Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sphagnopsida: A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Cathepsin E: An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The best-known activators of TRPV1 are: temperature greater than 43 °C (109 °F); acidic conditions; capsaicin, the irritating ... Its endogenous activators include: low pH (acidic conditions), the endocannabinoid anandamide, N-oleyl-dopamine, and N- ... in the central nervous system and has been proposed as a target for treatment not only of pain but also for other conditions ...
Acidic condition (pH. ... acts as a DNA alkylating agent under physiological conditions. ...
... hydrolyzes slowly in acidic conditions. The half-life is shorter when the pH is high; at pH = 7, it is at least 2 ...
Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ...
Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ... It grows best in neutral to alkaline conditions (pH 7-7.8) with average fertility. It can be propagated from an existing plant ...
Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ...
Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ... see GPR132 for a lists of these conditions) have not yet been determined. This determination, as it might apply to humans, is ... occurs naturally and particularly under conditions of oxidative stress forms concurrently with the 13-HODEs; the 9-HODEs have ... in activating G2A under the physiological and pathological conditions in which G2A is implicated ( ...
An acidic liquid, such as wine or vinegar, produces a longer-lasting paste.[31] However, even then prepared mustard loses its ... Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ... Dijon mustard originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon replaced the usual ingredient of vinegar with verjuice, the acidic ... to the desired consistency with water or an acidic liquid such as wine, vinegar, or beer, and letting it stand for 10 minutes.[ ...
Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ... mints tolerate a wide range of conditions, and can also be grown in full sun. Mint grows all year round.[15] ...
Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ... use should be discontinued if condition does not improve after treatment for 2 weeks for jock itch or after 4 weeks for ...
by acidic H. 2O. 2. Under alkaline conditions, however, some of these reactions reverse; for example, Mn2+. is oxidized to Mn4+ ... In acidic solutions, H. 2O. 2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known, when used for removing organic stains from ... In acidic solutions Fe2+. is oxidized to Fe3+. (hydrogen peroxide acting as an oxidizing agent): ... Practitioners of alternative medicine have advocated the use of hydrogen peroxide for various conditions, including emphysema, ...
National Strength and Conditioning Association.. *^ Roberts, MD; Iosia, M; Kerksick, CM; Taylor, LW; Campbell, B; Wilborn, CD; ... Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ... Increased consumption of arachidonic acid will not cause inflammation during normal metabolic conditions unless lipid ...
Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ... Under optimal conditions, celery can be stored for up to seven weeks between 0 to 2 °C (32 to 36 °F). Inner stalks may continue ... the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild, sweetish, aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. ...
Low pH (acidic conditions). *Menthol (mint). *N-Arachidonoyl dopamine. *N-Oleoyldopamine. *N-Oleoylethanolamide ...
Under basic conditions (pH>6) amitraz is metabolized to 2,4-dimethylphenylformamide. Followed by hydrolysis to 2,4- ... At very acidic pH (pH. ...
Neutral to slightly acidic soils are ideal; the tree will not tolerate calcaerous soils nor very acidic conditions. Andean ... The species prefers loose-textured, fertile soils, and seems to thrive in somewhat muddy conditions. ...
Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC. The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups. ... A number of studies on CBD indicate that it may be useful in treating inflammation caused by a variety of conditions. A 2012 ... Although most states restrict the use of CBD products to certain medical conditions, manufacturers of CBD claim their products ... for the treatment of certain medical conditions. This is in addition to the 29 states that have passed comprehensive medical ...
The condensation is performed under acidic conditions. The mechanism involves an esterification/transesterification followed by ... It was discovered by the German chemist Hans von Pechmann . With simple phenols, the conditions are harsh, although yields may ... With highly activated phenols such as resorcinol, the reaction can be performed under much milder conditions. This provides a ...
This can only happen under acidic conditions. The formed carbocation can undergo electrophilic aromatic substitution with ... When a fish lives in an acidic water environment dinoseb is more toxic than when a fish lives in a neutral or alkaline water ... This is because dinoseb is slightly acidic. Birds: It was found that dinoseb was also highly toxic to birds. When birds are ...
create highly acidic conditions within their midguts. This basic environment provides conditions ideally suited to bacteria ...
