49. Increased ... Interruption of glycosphingolipid synthesis enhances osteoarthritis development in mice. Arthritis & Rheumatology 64, 2579-2588 ...
Niemann-Pick disease type C1 is a sphingosine storage disease that causes deregulation of lysosomal calcium
The function of NPC1 is unknown, but when it is dysfunctional, sphingosine, glycosphingolipids, s … ... disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the acidic compartment (which we define as the ... We have found that NPC1-mutant cells have a large reduction in the acidic compartment calcium store compared to wild-type cells ... In a drug-induced NPC disease cellular model, sphingosine storage in the acidic compartment led to calcium depletion in these ...
The enzyme acts on various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin; however, it exhibits low activity on ... cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids, producing intact ... glycosphingolipids, and other glycan-containing biological molecules. ...
Design of a covalently bonded glycosphingolipid microarray | SpringerLink
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are well known ubiquitous constituents of all eukaryotic cell membranes, yet their normal biological ... A novel glycosphingolipid-degrading enzyme cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of neutral and acidic ... Glycosphingolipid Glycolipid Ganglioside Glycan Lectin Antibody Microarray Glycan array This is a preview of subscription ... Zhang, X., Kiechle, F.L.: Review: glycosphingolipids in health and disease. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 34, 3-13 (2004)PubMedGoogle ...
glycosphingolipid biosynthetic process - Semantic Scholar
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycosphingolipid, a compound with residues of sphingoid and ... Role of multiple drug resistance protein 1 in neutral but not acidic glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. ... glycosphingolipid biosynthetic process. Known as: glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, glycosphingolipid anabolism, ... glycosphingolipid synthesis (More). The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycosphingolipid, a ...
Sphingolipids | Cayman Chemical
Like sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids coat the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. Here, they modulate cell-cell interactions ... The neutral versions commonly contain mono- or oligoglycosyl units, while the acidic varieties include sulfo-, phospho- and ... A complicated story emerges when sugars are used as the head group, as is found in glycosphingolipids. These are present on the ... well over a hundred different sugar units or assemblies that have been identified on the heads of different glycosphingolipids ...
GangliosidesGSLsSphingomyelinOligosaccharideSphingolipids and glycosphingolipidsGlycolipidsLipid raftsSulfatidesBiosynthesisGangliosideDegradationLysosomesCeramidesMembraneSialic acidGlucosylceramideResiduesBiosyntheticMoleculesAmyotrophic lateral sMass SpectrometryLactosylceramideSugarsCompartmentCellularModulatorsGlycoglycerolipidsProteinEnzymeHydrolysisSubstratesPhospholipidsSubstancesGlycolipidMiceBiologicalPathogenesisTissuesUptakeCellsInsulin receptorDepletionRegulationVivoRegulateCarbohydrateEndogenousOccursDerivativeGene
- PubMed ID 9216084)Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. (hmdb.ca)
- Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. (hmdb.ca)
- We have now analyzed the GSL composition of DP thymocytes and shown that GlcCer represented the sole neutral GSL and the acidic fraction was composed of gangliosides. (frontiersin.org)
- Gangliosides are more complex glycosphingolipids in which oligosaccharide chains containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) are attached to a ceramide. (hmdb.ca)
- French Canadians and the Cajun community of Louisiana have an occurrence similar to the Ashkenazi Jews.Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. (hmdb.ca)
- Acidic glycosphingolipids, gangliosides are mainly expressed in nervous tissues and cancer cells, and regulate the health of the tissues. (go.jp)
- The preceding infectious event is associated with increased antibody titers of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), especially certain acidic GSLs such as gangliosides and sulfoglycolipids, in patients with GBS. (elsevier.com)
- Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the beta-n-acetylhexosaminidases system or g(m2) activator protein leading to disruption of normal degradation of gangliosides, a subclass of acidic glycosphingolipids. (icd10data.com)
- Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids that contribute a substantial presence to the outer leaflet of the cell plasma membrane. (universalbiologicals.com)
- Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are highly expressed in nervous systems of vertebrates and have been considered to be involved in the development, differentiation, and function of nervous tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
- Key components of TNF signaling include sphingolipids, particularly ceramide generated from acidic sphingomyelinase activation serving as a source for gangliosides. (annalsofhepatology.com)
