An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.
An enzyme that deactivates glycogen phosphorylase a by releasing inorganic phosphate and phosphorylase b, the inactive form. EC 3.1.3.17.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.
Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.
Used as a pH indicator and as a reagent for blood after decolorizing the alkaline solution by boiling with zinc dust.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subcategory of phosphohydrolases that are specific for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. They play a role in the inactivation of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine monophosphate plus inorganic phosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.
A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.26.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
(Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.

Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. (1/2302)

Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating.  (+info)

Endometrial lysosomal enzyme activity in normal cycling endometrium. (2/2302)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible role of four lysosomal enzymes in endometrial function and remodelling during the normal menstrual cycle by fluorimetric measurement (acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-D-mannosidase). A prospective study was conducted of 45 endometrial biopsies obtained from women with normal menstrual cycles. Activity of all four enzymes was identified in human endometrium. Activity of acid phosphatase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase was relatively high, whilst that of alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-D-mannosidase was low. There was no significant change in the activity of any of the four enzymes from the proliferative to the secretory phase of the cycle. This study suggests that the activity of these enzymes remains constant throughout a major portion of the normal cycle.  (+info)

Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages. (3/2302)

Atherosclerosis is initiated by the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of the vessel wall and subsequent lipid accumulation of the activated macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anomalous behavior of macrophages in atherogenesis have only partially been disclosed. Chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 (HC gp-39) are members of the chitinase family of proteins and are expressed in lipid-laden macrophages accumulated in various organs during Gaucher disease. In addition, as shown in this study, chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 can be induced with distinct kinetics in cultured macrophages. We investigated the expression of these chitinase-like genes in the human atherosclerotic vessel wall by in situ hybridizations on atherosclerotic specimens derived from femoral artery (4 specimens), aorta (4 specimens), iliac artery (3 specimens), carotid artery (4 specimens), and coronary artery (1 specimen), as well as 5 specimens derived from apparently normal vascular tissue. We show for the first time that chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 expression was strongly upregulated in distinct subsets of macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque. The expression patterns of chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 were compared and shown to be different from the patterns observed for the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin and the macrophage marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Our data emphasize the remarkable phenotypic variation among macrophages present in the atherosclerotic lesion. Furthermore, chitotriosidase enzyme activity was shown to be elevated up to 55-fold in extracts of atherosclerotic tissue. Although a function for chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 has not been identified, we hypothesize a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling during atherogenesis.  (+info)

An activation-specific role for transcription factor TFIIB in vivo. (4/2302)

A yeast mutant was isolated encoding a single amino acid substitution [serine-53 --> proline (S53P)] in transcription factor TFIIB that impairs activation of the PHO5 gene in response to phosphate starvation. This effect is activation-specific because S53P did not affect the uninduced level of PHO5 expression, yet is not specific to PHO5 because Adr1-mediated activation of the ADH2 gene also was impaired by S53P. Pho4, the principal activator of PHO5, directly interacted with TFIIB in vitro, and this interaction was impaired by the S53P replacement. Furthermore, Pho4 induced a conformational change in TFIIB, detected by enhanced sensitivity to V8 protease. The S53P replacement also impaired activation of a lexA(op)-lacZ reporter by a LexA fusion protein to the activation domain of Adr1, thereby indicating that the transcriptional effect on ADH2 expression is specific to the activation function of Adr1. These results define an activation-specific role for TFIIB in vivo and suggest that certain activators induce a conformational change in TFIIB as part of their mechanism of transcriptional stimulation.  (+info)

A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers. (5/2302)

Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population.  (+info)

An in vitro system recapitulates chromatin remodeling at the PHO5 promoter. (6/2302)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PHO5 is an excellent system with which to study regulated changes in chromatin structure. The PHO5 promoter is packaged into four positioned nucleosomes under repressing conditions; upon induction, the structure of these nucleosomes is altered such that the promoter DNA becomes accessible to nucleases. We report here the development and characterization of an in vitro system in which partially purified PHO5 minichromosomes undergo promoter chromatin remodeling. Several hallmarks of the PHO5 chromatin transition in vivo were reproduced in this system. Chromatin remodeling of PHO5 minichromosomes required the transcription factors Pho4 and Pho2, was localized to the promoter region of PHO5, and was independent of the chromatin-remodeling complex Swi-Snf. In vitro chromatin remodeling also required the addition of fractionated nuclear extract and hydrolyzable ATP. This in vitro system should serve as a useful tool for identifying the components required for this reaction and for elucidating the mechanism by which the PHO5 promoter chromatin structure is changed.  (+info)

Laser induced phagocytosis in the pigment epithelium of the Hunter dystrophic rat. (7/2302)

The retinae of 14-day-old Hunter dystrophic rats have been subjected to low-energy irradiation by a pulsed ruby laser. Fifteen days after exposure, pigment epithelial cells had proliferated and repopulated the irradiated areas. In all such areas the subretinal photoreceptor debris had been reduced or lost.  (+info)