These substrates are stablized by acidic conditions. Basic heteroaromatic boronic acids (boronic acids that contain a basic ... Their studies focused on the protodeboronation of some substituted aromatic boronic acids in aqueous conditions, and they ... in which the reaction conditions are optimised to provide a slow release of boronic acid. This protocol has proved useful in ... such as the reaction conditions employed and the organic substituent of the boronic acid. The deliberate protodeboronation of ...
Acetal group is hydrolyzed under acidic conditions. An example with dioxolane protecting group is given below. Weinreb amides ... he observed a white precipitate which under acidic conditions yields benzyl benzoate, methyl benzoate, methanol, and benzyl ... Acetals are stable under basic conditions, so they can be used to protect ketones from a base. ...
8 in strongly acidic conditions.[50] At pH , 0 polynuclear species exist, the most important of which is believed to be the ... See also bismuthia, a rare dermatological condition that results from the prolonged use of bismuth.. Scientific literature ... At ambient conditions bismuth shares the same layered structure as the metallic forms of arsenic and antimony,[26] ... This is a convenient temperature since it is unlikely to be exceeded in normal living conditions. Low-melting alloys, such as ...
They require soft, acidic water; most of all, they prefer a higher temperature than most fish. Tank temperature should be ... Without optimum water conditions, they are susceptible to bacterial infections and skin parasites. Chocolate gouramis are best ...
In solution-phase synthesis, acidic conditions are essential;[citation needed] formic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid are ... typical reaction solvents, or p-toluenesulfonic acid or various Lewis acids can be used with a non-acidic solvent. A large ... variants have been developed in which the reaction is performed with microwave irradiation using reactants adsorbed on acidic ...
... s are far more acidic (pKa ≈ 20) than a regular alkane (pKa ≈ 50). This difference reflects resonance stabilization of ... Milder conditions make use of the Dess-Martin periodinane or the Moffatt-Swern methods. ... Using very strong bases like lithium diisopropylamide (LDA, pKa of conjugate acid ~36) under non-equilibrating conditions (-78 ... while conditions that allow for equilibration (higher temperature, base added to ketone, using weak or insoluble bases, e.g., ...
This is part of our work on the function of enzymes, how they work and the effects of conditions on how they work. We have ... 541 words - 2 pages Hydrogen peroxide has an acidic pH which will break down into water which has a neutral pH. This may effect ...
Investigations of gene expression under acidic conditions may be crucial to our understanding of signal transduction in acidic ... and cellular functions under acidic conditions. Our group showed that different signal proteins were activated under acidic ... it can be argued that cells may have other genes for signaling under acidic conditions. The expressions of 37 of the 379 genes ... These results suggest that the signal pathways in acidic diseased areas are different, at least in part, from those examined ...
... Date: Thu Jul 27 19:29:12 2000. Posted By: Sean ... The acidic conditions for RNA extractions is due to a number of problems when dealing with RNA. DNA is a major contaminant ... Also RNase has very little activity in acidic condition and is de-activated by guanidinium thiocyanate. Often the RNA ... its true that the buffers are acidic for RNA work and slightly basic (usually around pH 8)for DNA extractions. If you place DNA ...
A glutamate residue in the catalytic center of the yeast chorismate mutase restricts enzyme activity to acidic conditions. ... The activity of yeast chorismate mutase was found to be highly pH-dependent, rising dramatically under acidic conditions. We ... A glutamate residue in the catalytic center of the yeast chorismate mutase restricts enzyme activity to acidic conditions ... A glutamate residue in the catalytic center of the yeast chorismate mutase restricts enzyme activity to acidic conditions ...
In a study on acidic vesicles of amoeba (Giglione and Gross, 1995), HCO3- transport into acidic vesicles was reported. Inside ... Ionic determinants of pH of acidic compartments under hypertonic conditions in trout hepatocytes ... Ionic determinants of pH of acidic compartments under hypertonic conditions in trout hepatocytes ... Ionic determinants of pH of acidic compartments under hypertonic conditions in trout hepatocytes ...
