Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Oxypurinol: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Ketone Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Tungsten Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Nucleobase Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Guanine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsAldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Xanthopterin: 2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Allantoin: A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESUricosuric Agents: Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)BenzaldehydesHyperuricemia: Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Gout Suppressants: Agents that increase uric acid excretion by the kidney (URICOSURIC AGENTS), decrease uric acid production (antihyperuricemics), or alleviate the pain and inflammation of acute attacks of gout.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.2,6-Dichloroindophenol: A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.GuanineDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).AcetophenonesPurine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Pentoxifylline: A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.NADH Tetrazolium Reductase: Catalyzes the reduction of tetrazolium compounds in the presence of NADH.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Hypoxanthine is then oxidatively catabolized first to xanthine and then to uric acid, and the reaction is catalyzed by the ... 4) in sulfuric acid: (. NH. 4. ). 2. S. 2. O. 8. +. 2. H. 2. O. ⟶. H. 2. O. 2. +. 2. (. NH. 4. ). HSO. 4. {\displaystyle {\ce ... Peroxy acids, such as peracetic acid and meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid are also produced using hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen ... They are involved in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, polyamines, and ...
Xanthine oxidase is needed to successively oxidize both hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Hence, febuxostat inhibits ... It inhibits xanthine oxidase, thus reducing production of uric acid in the body. Febuxostat was discovered by scientists at the ... therefore reducing production of uric acid. Febuxostat inhibits both oxidized as well as reduced form of xanthine oxidase ... Febuxostat is a non-purine-selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. It works by non-competitively blocking the molybdenum ...
By inhibiting xanthine oxidase, it reduces uric acid production. High serum uric acid levels may result in gout, kidney stones ... Oxipurinol (INN, or oxypurinol USAN) is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. It is an active metabolite of allopurinol and it is ...
In purine catabolism, xanthine is first converted to urate. This is converted to 5-hydroxyisourate, which decarboxylates to ... In the laboratory, it can be converted to amino acids. and short dipeptides may have facilitated the formation of complex ... Pizzarello, Sandra; Weber, A. L. (2004). "Prebiotic amino acids as asymmetric catalysts". Science. 303: 1151. doi:10.1126/ ... allantoin and allantoic acid. After hydrolyzing one urea, this leaves glycolureate. After hydrolyzing the second urea, ...
... (/ˈɡwɑːnɪn/; or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being ... First, guanine gets deaminated to become xanthine. Guanine oxidizes more readily than adenine, the other purine-derivative base ... See: Paul O. P. Ts'o, Basic Principles in Nucleic Acid Chemistry, vol. 1 (New York, New York: Academic Press, 1974), page 7. ... Because of this intermolecular bonding, guanine is relatively insoluble in water, but it is soluble in dilute acids and bases. ...
Xanthine oxidase will degrade hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. Xanthine is not very soluble in water; therefore ... an increase in xanthine forms crystals (which can lead to kidney stones) and result in damage of the kidney. Xanthine oxidase ... This may be because sources of animal protein, animal fat, and cholesterol, and sweets are more acid-producing, while fruits, ... Another possible cause of Kidney disease is due to decreased function of xanthine oxidase in the purine degradation pathway. ...
AO is very similar in amino acid sequence to xanthine oxidase (XO). The active sites of AO has been found to have a ... Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain Gordon AH, Green DE, Subrahmanyan V (May 1940). "Liver ... AO catalyzes the conversion of an aldehyde in the presence of oxygen and water to an acid and hydrogen peroxide. an aldehyde + ... AO catalyzes the oxidation of aldehydes into carboxylic acid, and in addition, catalyzes the hydrozylation of some heterocycles ...
It belongs to the chemical class methyl xanthines (along with caffeine). It is prescribed in severe cases of asthma or those ... It may promote acid reflux, also known as GERD, by relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter muscle. Some medications, such as ...
... and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It is ... The xanthine core of caffeine contains two fused rings, a pyrimidinedione and imidazole. The pyrimidinedione in turn contains ... Of the latter group are the xanthines DMPX and 8-chlorotheophylline, which is an ingredient in dramamine. Members of a class of ... Caffeine, like other xanthines, also acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. As a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase ...
