Acidic Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Sulfoglycosphingolipids: GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Neutral Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.Lactosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Globosides: Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.Glucosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.Cerebrosides: Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)G(M3) Ganglioside: A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Vernix Caseosa: An unctuous substance composed of sebum and desquamated epithelial cells, which covers the skin of the fetus.Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 3.1.4.12.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Sphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Galactosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.AmidohydrolasesAcylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Neuraminic AcidsG(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.G(M2) Ganglioside: A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.PolysaccharidesGlycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.

Monocytic cell activation by Nonendotoxic glycoprotein from Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2. (1/12)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from gram-negative black-pigmented bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia activate cells from non-LPS-responsive C3H/HeJ mice, but it is still unclear whether this activity is due to the unique structure of LPS or to a minor component(s) responsible for the activity in the preparation. A nonendotoxic glycoprotein with bioactivity against cells from C3H/HeJ mice was purified from a hot phenol-water extract of P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and designated Prevotella glycoprotein (PGP). Treatment of human monocytic THP-1 cells with 22-oxyacalcitriol (OCT) induced maturation and marked expression of CD14 on the cells, but the cells constitutively expressed Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 on the cells irrespective of the treatment. PGP induced a high level of interleukin-8 production at doses of 100 ng/ml and higher in OCT-treated THP-1 cells compared with Salmonella LPS, and the production was significantly inhibited by anti-CD14 and anti-TLR2 but not anti-TLR4 antibodies. Consistent with this, TLR2-deficient murine macrophages did not respond to PGP. It was also shown that PGP activity on the THP-1 cells was LPS-binding protein dependent and was inhibited by a synthetic lipid A precursor IV(A). These results indicate that PGP activates monocytic cells in a CD14- and TLR2-dependent manner.  (+info)

Structural elucidation of novel phosphocholine-containing glycosylinositol-phosphoceramides in filamentous fungi and their induction of cell death of cultured rice cells. (2/12)

Novel ZGLs (zwitterionic glycosphingolipids) have been found in and extracted from the mycelia of filamentous fungi ( Acremonium sp.) isolated from soil. Five ZGLs (ZGL1-ZGL5) were structurally elucidated by sugar compositional analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and fast-atom bombardment MS. Their chemical structures were as follows: GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL1), Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL2), Man(alpha1-6)Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL3), PC-->6Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1- P -1Cer (ZGL4), and PC-->6Man(alpha1-6)Man(alpha1-6)GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1-P-1Cer (ZGL5) (where Cer is ceramide and PC is phosphocholine). In addition, one acidic glycosphingolipid, which was the precursor of ZGLs, was also characterized as inositol-phosphoceramide. The core structure of the ZGLs, GlcN(alpha1-2)Ins1- P, is rather different from those found in other fungi, such as Man(alpha1-2)Ins1- P and Man(alpha1-6)Ins1- P. Interestingly, the terminal mannose residue of ZGL4 and ZGL5 was modified further with a PC group. The presence of PC-containing glycosylinositol-phosphoceramides has not been reported previously in any organism. The ceramide constituents of both ZGLs and acidic glycosphingolipid were essentially the same, and consisted of a 4-hydroxyoctadecasphinganine (phytosphingosine) as the sole sphingoid base and 2-hydroxytetracosanoic acid (>90%) as the major fatty acid. ZGLs were found to cause cell death in suspensions of cultured rice cells. The cell death-inducing activity of ZGLs is probably due to the characteristic glycan moiety of Man(alpha1-6)GlcN, and PC-containing ZGLs had high activity. This study is the first to demonstrate that fungal glycosylinositol-phosphoceramides induce cell death in cultured rice cells.  (+info)

Role of multiple drug resistance protein 1 in neutral but not acidic glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. (3/12)

Transfection studies have implicated the multiple drug resistance pump, MDR1, as a glucosyl ceramide translocase within the Golgi complex (Lala, P., Ito, S., and Lingwood, C. A. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 6246-6251). We now show that MDR1 inhibitors, cyclosporin A or ketoconazole, inhibit neutral glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in 11 of 12 cell lines tested. The exception, HeLa cells, do not express MDR1. Microsomal lactosyl ceramide and globotriaosyl ceramide synthesis from endogenous or exogenously added liposomal glucosyl ceramide was inhibited by cyclosporin A, consistent with a direct role for MDR1/glucosyl ceramide translocase activity in their synthesis. In contrast, cellular ganglioside synthesis in the same cells, was unaffected by MDR1 inhibition, suggesting neutral and acid glycosphingolipids are synthesized from distinct precursor glycosphingolipid pools. Metabolic labeling in wild type and knock-out (MDR1a, 1b, MRP1) mouse fibroblasts showed the same loss of neutral glycosphingolipid (glucosyl ceramide, lactosyl ceramide) but not ganglioside (GM3) synthesis, confirming the proposed role for MDR1 translocase activity. Cryo-immunoelectron microscopy showed MDR1 was predominantly intracellular, largely in rab6-containing Golgi vesicles and Golgi cisternae, the site of glycosphingolipid synthesis. These studies identify MDR1 as the major glucosyl ceramide flippase required for neutral glycosphingolipid anabolism and demonstrate a previously unappreciated dichotomy between neutral and acid glycosphingolipid synthesis.  (+info)