N-Doped GNSs exhibit high discharge voltage under acidic conditions, which is near to that of commercial 20 wt% Pt/carbon black ... cells under acidic conditions E. Yoo, J. Nakamura and H. Zhou, Energy Environ. Sci., 2012, 5, 6928 DOI: 10.1039/C2EE02830A ... N-Doped GNSs exhibit high discharge voltage under acidic conditions, which is near to that of commercial 20 wt% Pt/carbon black ...
... and slightly acidic pH (pH 5.8 to 6.2) (Table 1). This acidic pH range was chosen for this study to represent a slightly acidic ... In Vitro Spectrum of Activity of Finafloxacin, a Novel, pH-Activated Fluoroquinolone, under Standard and Acidic Conditions. ... In Vitro Spectrum of Activity of Finafloxacin, a Novel, pH-Activated Fluoroquinolone, under Standard and Acidic Conditions ... Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone that exhibits enhanced antibacterial activity under acidic conditions. The aim of this ...
Role of Listeria monocytogenes σB in Survival of Lethal Acidic Conditions and in the Acquired Acid Tolerance Response. Adriana ... The role of σB in adaptive ATR regulation was also tested by exposing cells to milder acidic conditions (pH 4.5) prior to ... Role of Listeria monocytogenes σB in Survival of Lethal Acidic Conditions and in the Acquired Acid Tolerance Response ... Role of Listeria monocytogenes σB in Survival of Lethal Acidic Conditions and in the Acquired Acid Tolerance Response ...
... with polyaniline and Fe precursors to produce Fe/N/C catalysts for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction in the acidic ... Fe/N/C Polyaniline Oxygen Reduction Reaction Acidic Condition Graphene Aerogel This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Fe/N/C catalysts systhesized using graphene aerogel for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction in an acidic condition. ... and Fe precursors to produce Fe/N/C catalysts for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction in the acidic condition. The ...
Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae *. World Brewing Congress*. Congress* ... Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Page Content ... acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount ... "terminal acidic shock." Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The ...
Lysozyme encapsulated gold nanoclusters for probing the early stage of lysozyme aggregation under acidic conditions ... Lysozyme encapsulated gold nanoclusters for probing the early stage of lysozyme aggregation under acidic conditions. Journal of ... fluorescence lifetime component of AuNC emission was observed to decrease under both conditions. Interestingly it was found via ...
disproportionate in acidic conditions? In basic conditions? c. Determine the redox potential for MnO 4 - conversion to MnO 4 ... Unformatted text preview: disproportionate in acidic conditions? In basic conditions? c. Determine the redox potential for MnO ... c. What is the redox potential at which HMnO 4 is converted H 2 MnO 4 to under acidic conditions? Explain whether HMnO 4 would ... a. What is the most stable oxidation state of manganese under acidic conditions? How can you tell? b. What is the redox ...
Under acidic fermentation conditions, pigment mixtures predominantly rich in OMPs... ... These results indicated that the large accumulation of OMPs under acidic condition involved the acidic pH-induced transcription ... Acidic conditions induce the accumulation of orange Monascus pigments during liquid-state fermentation of Monascus ruber M7. ... Under acidic fermentation conditions, pigment mixtures predominantly rich in OMPs were obtained. HPLC analysis revealed the ...
Acidic and basic mobile phases have found widespread applications in the reversed-phase HPLC separation of many important ... SiliaChrom® C18 HPLC Column For Highly Acidic And Basic PH Conditions. Acidic and basic mobile phases have found widespread ... How to scale-up a column for preparative isolation/purification from analytical conditions? ... retention and selectivity changes when the pH of the mobile phase is changed from neutral to acidic pH (pH ,1.0) or to basic pH ...
Free Shipping on many items across the worlds largest range of Loam Evergreen Acidic Cactus & Succulent Plants. Find the ...