The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization. (8/2302)

Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis.  (+info)

The cDNAs encoding human prostatic acid phosphatase were cloned and characterized. The mRNAs contain 3 noncoding regions of heterogeneous sizes 646, 1887 or 1913 nucleotides. A dimer and a monomer of the conserved Alu-repeats are present in the longer 3 noncoding sequences. The complete sequence of 354 amino acids for the mature enzyme was determined by sequencing both cDNA and protein. Human prostatic and lysosomal acid phosphatases exhibit 50% sequence homology, including five Cys residues and two putative N-linked glycosylation sites. The Acp-3 gene coding for human prostatic acid phosphatase was mapped onto chromosome 3 in this investigation. The Acp-2 gene coding for lysosomal acid phosphatase has previously been located on chromosome 11, while the Acp-1 gene coding for red blood cell acid phosphatase is on chromosome 2.
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We compared results by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with those by a standard radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection and quantitation of prostate-specific acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) in serum. Control subjects, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and patients in all four clinical stages of prostatic adenocarcinoma were tested. The upper limit of normal (95% of the population) by the ELISA was 2.0 micrograms/L, and by the RIA was 2.2 micrograms/L. In prostatic adenocarcinoma stage I (not detectable by digital rectal examination), ELISA was slightly more sensitive than RIA, but sensitivity was still relatively low (20%). As tumor mass increased (stages II through IV), the frequency of increased concentrations of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum also increased. We confirmed this increase in circulating enzyme in some cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and suggest that this finding is related to either acinar cytolysis or an increase in acini size and number. Although ...
Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase test, treatment, preventions, precautions, risk factors, procedure, results, complications, cost of test, symptoms of TRAP test, medical information, diagnosis, causes, side effects of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase test and more.
A series of 25 cases of lung cancer are presented in which total (TAcP) and nonprostatic serum acid phosphatase (NPAcP) activities were measured. Of these cases, 36% had raised TAcP and NPAcP activities in their serum. However, the serum activities of TAcP and NPAcP did not correlate with either the presence of lung cancer nor with the morphological tumour type. This fact indicates that, despite isolated reports of raised serum acid phosphatase activities in cases of lung cancer, acid phosphatase is of no value as a marker for lung cancer. We sought alternative explanations for the raised TAcP and NPAcP activities observed in our series in the hope that this enzyme might prove useful as a marker for early metastatic disease in lung cancer patients. This possibility is not substantiated, and the findings are analyzed and discussed. It is tentatively suggested that raised NPAcP activities in patients with lung cancer may relate to haemostasis.. ...
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) exists as isoforms 5a and 5b. TRAP 5a is a biomarker of chronic inflammation and influences adipose tissue and 5
Need antibody products for research? Find and compare multiple sources of anti-Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) antibody using the Linscotts Directory search engine. Monoclonal, polyclonal, and recombinant antibodies. Select applications, conjugates, hosts, and reactivity. Get complete supplier details here.
Serum Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase 5b in Beta Thalassemia Egyptian Patients: Promising Biomarker of Iron Overload Oxidative Stress and Bone Disease,
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase protein (ab114490). Please download our general protocols booklet
Press Release issued Feb 14, 2017: Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) test is a type of blood test to determine health of prostate gland by measuring prostatic acid phosphatase levels. PAP is an enzyme found in men and majorly present in the prostate gland and semen. Significant amounts of PAP are also found in platelets, bone, spleen, kidney and liver. PAP measurement is important in the management of prostatic cancer patients especially in monitoring remission or relapse of prostatic malignancy and in assessing the effectiveness of various treatment regimes.
Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) isoenzymes, designated PAP-A and PAP-B, were isolated from human seminal plasma by sequential affinity chromatography on concanavalin A and L(+)-tartrate, a classic inhibitor of PAP. Both the major PAP-A and the minor PAP-B isoenzymes exhibited a similar molecular mass (100 and 105 kDa respectively), multiple pI values (5.05-5.35 and 5.05-5.12), and substrate and inhibitor specificity. Immunological characterization revealed that PAP-B possesses distinct antigenic determinants, in addition to the common sites shared with PAP-A. SDS/PAGE indicated that both isoenzymes are composed of two subunits of 50 kDa each. At high salt concentration, PAP-B dissociated completely into single subunits of 50 kDa, whereas PAP-A remained intact at 100 kDa. PAP-B was resolved by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. into three components, designated alpha, beta and gamma, each of 50 kDa, at a molar ratio of approx. 2:1:1. PAP-A contained a single component of molecular mass 50 kDa. The ...