Characterization of two novel pyruvylated glycosphingolipids containing 2'-aminoethylphosphoryl(-->6)-galactose from the nervous system of Aplysia kurodai. (4/12)

Two novel acidic glycosphingolipids containing pyruvylated galactose were purified from the nervous tissue of Aplysia kurodai by successive Iatrobeads column chromatographies. By component analysis, sugar analysis, permethylation studies, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and proton magnetic resonance spectrometry, the structures of these acidic glycosphingolipids, named F-9 and FGL-I, were determined to be: [3,4-O-(S-1-carboxyethylidene)]Gal beta 1-->3 GalNAc alpha 1-->3[6'-O-(2-aminoethylphosphonyl)Gal alpha 1-->2] (2-aminoethylphosphoryl 1-->6)Gal beta 1-->4Glc beta 1-->1ceramide and [3,4-O-(S-1-carboxyethylidene)] Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc alpha 1-->3(Fuc alpha 1-->2)(2-aminoethylphosphonyl-->6 Gal beta 1-->4Glc beta 1-->1ceramide, octadeca-4-sphingenine and anteisononadeca-4-sphingenine. Thus, pyruvylated glycosphingolipids containing phosphoethanolamine in addition to or in place of 2-aminoethylphosphonate are present in the nervous system of Aplysia.  (+info)

Characterization of neutral and acidic glycosphingolipids from the lectin-producing mushroom, Polyporus squamosus. (5/12)

The polypore mushroom Polyporus squamosus is the source of a lectin that exhibits a general affinity for terminal beta-galactosides, but appears to have an extended carbohydrate-binding site with high affinity and strict specificity for the nonreducing terminal trisaccharide sequence NeuAcalpha2 --> 6Galbeta1 --> 4Glc/GlcNAc. In considering the possibility that the lectin's in vivo function could involve interaction with an endogenous glycoconjugate, it would clearly be helpful to identify candidate ligands among various classes of carbohydrate-containing materials expressed by P. squamosus. Since evidence has been accumulating that glycosphingolipids (GSLs) may serve as key ligands for some endogenous lectins in animal species, possible similar roles for fungal GSLs could be considered. For this study, total lipids were extracted from mature fruiting body of P. squamosus. Multistep fractionation yielded a major monohexosylceramide (CMH) component and three major glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) from the neutral and acidic lipids, respectively. These were characterized by a variety of techniques as required, including one- and two-dimensional (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, tandem-MS/collision-induced decay-MS, and ion trap-MS(n)); and component and methylation linkage analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The CMH was determined to be glucosylceramide having a typical ceramide consisting of 2-hydroxy fatty-N-acylated (4E,8E)-9-methyl-sphinga-4,8-dienine. The GIPCs were identified as Manalpha1 --> 2Ins1-P-1Cer (Ps-1), Galbeta1 --> 6Manalpha1 --> 2Ins1-P-1Cer (Ps-2), and Manalpha1 --> 3Fucalpha1 --> 2Galalpha1 --> 6Galbeta1 --> 6Manalpha1 -->2Ins1-P-1Cer (Ps-5), respectively (where Ins = myo-inositol, P = phosphodiester, and Cer = ceramide consisting mainly of long-chain 2-hydroxy and 2,3-dihydroxy fatty-N-acylated 4-hydroxy-sphinganines). Of these GSLs, Ps-2 could potentially interact with P. squamosus lectin, and further investigations will focus on determining the binding affinity, if any, of the lectin for the GIPCs isolated from this fungus.  (+info)

Activation of invariant NKT cells by toll-like receptor 9-stimulated dendritic cells requires type I interferon and charged glycosphingolipids. (6/12)

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of innate lymphocytes that recognize lipid antigens in the context of CD1d and mediate potent immune regulatory functions via the rapid production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). We investigated whether diverse Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals in myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) could differentially stimulate iNKT cells. Together with the lipopolysaccharide-detecting receptor TLR4, activation of the nucleic acid sensors TLR7 and TLR9 in DCs were particularly potent in stimulating iNKT cells to produce IFN-gamma, but not IL-4. iNKT cell activation in response to TLR9 stimulation required combined synthesis of type I interferon and de novo production of charged beta-linked glycosphingolipid(s) by DCs. In addition, DCs stimulated via TLR9 activated both iNKT cells and NK cells in vivo and protected mice against B16F10-induced melanoma metastases. These data underline the role of TLR9 in iNKT cell activation and might have relevance to infectious diseases and cancer.  (+info)