- Cerebrosides and gangliosides, collectively called glycosphingolipids, are commonly found in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer, with their sugar chains extending out from the cell surface. (slideplayer.com)
- Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are ubiquitous membrane components and have key roles in biological systems, acting as second messengers or modulators of signal transduction by affecting several events, ranging from cell adhesion, cell growth, cell motility, regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle. (frontiersin.org)
- Fungal GSLs can be divided in two major classes: neutral GSLs, galactosyl- and glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and acidic GSLs, the glycosylinositol-phosphorylceramides (GIPCs). (frontiersin.org)
- Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are ubiquitous membrane components present mostly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane with their carbohydrate head groups exposed to the extracellular space, and mainly organized in microdomains by association with sterols and specific proteins. (frontiersin.org)
- It is widely believed that these self-Ags are glycosphingolipids (GSLs), molecules that contain ceramide as the lipid backbone. (jimmunol.org)
- Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are well known ubiquitous constituents of all eukaryotic cell membranes, yet their normal biological functions are not fully understood. (springer.com)
- The growing interest in the biological function of cell surface glycosphingolipids (GSLs) has stimulated the constant search for new methods for analyzing their primary and secondary structures. (springer.com)
- This path entails the recycling where possible of sphingosine that is definitely created by the break down of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids (GSLs), and happens in the acidic subcellular storage compartments of the lysosomes and/or the past due endosomes [2,3,10]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Marine glycolipids, as well as those from terrestrial organisms, are amphiphylic compounds which are currently divided into two main groups: glycoglycerolipids (GGLs) and glycosphingolipids (GSLs). (springer.com)
- The Glycosphingolipid (GSL) storage diseases are a group of diseases where GSLs accumulate in tissues due to a defect in their lysosomal breakdown. (dmu.ac.uk)
- Accumulation of these glycosphingolipids (GSLs) produces progressive neurodegeneration, ultimately leading to death. (ox.ac.uk)
- Lipid rafts or detergent-resistant membranes are specialized domains of cell membranes enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) ( Lahiri and Futerman, 2007 ). (aspetjournals.org)
- Eukaryotic cell glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are central components of membrane lipid microdomains that function as trans plasmamembrane signaling foci. (schoolbag.info)
- Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are sugar-lipid conjugates expressed on the outer bilayer leaflet of the plasma membrane of all eukaryotic cells. (schoolbag.info)
- In a drug-induced NPC disease cellular model, sphingosine storage in the acidic compartment led to calcium depletion in these organelles, which then resulted in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipid storage in these compartments. (nih.gov)
- Like sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids coat the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. (caymanchem.com)
- Once in the Golgi apparatus, ceramide can be further metabolized to other sphingolipids, such as sphingomyelin and the complex glycosphingolipids. (wikipedia.org)
- Ceramides are less easily prepared from glycosphingolipids than from sphingomyelin. (gerli.com)
- Ganglioside GD2 (d18:1/18:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. (hmdb.ca)
- Glycan analysis often involves structural determination of oligosaccharide components of glycoproteins, glycolipids, glycosphingolipids, and other glycan-containing biological molecules. (cellartis.com)
- In the case of glycosphingolipids, exohydrolases acting at acidic pH optima cause the stepwise release of monosaccharide units from the end of the oligosaccharide chains, leaving just the sphingosine portion of the molecule, which may then contribute to the generation of ceramides. (wikipedia.org)
- A ganglioside is a compound composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (AKA n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain. (hmdb.ca)
- 15 head group that is a complex oligosaccharide, including the acidic sugar derivative sialic acid. (slideplayer.com)
- Saposins A-D localize primarily to the lysosomal compartment where they facilitate the catabolism of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide groups. (genecards.org)
Sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids2
- Constitutive degradation of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids takes place in the acidic subcellular compartments, the late endosomes and the lysosomes, with the end goal of producing sphingosine. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids form weak interactions between the carbohydrate head groups and the hydrophobic saturated side chain lipids with cholesterol filling any voids . (libretexts.org)
- Two other acidic glycolipids, Az9 and Az6, exhibit one PEtn moiety and the same hexose and N-acetylhexosamine composition as Az29 and Nz6, respectively. (nih.gov)
