Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)TartratesProtein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Phosphatidate Phosphatase: A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dual-Specificity Phosphatases: A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Phosphorylase Phosphatase: An enzyme that deactivates glycogen phosphorylase a by releasing inorganic phosphate and phosphorylase b, the inactive form. EC 3.1.3.17.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.GlucuronidaseHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.Ethers, Cyclic: Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.4-Nitrophenylphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.Thymolphthalein: Used as a pH indicator and as a reagent for blood after decolorizing the alkaline solution by boiling with zinc dust.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.NitrophenolsBone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.EsterasesVanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases: A subcategory of phosphohydrolases that are specific for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. They play a role in the inactivation of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Thiamine Pyrophosphatase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine monophosphate plus inorganic phosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 2: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.Oxazoles: Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.Leucyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.26.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cathepsin K: A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.PTEN Phosphohydrolase: A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glycogen-Synthase-D Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)-Phosphatase: (Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cantharidin: A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 3: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.PeroxidasesOsteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Morganella morganii: A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Leukemia, Hairy Cell: A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.

Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. (1/2302)

Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating.  (+info)

Endometrial lysosomal enzyme activity in normal cycling endometrium. (2/2302)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible role of four lysosomal enzymes in endometrial function and remodelling during the normal menstrual cycle by fluorimetric measurement (acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-D-mannosidase). A prospective study was conducted of 45 endometrial biopsies obtained from women with normal menstrual cycles. Activity of all four enzymes was identified in human endometrium. Activity of acid phosphatase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase was relatively high, whilst that of alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-D-mannosidase was low. There was no significant change in the activity of any of the four enzymes from the proliferative to the secretory phase of the cycle. This study suggests that the activity of these enzymes remains constant throughout a major portion of the normal cycle.  (+info)

Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages. (3/2302)

Atherosclerosis is initiated by the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of the vessel wall and subsequent lipid accumulation of the activated macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anomalous behavior of macrophages in atherogenesis have only partially been disclosed. Chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 (HC gp-39) are members of the chitinase family of proteins and are expressed in lipid-laden macrophages accumulated in various organs during Gaucher disease. In addition, as shown in this study, chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 can be induced with distinct kinetics in cultured macrophages. We investigated the expression of these chitinase-like genes in the human atherosclerotic vessel wall by in situ hybridizations on atherosclerotic specimens derived from femoral artery (4 specimens), aorta (4 specimens), iliac artery (3 specimens), carotid artery (4 specimens), and coronary artery (1 specimen), as well as 5 specimens derived from apparently normal vascular tissue. We show for the first time that chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 expression was strongly upregulated in distinct subsets of macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque. The expression patterns of chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 were compared and shown to be different from the patterns observed for the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin and the macrophage marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Our data emphasize the remarkable phenotypic variation among macrophages present in the atherosclerotic lesion. Furthermore, chitotriosidase enzyme activity was shown to be elevated up to 55-fold in extracts of atherosclerotic tissue. Although a function for chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 has not been identified, we hypothesize a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling during atherogenesis.  (+info)

An activation-specific role for transcription factor TFIIB in vivo. (4/2302)

A yeast mutant was isolated encoding a single amino acid substitution [serine-53 --> proline (S53P)] in transcription factor TFIIB that impairs activation of the PHO5 gene in response to phosphate starvation. This effect is activation-specific because S53P did not affect the uninduced level of PHO5 expression, yet is not specific to PHO5 because Adr1-mediated activation of the ADH2 gene also was impaired by S53P. Pho4, the principal activator of PHO5, directly interacted with TFIIB in vitro, and this interaction was impaired by the S53P replacement. Furthermore, Pho4 induced a conformational change in TFIIB, detected by enhanced sensitivity to V8 protease. The S53P replacement also impaired activation of a lexA(op)-lacZ reporter by a LexA fusion protein to the activation domain of Adr1, thereby indicating that the transcriptional effect on ADH2 expression is specific to the activation function of Adr1. These results define an activation-specific role for TFIIB in vivo and suggest that certain activators induce a conformational change in TFIIB as part of their mechanism of transcriptional stimulation.  (+info)

A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers. (5/2302)

Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population.  (+info)

An in vitro system recapitulates chromatin remodeling at the PHO5 promoter. (6/2302)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PHO5 is an excellent system with which to study regulated changes in chromatin structure. The PHO5 promoter is packaged into four positioned nucleosomes under repressing conditions; upon induction, the structure of these nucleosomes is altered such that the promoter DNA becomes accessible to nucleases. We report here the development and characterization of an in vitro system in which partially purified PHO5 minichromosomes undergo promoter chromatin remodeling. Several hallmarks of the PHO5 chromatin transition in vivo were reproduced in this system. Chromatin remodeling of PHO5 minichromosomes required the transcription factors Pho4 and Pho2, was localized to the promoter region of PHO5, and was independent of the chromatin-remodeling complex Swi-Snf. In vitro chromatin remodeling also required the addition of fractionated nuclear extract and hydrolyzable ATP. This in vitro system should serve as a useful tool for identifying the components required for this reaction and for elucidating the mechanism by which the PHO5 promoter chromatin structure is changed.  (+info)

Laser induced phagocytosis in the pigment epithelium of the Hunter dystrophic rat. (7/2302)

The retinae of 14-day-old Hunter dystrophic rats have been subjected to low-energy irradiation by a pulsed ruby laser. Fifteen days after exposure, pigment epithelial cells had proliferated and repopulated the irradiated areas. In all such areas the subretinal photoreceptor debris had been reduced or lost.  (+info)

The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization. (8/2302)

Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis.  (+info)