Associated conditions. Description. Tests. Osteogenesis imperfecta, type xvii MedGen: C4225301 OMIM: 616507 GeneReviews: Not ... SPARC secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich [Homo sapiens] SPARC secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich [Homo sapiens]. ... secreted protein acidic and cysteine richprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:11219 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000113140 ... This gene encodes a cysteine-rich acidic matrix-associated protein. The encoded protein is required for the collagen in bone to ...
Balancing Redox Equations Run in Acidic Conditions Using the Half-reaction Technique Tip-off : If you are asked to balance a ... Cr2O72-(aq) + HNO2(aq) --, Cr3+(aq) + NO3-(aq) (acidic) ... Cr2O72-(aq) + 3HNO2(aq) --, 2Cr3+(aq) + 3NO3-(aq) (acidic) ... Retrieved from "http://wiki.ubc.ca/index.php?title=Redox_Reactions_In_Acidic_Conditions&oldid=80666" ... redox equation and told that it takes place in an acidic solution, you can use the following procedure. ...
Acidic mammalian chitinase in dry eye conditions.. Cornea, Vol. 28 (6), p. 667-672. eISSN 1536-4798. Article. ... Purpose: An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) seems to be implicated in allergic asthma and allergic ocular pathologies. The ...
Bladder spasms can be caused by many conditions including:. *Neurological conditions like stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson ... Spicy or acidic food intake.. *High fluid intake or intake of alcohol or caffeine containing beverages by the person. ... Local conditions at the urinary bladder level or the flow of urine can also result in irritation and spasm.. What Causes ... The options for treatment include medical, surgical treatment and lifestyle changes for coping with the condition.. 1. Medical ...
RNA remarkably promotes HIV-1 protease fast turnover for NCp15 processing in mild acidic conditions leading to condensation of ... By using this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. Manage the cookies we use ... Remarkably, such processing is optimal in more physiological conditions than classically used for in vitro HIV-1 PR assay, thus ...
Title:Induced Folding Under Membrane Mimetic and Acidic Conditions Implies Undiscovered Biological Roles of Prokaryotic ... Induced Folding Under Membrane Mimetic and Acidic Conditions Implies Undiscovered Biological Roles of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin- ... we show that membrane mimetic and acidic conditions also induce Pup to adopt helical conformations. Moreover, at low pH, Pup, ... we show that membrane mimetic and acidic conditions also induce Pup to adopt helical conformations. Moreover, at low pH, Pup, ...
Prefers acidic soil. Bright Light to Full Sun.. Bougainvillea Can bloom year round, continuously, in ideal conditions; expect ... Fragrant Trailing Gardenia Gardeniasprefer an acidic soil. Being winter bloomers they will only flower under cool conditions, ... They prefer shady, humid conditions and well-drained, moist, slightly acidic soil. Blooms August-September. ... SOIL CONDITIONS - Most soil around the house comes from basement diggings, which will not support plant life. Be sure to work ...
Which of the following conditions indicate an acidic solution at 25C? a. pH = 3.04 b. [H+] 1.0 107 M c. pOH =.... Chemistry ...
Mechanism of ring formation of an epoxide under acidic aqueous conditions. Ask Question ... The solution is acidic, so there is very little hydroxide available. H20 will act as a nucleophile and attack the carbocation, ...