1ND6: Crystal structures of human prostatic acid phosphatase in complex with a phosphate ion and alpha-benzylaminobenzylphosphonic acid update the mechanistic picture and offer new insights into inhibitor design
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FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP). LAP is chemically and genetically distinct from red cell acid phosphatase. The encoded protein belongs to a family of distinct isoenzymes which hydrolyze orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and phosphate. LAP-deficiencies in mice cause multiple defects including bone structure alterations, lysosomal storage defects in the kidneys and central nervous system, and an increased tendency towards seizures. An enzymatically-inactive allele of LAP in mice exhibited a more severe phenotype than the null allele, and defects included cerebellum abnormalities, growth retardation, hair-follicle abnormalities, and an ataxia-like phenotype. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014 ...
Shop Fe(3+)-Zn(2+) purple acid phosphatase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Fe(3+)-Zn(2+) purple acid phosphatase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The TRACP and ALP Double Stain Kit (Cat. # MK300) combines the non-soluble, chromogenic substrates for ALP and TRACP with a nuclear staining reagent. This enables osteoblast and osteoclast detection due to the simultaneous cell staining for both alkaline and acid phosphatase activities. Detection of both enzyme markers provides a means to study the differentiation of bone cells. The kit substrates are provided as premixed reagents for ease of use. Sufficient reagents are supplied for staining approximately five culture plates (24-well format).. An alternative option for the study of bone metabolism is the TRACP and ALP Assay Kit (Cat. # MK301), which contains a soluble substrate that is quickly assayed by absorbance measurement. Either bone metabolism kit may be selected depending on user interest.. The TRACP and ALP Assay Kit allows for the simultaneous detection of both ACP (acid phosphatase) and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) enzymes via pNPP (p-nitro-phenyl phosphate) substrate. The addition of ...
The TRACP and ALP Double Stain Kit (Cat. # MK300) combines the non-soluble, chromogenic substrates for ALP and TRACP with a nuclear staining reagent. This enables osteoblast and osteoclast detection due to the simultaneous cell staining for both alkaline and acid phosphatase activities. Detection of both enzyme markers provides a means to study the differentiation of bone cells. The kit substrates are provided as premixed reagents for ease of use. Sufficient reagents are supplied for staining approximately five culture plates (24-well format).. An alternative option for the study of bone metabolism is the TRACP and ALP Assay Kit (Cat. # MK301), which contains a soluble substrate that is quickly assayed by absorbance measurement. Either bone metabolism kit may be selected depending on user interest.. The TRACP and ALP Assay Kit allows for the simultaneous detection of both ACP (acid phosphatase) and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) enzymes via pNPP (p-nitro-phenyl phosphate) substrate. The addition of ...
Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2, acid phosphomonoesterase, phosphomonoesterase, glycerophosphatase, acid monophosphatase, acid phosphohydrolase, acid phosphomonoester hydrolase, uteroferrin, acid nucleoside diphosphate phosphatase, orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (acid optimum)) is a phosphatase, a type of enzyme, used to free attached phosphoryl groups from other molecules during digestion. It can be further classified as a phosphomonoesterase. Acid phosphatase is stored in lysosomes and functions when these fuse with endosomes, which are acidified while they function; therefore, it has an acid pH optimum. This enzyme is present in many animal and plant species. Different forms of acid phosphatase are found in different organs, and their serum levels are used to evaluate the success of the surgical treatment of prostate cancer. In the past, they were also used to diagnose this type of cancer. Its also used as a cytogenetic marker to distinguish the two different lineages of Acute ...
An intracellular acid phosphatase (IAP) from Pi-starved (−Pi) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) suspension cells has been purified to homogeneity. IAP is a purple acid phosphatase (PAP), as the purified protein was violet in colour (λmax=546 nm) and was insensitive to l-tartrate. PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining and peptide mapping demonstrated that the enzyme exists as a 142 kDa heterodimer composed of an equivalent ratio of glycosylated and structurally dissimilar 63 (α-subunit) and 57 kDa (β-subunit) polypeptides. However, the nine N-terminal amino acids of the α- and β-subunits were identical, exhibiting similarity to the deduced N-terminal portions of several putative plant PAPs. Quantification of immunoblots probed with rabbit anti-(tomato acid phosphatase) immune serum revealed that the 4-fold increase in IAP activity due to Pi-deprivation was correlated with similar increases in the amount of antigenic IAP α- and β-subunits. IAP displayed optimal activity at pH 5.1, was ...
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are metallo-phosphoesterases. Their expression and function have not been systematically investigated in higher plants. In this work, we compared the transcript levels of 28 Arabidopsis PAP (AtPAP) genes in five Arabidopsis organs. The 28 members, although differed in …