The cDNAs encoding human prostatic acid phosphatase were cloned and characterized. The mRNAs contain 3 noncoding regions of heterogeneous sizes 646, 1887 or 1913 nucleotides. A dimer and a monomer of the conserved Alu-repeats are present in the longer 3 noncoding sequences. The complete sequence of 354 amino acids for the mature enzyme was determined by sequencing both cDNA and protein. Human prostatic and lysosomal acid phosphatases exhibit 50% sequence homology, including five Cys residues and two putative N-linked glycosylation sites. The Acp-3 gene coding for human prostatic acid phosphatase was mapped onto chromosome 3 in this investigation. The Acp-2 gene coding for lysosomal acid phosphatase has previously been located on chromosome 11, while the Acp-1 gene coding for red blood cell acid phosphatase is on chromosome 2.
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We compared results by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with those by a standard radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection and quantitation of prostate-specific acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) in serum. Control subjects, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and patients in all four clinical stages of prostatic adenocarcinoma were tested. The upper limit of normal (95% of the population) by the ELISA was 2.0 micrograms/L, and by the RIA was 2.2 micrograms/L. In prostatic adenocarcinoma stage I (not detectable by digital rectal examination), ELISA was slightly more sensitive than RIA, but sensitivity was still relatively low (20%). As tumor mass increased (stages II through IV), the frequency of increased concentrations of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum also increased. We confirmed this increase in circulating enzyme in some cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and suggest that this finding is related to either acinar cytolysis or an increase in acini size and number. Although ...
Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase test, treatment, preventions, precautions, risk factors, procedure, results, complications, cost of test, symptoms of TRAP test, medical information, diagnosis, causes, side effects of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase test and more.
A series of 25 cases of lung cancer are presented in which total (TAcP) and nonprostatic serum acid phosphatase (NPAcP) activities were measured. Of these cases, 36% had raised TAcP and NPAcP activities in their serum. However, the serum activities of TAcP and NPAcP did not correlate with either the presence of lung cancer nor with the morphological tumour type. This fact indicates that, despite isolated reports of raised serum acid phosphatase activities in cases of lung cancer, acid phosphatase is of no value as a marker for lung cancer. We sought alternative explanations for the raised TAcP and NPAcP activities observed in our series in the hope that this enzyme might prove useful as a marker for early metastatic disease in lung cancer patients. This possibility is not substantiated, and the findings are analyzed and discussed. It is tentatively suggested that raised NPAcP activities in patients with lung cancer may relate to haemostasis.. ...
Serum Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase 5b in Beta Thalassemia Egyptian Patients: Promising Biomarker of Iron Overload Oxidative Stress and Bone Disease,
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase protein (ab114490). Please download our general protocols booklet
Press Release issued Feb 14, 2017: Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) test is a type of blood test to determine health of prostate gland by measuring prostatic acid phosphatase levels. PAP is an enzyme found in men and majorly present in the prostate gland and semen. Significant amounts of PAP are also found in platelets, bone, spleen, kidney and liver. PAP measurement is important in the management of prostatic cancer patients especially in monitoring remission or relapse of prostatic malignancy and in assessing the effectiveness of various treatment regimes.
Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) isoenzymes, designated PAP-A and PAP-B, were isolated from human seminal plasma by sequential affinity chromatography on concanavalin A and L(+)-tartrate, a classic inhibitor of PAP. Both the major PAP-A and the minor PAP-B isoenzymes exhibited a similar molecular mass (100 and 105 kDa respectively), multiple pI values (5.05-5.35 and 5.05-5.12), and substrate and inhibitor specificity. Immunological characterization revealed that PAP-B possesses distinct antigenic determinants, in addition to the common sites shared with PAP-A. SDS/PAGE indicated that both isoenzymes are composed of two subunits of 50 kDa each. At high salt concentration, PAP-B dissociated completely into single subunits of 50 kDa, whereas PAP-A remained intact at 100 kDa. PAP-B was resolved by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. into three components, designated alpha, beta and gamma, each of 50 kDa, at a molar ratio of approx. 2:1:1. PAP-A contained a single component of molecular mass 50 kDa. The ...
1ND6: Crystal structures of human prostatic acid phosphatase in complex with a phosphate ion and alpha-benzylaminobenzylphosphonic acid update the mechanistic picture and offer new insights into inhibitor design
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FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP). LAP is chemically and genetically distinct from red cell acid phosphatase. The encoded protein belongs to a family of distinct isoenzymes which hydrolyze orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and phosphate. LAP-deficiencies in mice cause multiple defects including bone structure alterations, lysosomal storage defects in the kidneys and central nervous system, and an increased tendency towards seizures. An enzymatically-inactive allele of LAP in mice exhibited a more severe phenotype than the null allele, and defects included cerebellum abnormalities, growth retardation, hair-follicle abnormalities, and an ataxia-like phenotype. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014 ...
Shop Fe(3+)-Zn(2+) purple acid phosphatase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Fe(3+)-Zn(2+) purple acid phosphatase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The TRACP and ALP Double Stain Kit (Cat. # MK300) combines the non-soluble, chromogenic substrates for ALP and TRACP with a nuclear staining reagent. This enables osteoblast and osteoclast detection due to the simultaneous cell staining for both alkaline and acid phosphatase activities. Detection of both enzyme markers provides a means to study the differentiation of bone cells. The kit substrates are provided as premixed reagents for ease of use. Sufficient reagents are supplied for staining approximately five culture plates (24-well format).. An alternative option for the study of bone metabolism is the TRACP and ALP Assay Kit (Cat. # MK301), which contains a soluble substrate that is quickly assayed by absorbance measurement. Either bone metabolism kit may be selected depending on user interest.. The TRACP and ALP Assay Kit allows for the simultaneous detection of both ACP (acid phosphatase) and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) enzymes via pNPP (p-nitro-phenyl phosphate) substrate. The addition of ...