In the liver, theobromine is metabolized into xanthine and subsequently into methyluric acid. Important enzymes include CYP1A2 ... ISBN 0-07-135469-7. Howell, L.L., Coffin, V.L., Spealman, R.D. Behavorial and physiological effects of xanthines in nonhuman ... Like other methylated xanthine derivatives, theobromine is both a: competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which ... Theobromine is categorized as a dimethyl xanthine. Theobromine was first discovered in 1841 in cacao beans by Russian chemist ...
Allopurinol, which inhibits uric acid production by xanthine oxidase in the treatment of gout. AZT (zidovudine) and other chain ... Clavulanic acid, which inhibits β-lactamase: clavulanic acid covalently bonds to a serine reside in the active site of the β- ... lactamase, restructuring the clavulanic acid molecule, creating a much more reactive species that attacks another amino acid in ...
... and Xanthine dehydrogenase, which is involved in the synthesis of uric acid from purines. Molybdenum deficiency symptoms in ... Symptoms are most common where both conditions apply, such as in acid sandy soils. Molybdenum may be strongly sorbed in ... molybdic acid, molybdenum trioxide, and molybdenum sulfide. Typical soil and foliar application rates are 50-200 g Mo ha−1; ... sorption of Mo is strongest in acid soils. In plants, the primary functions of Mo are related to the valence changes that it ...
... (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most ... Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. ... Clinical significance of xanthine derivatives[edit]. Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of ... People with the rare genetic disorder xanthinuria lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid. ...
Administration of xanthine derivatives (e.g., aminophylline) may reverse the hemodynamic effects of dipyridamole overdose. ... A combination of dipyridamole and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid/dipyridamole) is FDA-approved for the secondary prevention of ... Dipyridamole absorption is pH-dependent and concomitant treatment with gastric acid suppressors (such as a proton pump ... Acetylsalicylic acid/dipyridamole Cilostazol "Aggrenox (aspirin/extended-release dipyridamole) Capsules. Full Prescribing ...
... also contains saponins, theobromine (a xanthine), ilicin, caffeine, caffeic acid, and a yellow pigment, ...
"Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase in a flacca tomato mutant with deficient abscisic acid and wilty phenotype". Plant ... gene product catalyzes the final step in abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (23): 12908-13 ...
Others include drugs that reduce the production of uric acid: xanthine oxidase inhibitors, urate oxidase (rasburicase), and ... For example, if hypouricemia reflects high excretion of uric acid into the urine (hyperuricosuria) with its risk of uric acid ... The definition was less than 0.14 mmol l-1 for women and less than 0.20 mmol l-1 in men.) Uric acid clearance should also be ... Vegetarian diet has been found to result in mean serum uric acid values as low as 239 µmol/L (2.7 mg/dL). While a vegetarian ...
Other notable purines are hypoxanthine (4), xanthine (5), theobromine (6), caffeine (7), uric acid (8) and isoguanine (9). ... Uric acid (8) was reacted with PCl5 to give 2,6,8-trichloropurine (10), which was converted with HI and PH4I to give 2,6- ... I" [On uric acid. I.]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 17: 328-338. doi:10.1002/cber.18840170196. From p. 329 ... The starting material for the reaction sequence was uric acid (8), which had been isolated from kidney stones by Carl Wilhelm ...
... which is an enzyme necessary for converting xanthine to uric acid. Type II xanthinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiency lack ... Xanthinuria, also known as xanthine oxidase deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder causing the accumulation of xanthine. It is ... Sufferers have unusually high concentrations of xanthine in their blood and urine, which can lead to health problems such as ... Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O. "Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase ...
It is approved only for patients who have not achieved target uric acid levels with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor alone. The ... "FDA approves Zurampic to treat high blood uric acid levels associated with gout". Food and Drug Administration. December 22, ... Lesinurad is used in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, such as allopurinol, for treating hyperuricemia (high ... levels of uric acid in the blood serum) associated with gout. ...