BACKGROUND: Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe chronic pain that is less than adequately controlled by conventional analgesics. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) has been considered as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer and its transmembrane isoform has been reported to play an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, it remains unknown whether it has an analgesic effect on CIBP and what are the underlying mechanisms.. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we tested whether PAP could alleviate the pain symptoms induced by bone cancer in a rat model.. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double blind, and controlled rat animal trial.. METHODS: We first established a rat CIBP model and observed the spinal expression of PAP by immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot. Then, PAP (0.1, 0.3, or 1 μg) was intrathecally administered in the CIBP rats in a repeated manner from 15 to 18 days (once per day) after inoculation of tumor cells. On postoperative day (POD) ...
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2015-2019 World Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Testing Market: Emerging Opportunities, Supplier Shares, Country Forecasts, Innovative Technologies, Competitive Landscape-US, Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) , Japan Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com 242 Pages
Acid phosphatase is an enzyme present in the cells throughout the body. It is present in especially high concentrations in the prostate and semen in men. Prostatic diseases result in its release in the blood. A blood test can measure the enzyme acid phosphatase. Drugs and substances that can interfere with the test include fluorides, oxalates, clofibrate, and alcohol. ...
Alterations in serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen in experimental canine osteotomies fixed using 2 different techniques ...
Genetic deficiency of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase associated with skeletal dysplasia, cerebral calcifications and autoimmunity
TY - JOUR. T1 - The endosome-lysosome system in the absorptive cells of goldfish hindgut. AU - Iida, Hiroshi. AU - Shibata, Yosaburo. AU - Yamamoto, Torao. PY - 1986/2/1. Y1 - 1986/2/1. N2 - The vacuolar system in the absorptive cells of the goldfish hindgut was studied by rapid freeze-substituted and cytochemical techniques. The apical cytoplasm of the absorptive cells contained two types of vacuoles: endosomes and lysosomes. The former were characterized by an absence of acid phosphatase activity, a dot-like distribution of material at the peripheral rim, the labelling of the inner surface with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and by frequent connections to cytoplasmic tubules (CT), which were also free of acid phosphatase activity. The latter vacuole was preferentially located in the deeper cytoplasm and was characterized by the presence of acid phosphatase activity, an electron-dense interior matrix, a peripheral electron-lucent region (a halo), and by the detachment of HRP from the inner ...
Low phosphorous availability, a common condition of many soils, is known to stimulate phosphatase activity in plants; however, the molecular details of this response remain mostly unknown. We purified and sequenced the N-terminal region of a phosphate starvation induced acid phosphatase (AtACP5) fro …
PAA168Hu02, PSAP; ACPP; ACP3; PAPf39; 5-NT; Prostatic Specific Acid Phosphatase; Ecto-5-Nucleotidase | Products for research use only!
Human lymphocytes, cultured in the presence of phytohemagglutinin, undergo morphologic transformation and subsequent mitosis. Before mitosis (48 to 72 hours), a sharp increase in acid phosphatase activity occurs in cells stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. Histochemical examination of these cells demonstrates that innumerable granules containing acid phosphatase develop in the cytoplasm before mitosis. It is possible that enzymes present in granules which stain for acid phosphatase activity (lysosome-like) may play a role in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated cell division. ...
Assay Acid phosphatase activity in 1 hr 10 min in cell culture media, cell/tissue extracts, and biofluids with ab83367. For microplate readers.
Autologous immunotherapy produced by collecting peripheral mononuclear cells during leukapheresis. Cells include antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which are activated during a culture period with prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, an antigen found in prostatic cancer tissue) linked to granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, which activates immune cells). Induces an immune response against prostatic acid phosphatase. Therapeutic Effects: ↓ spread of prostate cancer. ...
Medical examination indicates high acid phosphatase test result referent values. Find out what does high Acid phosphatase test result referent values level mean?
An article in the journal Neuron now shows that TMPase is identical to the transmembrane isoform of PAP. The report also describes PAP knockout mice which have enhanced sensitivity in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Further evidence of the involvement of PAP in nociception was provided when an intraspinal injection of PAP was shown to suppress pain as effectively as the opioid analgaesic, morphine, but with an effect that lasted much longer (3 days vs 5 hours). PAP suppresses pain by dephosphorylating extracellular adenosine monophosphate (AMP), liberating adenosine which then activates adenosine A1 receptors in dorsal spinal cord. High intrathecal doses of morphine and high doses of A1 receptor agonists cause motor impairment, but no such adverse effects were seen at the highest doses of PAP tested. PAP has a long half life in blood and the present results suggest that PAP is stable in the spinal cord and is capable of generating adenosine for days. The study suggests that ...
This test has been modified from the manufacturers instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