The TRACP and ALP Double Stain Kit (Cat. # MK300) combines the non-soluble, chromogenic substrates for ALP and TRACP with a nuclear staining reagent. This enables osteoblast and osteoclast detection due to the simultaneous cell staining for both alkaline and acid phosphatase activities. Detection of both enzyme markers provides a means to study the differentiation of bone cells. The kit substrates are provided as premixed reagents for ease of use. Sufficient reagents are supplied for staining approximately five culture plates (24-well format).. An alternative option for the study of bone metabolism is the TRACP and ALP Assay Kit (Cat. # MK301), which contains a soluble substrate that is quickly assayed by absorbance measurement. Either bone metabolism kit may be selected depending on user interest.. The TRACP and ALP Assay Kit allows for the simultaneous detection of both ACP (acid phosphatase) and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) enzymes via pNPP (p-nitro-phenyl phosphate) substrate. The addition of ...
Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2, acid phosphomonoesterase, phosphomonoesterase, glycerophosphatase, acid monophosphatase, acid phosphohydrolase, acid phosphomonoester hydrolase, uteroferrin, acid nucleoside diphosphate phosphatase, orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (acid optimum)) is a phosphatase, a type of enzyme, used to free attached phosphoryl groups from other molecules during digestion. It can be further classified as a phosphomonoesterase. Acid phosphatase is stored in lysosomes and functions when these fuse with endosomes, which are acidified while they function; therefore, it has an acid pH optimum. This enzyme is present in many animal and plant species. Different forms of acid phosphatase are found in different organs, and their serum levels are used to evaluate the success of the surgical treatment of prostate cancer. In the past, they were also used to diagnose this type of cancer. Its also used as a cytogenetic marker to distinguish the two different lineages of Acute ...
An intracellular acid phosphatase (IAP) from Pi-starved (−Pi) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) suspension cells has been purified to homogeneity. IAP is a purple acid phosphatase (PAP), as the purified protein was violet in colour (λmax=546 nm) and was insensitive to l-tartrate. PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining and peptide mapping demonstrated that the enzyme exists as a 142 kDa heterodimer composed of an equivalent ratio of glycosylated and structurally dissimilar 63 (α-subunit) and 57 kDa (β-subunit) polypeptides. However, the nine N-terminal amino acids of the α- and β-subunits were identical, exhibiting similarity to the deduced N-terminal portions of several putative plant PAPs. Quantification of immunoblots probed with rabbit anti-(tomato acid phosphatase) immune serum revealed that the 4-fold increase in IAP activity due to Pi-deprivation was correlated with similar increases in the amount of antigenic IAP α- and β-subunits. IAP displayed optimal activity at pH 5.1, was ...
BACKGROUND: Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe chronic pain that is less than adequately controlled by conventional analgesics. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) has been considered as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer and its transmembrane isoform has been reported to play an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, it remains unknown whether it has an analgesic effect on CIBP and what are the underlying mechanisms.. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we tested whether PAP could alleviate the pain symptoms induced by bone cancer in a rat model.. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double blind, and controlled rat animal trial.. METHODS: We first established a rat CIBP model and observed the spinal expression of PAP by immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot. Then, PAP (0.1, 0.3, or 1 μg) was intrathecally administered in the CIBP rats in a repeated manner from 15 to 18 days (once per day) after inoculation of tumor cells. On postoperative day (POD) ...
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Acid phosphatase is an enzyme present in the cells throughout the body. It is present in especially high concentrations in the prostate and semen in men. Prostatic diseases result in its release in the blood. A blood test can measure the enzyme acid phosphatase. Drugs and substances that can interfere with the test include fluorides, oxalates, clofibrate, and alcohol. ...
Alterations in serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen in experimental canine osteotomies fixed using 2 different techniques ...
Genetic deficiency of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase associated with skeletal dysplasia, cerebral calcifications and autoimmunity
TY - JOUR. T1 - The endosome-lysosome system in the absorptive cells of goldfish hindgut. AU - Iida, Hiroshi. AU - Shibata, Yosaburo. AU - Yamamoto, Torao. PY - 1986/2/1. Y1 - 1986/2/1. N2 - The vacuolar system in the absorptive cells of the goldfish hindgut was studied by rapid freeze-substituted and cytochemical techniques. The apical cytoplasm of the absorptive cells contained two types of vacuoles: endosomes and lysosomes. The former were characterized by an absence of acid phosphatase activity, a dot-like distribution of material at the peripheral rim, the labelling of the inner surface with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and by frequent connections to cytoplasmic tubules (CT), which were also free of acid phosphatase activity. The latter vacuole was preferentially located in the deeper cytoplasm and was characterized by the presence of acid phosphatase activity, an electron-dense interior matrix, a peripheral electron-lucent region (a halo), and by the detachment of HRP from the inner ...
PAA168Hu02, PSAP; ACPP; ACP3; PAPf39; 5-NT; Prostatic Specific Acid Phosphatase; Ecto-5-Nucleotidase | Products for research use only!
Human lymphocytes, cultured in the presence of phytohemagglutinin, undergo morphologic transformation and subsequent mitosis. Before mitosis (48 to 72 hours), a sharp increase in acid phosphatase activity occurs in cells stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. Histochemical examination of these cells demonstrates that innumerable granules containing acid phosphatase develop in the cytoplasm before mitosis. It is possible that enzymes present in granules which stain for acid phosphatase activity (lysosome-like) may play a role in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated cell division. ...
Assay Acid phosphatase activity in 1 hr 10 min in cell culture media, cell/tissue extracts, and biofluids with ab83367. For microplate readers.
Autologous immunotherapy produced by collecting peripheral mononuclear cells during leukapheresis. Cells include antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which are activated during a culture period with prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, an antigen found in prostatic cancer tissue) linked to granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, which activates immune cells). Induces an immune response against prostatic acid phosphatase. Therapeutic Effects: ↓ spread of prostate cancer. ...
This test has been modified from the manufacturers instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