- To regulate the levels of glycolipids we have used inhibitors of intracellular trafficking, glycosphingolipid synthesis and degradation, and small interfering RNA to down-regulate the activity of glucosylceramide synthase activity. (jove.com)
- Gangliosides1 are acidic glycosphingolipids that form lipid rafts in the outer leaflet of the cell plasma membrane, especially in neuronal cells in the central nervous system. (matreya.com)
- It has been shown that sulfatides, a class of acidic glycosphingolipids [a subtype of fatty molecules that are part of the cell membranes], can initiate basement membrane assembly by binding directly to LM-111. (alportsyndromenews.com)
- Saposin B is a small, nonenzymatic glycosphingolipid activator protein required for the breakdown of cerebroside sulfates (sulfatides) within the lysosome. (proteopedia.org)
- The glycosphingolipid biosynthesis starts by the action of serine palmitoyltransferase which condensates palmitoyl-CoA with serine forming 3-keto-sphinganine, the keto group is reduced to hydroxyl group thus forming the dihydrosphingosine (also termed sphinganine), at this point, as shown in Figure 1 , the dihydrosphingosine may be hydroxylated on the C4 to form the phytosphingosine (4-hydroxysphinganine). (frontiersin.org)
- Inhibition of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis reduces secretion of the beta-amyloid precursor protein and amyloid beta-peptide. (semanticscholar.org)
- Role of multiple drug resistance protein 1 in neutral but not acidic glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
- Functional organization of the Golgi apparatus in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
- Substrate reduction therapy (SRT) aims to decrease the rate of glycosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis to compensate for the impaired rate of catabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
- These findings provide further evidence that glycosphingolipid metabolites of ceramide may be involved in mediating the link between obesity and insulin resistance and that interference with glycosphingolipid biosynthesis might present a novel approach to the therapy of states of impaired insulin action such as type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Ganglioside GD2 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. (hmdb.ca)
- The enzymes involved in the stepwise degradation of = sphingolipids are exo-hydrolases with optimal activity at acidic pH. (springer.com)
- Their constitutive degradation occurs in the acidic compartments of the cells, the endosomes and the lysosomes. (go.jp)
- On the other hand, inhibiting glycosphingolipid degradation with conduritol-B-epoxide, that generates glucosylceramide accumulation in the lysosomes, did not affect the levels of GLTP. (jove.com)
- Degradation of glycosphingolipids are mediated by internalization by endocytosis. (libretexts.org)
- Subsequently, we found that a lumenal determinant, pH, was less acidic in the TGN and lysosomes of mutant GM95 cells compared to the wild-type MEB4 cell line. (uu.nl)
- They are transported to the lysosomes where enzymes degrade the glycosphingolipids through hydrolytically and irreversible cleavage of bonds. (libretexts.org)
- Hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage between oligosaccharides and ceramides of glycosphingolipids, optimal substrates appear to be the glycosphingolipids with a gangliotetraose structure. (uniprot.org)
- We show here that interfering with membrane trafficking events and simple neutral glycosphingolipid synthesis will affect the expression of GLTP. (jove.com)
- Glycosphingolipids have been implicated in functions as the impermeability barrier of the plasma membrane, cell-cell interactions and signalling. (uu.nl)
- Many viruses are low-pH-dependent for their conformation change [ 16 , 17 ] that is required for membrane fusion or viral particle uncoating, and the endosomes provide this acidic compartment. (hindawi.com)
- Staining of the biofilms by WGA could only be explained as binding to the Sphingomonas glycosphingolipid membrane, binding to the cell wall, or nonspecific binding. (asm.org)
- Disialoganglioside GD2 is a cell surface-associated glycosphingolipid, which comprises sialic acid moiety and is regarded as a carbohydrate antigen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Eukaryotes that encode the glucosylceramide synthase responsible for the synthesis of glucosylceramide, the precursor for most glycosphingolipids, also produce GLTPs. (jove.com)
- However, glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors like PDMP, NB-DNJ and myriocin, all decreased glucosylceramide and GLTP below normal levels. (jove.com)
- The pH in GM95 organelles was lowered to the level of wild-type cells after restoration of the glycosphingolipid content by transfection with the missing glucosylceramide synthase (GCS). (uu.nl)
- Competition studies and labelling with photoactivatable and clickable GlcCer analogues indicate that the V-ATPase may be regulated via a direct interaction with glucosylceramide (GlcCer), the precursor of the higher glycosphingolipids. (uu.nl)