I am going to use potato acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate a protein. I dont know what kind of dephosphorylation reaction buffer I need. Could please help me ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoryl transfer from α-D-glucose 1-phosphate catalyzed by Escherichia coli sugar-phosphate phosphatases of two protein superfamily types. AU - Wildberger, Patricia. AU - Pfeiffer, Martin. AU - Brecker, Lothar. AU - Rechberger, Gerald N.. AU - Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth. AU - Nidetzky, Bernd. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The Cori ester α-D-glucose 1-phosphate (αGlc 1-P) is a high-energy intermediate of cellular carbohydrate metabolism. Its glycosidic phosphomonoester moiety primes αGlc 1-P for flexible exploitation in glucosyl and phosphoryl transfer reactions. Two structurally and mechanistically distinct sugar-phosphate phosphatases from Escherichia coli were characterized in this study for utilization of αGlc 1-P as a phosphoryl donor substrate. The agp gene encodes a periplasmic αGlc 1-P phosphatase (Agp) belonging to the histidine acid phosphatase family. Had13 is from the haloacid dehydrogenase-like phosphatase family. Cytoplasmic expression of Agp (in E. coli Origami ...
Hugon, J and Borgers, M, The ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in the crypt epithelium of the irradiated mouse duodenum. (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 465 ...
Prostate specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) is a serine protease and it is a glycoprotein ?of molecular weight 100 kD and secreted at high concentrations in the prostate gland. PSAP measurement is clinically significant because its level often found to rise in the serum in prostatic carcinoma cases. By immunohistochemical detection PSAP has been found to be localized within the secretory vacuoles of the prostatic columnar epithelial cell. PSAP activity is found limited to the ductal or acinar columnar epithelial cells and adjacent luminal content ...
Twardowski, J.; Nowak, I.; Stufkens, D.J.; Snoeck, T.L., 1984: Raman and ir studies of homogeneous forms of acid phosphatase ec 3.1.3.2 from rat liver
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Thermo Scientific Lab Vision Prostate Specific Acid Phosphatase (PSAP) 100µL; 200µg/mL; Unlabeled; Purified
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Urine Detection include products such as Acid Phosphatase, UrineTest and others offer a variety of options for your varying needs
Alpha-HBDH , Acid Phosphatase (Non-Prostatic) , Acid Phosphatase (Prostatic) , Acid Phosphatase (Total) , Albumin , Alkaline Phosphatase , ALT , Amylase Total , AST , Bicarbonate , Bile Acids , Bilirubin Direct , Bilirubin Total , Calcium , Chloride , Cholesterol , CK Total , Copper , Cortisol , Creatinine , D-3-Hydroxybutyrate , Free T4 , Gamma GT , GLDH , Glucose , Iron , Lactate , LDH , Lipase , Lithium , Magnesium , NEFA , Osmolality , Phosphate Inorganic , Potassium , Protein Total , PSA Total , Sodium , TIBC , Total T3 , Total T4 , Triglycerides , Urea , Uric Acid , Zinc ...
4DHL: Identification of purple acid phosphatase inhibitors by fragment-based screening: promising new leads for osteoporosis therapeutics.
Antonyuk, SV and Olczak, M and Olczak, T and Ciuraszkiewicz, J and Strange, RW (2014) The structure of a purple acid phosphatase involved in plant growth and pathogen defence exhibits a novel immunoglobulin-like fold. IUCrJ, 1 (2). 101 - 109. ISSN 2052-2525 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human prostatic acid phosphatases. II. A double-antibody radioimmunoassay. AU - Choe, B. K.. AU - Pontes, E. J.. AU - Morrison, M. K.. AU - Rose, N. R.. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - A double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PAP) is presented. Experimental details are outlined to assess the reproducibility and reliability of the method under various assay conditions. The upper limit of the serum PAP levels in the present assay was set at 2.4 ng/100 μl by 162 determinations of normal serum samples. The serum PAP levels of patients with nonprostatic malignant tumors fell in the normal range, whereas the levels higher than 4.0 ng/100 μl were found in patients with prostatic carcinoma.. AB - A double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PAP) is presented. Experimental details are outlined to assess the reproducibility and reliability of the method under various assay conditions. The upper limit of the serum ...
Looking for online definition of acid phosphatase in the Medical Dictionary? acid phosphatase explanation free. What is acid phosphatase? Meaning of acid phosphatase medical term. What does acid phosphatase mean?
Suspensions of Blepharisma intermedium were fed latex particles for 5 min and then were separated from the particles by filtration. Samples were fixed at intervals after separation and incubated to demonstrate acid phosphatase activity. They were subsequently embedded and sectioned for electron microscopy. During formation of the food vacuole, the vacuolar membrane is acid phosphatase-negative. Within 5 min, dumbbell-shaped acid phosphatase-positive bodies, possibly derived from the the acid phosphatase-positive Golgi apparatus, apparently fuse with the food vacuole and render it acid phosphatase-positive. A larger type of acid phosphatase-positive, vacuolated body may also fuse with the food vacuole at later stages. At about 20 min after formation, acid phosphatase-positive secondary pinocytotic vesicles pinch off from the food vacuoles and approach a separate system of membrane-bounded spaces. By 1 hr after formation, the food vacuole becomes acid phosphatase-negative, and the undigested latex ...