Invariant Valpha14 natural killer T cell activation by edible mushroom acidic glycosphingolipids. (7/12)

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells regulate multi-immune response through Th1/Th2 cytokine release triggered by the recognition of CD1d-restricted glycosphingolipid antigens. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of mushroom (Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii) presented by murine CD1d-transfected rat basophilic leukocytes induced interleukin-2 (IL-2) release from iNKT hybridoma cells. AGL-1, one of the AGLs, containing mannose at the non-reducing ends, induced CD1d-dependent IL-2 release. Al-though alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) presented by CD11c-positive cells induced both interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-4 release, all of AGLs presented by CD11c-positive cells and AGL-1 presented by B cells induced IL-4 release from iNKT hybridoma cells. A single intravenous injection of AGLs into B6 mice induced only a little elevation of IL-4 in serum but repeated intravenous injection of AGLs induced prolonged retention of IL-4 in serum; therefore, these results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs might contribute to the retention of immunohomeostasis through the minimum induction of iNKT cell activation in vivo.  (+info)

Structure of phosphonoglycosphingolipid containing pyruvylated galactose in nerve fibers of Aplysia kurodai. (8/12)

A phosphonoglycosphingolipid, designated as FGL-IIb, was identified in nerve fibers of Aplysia kurodai by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (Abe, S., Araki, S., and Satake, M. (1986) Biomed. Res. (Tokyo) 7, 47-51). FGL-IIb was isolated from the nervous system of A. kurodai by Iatrobeads column chromatography using three solvent systems. Pyruvic acid was identified by thin layer chromatography as its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone and established by permethylation studies to be attached as a ketal to O-3 and O-4 of the terminal galactose of the oligosaccharide chain in FGL-IIb. By sugar analysis, permethylation studies, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and proton magnetic resonance spectrometry, the structure of FGL-IIb was concluded to be [3,4-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)]Gal beta 1----3GalNAc alpha 1----3(Fuc alpha 1----2) (2-aminoethylphosphonyl----6)Gal beta 1----4Glc beta 1----1ceramide. Its major aliphatic components were palmitic acid, octadeca-4-sphingenine and anteisononadeca-4-sphingenine. This is the first report of the occurrence of pyruvylated galactose as a constituent of animal sphingolipid.  (+info)

