Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Dinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Oxazolone: Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.NitrobenzenesBinding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Trinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Nitrohydroxyiodophenylacetate: Also called 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetate. A haptenic determinant that can be radiolabeled and used as salts and derivatives for investigations of immunogenic specificity studies.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.p-Azobenzenearsonate: A hapten capable of eliciting both antibody formation and delayed hypersensitivity when bound to aromatic amino acids, polypeptides or proteins. It is used as an immunologic research tool.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.NitrophenolsAntibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.HemocyaninPhenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Azo CompoundsImmunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Mice, Inbred BALB CCross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
... amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens ... A hapten is a small molecule that changes the structure of an antigenic epitope. In order to induce an immune response, it ... Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides.[citation needed] Non-microbial non ...
Acid Chlorides - a Route to Potential Haptens Derived from Phosphinic Acids". Tetrahedron. 51 (45). pp. 12417-12424. doi: ... The study of catalysis was carried out using model compounds: functionalized camphor- and tartaric acid-derived chiral ligands ... Kubyshkin, Volodymyr (2012). Trifluoromethyl-substituted α-amino acids as solid-state 19F NMR labels for structural studies of ... Komarov's research group developed many approaches to synthesis of conformationally restricted amines and amino acids - the ...
... is a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, currently used as a carrier protein for polysaccharides and haptens to make ... CRM197, like diphtheria toxin, is a single polypeptide chain of 535 amino acids (58.4 kD) consisting of two subunits (linked by ... A single mutation at position 52, substituting glutamic acid for glycine, causes the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the ...
... is used to reveal the location of specific nucleic acid sequences on chromosomes or in tissues, a crucial ... both radio-labelled and hapten-labelled); analysis with light and electron microscopes; whole mount in situ hybridization; ... In situ hybridization (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acids ...
... of two complementary strands of nucleic acids, known as nucleic acid hybridization.[citation needed] In the context of ... Signalling of hybridization methods can be performed using oligonucleotide probes modified in-synthesis with haptens and small ... "Nucleic Acids: Hybridisation". wiley. Retrieved 4 February 2017. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Efler, S.M.; Zhang, L ... In the sandwich hybridization ELISA assay format, the antigen ligand and antibodies in ELISA are replaced with a nucleic acid ...
Since lipids and nucleic acids are non-immunogenic haptens, they require conjugation with an epitope such as a protein or ... D-amino acids In silico screening. T cell epitope content, which is one of the factors that contributes to the risk of ...
Amino acid residue Epitope Fab region Hapten A number of technologies exist to characterise the avidity of molecular ...
6 contiguous amino acids or ≥35% sequence similarity over an 80 amino acid window with a known allergen. Though there are rules ... Singh MK, Srivastava S, Raghava GP, Varshney GC (January 2006). "HaptenDB: a comprehensive database of haptens, carrier ... Robinson J, Mistry K, McWilliam H, Lopez R, Marsh SG (January 2010). "IPD-the Immuno Polymorphism Database". Nucleic Acids Res ... Retter I, Althaus HH, Münch R, Müller W (January 2005). "VBASE2, an integrative V gene database". Nucleic Acids Res. 33 ( ...
A. M. Holzer; L. L. Kaplan; W. R. Levis (2006). "Haptens as drugs: contact allergens are powerful topical immunomodulators". J ... Cyclobutene, C 4H 6 Deltic acid, C 3H 2O 3 Croconic acid, C 5H 2O 5 Rhodizonic acid, C 6H 2O 6 Squaramides, the amides of ... Squaric acid, also called quadratic acid because its four carbon atoms approximately form a square, is an organic compound with ... Medically, squaric acid dibutylester is used for the treatment of warts. Squaric acid dibutylester is also used for treating ...
... which reacts with proteins and serves as a hapten to cause an immune reaction. Approximately five percent of patients have some ... Penicilloic acid is any of several acids which are obtained from the penicillins by the hydrolytic opening of the lactam ring ( ... The major antigenic determinant of penicillin hypersensitivity is its metabolite, penicilloic acid, ...
It allows to make : sensitive non-radioactive in situ hybridization probes to detect nucleic acids in plants, able to detect 1 ... Digoxigenin is a hapten, a small molecule with high antigenicity, that is used in many molecular biology applications similarly ... Typically, digoxigenin is introduced chemically (conjugation) into biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids) to be detected in ... to other popular haptens such as 2,4-Dinitrophenol, biotin, and fluorescein. ...
... convincingly showed that these antibodies had different amino acid compositions and therefore must differ in their amino acid ... Jim Allison, a colleague from Berkeley, said "Bunny analyzed polyclonal antibodies directed against two different haptens, and ... Koshland, Marian E.; Englberger, Frieda M.; Shapanka, Rosyln (March 1964). "Differences in the Amino Acid Composition of a ... was an American immunologist who discovered that the differences in amino acid composition of antibodies explains the ...