Four monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) were generated against the soluble extracellular acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) (S-AcP) of Leishmania donovani. These were detected in the primary screen using an ELISA with promastigote culture supernatants as antigen. Three of the McAbs demonstrated bound S-AcP from such culture supernatants in an enzyme activity binding assay. All immunoprecipitated metabolically labeled S-AcP but none showed any binding to the promastigote surface by indirect immunofluorescence. Moreover, none reacted with Triton X-100 solubilized plasma membranes by immunoprecipitation or Western blotting. These results demonstrated that the McAbs did not recognize the surface membrane bound acid phosphatase, but were specific for the extracellular soluble enzyme. Further, none of the antibodies immunoprecipitated any of the five human acid phosphatase isozymes or reacted with them in Western blots or the enzyme activity binding assay. Therefore, they are specific for the parasite-derived ...
There are different types of ELISA test kits. For example, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) is an ELISA test kit for the cancer test. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) test kit is used to measure prostatic acid phosphatase in the serum and plasma of a human body. The components of this kit are used as a fundamental unit only. PSA Enzyme Immunoassay is another kit used for the cancer test. This kit is designed to test prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the human serum.. Human Allergen-Specific IgE ELISA Assay is also an ELISA test kit. This kit is used to test the quantity of allergen precise human Immunoglobulin E. Allergen-specific IgE assay test is performed after total lgE of specimen test. To test the fertility of a women Human Growth Hormone (HGH) ELISA test kit is used. This kit helps to find the human growth hormone concentration in human serum.. ...
In this study we used a mouse model system to compare the in vivo effects of parathyroid hormone(1-34) [PTH(1-34)] with that of PTH(1-31) or PTH(2-34) analogs. Daily subcutaneous administration of PTH(1-34) for 15 days caused a dose-dependent increase in the serum osteocalcin level and bone extract alkaline phosphatase activity, markers of bone formation. PTH(2-34) was much less potent, whereas PTH(1-31) was equipotent in stimulating bone formation parameters in mice. PTH(1-34) caused significant increases in serum calcium (after 4 h) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in bone extract (after 4 h), whereas PTH(2-34) and PTH(1-31) were less potent. Because PTH(1-31) caused a smaller increase in bone resorption parameters compared to PTH(1-34), despite similar effects on bone formation parameters, we evaluated the long-term anabolic effects of PTH(1-31) and PTH(1-34) in mice. Weekly evaluations of serum osteocalcin levels demonstrated that daily injections of PTH(1-34) and PTH(1-31) ...
Methods For in vitro validation of osteoclastogenesis mouse bone marrow derived cells were differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive (TRAP+) mononuclear osteoclasts (pre-osteoclasts) and TRAP+ multinucleated mature osteoclasts in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL). Cilengitide, kindly provided by Merck KGaA, was added in increasing concentrations (2nM to 20μM) to the culture. Moreover, we performed osteoclastogenesis assays on osteopontin, fibronectin and fibrinogen matrix coated plates. In order to asses for αvβ3 integrin independent adhesion, osteolastogenesis assays were performed on Poly-D-lysine coated plates. CIA was induced in male DBA/1 mice by immunisation with bovine type II collagen (CII) at day 1, followed by boosting at day 21. For the CIA prevention study mice were injected 15mg/kg cilengitide subcutaneously, 5 days per week, starting 1 day prior to CIA induction until ...
Transplanted hind limb buds of chick embryos at stage18 were treated with thyroxine, which caused complete growth inhibition at concentrations of 200, 150, and 100 μg/ml. Lower concentrations caused reduction in length and weight as well as decreased number of feather germs. An increase in the enzyme acid phosphatase and number of lysosomes, in the cells of limb buds, were also observed. Increased acid phosphatase reaction was accompanied by decreased amounts of RNA (in treatment with 50 and 70 μg/ml. concentrations), suggesting a correlation between the two thus showing a thyroxine effect on lysosome activity.
Acid phosphatase activity is increased in prostatic cancer and especially but not always with metastases, multiple myeloma, Pagets disease, sickle cell crisis, Gaucher disease, cirrhosis, hyperparathyroidism, thrombocytosis ...
acid phosphatase in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has 2 zones of activity. The slower migrating zone has a maximum of 4 bands (1-4 in Table 2). The patterns of this zone can be interpreted as two (duplicated) loci with 4 alleles and monomeric enzyme. The faster migrating zone can be interpreted as a single locus coding 2 subunits (dimeric enzyme). In most of the Pontican European grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa proles pontica), this locus is duplicated, which gives a special 4-band pattern in this zone. In about 50 percent of the woodland grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) genotypes, this locus is absent (null allele). This means that this type of acid phosphatase is not essential for the plant.. The changes in the number and expression of loci in the course of phylogenesis suggest what evolutionary processes may have taken place ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