Cyclophilin D (referred to as HsCypD) was obtained from the freshwater pearl mussel (Hyriopsis schlegelii). The full-length cDNA was 2 671 bp, encoding a protein consisting of 367 amino acids. HsCypD was determined to be a hydrophilic intracellular protein with 10 phosphorylation sites and four tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, but no signal peptide. The core sequence region YKGCIFHRIIKDFMVQGG is highly conserved in vertebrates and invertebrates. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that CypD from all species had a common origin, and HsCypD had the closest phylogenetic relationship with CypD from Lottia gigantea ...
APHOTOFUNGI - Photographic Stock Image Library Page for Polyporus squamosus - Dryads Saddle (Polyporale images). A-P-H-O-T-O - Furthering environmental awareness and education through the medium of photography.
Certain strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum form a previously unknown polysaccharide in the root nodules of soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). The polysaccharide accumulates inside of the symbiosome membrane-the plant-derived membrane enclosing the bacteroids. In older nodules (60 days after planting), the polysaccharide occupies most of the symbiosome volume and symbiosomes become enlarged so that there is little host cytoplasm in infected cells. The two different groups of B. japonicum which produce different types of polysaccharide in culture produce polysaccharides of similar composition in nodules. Polysaccharide formed by group I strains (e.g., USDA 5 and USDA 123) is composed of rhamnose, galactose, and 2-O-methylglucuronic acid, while polysaccharide formed by group II strains (e.g., USDA 31 and USDA 39) is composed of rhamnose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. That the polysaccharide is a bacterial product is indicated by its composition plus the fact that polysaccharide formation is ...
We have yet to discover what the lump is on my back, it could be fat, nerve bundle, or a muscle bundle, and I suppose something else. There is an outside chance it is cancer, but normally cancer grows larger and I am told is a black mass or something. They cannot see the lump with the MRI, or at least Doctor Barnabe was not able to locate ...
The plasmid pE10 is a pBR322-derived plasmid carrying a 4.5 kb rice (Oryza sativa L.) repeated DNA sequence. The cloned sequence has been shown to be amplified in cultured rice cells. The analysis of practically intact chromosomal rice DNA molecules by pulsed field gel electrophoresis has now shown that the amplification is associated with the appearance of extrachromosomal molecules. In fact, pE10 hybridizes exclusively with unfractionated DNA from leaf protoplasts, while it recognizes predominantly an extrachromosomal DNA molecule (ECD) of about 45 kb and its multiples in the case of protoplasts from cultured cells. Insensitivity to the action of the exonuclease Bal31 suggests that the molecule is circular. Analysis of restriction endonuclease products with both standard horizontal and pulsed field gel electrophoresis suggest that the extrachromosomal DNA, and its chromosomal counterpart, is composed of tandemly repeated units of about 7 kb. Thus, the smaller extrachromosomal circle should ...
Peripheral nerve bundle. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a freeze-fractured sample of tissue containing a peripheral nerve bundle (centre). Within the bundle, single nerve fibres (purple) are surrounded by myelin sheaths (yellow). These are formed by the Schwann cells (pink). Also forming the bundle are reticular fibres (grey), a form of connective tissue. The nerve bundle is surrounded by perineural cells (orange), with a cell nucleus (red) at lower centre. Peripheral nerves are those outside the central nervous system (CNS). Magnification: x4700 when printed at 10 centimetres across. - Stock Image C035/8607
TY - JOUR. T1 - THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS IN SPECIFIC GANGLIA AND NERVE BUNDLES OF THE LOBSTER. AU - Aprison, M. H.. AU - Mcbride, W. J.. AU - Freeman, A. R.. PY - 1973/7. Y1 - 1973/7. N2 - Using the technique of measuring DNP amino acid methyl esters by gas liquid chromatography, the distribution of alanine, proline, glycine, GABA, glutamate and aspartate was determined in individual ganglia and the associated nerve bundles between these ganglia after isolation from the nervous system of the lobster, Homarus americanus. The brain or supraesophageal ganglion (27.2 mg) and the next 5 thoracic ganglia (varying from 24 to 10 mg in a rostral caudal direction) as well as the nerve bundles connecting these ganglia were used. GABA and aspartate values varied the most among the individual ganglia; highest values were found in the second and third thoracic ganglia. The levels of alanine, proline, glycine and glutamate varied very little from ganglion to ganglion; however, the values for ...
This work suggests the neurological network that gathers and transmits visual signals from the world into our brains. I am fascinated by the chemical and physical systems that transport and house idea
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The anterior aorta of Aplysia is innervated by nerves arising from the abdominal ganglion (Sawada et al., 1981a). The vulvar nerve is one of the nerves innervating the anterior aorta, in which axons of some identifiable motoneurons or modulatory neurons for the anterior aorta are contained (Sawada et al., 1981a, 1984c). The phasic contraction evoked by the vulvar nerve stimulation was inhibited by the enterins. At least, one of the mechanisms for the inhibition seems to be activation of K+ conductance of the muscle membrane. We found that the enterins hyperpolarize the membrane potential of the muscle fibers via the activation of 4-AP-sensitive K+ channels. Sensitivity of the K+ channels to 4-AP is quite high, and EC50 of 4-AP was,10-6 mol l-1. The value is comparable to another highly 4-AP-sensitive K+ channel described in the accessory radula closer muscle of Aplysia (Brezina et al., 1994). The enterin-induced hyperpolarization of the muscle membrane should, in principle, reduce the ...