I am going to use potato acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate a protein. I dont know what kind of dephosphorylation reaction buffer I need. Could please help me ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoryl transfer from α-D-glucose 1-phosphate catalyzed by Escherichia coli sugar-phosphate phosphatases of two protein superfamily types. AU - Wildberger, Patricia. AU - Pfeiffer, Martin. AU - Brecker, Lothar. AU - Rechberger, Gerald N.. AU - Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth. AU - Nidetzky, Bernd. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The Cori ester α-D-glucose 1-phosphate (αGlc 1-P) is a high-energy intermediate of cellular carbohydrate metabolism. Its glycosidic phosphomonoester moiety primes αGlc 1-P for flexible exploitation in glucosyl and phosphoryl transfer reactions. Two structurally and mechanistically distinct sugar-phosphate phosphatases from Escherichia coli were characterized in this study for utilization of αGlc 1-P as a phosphoryl donor substrate. The agp gene encodes a periplasmic αGlc 1-P phosphatase (Agp) belonging to the histidine acid phosphatase family. Had13 is from the haloacid dehydrogenase-like phosphatase family. Cytoplasmic expression of Agp (in E. coli Origami ...
Hugon, J and Borgers, M, "The ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in the crypt epithelium of the irradiated mouse duodenum." (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 465 ...
Twardowski, J.; Nowak, I.; Stufkens, D.J.; Snoeck, T.L., 1984: Raman and ir studies of homogeneous forms of acid phosphatase ec 3.1.3.2 from rat liver
Urine Detection include products such as Acid Phosphatase, UrineTest and others offer a variety of options for your varying needs
Alpha-HBDH , Acid Phosphatase (Non-Prostatic) , Acid Phosphatase (Prostatic) , Acid Phosphatase (Total) , Albumin , Alkaline Phosphatase , ALT , Amylase Total , AST , Bicarbonate , Bile Acids , Bilirubin Direct , Bilirubin Total , Calcium , Chloride , Cholesterol , CK Total , Copper , Cortisol , Creatinine , D-3-Hydroxybutyrate , Free T4 , Gamma GT , GLDH , Glucose , Iron , Lactate , LDH , Lipase , Lithium , Magnesium , NEFA , Osmolality , Phosphate Inorganic , Potassium , Protein Total , PSA Total , Sodium , TIBC , Total T3 , Total T4 , Triglycerides , Urea , Uric Acid , Zinc ...
4DHL: Identification of purple acid phosphatase inhibitors by fragment-based screening: promising new leads for osteoporosis therapeutics.
Antonyuk, SV and Olczak, M and Olczak, T and Ciuraszkiewicz, J and Strange, RW (2014) The structure of a purple acid phosphatase involved in plant growth and pathogen defence exhibits a novel immunoglobulin-like fold. IUCrJ, 1 (2). 101 - 109. ISSN 2052-2525 ...
...for amino acids, think of a pearl necklace...individual pearls represent amino acids used as building blocks for protein... essential amino acids...
Chromosome, Human, Cancer, Cell Division, Chromatin, PCR, Regulation, RNA, Active Site, Cyclin, Kinases, Cell Cycle, Cyclin-dependent Kinases, and Egg
Fluorescent Dye from trimethine cyanine. Water insoluble and forms stable amide bond with primary amines via carbodiimide activation. (U0116) - Products - Abnova
if you can discriminate your protein in 3 distincts states that will also be a nice blot; you may check bands with anti-phospho-Y or phospho-S/T antibody; if it is really phosphorylation, you may incubate your sample with excessive alkaline or acid phosphatase or Lambda Protein Phosphatase (λ-PPase) to dephosphorylate.... ...
Complete information for ACP1 gene (Protein Coding), Acid Phosphatase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Liquid smoke (LS) effectiveness in controlling lipid oxidation and warmed-over flavor (WOF) in beef was investigated. Aroma scores, "α-thiobarbituri c acid (TBA) numbers, and pH values were lower (P,.05) in LS-treated beef ...
We should all have a wish list for the new year. Looking back at the year in medicine, Ive chosen what I believe are ten goals, that if we were to meet them, could fundamentally change our lives for the better. These apply to both men and women and are in no particular order: Have […]. Continue reading → ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human prostatic acid phosphatases. II. A double-antibody radioimmunoassay. AU - Choe, B. K.. AU - Pontes, E. J.. AU - Morrison, M. K.. AU - Rose, N. R.. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - A double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PAP) is presented. Experimental details are outlined to assess the reproducibility and reliability of the method under various assay conditions. The upper limit of the serum PAP levels in the present assay was set at 2.4 ng/100 μl by 162 determinations of normal serum samples. The serum PAP levels of patients with nonprostatic malignant tumors fell in the normal range, whereas the levels higher than 4.0 ng/100 μl were found in patients with prostatic carcinoma.. AB - A double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PAP) is presented. Experimental details are outlined to assess the reproducibility and reliability of the method under various assay conditions. The upper limit of the serum ...
Looking for online definition of acid phosphatase in the Medical Dictionary? acid phosphatase explanation free. What is acid phosphatase? Meaning of acid phosphatase medical term. What does acid phosphatase mean?
Suspensions of Blepharisma intermedium were fed latex particles for 5 min and then were separated from the particles by filtration. Samples were fixed at intervals after separation and incubated to demonstrate acid phosphatase activity. They were subsequently embedded and sectioned for electron microscopy. During formation of the food vacuole, the vacuolar membrane is acid phosphatase-negative. Within 5 min, dumbbell-shaped acid phosphatase-positive bodies, possibly derived from the the acid phosphatase-positive Golgi apparatus, apparently fuse with the food vacuole and render it acid phosphatase-positive. A larger type of acid phosphatase-positive, vacuolated body may also fuse with the food vacuole at later stages. At about 20 min after formation, acid phosphatase-positive secondary pinocytotic vesicles pinch off from the food vacuoles and approach a separate system of membrane-bounded spaces. By 1 hr after formation, the food vacuole becomes acid phosphatase-negative, and the undigested latex ...
Four monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) were generated against the soluble extracellular acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) (S-AcP) of Leishmania donovani. These were detected in the primary screen using an ELISA with promastigote culture supernatants as antigen. Three of the McAbs demonstrated bound S-AcP from such culture supernatants in an enzyme activity binding assay. All immunoprecipitated metabolically labeled S-AcP but none showed any binding to the promastigote surface by indirect immunofluorescence. Moreover, none reacted with Triton X-100 solubilized plasma membranes by immunoprecipitation or Western blotting. These results demonstrated that the McAbs did not recognize the surface membrane bound acid phosphatase, but were specific for the extracellular soluble enzyme. Further, none of the antibodies immunoprecipitated any of the five human acid phosphatase isozymes or reacted with them in Western blots or the enzyme activity binding assay. Therefore, they are specific for the parasite-derived ...