  • This effect was attributed, at least in part, to the enhancement of finafloxacin activity at slightly acidic pH ( 5 , 6 , 9 ), which is a distinctive property of finafloxacin in contrast to other marketed fluoro-quinolones, which generally lose activity at pH below neutral ( 4 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • chronic throat clearing, occasional phlegm in my saliva (slightly acidic tasting), a white infection like bump on my tongue which comes and goes with the level of "reflux" I have (almost a weekly cycle). (medhelp.org)
  • This means it is moderately acidic, but should not be confused with acid rain which hovers closer to 3.0 pH due to emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides mixing with the water molecules. (chansonalkalinewater.com)
  • Even if a species of fish or animal can tolerate moderately acidic water, the animals or plants it eats might not. (epa.gov)
  • Remarkably, such processing is optimal in more physiological conditions than classically used for in vitro HIV-1 PR assay, thus allowing a useful protection of the crucial NC zinc fingers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its importance was first realized when ASM deficiency was identified as the cause of the lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease types A and B. Originally, because of its acidic pH optimum in vitro (pH 4,5-5,0), ASM was assumed to be a purely lysosomal enzyme. (springer.com)
  • For example, a mutant unable to grow at acidic pHs in vitro is less virulent in a vaginal model but not in a systemic model ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Hemoglobin binds oxygen when passing through the alveoli of the lungs and releases oxygen in the warmer, more acidic environment of bodily tissues, via simple diffusion. (wikibooks.org)
  • Horodysky just received a $700,000 NSF grant to study the impacts of warmer, more acidic oceans on the way fish see, hear and behave. (dailypress.com)
  • At high elevations, acidic fog and clouds might strip nutrients from trees' foliage, leaving them with brown or dead leaves and needles. (epa.gov)
  • REVIVE PRODUCE-And when you're ready to eat the produce you have grown, we recommend a quick dip in ionized acidic water to naturally kill any bacteria that has grown on them followed by a 10 min soak in 8.5 pH ionized alkaline water directly before consuming in order to revive the produce to its freshly picked state. (chansonalkalinewater.com)
  • Further experiments showed that acidic conditions (pH 4.5-5.5) favored the growth of the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum but suppressed the growth and antagonistic activity of antagonistic bacteria of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus cereus . (frontiersin.org)
  • This is because these bacteria are inherently unable to grow and assimilate carbon sources effectively under acidic conditions [ 16 , 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Growth ability at acidic conditions is important to bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lakes that do not normally have a high level of acidity may temporarily experience effects of acid rain when the melting snow or downpour brings greater amounts of acidic deposition and the soil can't buffer it. (epa.gov)
  • Contrary to popular belief, beverages like fruit juices, soft drinks, alcohol, etc., which score high on the acidic content, are not harmful to the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI), says a new study. (medindia.net)
  • σ B does not appear to contribute to pH i homeostasis through regulation of net proton movement across the cell membrane or by regulation of pH i buffering by the GAD system under the conditions examined in this study. (asm.org)
  • Kaiqin Ye, Xiaoming Tu, Xuecheng Zhang, Qiang Shang, Shanhui Liao, Jigang Yu and Jiahai Zhang, "Induced Folding Under Membrane Mimetic and Acidic Conditions Implies Undiscovered Biological Roles of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-Like Protein Pup", Protein & Peptide Letters (2016) 23: 756. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Advantages such as low energy cost, ease of application, operation at moderate conditions and no extra waste streams, makes that membrane technology can offer both economic and ecologic benefits. (utwente.nl)
  • this condition makes the body use stored fat as an alternative source instead of the unavailable glucose for energy, a process that produces acidic ketones, which build up because they require insulin to be broken down. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hyperglycemia - Condition characterized by excessively high levels of glucose in the blood, and occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it does have to turn glucose into energy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult-onset diabetes. (medicinenet.com)
  • Exposure of trout hepatocytes to hypertonicity induced a decrease in acridine orange (AO) fluorescence, indicating a corresponding decrease in pH inside the lumen of acidic compartments (pH L ). Pre-exposure of cells to the specific V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (0.3 μmol l -1 ) increased AO fluorescence - unmasking H + leaks under steady-state conditions - and partially removed the hypertonicity-induced pH L decrease. (biologists.org)
  • Under steady-state conditions, while a slight and brief pH L increase was measured upon exposure of cells to valinomycin, Cl - removal, unexpectedly, induced a decrease in pH L , indicating a role for extracellular Cl - in limiting luminal acidification. (biologists.org)
  • The adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR), which enables enhanced resistance to lethal acid exposure, results from preexposure of bacterial cells to milder acidic conditions (ATR) ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • And the longer the exposure to acidic conditions, the worse the hearing gets. (dailypress.com)