There are no generally accepted histopathological reference values in paraspinal skeletal muscle biopsies. Methods: We examined multifidii muscle biopsies from 20 neuromuscularly healthy subjects using routine histological stains and biochemical analyses of respiratory chain enzymes. Results: Staining showed incomplete myopathic features, such as increased variability in fiber size, type 1 hypertrophy, rounded fiber shape, endomysial fibrosis, and replacement by adipose tissue. Acid phosphatase reaction was positive in up to 35% of the selected muscle fibers. Mitochondrial changes were obvious but revealed no selective age dependence. Reduced complex I, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and citrate synthase (CS) could be observed.Conclusions: Because the increased variability in morphological details can easily be misinterpreted as myopathic changes, analysis of paraspinal muscles should take into consideration that incomplete myopathic features and reduced oxidative enzyme activities for complex I, ...
Methods Blood samples of healthy volunteers, RA patients and PsA patients with peripheral arthritis were collected. EVs were isolated by filtration and differential centrifugation. CD14+ cells were isolated from PBMCs by using positive selection, and the cells were stimulated with 50 ng/ml recombinant human M-CSF for 24 hrs. Then the samples were treated with 50 ng/ml recombinant human RANKL and blood-derived microvesicles or exosomes. After 7 days, the cells were fixed and stained for tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). TRAP-positive cells with at least 3 nuclei were considered as osteoclasts and counted by using the ImageJ software. ...
Need antibody products for research? Find and compare multiple sources of anti-Prostate Specific Acid Phosphatase (PSAP) monospecific antibody using the Linscotts Directory search engine. Monoclonal, polyclonal, and recombinant antibodies. Select applications, conjugates, hosts, and reactivity. Get complete supplier details here.
DC-STAMP was identified from a screening of human monocyte cDNA libraries (17) as a putative seven-transmembrane-spanning receptor with no homology to any other known protein or multimembrane-spanning receptor. DC-STAMP is expressed both in immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs), and its mRNA levels fall upon activation of DCs with CD40 ligand (CD40L). DC-STAMP is overexpressed in giant cell tumors together with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), a protein required for the development of osteoclasts (18). In a recent study, Kukita et al. showed, using small interfering RNAs and specific antibodies, that DC-STAMP is essential for osteoclastogenesis in mice (2). They reported that overexpression of DC-STAMP enhanced osteoclastogenesis and induced the expression of a marker of osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. In this issue, Yagi et al. (1) used gene targeting to demonstrate that DC-STAMP is also essential for the fusion of osteoclast precursor cells and macrophages. ...
AbstractThe differentiation of carcinomas arising in the prostate, bladder, and rectum may be a diagnostic problem when a neoplasm demonstrates extensive local invasion of adjacent organs. With the advent of enzyme-labeled antibody techniques, the specific identification of these neoplasms is potentially within the grasp of the pathologist.1, 2 However, the value of these techniques is limited by the specificity of available antibodies. Cross-reactivity, if not detected before clinical application, could result in diagnostic error.We describe an immunoperoxidase method3 to demonstrate the presence of prostatic acid phosphatase in neoplasms of prostatic origin, with the use of an antibody raised in rabbits against this enzyme. The potential application of this technique to differential diagnosis is discussed and the importance of in-house testing of these antibodies is demonstrated.Materials and methodsThe following immunochemicals were used in this study to examine paraffin-embedded tissue fixed in zinc
The in vitro differentiation of homogeneous populations of monocyte-like cells from the unstimulated mouse peritoneal cavity is described. Under the conditions employed, a progressive increase in cell size occurs without significant cell division. This process is characterized morphologically by the accumulation of phase-dense and neutral red-positive granules, mitochondria, and lipid droplets. The phase-dense granules react strongly for acid phosphatase. Biochemical determinations indicate marked increases in the total content and specific activity of acid phosphatase, cathepsin, and ß-glucuronidase. The production of acid phosphatase is more rapid and extensive than that of the other two hydrolases. From these data it appears that the conversion of a monocyte-like cell to a mature macrophage is accompanied by the formation of increased numbers of lysosome-like cytoplasmic organelles. Mouse peritoneal phagocytes stimulated in vivo with a bacterial lipopolysaccharide undergo a similar series of ...
Introduction: Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy FDA approved for men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Previous clinical data from Phase 3 clinical trials demonstrated T lymphocyte activation occurred in response to culture with the immunizing antigen, PA2024, in vitro, and was maintained in vivo after infusion with sipuleucel-T. Data from a current clinical study (ProACT) examined the activation profile of T lymphocytes and the production of cytokines associated with activated T lymphocytes during the preparation of sipuleucel-T.. Materials and Methods: Sipuleucel-T is manufactured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated every two weeks by leukapheresis. The PBMCs are cultured for a defined period with the PA2024 antigen, which is composed of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) fused to granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), washed, and then infused into the patient as ...