CC: CCSD:43026 AU: Taga S; Mangeney M; Tursz T; Wiels J TI: Differential regulation of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in phenotypically distinct Burkitts lymphoma cell lines CT: Int J Cancer (1995) 61: 261-267 [PMID:7705957] BS: (CN) human, (disease) Burkitts lymphoma, (cell line) BL10, Daudi, Ramos, Ly47, Ly67, MUTU III, BL36 TN: GM2 MT: ganglioside MT: glycolipid MT: glycosphingolipid SB: Westra B DA: 23-09-1995 FC: f7673cea SI: CBank:16359 ---------------- structure: b-D-GalpNAc-(1-4)+ , b-D-Galp-(1-4)-b-D-Glcp-(1-1)-Ceramide , a-D-Neup5Ac-(2-3)+ ================end of record ...
In Eastern Europe, wild mushrooms are widely collected in mountain areas and used for their medicinal properties or as healthy foods. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition (nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids and tocopherols) and bioactive propert
In this study, DNA analyses were employed to verify the identity of six morphologically similar species that occur in the coastal waters of Taiwan: the black seabream complex (Acanthopagrus latus, Acanthopagrus schlegelii, Acanthopagrus sivicolus, Acanthopagrus taiwanensis, Acanthopagrus chinshira and Acanthopagrus pacificus). Amplified fragment‐length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses clearly distinguished the same six species that are morphologically diagnosable based on subtle differences in scale counts and anal‐fin colouration. In contrast, mitochondrial DNA analyses based on cytochrome b gene sequences did not distinguish individuals of A. schlegelii and A. sivicolus, reflecting either historical introgression or recent speciation and incomplete sorting of their mitochondrial lineages. Phylogenetic relationships among these six north‐west Pacific Ocean species of Acanthopagrus analysed using AFLP data were consistent with scale rows above the lateral line (TRac), sperm ultrastructure and ...
Glycosphingolipids are involved in the first steps of virus-cell interaction, where they mediate specific recognition of the host cell membrane. We have employed total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy to explore the interaction kinetics between individual unlabeled noroviruslike particles, which are attached to a glycosphingolipid-containing lipid bilayer, and fluorescent vesicles containing different types and concentrations of glycosphingolipids. Under association equilibrium, the vesicle-binding rate is found to be kinetically limited, yielding information on the corresponding activation energy. The dissociation kinetics are logarithmic over a wide range of time. The latter is explained by the vesicle-size-related distribution of the dissociation activation energy. The biological, pharmaceutical, and diagnostic relevance of the study is briefly discussed.. ...
A team of researchers from the University of Tokyo has successfully managed to create a bundle of motor nerves using human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, it has been learned.
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Centrophorus squamosus is an important component of deep-water fisheries in certain areas within its range. This shark has been exploited commercially for many years. In Japan exploitation peaked during World War II, because of the high percentage of squalene in its liver, but quickly declined due to decreasing numbers caught. Deep-water fisheries (longlining and trawling) which catch large quantities of this species are found in the eastern Atlantic, e.g., off Ireland, Spain, Portugal and France (Iglesias and Paz 1995, Clarke et al. 2001, Girard and De Buit 1999). For example, this species is targeted heavily by the Portuguese deep-water longline fishery for which exploitation peaked in 1986 (600 tonnes) and has been steadily declining since then (Correia and Smith, in prep). The catches of the mixed trawl fishery off Rockall Trough and Porcupine Bank in the eastern Atlantic, which consist predominantly of this species and Centroscymnus coelolepis, increased from 302 tonnes in 1991 to 3,284 ...
LP INFORMATION offers a latest published report on Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis and Forecast 2019-2025 delivering key insights and providing a competitive advantage to clients through a detailed report.. According to this study, over the next five years the Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market will register a xx% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ xx million by 2024, from US$ xx million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment business, shared in Chapter 3.. Click to view the full report TOC, figure and tables:. https://www.lpinformationdata.com/reports/214783/global-multiple-drug-resistance-bacterial-infection. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market by product type, ...
For more information on Neural Glycosphingolipids please browse our online Glycobiology Analysis Manual.
Looking for multiple drug resistance? Find out information about multiple drug resistance. in biology: see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all... Explanation of multiple drug resistance
Structure elucidation of glycosphingolipids and gangliosides using high-performance tandem mass spectrometry.: Glycosphingolipids and gangliosides have been inv
"A novel glycosphingolipid-degrading enzyme cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of neutral and acidic ... glycosphingolipids". J. Biol. Chem. 261 (30): 14278-82. PMID 3771534. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...
In the case of glycosphingolipids, exohydrolases acting at acidic pH optima cause the stepwise release of monosaccharide units ... Constitutive degradation of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids takes place in the acidic subcellular compartments, the late ... such as sphingomyelin and the complex glycosphingolipids. ...
... glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.025 --- acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.025.060 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D09.400.410.420.525.200 --- ceramides MeSH D09.400.410.420.525.200.250 --- cerebrosides MeSH ...