  • Graphene aerogel was modified with polyaniline and Fe precursors to produce Fe/N/C catalysts for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction in the acidic condition. (springer.com)
  • This graphene-aerogel-based carbon catalysts showed improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction in the acidic condition. (springer.com)
  • Given the gut origin of most probiotic microorganisms (e.g. bifidobacteria), like other members of the gut microbiota, they must have developed adaptive processes to tolerate these harsh conditions found in the gut. (springer.com)
  • Some types of plants and animals are able to tolerate acidic waters and moderate amounts of aluminum. (epa.gov)
  • The sustainability of the luminal acidification, but not the acidification itself, appeared to depend on a low K + and a high Cl - conductance under hypertonic conditions. (biologists.org)
  • N-Doped GNSs exhibit high discharge voltage under acidic conditions, which is near to that of commercial 20 wt% Pt/carbon black usually used in H 2 -O 2 fuel cells. (rsc.org)
  • Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock. (worldbrewingcongress.org)
  • The effects of low-pH/high-[lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. (worldbrewingcongress.org)
  • Overproduction or high production of urine due to any condition affecting the kidney or endocrine system e.g. diabetes. (medindia.net)
  • Xypex Bio-San C500 is a unique way of protecting concrete in harsh sewage conditions with high levels of hydrogen sulphide that cause microbial induced corrosion. (xypex.com)
  • These kill acid-generating microbes such as Thiobacillus that proliferate in high H 2 S conditions thus preventing microbial induced corrosion (MIC). (xypex.com)
  • Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an environmental issue that can be characterized by either acidic or circumneutral pH and high dissolved metal content in contaminated waters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous complication of diabetes mellitus in which the chemical balance of the body becomes far too acidic. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In our previous studies, we selected Enterobacter aerogenes , a rapid glucose assimilator at pH 5.0, in order to construct a metabolically engineered strain that could produce succinate under weakly acidic conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, bacterial strains that can effectively produce succinate under acidic conditions have not been reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These barriers include digestive enzymes, acidic pH and bile. (springer.com)
  • Acidic products from BioAyurveda a combination of organic herbs and herbal nutrient sources that is formulated to empower digestive functioning and gut health that are at the core of overall health and vitality. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The improvements when you take the acidic product from BioAyurveda, it helps your body to control your appetite and enhances digestive power. (selfgrowth.com)
  • 1)These acidic products work with vital vitamins and anti-oxidants that promotes digestive health. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Under these conditions, survival of the Δ sigB strain was consistently lower than that of the wild-type strain throughout all phases of growth, ranging from 4 orders of magnitude less in mid-log phase to 2 orders of magnitude less in stationary phase. (asm.org)
  • Home-brewed teas aren't as acidic as fruit juices and other drinks. (healthline.com)
  • There are many preservatives which are commonly used in food industries including benzoate group, which is used as bacteriostatic and fungistatic in acidic food and drink such as vinegar, carbonated drinks, jams, fruit juice, and condiments. (hindawi.com)
  • Today, researchers report preliminary results suggesting that under simulated landfill conditions, quantum dots can leach out of devices. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our group showed that different signal proteins were activated under acidic conditions compared with those observed in a typical medium of around pH 7.4 that has been used until now. (mdpi.com)
  • Unlike some bacterial enzymes, yeast chorismate mutase has highest activity at acidic pH values. (pnas.org)
  • The activity of the yeast enzyme shows a narrow pH profile with maximum activity preferentially at acidic pH ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO 2 ), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. (worldbrewingcongress.org)
  • Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. (worldbrewingcongress.org)
  • A real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression of genes related to the biosynthesis of OMPs in M. ruber M7 was upregulated at acidic pH as compared to neutral pH, and the variation in the level of expression of these genes with pH was consistent with the production of OMPs. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that the signal pathways in acidic diseased areas are different, at least in part, from those examined with cells cultured at a pH of around 7.4. (mdpi.com)
  • These results indicated that the large accumulation of OMPs under acidic condition involved the acidic pH-induced transcription of genes related to the biosynthesis of OMPs. (springer.com)
  • Our results demonstrate a specific impairment in contextual fear conditioning and a loss of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the DG after ablation of neurogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Results indicate that the active substance obtained from Synthesis Routes 1 and 2 is stable when stored according to proposed conditions and confirmed the re-test period. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime. (medicinenet.com)