Hypogonadism is a unique, complex, and less medicine and eastern virginia medical school, university-based reproductive and sexual psychophysiology. A separate catheter is placed to lengthen these penises is relatively common complaint in women, sexual performance and desire difficulty will be activated by endogenous 5-ht probably originates from somatodendritic release as opposed to specific treatment issues and challenges the notion that androgens primarily affect male sexual disorders the ultimate causes of sexual capabilities, men with pe to hyposensitivity of 8ht2c receptors or hypersensitivity of the individual. The drugs facilitate ejaculation by raising an issue with peter. Her explanation was all my life i have for a radical prostatectomy. Morrell mj, sperling mr, stecker m, et al. , 2003; van der lei j, stricker bh, et al. Pap (prostatic acid phosphatase): A chemical that prevents the man to manfollowing intracorporeal injection of the syndrome which is to have a good deal of change. ...
[Disodium 1-Naphthyl Phosphate] [207569-06-0] | Buy and find out price and availability, MSDS, properties of TCIs high quality specialty chemicals.
A couple weeks ago, I did some testing with my Raspberry Pi 4 and external USB SSD drives. I found a USB 3.0 SSD was ten times faster than the fastest microSD card I tested.. In the comments on the video associated with that post, Brad Manske mentioned something I never even thought about. He noticed that I had linked to an Inateck USB 3.0 SATA case that didnt have UASP.. Whats UASP, you might ask?. Without UASP, a drive is mounted as a Mass Storage Device using Bulk Only Transport (or BOT), a protocol that was designed for transferring files way back in the USB Full speed days, when the fastest speed you could get was a whopping 12 Mbps!. With USB 3.0, the BOT protocol cripples throughput. USB 3.0 has 5 Gbps of bandwidth, which is 400x more than USB 1.1. The old BOT protocol would transfer data in large chunks, and each chunk of data had to be delivered in order, without regard for buffering or multiple bits of data being able to transfer in parallel.. So a new protocol was created, called ...
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), see PSNP1 (601104). Mapping Using a pooling-based genomewide association study of more than 500,000 SNPs in 288 patients with PSP and 344 age- and sex-matched controls, Melquist et al. (2007) identified candidate SNPs with large differences in allelic frequency by ranking all SNPs by their probe-intensity difference between cohorts. The MAPT H1 haplotype (see 157140) was strongly detected by this approach as was a second major locus (PSNP3) on chromosome 11p12-p11 that showed evidence of association at allelic (p less than 0.001), genotypic (p less than 0.001), and haplotypic (p less than 0.0001) levels and was narrowed to a single haplotype block containing the DNA damage-binding protein-2 (DDB2; 600811) and lysosomal acid phosphatase-2 (ACP2; 171650) genes. Since DNA damage and lysosomal dysfunction have been implicated in aging and neurodegenerative processes, Melquist et al. (2007) ...
Research published in Nature that described a simple way to generate stem cells is now under investigation after blog posts called its findings into question.. Dr Haruko Obokata from the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Japan, and colleagues from Harvard Medical School, exposed blood cells from newborn mice to mild acid or physical pressure and generated pluripotent stem cells capable of developing into nearly all of a bodys cell types. These were termed stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cells, and the findings were published in two papers on 29 January (reported in BioNews 740).. Following publication, users of the PubPeer website questioned some of the images used, claiming that they seemed duplicated. In one image of a genetic analysis, it appears that one of the lanes has been spliced in. Although spliced images are sometimes used, this is normally made clear and accompanied by an explanation. The bloggers also commented that pictures of two placentas from ...
Results: The ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to upregulate MHC II and CD80 in DCs from TRACP(-/-) mice was reduced compared with wildtype mice, although production of IL-10 by DCs from TRACP-deficient animals was increased. T- and B-cell responses not involving antigen presentation (anti-CD3, TNP-ficoll) were normal in TRACP(-/-) mice, but responses to T-dependent antigens were impaired. Specifically, TRACP(-/-) mice had defective delayed hypersensitivity responses to picryl chloride and reduced proliferative responses to ovalbumin compared with wildtype mice. In response to ovalbumin, but not anti-CD3, T cells from TRACP(-/-) mice produced less interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but there was no difference in IL-4 production: TRACP(-/-) mice also produced less ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG2a after immunization ...
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline ...
EnSURE quality monitoring system measures tests for ATP testing, E. coli, Coliform, TVC, Alkaline Phosphatase, Acid Phosphatase, and more.
Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Assay https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-8258 https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
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mouse TRACP/ACP5 gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
• High sensitivity and wide linear range. Use 5 μL serum or plasma sample. The detection limit is 2 U/L, linear up to 800 U/L. • Homogeneous and simple procedure. Simple
Antonioli, J.A.; Baer, A.; Vannotti, A., 1965: Alkaline and acide leukocyte phosphatases: pathologic variations, humoral regulation and relation to plasma phosphatases
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dict.cc | Übersetzungen für leukocyte phosphatase im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen, ...

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