Nozaki H, Itonori S, Sugita M, Nakamura K, Ohba K, Suzuki A, Kushi Y (Aug 2008), "Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction ...
... glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.570.877.360.025 --- acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.570.877.360.025.060 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH ... acidic glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.390.470.025.060 --- antigens, cd15 MeSH D10.390.470.025.475 --- gangliosides MeSH D10.390. ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.390.470.675.200 --- ceramides MeSH D10.390.470.675.200.250 --- cerebrosides MeSH D10.390. ... neutral glycosphingolipids MeSH D10.570.877.360.612.200 --- ceramides MeSH D10.570.877.360.612.200.250 --- cerebrosides MeSH ...
In the presence of psychosine, however, the levels of cAMP increased at a shifted, more acidic pH range. As such, psychosine ... as well as several other related glycosphingolipids. However, the specific binding of psychosine to GPR65 has been contested as ... It was found that overexpression of GPR65 prevents tumor cell death in acidic conditions in vitro and facilitates tumor growth ... After myocardial infarction, anaerobic respiration and severe inflammation occurs-both of which are accompanied by an acidic ...
An acidic pH (around 5.0) and low amounts of water make it hostile to many microorganic pathogens. The presence of non- ... For example glycosphingolipids become ceramides and phospholipids become free fatty acids. spinous layer (stratum spinosum) ... glycosphingolipids, free sterols, phospholipids and catabolic enzymes. Langerhans cells, immunologically active cells, are ...
Srinivas VR, Acharya S, Rawat S, Sharma V; Surolia A (2000). "The primary structure of the acidic lectin from winged bean ( ... Surolia has elucidated the role of glycosphingolipids as biological receptors through studies on lectin-glycolipid interactions ... Patanjali S.R., Sajjan S. U.; Surolia A. (1988). "Erythrocyte-binding studies on an acidic lectin from winged bean ( ...
However, this is only under acidic conditions not neutral conditions. To fully understand the role of sulfatide in the cycle of ... MAL forms complexes with sulfatide and other glycosphingolipids, and these complexes have been shown to play a role in apical ...
This could have immense effects on the signaling functions of ceramide because it is known that ceramide generated by acidic ... 2007). "Glycosphingolipid synthesis requires FAPP2 transfer of glucosylceramide". Nature. 449 (7158): 62-67. doi:10.1038/ ... In addition to their role as building blocks of biological membranes, glycosphingolipids have long attracted attention because ... Glucosylceramides (GluCer) are the most widely distributed glycosphingolipids in cells serving as precursors for the formation ...
In the case of glycosphingolipids, exohydrolases acting at acidic pH optima cause the stepwise release of monosaccharide units ... Constitutive degradation of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids takes place in the acidic subcellular compartments, the late ... such as sphingomyelin and the complex glycosphingolipids. ...
Therefore, eight of the 12 major glycosphingolipids, accounting for 64% of lipid-linked carbohyd … ... Defining glycosphingolipid structures in species amenable to genetic manipulation, such as Drosophila melanogaster, provides a ... Zwitterionic and acidic glycosphingolipids of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo Eur J Biochem. 2000 Jun;267(12):3549-58. doi: ... Furthermore, acidic species account for a larger proportion of total glycosphingolipid, and PEtn substitution of GlcNAc is more ...
An oligosaccharide containing one to several acidic sugar derivatives attached to ceramide makes what? ...
Neutral glycosphingolipid consisting of Ceramide + Sugar 12 2 Acidic Glycosphingolipids Sulfatides and gangliosides ...
Identification of neutral and acidic glycosphingolipids in the human dermal fibroblasts.. Calvano CD, Ventura G, Sardanelli AM ...
Glycosphingolipids [D09.400.410.420]. *Acidic Glycosphingolipids [D09.400.410.420.025]. *Gangliosides [D09.400.410.420.025.475] ... Glycosphingolipids are modulators of disease pathogenesis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun ... Glycosphingolipid-functionalized nanoparticles recapitulate CD169-dependent HIV-1 uptake and trafficking in dendritic cells. ...
Acidic glycosphingolipids [SP06]. Sub Class. Gangliosides [SP0601]. PubChem CID. 44261966. SWISSLIPIDS ID. SLM:000485880. ...
Acidic glycosphingolipids [SP06]. Sub Class. Sulfoglycosphingolipids (sulfatides) [SP0602]. LIPIDBANK ID. GSG0092. PubChem CID ...
Acidic glycosphingolipids [SP06] Gangliosides [SP0601]. Sulfoglycosphingolipids (sulfatides) [SP0602]. Glucuronosphingolipids [ ...
Acidic glycosphingolipids [SP06]. Sub Class. Gangliosides [SP0601]. PubChem CID. 44261967. SWISSLIPIDS ID. SLM:000485878. ...
Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids that contain sialic acid. The high concentration of gangliosides in the central ... The most basic isozyme was more stable than the more acidic isozymes (lower pi values) at pH extremes, at high ionic strength, ... The simultaneous release in ammonia along with the spontaneous shift to more acidic isozymes and changes in the specific ... there was a spontaneous generation of the more acidic isozymes with electrophoretic properties identical to those found in vivo ...
The enzymes involved in the stepwise degradation of = sphingolipids are exo-hydrolases with optimal activity at acidic pH. A = ... Niemann-Pick disease type C is an exception in that = this complex (glycosphingo-) lipid storage disease is not caused by an = ... Poorthuis B., Aerts J. (2008) Glycosphingolipids. In: Blau N., Duran M., Gibson K. (eds) Laboratory Guide to the Methods in ... enzyme deficiency, but can be considered as a (glycosphingo-)lipid = trafficking defect caused by a deficiency of one of two ...