There are different types of ELISA test kits. For example, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) is an ELISA test kit for the cancer test. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) test kit is used to measure prostatic acid phosphatase in the serum and plasma of a human body. The components of this kit are used as a fundamental unit only. PSA Enzyme Immunoassay is another kit used for the cancer test. This kit is designed to test prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the human serum.. Human Allergen-Specific IgE ELISA Assay is also an ELISA test kit. This kit is used to test the quantity of allergen precise human Immunoglobulin E. Allergen-specific IgE assay test is performed after total lgE of specimen test. To test the fertility of a women Human Growth Hormone (HGH) ELISA test kit is used. This kit helps to find the human growth hormone concentration in human serum.. ...
SLC7A7 Lysosomal acid phosphatase deficiency; 200950; ACP2 Lysyl hydroxylase 3 deficiency; 612394; PLOD3 Machado-Joseph disease ... FREM1 Bile acid malabsorption, primary; 613291; SLC10A2 Bile acid synthesis defect, congenital, 2; 235555; AKR1D1 Bile acid ... SBDS Sialic acid storage disorder, infantile; 269920; SLC17A5 Sialidosis, type I; 256550; NEU1 Sialidosis, type II; 256550; ... DLAT Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase deficiency; 608782; PDP1 Pyruvate kinase deficiency; 266200; PKLR Rabson-Mendenhall ...
This permits characterization of osteoclasts by their staining for high expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP ... These vacuoles include lysosomes filled with acid phosphatase. ... Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclast in cell ... Energy-dependent acid transport was verified and the postulated proton pump purified.[13][14] With the successful culture of ... Attachment to the bone matrix is facilitated by integrin receptors, such as αvβ3, via the specific amino acid motif Arg-Gly-Asp ...
In the case of Provenge, this disease related protein is prostatic acid phosphatase and the signalling component is GM-CSF. ... October 2008). "Prostatic acid phosphatase is an ectonucleotidase and suppresses pain by generating adenosine". Neuron. 60 (1 ... Disclosed are a novel prostatic acid phosphatase and corresponding coding region derived from mouse. Also disclosed is a method ... Erbas H, Erten O, Irfanoglu ME (December 2007). "Prostatic acid phosphatase in breast cyst fluid". The Malaysian Journal of ...
These granules can contain acid phosphatase. Acid phosphatase is only found in larger secretory granules, 400 to 900 nm in ... This acid phosphatase is also present in the Golgi apparatus of the chief cell. However, the Golgi apparatus areas associated ... Chief cells in parathyroid adenomas also display acid phosphatase activity. It is a benign tumor of the gland that requires ... Shannon, W. Allen; Roth, Sanford I. (1974-12-01). "An Ultrastructural Study of Acid Phosphatase Activity in Normal, Adenomatous ...
Brightwell R, Tappel AL (1968). "Lysosomal acid pyrophosphatase and acid phosphatase". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 124 (1): 333-43 ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on acid anhydrides in phosphorus-containing ...
Passiflora foetida bracts produce proteases and acid phosphatases (Radhamani et al., 1995). ... Benzing et al. (1976) discovered that C. berteroniana is capable of absorbing radioisotope-tagged amino acids through the ...
This permits characterization of osteoclasts by their staining for high expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP ... These vacuoles include lysosomes filled with acid phosphatase. ... Energy-dependent acid transport was verified and the postulated ... Attachment to the bone matrix is facilitated by integrin receptors, such as αvβ3, via the specific amino acid motif Arg-Gly-Asp ... The osteoclast disassembles and digests the composite of hydrated protein and mineral at a molecular level by secreting acid ...
Richardson CC, Lehman IR, Kornberg A (January 1964). "A Deoxyribonucleic Acid Phosphatase-Exonuclease from Escherichia coli. II ... Linxweiler W, Hörz W (August 1982). "Sequence specificity of exonuclease III from E. coli". Nucleic Acids Res. 10 (16): 4845-59 ... phosphatase and AP-endonuclease activities. Temperature, salt concentration and the ratio of enzyme to DNA greatly affect ...
"Entrez Gene: PPAP2B phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2B". "PLPP3 - Phospholipid phosphatase 3 - Homo sapiens (Human) - PLPP3 ... Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase 3 (LPP3), also known as phospholipid phosphatase 3 (PLPP3) and phosphatidic acid phosphatase ... Ishikawa T, Kai M, Wada I, Kanoh H (April 2000). "Cell surface activities of the human type 2b phosphatidic acid phosphatase". ... Ishikawa T, Kai M, Wada I, Kanoh H (April 2000). "Cell surface activities of the human type 2b phosphatidic acid phosphatase". ...
Lysosomal acid phosphatase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACP2 gene. Lysosomal acid phosphatase is composed of ... and is chemically and genetically distinct from red cell acid phosphatase. Lysosomal acid phosphatase 2 is a member of a family ... Radzun HJ, Parwaresch MR (1981). "Isoelectric focusing pattern of acid phosphatase and acid esterase in human blood cells, ... "Entrez Gene: ACP2 acid phosphatase 2, lysosomal". Human ACP2 genome location and ACP2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...
Dullard dephosphorylates the mammalian phospatidic acid phosphatase, lipid. Dullard participates in a unique phosphatase ... which include phosphatase activity and protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity. This gene is relatively small and only ... Dullard is a member of DXDX(T/V) phosphatase family. It was shown in 2002 to be a potential regulator of neural tube ... contains 244 amino acids. Dullard protein or CTDnep1 encodes a protein serine/threonine phosphatase and dephosphoroylates LPIN1 ...
Richardson, C.C.; Lehman, I.R.; Kornberg, A. (1964). "A deoxyribonucleic acid phosphatase-exonuclease from Escherichia coli. II ... Richardson, C.C.; Kornberg, A. (1964). "A deoxyribonucleic acid phosphatase-exonuclease from Escherichia coli. I. Purification ... of the enzyme and characterization of the phosphatase activity". J. Biol. Chem. 239: 242-250. PMID 14114850. ...
Yasbin, R; Sawicki, J; MacIntyre, RJ (1978). "A developmental study of acid phosphatase-1 in Drosophila melanogaster". Dev Biol ... Sawicki, J; MacIntyre, RJ (1977). "Synthesis of ovarian acid phosphatase in Drosophila melanogaster". Dev Biol. 60 (1): 1-13. ... level of maternally derived enzyme and determination of the time of paternal gene expression for acid phosphatase-1 in ...
Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase 1 also known as phosphatidic acid phosphatase 2a is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... Ulrix W, Swinnen JV, Heyns W, Verhoeven G (1998). "Identification of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2a isozyme as an ... "Entrez Gene: PPAP2A phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A". Kanoh H, Kai M, Wada I (1999). "Molecular characterization of the ... Hooks SB, Ragan SP, Lynch KR (1998). "Identification of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform". FEBS Lett ...
... , HAAP, LMW-PTP, acid phosphatase 1, soluble, LMWPTP, acid phosphatase 1. ... non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. • acid phosphatase activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ... protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. • phosphatase activity. • phosphoprotein phosphatase activity. • hydrolase activity. • ... Dissing J, Johnsen AH, Sensabaugh GF (1991). "Human red cell acid phosphatase (ACP1). The amino acid sequence of the two ...