... octane-2-carboxamido-hexanoic acid Cocaine haptens that create catalytic anti-bodies require transitional states as affected in ... Amfonelic acid Being a carboxylic acid, amfonelic acid could potentially be used as a carboxylate for the protonation to the ... A more direct route to vanillic acid though is just oxidation of the vanillin to a functionalized benzoic acid. The MAT binding ... ɑ6-(2R,3S)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octane-2-carbonyloxy-hexanoic acid b6-(2R,3S)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8 ...
The first researched haptens were aniline and its carboxyl derivatives (o-, m-, and p-aminobenzoic acid). A well-known example ... Hapten inhibition or "semi-hapten" is the inhibition of a type III hypersensitivity response. In inhibition, free hapten ... The concept of haptens emerged from the work of Karl Landsteiner who also pioneered the use of synthetic haptens to study ... Sometimes the small-molecule hapten can even block immune response to the hapten-carrier adduct by preventing the adduct from ...
Their best binder, DIG10.3, was a 141 amino acid protein that bound DIG with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 541 (+/- 193) pM.[ ... Digoxigenin is a hapten, a small molecule with high antigenicity, that is used in many molecular biology applications similarly ... sensitive non-radioactive in situ hybridization probes to detect nucleic acids in plants, able to detect 1 µg of plasmid DNA.[6 ... Typically, digoxigenin is introduced chemically (conjugation) into biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids) to be detected in ...
H-Y antigen Hapten Hemocyte Hemolin Hepatocyte growth factor Heptavalent botulism antitoxin Herd immunity Heterophile ... potentiated desensitization Epithelial reticular cell Epitope Erythropoietin Erythropoietin receptor Essential fatty acid ...
SMCC or its water-soluble analog, Sulfo-SMCC, is commonly used to prepare antibody-hapten conjugates for antibody development. ... In-vivo crosslinking of protein complexes using photo-reactive amino acid analogs was introduced in 2005 by researchers from ... ångströms of the photo-reactive amino acid analog (UV cross-linking). Synthetically crosslinked polymers have many uses, ...
... of the β-globin gene replacing the amino acid glutamic acid with the less polar amino acid valine at the sixth position of the ... antigen - any substance (as an immunogen or a hapten) foreign to the body that evokes an immune response either alone or after ... RNA - ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying ... The consequences of the simple replacement of a charged amino acid with a hydrophobic, neutral amino acid are far ranging, ...
Mutagenesis of amino acids at the binding site allows for changing the affinity and selectivity. "Pieris Pharmaceuticals, Inc ... While antibodies can only be directed at macromolecules such as proteins and at small molecules (haptens) only if bound to ... but are about eight times smaller with a size of about 180 amino acids and a mass of about 20 kDa. The Anticalin technology is ...
Sugars such as glucose and fructose can react with certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine and certain DNA bases such ... haptens) to biopolymers. Under normal aerobic conditions, approximately 4% of the oxygen metabolized by mitochondria is ...
Sialic acid binding lectins SIGLEC1 (Sialoadhesin) SIGLEC2 (CD22) SIGLEC3 (CD33) SIGLEC4 (MAG) SIGLEC5 SIGLEC6 SIGLEC7 SIGLEC8 ... anergy Clonal deletion Tolerance in pregnancy Immunodeficiency Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten ... Gastric acid, etc.) Antimicrobial peptides Defensins Lysozyme Inflammation Inflammatory reflex Inflammasome Granuloma Acute- ...
"Molecular structure of nucleic acids: A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid". Nature. 171: 737-738. doi:10.1038/171737a0. J. ... First, the probe is labeled with either direct or indirect labeling strategy: hapten-modified nucleotides are used in indirect ...
This affinity is determined by the amino acid in position 158 of the protein, which can be phenylalanine (F allele) or valine ( ... and in models of hapten-hypersensitivity reactions. Especially, in the MCMV model, protective memory functions of MCMV-induced ...
Similarly, haptens are small molecules that provoke no immune response by themselves, but once they bind to proteins, the ... The "knobs" part is engineered by replacing a small amino acid with a larger one. It fits into the "hole", which is engineered ... The variable region of each heavy chain is approximately 110 amino acids long and is composed of a single Ig domain. In mammals ... The approximate length of a light chain is 211 to 217 amino acids. Each antibody contains two light chains that are always ...
The hapten is covalently linked to the primary antibody by succinyl imidesters or conjugated IgG Fc-specific Fab sections. ... In the case of synthetic peptides, the advantage is the amino acid sequence is easily accessible, but the peptides do not ... Secondly, haptenylated primary antibodies can be used, where the secondary antibody can recognize the associated hapten. ...
DNA regions of interest are observed by hybridising them with probes labelled by haptens like biotin; this can then be bound by ... is a technique used to produce an array of uniformly stretched DNA that is then highly suitable for nucleic acid hybridization ...
In the second approach, antibodies specific for a domain of 52 amino acid residues, referred to as CεmX or M1' (M1 prime), ...