Endogenous pore-forming protein complex targets acidic glycosphingolipids in lipid rafts to initiate endolysosome regulation * ... Rights & permissionsfor article Endogenous pore-forming protein complex targets acidic glycosphingolipids in lipid rafts to ...
Cells were washed in neutral or acidic PBS, and lipid internalization was calculated as a ratio of the two. As a control, cells ... Normalizing glycosphingolipids restores function in CD4+ T cells from lupus patients Georgia McDonald,1 Shantal Deepak,1 Laura ... Glycosphingolipid functions. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011;3(7):a004788.. View this article via: PubMed Google Scholar ... Glycosphingolipids and mitochondria: role in apoptosis and disease. Glycoconj J. 2004;20(9):579-588.. View this article via: ...
Two acidic glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) derived from mouse macrophage membranes and separated by thin-layer chromatography ... Structural analysis and immunohistochemical localization of two acidic glycosphingolipids from the porcine, ... ... The acidic glycolipid fraction (AF) of the porcine, parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum , consisted of two subfractions. The major ... Characterization of cytostatically active glycosphingolipids isolated from thioglycollate-elicited murine macrophages. Schaade ...
SCDase acts on various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin; however, it exhibits low activity with ...
Glycosphingolipids are amphiphilic components of cellular plasma membranes. Their constitutive degradation occurs in the acidic ... Cis-type association of Membrane Proteins with Gangliosides in Glycosphingolipid-enriched Microdomain ...
... acidic lipids (with cresyl violet); glycosphingolipids (with periodic acid-Schiff); and apolar components (with Sudan Black B ... Lysosomal storage in central neurons was dominated by accumulation of glycosphingolipids, and thus was different from that seen ... One was rapidly frozen for histochemical analyses including detection of phospholipids, sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids, ... acidic lipids, and apolar components and lipopigments [13], one was fixed with 4% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin for ...
Glycosphingolipid storage leads to the enhanced degradation of the B cell receptor in Sandhoff disease mice. J Inherit Metab ... Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder-associated biomarker. Danielle te Vruchte,1 Anneliese O. ... Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after ... Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and ...
A novel glycosphingolipid-degrading enzyme cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of neutral and acidic ... glycosphingolipid. HPTLC. high-performance thin layer chromatography. iGb3. isoglobotrihexosyl ceramide. iNKT cell. invariant ... Cell wall glycosphingolipids of Sphingomonas paucimobilis are CD1d-specific ligands for NKT cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 35: 1692- ... Glycosphingolipids are required for sorting melanosomal proteins in the Golgi complex. J. Cell Biol. 155: 369-380. ...
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and ... Ganglioside GM1 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids ... Ganglioside GM1 (18:1/12:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more ... These are neutral glycosphingolipids in which the root sequence is GalNAcb1-4Galb1-4Glc. ...
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and ... Ganglioside GM1 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids ... belongs to the class of organic compounds known as galnacb1-4galb1-4glc- (ganglio series). These are neutral glycosphingolipids ... Ganglioside GM1 (d18:1/24:1(15Z)) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or ...
Invariant Vα14 natural killer T cell activation by edible mushroom acidic glycosphingolipids. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 33:580-584. ...
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are well known ubiquitous constituents of all eukaryotic cell membranes, yet their normal biological ... A novel glycosphingolipid-degrading enzyme cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of neutral and acidic ... Glycosphingolipid Glycolipid Ganglioside Glycan Lectin Antibody Microarray Glycan array This is a preview of subscription ... Zhang, X., Kiechle, F.L.: Review: glycosphingolipids in health and disease. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 34, 3-13 (2004)PubMedGoogle ...
The enzyme acts on various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin; however, it exhibits low activity on ... cleaves the linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids, producing intact ... glycosphingolipids, and other glycan-containing biological molecules. ...
  • The proteomic and lipidomic characterization of virions produced by T cells or macrophages has highlighted the similarity between their composition and that of the plasma membrane of producer cells, as well as their enrichment in acidic lipids, some components of raft lipids and in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. (frontiersin.org)
  • Even though only about 5 mol% glycosphingolipids are found in cellular membranes, glycosphingolipids are essential during development, as a lack of these lipids was embryonically lethal in mice. (uu.nl)
  • spinous layer (stratum spinosum) Keratinocytes become connected through desmosomes and start produce lamellar bodies, from within the Golgi, enriched in polar lipids, glycosphingolipids, free sterols, phospholipids and catabolic enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding patterns observed indicate that the presence of β1-linked galactosyl residues in glycosphingolipids is the minimum determinant required for binding of the pH 6 antigen. (asm.org)
  • A three-dimensional model comparing saposins A and C reveals significant sequence homology between them, especially preservation of conserved acidic and basic residues in their middle regions. (biosyn.com)