... to uric acid by xanthine oxidase in the maternal liver; a hypothesis". Bioscience Hypotheses. 1: 35-43. doi:10.1016/j.bihy. ... LDH=Lactate dehydrogenase, Uric acid=Uric acid, AST=Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT=Alanine aminotransferase, Plt=Platelets, Cr ... Uric Acid: 2.4-6.0 mg/dL. AST: 5-40 U/L. ALT: 7-56 U/L. Plt: 140-450 x 109/L. Cr: 0.6-1.2 mg/dL. ... Elevations in serum uric acid (hyperuricemia) is used by some to "define" pre-eclampsia,[20] though it has been found to be a ...
... oxidase catalyzes the biotransformation of hypoxanthine to xanthine Xanthine oxidase acts upon xanthine to create uric acid The ... a form of xanthine oxidoreductase) catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid A nuclease frees the nucleotide A ... Allopurinol is a drug that inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase and, thus, lowers the level of uric acid in the body. ... The amino acid glycine contributes all its carbon (2) and nitrogen (1) atoms, with additional nitrogen atoms from glutamine (2 ...
Urate stones form due to an increased excretion of uric acid in the urine. Dalmatians (especially males) and to a lesser extent ... Feeding a diet high in purines while simultaneously administering allopurinol can result in the formation of xanthine (C5H4N4O2 ... They are caused by increased urine excretion of cystine (a relatively insoluble amino acid) in dogs with a defect in renal ... Dogs with portosystemic shunts or endstage liver disease also have increased uric acid excretion in the urine due to reduced ...
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors decrease the production of uric acid, by interfering with xanthine oxidase. Uricosurics increase ... Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists ... A ketogenic diet impairs the ability of the kidney to excrete uric acid, due to competition for transport between uric acid and ... Following Le Chatelier's principle, lowering the blood concentration of uric acid may permit any existing crystals of uric acid ...
Xanthine oxidase also produces uric acid, which may act as both a prooxidant and as a scavenger of reactive species such as ... The enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase acts in reverse, that is as a xanthine oxidase as a result of the higher availability of ...
Bacteria must synthesize folic acid because they do not have a transporter for it. Without folic acid, bacteria cannot grow and ... These fatty acids inhibitors have been used as drugs to relieve pain because they can act as the substrate, and bind to the ... Essential fatty acids form the prostaglandins and when this was discovered, it turned out that these were actually very good ... active site by mimicking the substrate para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA).[15] This prevents the substrate itself from binding which ...
... preventing the formation of uric acid and superoxide radicals.17 ... Mechanisms of conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine ... 15 16 Inhibition of xanthine oxidase can be achieved by oxypurinol, which has a molecular structure similar to that of xanthine ... In the vascular endothelium, the xanthine oxidase system is one of the main sources of superoxide anion within and around ... In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that an increased activity of superoxide anions formed by the xanthine oxidase ...
... crystal structure of reduced bovine milk xanthine oxidoreductase bound with oxipurinol. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids ... xanthine oxidoreductase. XO. xanthine oxidase. XDH. xanthine dehydrogenase. MCSF. Moco sulfurase. mAOX. mouse aldehyde oxidase ... 2008) Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase - mechanism of transition from xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase. FEBS J 275: ... nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid. PAGE. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DCPIP. 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. ICP-MS. ...
Lipoxygenase and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Artemisia nilagirica (C.B.Clarke) Pamp. Leaf Extracts, M. Y. Bhat, M ... The generation of uric acid from xanthine was utilized to determine XO activity by the method of Spanou et al. with minor ... a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyses hydroxylation of hypoxanthine into xanthine and finally xanthine to uric acid ... Figure 2: Inhibitory effects of ANH, ANM and ANA on lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase. Different concentrations of ANH, ANM, ...
Xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolizes purines to uric acid and its inhibition has been shown to improve clinical outcome in ... The xanthine oxidase inhibitor oxypurinol reduces cancer cachexia-induced cardiomyopathy. International Journal of Cardiology, ...
Uric acid is a by product from the breakdown of certain proteins (purines) in the body by enzymes called xanthine oxidases ... These may include gout (the build up of uric acid crystals. Allopurinol is Xanthine oxidase inhibitor which is used primarily ... and uric acid stones allopurinol and gout. Allopurinol is used to treat gout, high levels of uric acid in the body caused by ... It is also used to prevent elevated blood uric acid levels in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy Allopurinol is Xanthine ...
Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we measured hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid (UA) levels in rabbit ... UA and xanthine values of the rabbits in the control groups were quite high at both times and highest after 24 h, particularly ... A significant decrease in UA and xanthine values was observed in rabbits that were given allopurinol (P. ... In this experimental study, the neuroprotective effect of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol on focal cerebral ...
Identification of Crucial Amino Acids in Mouse Aldehyde Oxidase 3 That Determine Substrate Specificity. . Biblioteca virtual ... oxidase AOX isoforms identified variations in the active site of mAOX3 in comparison to other AOX proteins and xanthine ... Based on the structural alignment of mAOX3 and bovine XOR, differences in amino acid residues involved in substrate binding in ... Identification of Crucial Amino Acids in Mouse Aldehyde Oxidase 3 That Determine Substrate Specificity - Descarga este ...
... influence serum uric acid (urate) concentrations. Since serum urate concentrations are determined by the balance between renal ... where X is any amino acid and Φ is a hydrophobic amino acid) [55-58]. Coexpression of URAT1 or OAT4 and PDZK1 in HEK293 cells ... Thus, uricosuric agents have been regarded as a second-line agent of the xanthine dihydrogenase inhibitor [75, 76]. However, ... urinary uric acid clearance, and plasma uric acid concentration. JAMA. 1991, 266: 3008-3011. 10.1001/jama.266.21.3008. ...
... uric acid; xanthine oxidase; oxidative stressWord count (main text): 1877*Correspondence: Dr. Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, ... Opinion ArticleXanthine oxidase and uric acid in atrial fibrillationPanagiotis Korantzopoulos1*, Konstantinos P. Letsas2 and ... Xanthine Oxidase and Uric Acid in Atrial Fibrillation ... Xanthine Oxidase and Uric Acid in Cardiovascular Disease. *Uric ... Xanthine Oxidase and Uric Acid in Cardiovascular Disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that xanthine oxidase (XO) is an ...
Fagaceae) Extract: Active Constituents, Serum Uric Acid Suppression, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity. In-Soo Yoon,1 ... The aim of this study was to determine in vitro and in vivo xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities ...
GTN inactivated xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme that is critical for the metabolic bioactivation of GTN into NO. Ascorbic acid ... GTN inactivated xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme that is critical for the metabolic bioactivation of GTN into NO. Ascorbic acid ... Our studies suggest that ascorbic acid has the ability to prevent nitrate tolerance by protecting XO, but not aldehyde ... Our studies suggest that ascorbic acid has the ability to prevent nitrate tolerance by protecting XO, but not aldehyde ...
THE POTENTIATING ACTION OF CERTAIN XANTHINE DERIVATIVES ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETORY RESPONSES IN THE DOG. C. R. Robertson, C. E. ... THE POTENTIATING ACTION OF CERTAIN XANTHINE DERIVATIVES ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETORY RESPONSES IN THE DOG. C. R. Robertson, C. E. ... THE POTENTIATING ACTION OF CERTAIN XANTHINE DERIVATIVES ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETORY RESPONSES IN THE DOG. C. R. Robertson, C. E. ... THE POTENTIATING ACTION OF CERTAIN XANTHINE DERIVATIVES ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETORY RESPONSES IN THE DOG ...
Original concentrations of xanthine oxidase were as follows: ○, without xanthine oxidase; •, 0.5 μM oxypurinol-bound xanthine ... ABBREVIATIONS: XOR, xanthine oxidoreductase; XDH, xanthine dehydrogenase; XO, xanthine oxidase; allopurinol, 4-hydroxypyrazolo( ... Y-700 (1-[3-Cyano-4-(2,2-dimethylpropoxy)phenyl]-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid) is a newly synthesized inhibitor of xanthine ... Y-700 [1-[3-Cyano-4-(2,2-dimethylpropoxy)phenyl]-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic Acid]: A Potent Xanthine Oxidoreductase Inhibitor ...
Xanthine oxidase and uric acid in cardiovascular disease: clinical impact and therapeutic options ZORA Maintenance. Advanced ... Doehner, W; Landmesser, U (2011). Xanthine oxidase and uric acid in cardiovascular disease: clinical impact and therapeutic ... Accordingly, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity has been shown to improve a range of surrogate markers in patients with ... Accordingly, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity has been shown to improve a range of surrogate markers in patients with ...