Here they secrete promastigote secretory gel (PSG), which is composed of soluble acid phosphatase and phosphoglycoprotein. ... Bates, PA; Dwyer, DM (1987). "Biosynthesis and secretion of acid phosphatase by Leishmania donovani promastigotes". Molecular ...
Phosphatidate phosphatase PPAPDC1A also known as phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1A is an enzyme that in ... phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1A". Takeuchi M, Harigai M, Momohara S, Ball E, Abe J, Furuichi K, ... PPAPDC1A has phosphatidate phosphatase activity. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000203805 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... representatives of a novel type of mammalian phosphatidate phosphatase". Gene. 399 (2): 174-80. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.05.009 ...
Wan, H.; Horvath, C. (1975-11-20). "Behavior of soluble and immobilized acid phosphatase in hydro-organic media". Biochimica et ...
Acid phosphatase, handy enzyme that separates the dog from the wolf. Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica 28:957-62 Mech, D. L. ( ... Domesticated dogs are clearly distinguishable from wolves by starch gel electrophoresis of red blood cell acid phosphatase. The ...
Gohara WF (February 1980). "Rate of decrease of glutamyltransferase and acid phosphatase activities in the human vagina after ... such as acid phosphatase. However, other semen markers, such as gamma-glutamyltransferase, are completely absent from pre- ... Pre-ejaculate functions as a lubricant and an acid neutralizer. The fluid is discharged from the urethra of the penis during ...
495-. ISBN 978-3-642-80859-3. Kent, J. R.; Hill, M.; Huix, F. J.; Segre, E. J. (1972). "Seminal acid phosphatase content in the ...
Alkaline and acid phosphatases are produced, nitrates are reduced. Acetoin, clumping factor and coagulase are not produced and ... Acid is produced from D-fructose, D-glucose, maltose, D-mannitol and D-trehalose. Acid is not produced from arabinose, N- ... Predominant fatty acids are iso-13 : 0, iso-15 : 0, anteiso-15:0, 16:1-omega-11c, iso-17:1-omega-10c and 18:1-omega-9c. This ...
"Crystal structures of a purple acid phosphatase, representing different steps of this enzyme's catalytic cycle". BMC Struct. ... Hydrofluoric acid and its anhydrous form, hydrogen fluoride, is also used in the production of fluorocarbons. Hydrofluoric acid ... Upon treatment with a standard acid, fluoride salts convert to hydrogen fluoride and metal salts. With strong acids, it can be ... In the presence of strong acids, fluoride salts release hydrogen fluoride, which is corrosive, especially toward glass.[4] ...
This change in color is due to fine homogeneous red reaction of acid phosphatase activity. In the lysosome there's a lot of ... The first change is the ratio of cells that are dying (diffusing acid phosphatase) and the second is the thymidine ... To further show these results it was observed that some thymicytes contained lysosomal sites of acid phosphatase activity. When ... Dying cells which are rich in free acid phosphate will contain a brominated reaction product and will give a characteristic ...
"Arachidonic acid inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase and sensitizes smooth muscle to calcium". The Journal of Biological ...
Excretion of homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid via urine is also reduced. There is also a temporary increase in ... and with 250 mg/kg mildly elevated Alkaline phosphatase and Gamma-GT. Studies in dogs revealed no toxicity relevant for humans ... 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylglycol as well as 5-HIAA. ...
High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP. Backed by our 100% Guarantee. ... Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). ... Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP ELISA Kit. * Prostatic Acid ... Additional Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP Products. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP KA1911 * Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP ... Home » Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP » Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP ELISA Kits » Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP ...
... side effects of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase test and more. ... Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase test, treatment, preventions, precautions, risk factors, procedure, results, complications ... Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase Test is a comprehensive medical test which aims at measuring the level of acid phosphatase ... This test is also known as Type 5b acid phosphatase test.. Purpose of theTest. Your physician may suggest you to go for the ...
Although prostate-specific acid phosphatase is not a cancer-specific enzyme, we conclude that its measurement may be of ... Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for prostate-specific acid phosphatase in prostatic ... Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for prostate-specific acid phosphatase in prostatic ... Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for prostate-specific acid phosphatase in prostatic ...
Reed LJ, Lawson JE, Niu XD, Yan J: Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. In Alpha-Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Complexes. Patel MS, ... Although a cocktail of phosphatase inhibitors was included in the phosphatase assay to minimize the contribution of alkaline ... This may reflect background phosphatase activity caused by the presence of other phosphoprotein phosphatases in the ... Both are Mg2+-dependent mitochondrial serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatases belonging to the protein phosphatase 2C ...
NMP inhibited RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and the formation of tartrate-resistant acid ... NMP inhibited RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and the formation of tartrate-resistant acid ... phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells. The RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells, ... phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells. The RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells, ...
Testicular acid phosphatase Tissue acid phosphatase, or Lysosomal acid phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase Henneberry, M.O.; Engel ... is Acid-Phosphatase negative , T-ALL ( originating instead from T Lymphocytes ) is acid-phosphatase positive . Acid phosphatase ... Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2, acid phosphomonoesterase, phosphomonoesterase, glycerophosphatase, acid monophosphatase, acid ... Minkin, Cedrick (1982). "Bone Acid Phosphatase: Tartrate-resistant Acid Phosphatase as a Marker of Osteoclast Function". ...
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), also prostatic specific acid phosphatase (PSAP), is an enzyme produced by the prostate. It ... "Prostatic acid phosphatase in serum of patients with prostatic cancer is a specific phosphotyrosine acid phosphatase". Clin. ... "Human prostatic acid phosphatase: cDNA cloning, gene mapping and protein sequence homology with lysosomal acid phosphatase". ... "Nucleotide sequence of human prostatic acid phosphatase determined from a full-length cDNA clone". Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (16): ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative ... Acid Phosphatase, Prostatic. 2. Acid Phosphatase, Total, Serum. 3. Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone Specific. 4. Alkaline Phosphatase ... Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase Stain. 6. Chemically Resistant Sealing Mat for 384-well Plate. 7. Chemically Resistant ...
Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for acid phosphatase-like protein, complete cds, clone... Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for acid ... Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for acid phosphatase-like protein, complete cds, clone: RAFL14-33-N06. GenBank: AK227764.1 ... phosphatase-like protein, complete cds, clone: RAFL14-33-N06. gi,110743823,dbj,AK227764.1, ...
Prostatic Acid Phosphatase - PAP. An enzyme produced by the prostate. It may be found in increased amounts in men who have ... Medical Word - Prostatic Acid Phosphatase. Ans : PAP. An enzyme produced by the prostate. It may be found in increased amounts ... Prostatic Acid Phosphatase - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical ...
Buy our Recombinant human Acid Phosphatase protein. Ab87493 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and ... Recombinant human Acid Phosphatase protein. See all Acid Phosphatase proteins and peptides. ...
Assay Acid phosphatase activity in 1 hr 10 min in cell culture media, cell/tissue extracts, and biofluids with ab83367. For ... Acid phosphatases (AP) dephosphorylate phosphate groups from phosphate esters under acid conditions. Different acid phosphatase ... Acid phosphatases (AP) dephosphorylate phosphate groups from phosphate esters under acid conditions. Different acid phosphatase ... as a phosphatase substrate. They can be used to measure alkaline phosphatase, neutral phosphatase, and acid phosphatase ...
Characterization of a cell-wall acid phosphatase (PhoAp) in Aspergillus fumigatus.. Bernard M1, Mouyna I1, Dubreucq G1, ... It is also a phosphate-repressible acid phosphatase. The absence of PhoAp from a phosphate-rich medium was not associated with ... was an acid phosphatase (PhoAp) that was active on both phosphate monoesters and phosphate diesters. PhoAp is a ...
Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either ...
Organ cultures of newborn mouse calvaria were used to test the hypothesis that tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase might serve ... Bone acid phosphatase: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker of osteoclast function. ... in vitro results in the release of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase from osteoclasts and tartrate-sensitive acid phosphatase ... Yam, L. T.: Clinical significance of the human acid phosphatases. A review, Am. J. Med.56:604-616, 1974CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
... nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to ... See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005). ...
Testicular acid phosphataseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/ ... Belongs to the histidine acid phosphatase family.SAAS annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,F6WRF1,F6WRF1_MOUSE Testicular acid phosphatase (Fragment) OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Acp4 PE=3 SV=3 ... PS00616 HIS_ACID_PHOSPHAT_1, 1 hit. PS00778 HIS_ACID_PHOSPHAT_2, 1 hit. ...
... a reevaluation of the potential contribution of the prostatic acid phosphatase test seems timely. ... Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) emerged as the worlds first clinically useful tumor marker in the 1940s and 1950s. With the ... Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Timeline. In 1938, Gutman and Gutman reported increased levels of acid phosphatase in patients with ... Measuring Prostatic Acid Phosphatase. Acid phosphatases are a group of five ubiquitous tissue isoenzymes that hydrolyze organic ...
Acid-phosphatase test for semen definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... acid phosphatase, acid-phosphatase test for semen, acid precipitation, acid radical, acid rain, acid reflux, acid-reflux test ... acid-phosphatase test for semen. acidophilic, acidophilus milk, acidosis, acid perfusion test, ... A screening test for detecting the presence of semen by determining acid phosphatase content. ...
Has lipid phosphatase activity and inactivates lysophosphatidic acid in seminal plasma (By similarity). ... A non-specific tyrosine phosphatase that dephosphorylates a diverse number of substrates under acidic conditions (pH 4-6) ... Prostatic acid phosphataseAdd BLAST. 350. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... "Site-directed mutagenesis of prostatic acid phosphatase. Catalytically important aspartic acid 258, substrate specificity, and ...
C. L. Araujo, I. B. Quintero, and A. Kipar, "Prostatic acid phosphatase is the main acid phosphatase with 5′-ectonucleotidase ... P. Vihko, I. Quintero, A. Rönkö et al., "Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is pi(3)p-phosphatase and its inactivation leads to ... Consequences of the Lack of CD73 and Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in the Lymphoid Organs. Gennady G. Yegutkin,1,2 Kaisa Auvinen,1 ... I. B. Quintero, C. L. Araujo, A. E. Pulkka et al., "Prostatic acid phosphatase is not a prostate specific target," Cancer ...
"Acid Phosphatase" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Acid Phosphatase" was a major or minor topic of ... "Acid Phosphatase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Acid Phosphatase" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Acid Phosphatase". ...
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) has been investigated as the target of several antigen-specific anti-prostate tumor vaccines. ... CTL Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) HLA-A2 ELISPOT Epitope This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ... Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) has been investigated as the target of several antigen-specific anti-prostate tumor vaccines. ... Wang Y, Harada M, Yano H, Ogasawara S, Takedatsu H, Arima Y, Matsueda S, Yamada A, Itoh K (2005) Prostatic acid phosphatase as ...
Acid and alkaline phosphatase were determined in 107 breast cancer patients to study their potential value in case of bone ... Acid Phosphatase / blood*. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood*. Bone Neoplasms / blood, diagnosis, enzymology, secondary*. Bone and ... 0/Isoenzymes; 0/Tumor Markers, Biological; EC 3.1.3.1/Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2/Acid Phosphatase ... Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TR-ACP), and bone alkaline phosphatase (bone-ALP) were significantly higher in patients ...
... sialic acid storage disease pathway; FOUND IN cytosol (inferred); INTERACTS WITH aflatoxin B1; arsenous acid; benzene-1,2,4- ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits N-acylneuraminate-9-phosphatase activity; INVOLVED IN N-acetylneuraminate biosynthetic process ... Nanp (N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase). NCBI. Ortholog. Sus scrofa (pig):. NANP (N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase). HGNC ... N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase). NCBI. Ortholog. Canis lupus familiaris (dog):. NANP (N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase) ...