  • Staining of the living and artificial biofilms by ConA might be explained as binding of the lectin to the terminal mannosyl and terminal glucosyl residues in the polysaccharides secreted by Sphingomonas as well as to the terminal mannosyl residue in glycosphingolipids. (asm.org)
  • The pH in GM95 organelles was lowered to the level of wild-type cells after restoration of the glycosphingolipid content by transfection with the missing glucosylceramide synthase (GCS). (uu.nl)
  • Competition studies and labelling with photoactivatable and clickable GlcCer analogues indicate that the V-ATPase may be regulated via a direct interaction with glucosylceramide (GlcCer), the precursor of the higher glycosphingolipids. (uu.nl)
  • For example, to analyze the presence of globotriaosylceramide and isoglobtriaosylceramide in the same sample, one can use the fragmentation of glycosphingolipid molecules to structurally discriminate between the two (see below Figure 5 ). (jove.com)
  • Although ABO blood group is associated with variations in concentrations of circulating von Willebrand Factor and other endothelial cell adhesion molecules, ABO antigens are also present on several platelet surface glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids. (ahajournals.org)
  • The glycosphingolipid sulfatide has previously been found in several mammalian tissues, but information on the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide in different organs in vivo is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This could have important physiological consequences because glycosphingolipids have indeed been shown to accumulate in tissues from insulin-resistant rodents and humans ( Summers and Nelson, 2005 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since sphingomyelinases (SMases) are known to mediate some of the effects of TNF, we will examine the role of individual neutral or acidic SMase, in the regulation of MATIA in primary cultured rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells exposed to exogenous neutral (NSMase) or acid (ASMase) SMases. (nih.gov)
  • This process consists in an opening of the glycosidic ring with periodate and the resulting product is chemically reduced before its hydrolysis under mild acidic conditions. (gerli.com)
  • Defining glycosphingolipid structures in species amenable to genetic manipulation, such as Drosophila melanogaster, provides a foundation for investigating mechanisms that regulate glycolipid expression. (nih.gov)
  • Surolia has elucidated the role of glycosphingolipids as biological receptors through studies on lectin-glycolipid interactions using liposomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosphingolipid-functionalized nanoparticles recapitulate CD169-dependent HIV-1 uptake and trafficking in dendritic cells. (harvard.edu)
  • α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), a synthetic glycosphingolipid (GSL) that has some minor structural modifications from a compound originally isolated from a marine sponge, is the most well-known Ag for i NKT cells ( 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we present a visualized version of a method for relatively simple, rapid, and sensitive analysis of glycosphingolipid profiles in immune cells 7-9 . (jove.com)
  • These anti-acidic GSL antibodies frequently express cross-reactivity between cell surface carbohydrate antigens of the infecting microbes and host cells. (elsevier.com)
  • that pigmentation is lost in the mutant glycosphingolipid-deficient GM95 cells. (uu.nl)
  • Levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a secondary messenger associated with activation of GPCRs in the cAMP-dependent pathway, were found to be elevated in neutral to acidic extracellular pH (pH 7.0-6.5) in cells expressing GPR65. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that treatment of HepG2 cells with AMP-DNM results in 70% reduction of glycosphingolipid content without an effect on expression of genes related to cell receptor signaling pathways, toxicity, or cell growth. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Glycosphingolipids (GSL's) belong to the glycoconjugate class of biomacromolecules, which bear structural information for significant biological processes such as embryonic development, signal transduction, and immune receptor recognition 1-2 . (jove.com)
  • It was found that overexpression of GPR65 prevents tumor cell death in acidic conditions in vitro and facilitates tumor growth in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these effects can be ascribed to improved insulin receptor function via modulation of glycosphingolipid levels by AMP-DNM, the question remains whether this is the only effect of AMP-DNM in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To be able to begin to understand the effects of AMP-DNM in vivo, where various hormones and organs are involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis, we set out to investigate the effects of established low glycosphingolipids at the cellular level in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, eight of the 12 major glycosphingolipids, accounting for 64% of lipid-linked carbohydrate in Drosophila embryos, were purified after separation into acidic and zwitterionic pools. (nih.gov)
  • It is worth to mention that monohexosylceramides exhibit significant structural differences in their lipid moieties compared to their mammalian counterparts, whereas the glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides exhibit remarkable structural differences in their carbohydrate moieties in comparison to mammal glycosphingolipids counterpart. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, a cysteine residue located at or near the N-terminus of a helix is often more acidic than that at or near the C-terminus 1-6 . (jove.com)
  • CD57 antigen is a sugar chain characterized by a sulfated glucuronic acid residue that is likely to exist in some glycosphingolipids. (bvsalud.org)
  • J. Dabrowski, P. Hanfland, H. Egge, and U. Dabrowski, Immunochemistry of the Lewis-blood-group system: proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of plasmatic Lewis-blood-group-active glycosphingolipids and related substances, Arch. (springer.com)