- We have developed a highly specific small molecule inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary step in the conversion of ceramide to glycosphingolipids. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The binding patterns observed indicate that the presence of β1-linked galactosyl residues in glycosphingolipids is the minimum determinant required for binding of the pH 6 antigen. (asm.org)
- A three-dimensional model comparing saposins A and C reveals significant sequence homology between them, especially preservation of conserved acidic and basic residues in their middle regions. (biosyn.com)
- Staining of the living and artificial biofilms by ConA might be explained as binding of the lectin to the terminal mannosyl and terminal glucosyl residues in the polysaccharides secreted by Sphingomonas as well as to the terminal mannosyl residue in glycosphingolipids. (asm.org)
- The red arrows indicates the biosynthetic step where the inhibition by AbA and P4/analogs occurs, the red dashed boxes in the glycosphingolipid biosynthetic pathway indicate potential targets for the development of new antifungal therapies. (frontiersin.org)
- For example, to analyze the presence of globotriaosylceramide and isoglobtriaosylceramide in the same sample, one can use the fragmentation of glycosphingolipid molecules to structurally discriminate between the two (see below Figure 5 ). (jove.com)
- Although ABO blood group is associated with variations in concentrations of circulating von Willebrand Factor and other endothelial cell adhesion molecules, ABO antigens are also present on several platelet surface glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids. (ahajournals.org)
Amyotrophic lateral s1
- Glycosphingolipids are modulators of disease pathogenesis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (harvard.edu)
- This method is based on extraction and chemical modification (permethylation, see below Figure 5A , all OH groups of hexose were replaced by MeO after permethylation reaction) of glycosphingolipids 10-15 , followed by subsequent analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and ion trap mass spectrometry. (jove.com)
- The extraction and chemical modification of glycosphingolipids can be performed in a classic certified chemical hood, and the mass spectrometry can be performed by core facilities with ion trap MS instruments. (jove.com)
- Automated normal phase nano high performance liquid chromatography/matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for analysis of neutral and acidic glycosphingolipids. (storysteel.ml)
- Lactosylceramide and subsequent glycosphingolipids are formed in the lumen of the late Golgi. (semanticscholar.org)
- A complicated story emerges when sugars are used as the head group, as is found in glycosphingolipids. (caymanchem.com)
- The 'neutral' versions commonly contain mono- or oligoglycosyl units, while the 'acidic' varieties include sulfo-, phospho- and phosphono-linked sugars. (caymanchem.com)
- K.-E. Falk, K.-A. Karlsson, and B. E. Samuelsson, Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of anomeric structure of glycosphingolipids: the globo-series (one to five sugars), Arch. (springer.com)
- Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the acidic compartment (which we define as the late endosome and the lysosome) protein, NPC1. (nih.gov)
- We have found that NPC1-mutant cells have a large reduction in the acidic compartment calcium store compared to wild-type cells. (nih.gov)
- Glycosphingolipids are amphiphilic components of cellular plasma membranes. (go.jp)
- Even though only about 5 mol% glycosphingolipids are found in cellular membranes, glycosphingolipids are essential during development, as a lack of these lipids was embryonically lethal in mice. (uu.nl)
- To be able to begin to understand the effects of AMP-DNM in vivo, where various hormones and organs are involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis, we set out to investigate the effects of established low glycosphingolipids at the cellular level in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
- Recent findings have implicated glycosphingolipids as modulators of insulin receptor activity. (aspetjournals.org)
- These make up the classes of glycosphingolipids and glycoglycerolipids, respectively. (libretexts.org)
- A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE. (curehunter.com)
- Pathological changes were analyzed by staining tissue sections with Klüver-Barrera staining and by immunohistochemistry with F4/80 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (biomedcentral.com)
- This process consists in an opening of the glycosidic ring with periodate and the resulting product is chemically reduced before its hydrolysis under mild acidic conditions. (gerli.com)
- Saposins, through their interaction with glycosphingolipid hydrolases and their substrates, increase lysosomal hydrolytic activities. (biosyn.com)
- No significant alterations in neutral lipids or acidic phospholipids were observed in the NB-DGJ-treated Hexb(-/-) mice. (ox.ac.uk)
- J. Dabrowski, P. Hanfland, H. Egge, and U. Dabrowski, Immunochemistry of the Lewis-blood-group system: proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of plasmatic Lewis-blood-group-active glycosphingolipids and related substances, Arch. (springer.com)
- Defining glycosphingolipid structures in species amenable to genetic manipulation, such as Drosophila melanogaster, provides a foundation for investigating mechanisms that regulate glycolipid expression. (nih.gov)
- Inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis ameliorates atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in apolipoprotein E-/- mice and rabbits fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet. (semanticscholar.org)
- Inhibiting glycosphingolipid synthesis ameliorates hepatic steatosis in obese mice. (semanticscholar.org)
- Using two models of breast cancer, T47D cells with blocked synthesis of sulfatide and MDA-MB-231 cells with neosynthesis of this glycosphingolipid, we showed that high sulfatide levels resulted in increased sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by hypoxia and doxorubicin in vitro, and decreased their tumourigenicity after transplantation into athymic nu/nu mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- When administered to mice and rats, AMP-DNM significantly reduced glycosphingolipid but not ceramide concentrations in various tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Glycosphingolipids (GSL's) belong to the glycoconjugate class of biomacromolecules, which bear structural information for significant biological processes such as embryonic development, signal transduction, and immune receptor recognition 1-2 . (jove.com)
- A growing body of evidence implicates ceramide and/or its glycosphingolipid metabolites in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The glycosphingolipid sulfatide has previously been found in several mammalian tissues, but information on the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide in different organs in vivo is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
- This could have important physiological consequences because glycosphingolipids have indeed been shown to accumulate in tissues from insulin-resistant rodents and humans ( Summers and Nelson, 2005 ). (aspetjournals.org)
- Glycosphingolipid-functionalized nanoparticles recapitulate CD169-dependent HIV-1 uptake and trafficking in dendritic cells. (harvard.edu)
- α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), a synthetic glycosphingolipid (GSL) that has some minor structural modifications from a compound originally isolated from a marine sponge, is the most well-known Ag for i NKT cells ( 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Glycosphingolipids of normal bovine and enzootic bovine leukosis lymph node cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- Since sphingomyelinases (SMases) are known to mediate some of the effects of TNF, we will examine the role of individual neutral or acidic SMase, in the regulation of MATIA in primary cultured rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells exposed to exogenous neutral (NSMase) or acid (ASMase) SMases. (nih.gov)
- These anti-acidic GSL antibodies frequently express cross-reactivity between cell surface carbohydrate antigens of the infecting microbes and host cells. (elsevier.com)
- Here, we present a visualized version of a method for relatively simple, rapid, and sensitive analysis of glycosphingolipid profiles in immune cells 7-9 . (jove.com)
- that pigmentation is lost in the mutant glycosphingolipid-deficient GM95 cells. (uu.nl)
- The priming of glycosphingolipid synthesis by lactosyl ceramide analogues having nondegradable thioglucosidic linkages inhibited the cell surface expression of endogenous GM3 in B16 cells [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- We found that treatment of HepG2 cells with AMP-DNM results in 70% reduction of glycosphingolipid content without an effect on expression of genes related to cell receptor signaling pathways, toxicity, or cell growth. (aspetjournals.org)
- Although these effects can be ascribed to improved insulin receptor function via modulation of glycosphingolipid levels by AMP-DNM, the question remains whether this is the only effect of AMP-DNM in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
- Thus, the combination of TNF-α overproduction, enhanced glycosphingolipid generation and selective mGSH depletion by alcohol intake cooperate making the liver sensitive to alcohol. (annalsofhepatology.com)
- 4. Regulation of MAT1A by glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelinases. (nih.gov)
- Thus, either blocking GM3 synthase or inhibiting the synthesis of excess glycosphingolipids could improve insulin signaling in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
- In this thesis, we addressed the question how glycosphingolipids regulate the pH. (uu.nl)
- Therefore, eight of the 12 major glycosphingolipids, accounting for 64% of lipid-linked carbohydrate in Drosophila embryos, were purified after separation into acidic and zwitterionic pools. (nih.gov)
- Glycosphingolipids (GSL) were implicated to serve as endogenous ligands. (frontiersin.org)
- and (3) the repair path, which occurs in acidic area … 2.1. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the iminosugar derivative N -(5′-adamantane-1′-yl-methoxy)-pentyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) counteracted tumor necrosis factor-α-induced abnormalities in glycosphingolipid concentrations and concomitantly reversed abnormalities in insulin signal transduction. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Here, we treated the liver hepatoma cell line HepG2 with AMP-DNM, resulting in a 70% reduction of glycosphingolipids, and we analyzed the effect on gene expression. (aspetjournals.org)