  • Lipin 2/3 deficiency caused phosphatidic acid accumulation and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, which were associated with enhanced protein levels of a key phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme (CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α) and altered membrane phospholipid composition. (jci.org)
  • The enzyme hydrolysed LPA specifically but not cardiolipin, tetraoleoyl-bisphosphatidic acid, ceramide 1-phosphate or sphingosine 1-phosphate, although phosphatidic acid was hydrolysed slightly. (biochemj.org)
  • Mixed micelles of 32 P-labeled phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidic acid (PA) and the nonionic detergent octylphenol polyethylene oxide (NP-40 Nonidet) were used to assay the activities of phospholipase D and PA phosphatase in crude extracts of mung bean ( Vigna radiata ) cotyledons. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key regulator of seed maturation and germination and mediates adaptive responses to environmental stress. (plantcell.org)
  • Statistical analyses of promoter regions of abscisic acid (ABA)-regulated genes reveal an overrepresented ABA responsive motif, which is the known ABA response element. (plantcell.org)
  • The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in the control of the stress response and the regulation of plant growth and development. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs) are negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling that are inhibited in an ABA-dependent manner by PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1 (PYR1)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR) intracellular receptors. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Different forms of acid phosphatase are found in different organs, and their serum levels are used to evaluate the success of the surgical treatment of prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of okadaic acid (OA) toxins in shellfish, OkaTest, was single laboratory validated according to international recognized guidelines (AOAC, EURACHEM). (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, the recombinant phosphatase showed broad substrates specificities for monophosphate esters, p -nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) being the most preferred substrate, and it was able to resist inhibition by sodium tartrate. (go.jp)
  • Antagonistic Effects of Zinc and Aluminum on Lead Inhibition of delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase. (ebscohost.com)
  • Examines the antagonistic effects of zinc (Zn) and aluminum (Al) on lead inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in human and animal nutrition. (ebscohost.com)
  • Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as an artificial phosphatase substrate, the levels of inhibition were determined by measuring the absorbance of the product at 405nm using UV/vis spectroscopy. (pubfacts.com)
  • ABA binding to PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1 (PYR1)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS intracellular receptors leads to inhibition of key negative regulators of ABA signaling, i.e. clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs) such as ABA-INSENSITIVE1 and HYPERSENSITIVE TO ABA1 (HAB1), causing the activation of the ABA signaling pathway. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, AHG1 was resistant to inhibition by the PYR/PYL receptors tested, which suggests that this seed-specific phosphatase is still able to regulate ABA signaling in the presence of ABA and PYR/PYL receptors and therefore to control the highly active ABA signaling pathway that operates during seed development. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, the differential sensitivity of the phosphatases At5g59220 and PP2CA to inhibition by ABA receptors reveals a functional specialization of PYR/PYL ABA receptors to preferentially inhibit certain PP2Cs. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Metabolic labeling experiments using promastigotes indicated that the intracellular enzyme was soluble prior to secretion and no evidence was found for the association of secretory acid phosphatase with cell membranes after protein synthesis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The results demonstrated that acid phosphatase was secreted into the flagellar reservoir by Leishmania promastigotes using a conventional constitutive secretory mechanism, and subsequently released from the reservoir into the extracellular medium. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Except in the non-secretory reservoir regions, silk glands of all the species examined are rich in cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid. (biologists.org)
  • Subcellular fractionation is consistent with this localization and establishes that PTP-1B is tightly associated with microsomal membranes, with its phosphatase domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • 11 nonamer peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of PAP were used as stimulator antigens in functional ELISPOT assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 HLA-A2+ patients with prostate cancer or ten healthy blood donors. (springer.com)
  • Based on its properties and amino acid sequence analyses, SapS was classified as a new member of the bacterial class C family of non-specific acid phosphatases. (up.ac.za)
  • Histochemical examination of these cells demonstrates that innumerable granules containing acid phosphatase develop in the cytoplasm before mitosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • In view of the latter point, it is interesting to note that no sulphydryl groups can be detected in the phosphatase border zone (in the more insoluble constituents which remain informalin-fixed frozen sections), although the main bulk of th e cytoplasm is rich in sulphydryl groups. (biologists.org)
  • Although the latter is abundant in the main body of the cell, it is, however, absent from the phosphatase border zone, so that in the cytoplasm nucleic acid ends where phosphatase begins. (biologists.org)
  • pNPP assays include Alkaline Phosphatase Assay Kit ab83369 and Acid Phosphatase Assay Kit ab83367. (abcam.com)
  • AgnesFelema, Anbazhagan Subject: RE: Springer BWF Book_Gilbert_385089_1_En_Cell Viability Assays//Introductory mail Dear Delyan, The book already published so I am going to have to check with Comp Copies and see if the order was processed yet. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • AgnesFelema, Anbazhagan Subject: Re: Springer BWF Book_Gilbert_385089_1_En_Cell Viability Assays//Introductory mail Hi Monica, Thank you for the reply. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Immunofluorescence studies on U937 cells infected in vitro with L. donovani showed that the pathogenic amastigote stage also produced soluble acid phosphatase. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • These results demonstrated that the McAbs did not recognize the surface membrane bound acid phosphatase, but were specific for the extracellular soluble enzyme. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The effects of the phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid (OA), adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS), and calyculin A (CL-A) on anaphase chromosome movement, cytokinesis, and cytoskeletal structures at cell division were examined by being microinjected into mitotic sand dollar eggs. (go.jp)
  • Conclusions: Phosphatase ABI1 and okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatases of the PPP family are negative regulators of salt stress-activated SnRK2.4. (upv.es)