... amino acid derivatives as xanthine oxidase inhibitors, Chemical Biology & Drug Design" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental ... A series of N‐(9,10‐anthraquinone‐2‐carbonyl)amino acid derivatives (1a-j) was designed and synthesized as novel xanthine ... Design, synthesis, and molecular docking studies of N‐(9,10‐anthraquinone‐2‐carbonyl)amino acid derivatives as xanthine oxidase ... Design, synthesis, and molecular docking studies of N‐(9,10‐anthraquinone‐2‐carbonyl)amino acid derivatives as xanthine oxidase ...
A new xanthine oxidase inhibitor: the uric acid reduction and additional efficacy in CKD patients. Zeitschrift:. Clinical and ... Treatment with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat lowers uric acid and alleviates systemic and glomerular hypertension ... A new xanthine oxidase inhibitor: the uric acid reduction and additional efficacy in CKD patients ... Uric acid: a marker of increased cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis. 2009;202:11-7. PubMedCrossRef ...
It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... Xanthine dehydrogenaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ...
Xanthine (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most ... Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. ... Clinical significance of xanthine derivatives[edit]. Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of ... People with the rare genetic disorder xanthinuria lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid. ...
... nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to ... See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005). ...
HYPOXANTHINE-GUANINE-XANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. A, B. 183. Tritrichomonas suis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HPT. EC: ... HYPOXANTHINE-GUANINE-XANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE (HGXPRTASE). *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1HGX/pdb. *Classification: TRANSFERASE ( ... The crystal structure of the hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRTase) from Tritrichomonas foetus has ... The crystal structure of the hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRTase) from Tritrichomonas foetus has ...
Suppression of Plasma Uric Acid by Inhibiting Xanthine Oxidase. Last Updated on Wed, 18 Mar 2015 , Tea Products ... effect of pu-erh tea may come from the inhibitory effects of tea polyphenols on the uric acid-generating enzyme xanthine ... gallic acid, and propyl gallate, on XO have been investigated 11 These six antioxidant compounds reduce oxidative stress in HL- ... 60 cells . Theaflavins and EGCG inhibit XO to produce uric acid and also act as scavengers of superoxide TF3 acts as a ...
... xanthine + H2O2 xanthine + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } uric acid + H2O2 Xanthine oxidase can also act on ... Because xanthine oxidase is a metabolic pathway for uric acid formation, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol is used in ... In the reaction with xanthine to form uric acid, an oxygen atom is transferred from molybdenum to xanthine, whereby several ... explaining why xanthine oxidase is being researched for links to cardiovascular health. Both xanthine oxidase and xanthine ...
Used to treat hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood) in patients with gout. This medicine is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. ...
Browse our list of acids and bases including the commonly used acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide to learn ... 1-Heptanesulfonic Acid Sodium Salt Monohydrate 1-Heptanesulfonic Acid Sodium Salt Monohydrate ... 4,5-Dihydroxy-1,3-Benzenedisulfonic Acid Disodium Salt Monohydrate 4,5-Dihydroxy-1,3-Benzenedisulfonic Acid Disodium Salt ... Xanthine, Monosodium Salt Xanthine, Monosodium Salt View options Request a quote Add to Favorites ...
This study will assess the serum uric acid lowering effects and safety of lesinurad compared to placebo in patients who are ... Lesinurad Monotherapy in Gout Subjects Intolerant to Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors (LIGHT). The safety and scientific validity of ... Subject taking valpromide, progabide, or valproic acid.. *Subject who has received an investigational therapy within 8 weeks or ... Lesinurad monotherapy in gout patients intolerant to a xanthine oxidase inhibitor: a 6 month phase 3 clinical trial and ...
  • Many factors, including genetic components and acquired factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption, influence serum uric acid (urate) concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lipoxygenase (LOX) enzyme transforms linoleic, arachidonic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids into biologically active metabolites implicated in the inflammation-related and immunological reactions like hydroperoxy fatty acids and leukotrienes [ 6 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
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