The simplest approach is to rapidly change non-essential epitopes (amino acids and/or sugars) on the surface of the pathogen, ... Cataphylaxis Clonal selection Hapten Human physiology Immune network theory Immune system receptors ImmunoGrid, a project to ... Foods rich in certain fatty acids may foster a healthy immune system. Likewise, fetal undernourishment can cause a lifelong ... In the stomach, gastric acid and proteases serve as powerful chemical defenses against ingested pathogens. Within the ...
CATALYTIC ANTIBODY 28B4 FAB FRAGMENT COMPLEXED WITH HAPTEN (1-[N-4-NITROBENZYL-N-4-CARBOXYBUTYLAMINO] METHYLPHOSPHONIC ACID) ... CATALYTIC ANTIBODY 28B4 FAB FRAGMENT COMPLEXED WITH HAPTEN (1-[N-4-NITROBENZYL-N-4-CARBOXYBUTYLAMINO] METHYLPHOSPHONIC ACID) ... 1-[N-4-NITROBENZYL-N-4-CARBOXYBUTYLAMINO]METHYLPHOSPHONIC ACID. C13 H19 N2 O7 P. RWVBLRUMXIXUAR-UHFFFAOYSA-N. ... The x-ray crystal structures of the sulfide oxidase antibody 28B4 and of antibody 28B4 complexed with hapten have been solved ...
More importantly, we have proven, for the first time, that penicillenic acid is a hapten accounting for the formation of ... The Diastereoisomeric Penicillin Hapten Formation Depends on PA.. To determine how BP forms diastereoisomeric haptens in the ... benzylpenicillenic acid. HSA. human serum albumin. LC. liquid chromatography. MRM. multiple reaction monitoring. MS. mass ... Characterization of Penicillin Hapten Formed by BP and PA In Vitro.. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that both BP and PA ...
T1 - Hapten design and development of an ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) for the detection of the mercapturic acid ... Hapten design and development of an ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) for the detection of the mercapturic acid ... Hapten design and development of an ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) for the detection of the mercapturic acid ... Hapten design and development of an ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) for the detection of the mercapturic acid ...
benzoyl-L-glutamic acid. HB. methyl p-hydroxybenzimidate. KLH. keyhole limpet hemocyanin ... Hapten Group Biotin Hydrazide Avidin Molecule Conventional Sandwich Trinitrobenzene Sulfonate These keywords were added by ... Hapten-sandwich labeling uses instead detector-coupled antihapten antibodies to amplify first-layer antibodies to which the ... The last few years have seen the introduction of hapten-sandwich labeling procedures (Lamm et al,1972; Wofsy et al.,1974; ...
In certain embodiments, the present invention allows target nucleic acid sequence detection in pooled biological samples (e.g. ... the present invention relates to compositions and methods for detecting the presence or absence of target nucleic acid ... The present invention relates to detecting target nucleic acid sequences in pooled samples. In particular, ... Labels include but are not limited to dyes; radiolabels such as 32P; binding moieties such as biotin; haptens such as ...
hapten Any substance capable of eliciting an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein. Examples ... Bronsted acid A molecular entity capable of donating a hydron to an acceptor (Br. o. nsted base). ... 17β-estradiol 3-O-carboxymethyl ether (CHEBI:138727) has role hapten (CHEBI:59174) 17β-estradiol 3-O-carboxymethyl ether (CHEBI ... 17β-estradiol 3-O-carboxymethyl ether (CHEBI:138727) is a monocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:25384) ...
... haptens, metabolites, allergens, nucleic acids, nuclear materials, autoantibodies, cellular debris, enzymes, tissue proteins, ... drug or nucleic acid; Salmonella species; Candida species, including, but not limited to Candida albicans and Candida ... a hapten, a drug of abuse; a therapeutic drug; an environmental agent; antigens specific to Hepatitis and so forth. ... drug or nucleic acid; Salmonella species; Candida species, including, but not limited to Candida albicans and Candida ...
Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) has been in use in the United States for at least 100 years, with approximately 80 million ... Preparation of 11-dehydro Thromboxane-hapten Carrier Immunogen. 11-dehydro Thromboxane B2 was purchased from Cayman Chemical, ... The compound was purified to greater than 98% purity using normal phase silicic acid chromatography. Three milligrams of the ... a membrane bound enzyme responsible for the oxidation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 (Awtry et al., Circulation, 101: ...
Characterization of Phosphonylated Peptide-Amino Caproic Acid Hapten Purity and Aqueous Stability. The purity of phosphonylated ... In total, three different phosphonylated peptide conjugates were synthesized (i.e., hapten-KLH, hapten-HSA, and hapten-OVAL) ... decapeptide hapten that has a GB phosphonylated tyrosine. HSA-GD. decapeptide hapten that has a GD phosphonylated tyrosine. HSA ... 2-nitrobenzoic acid) in 50 mM PBS buffer, pH 7.4]. Absorbance change of 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) was monitored at ...
No immobilization or labeling of sample nucleic acids is necessary and hybridization can be performed entirely in solution. ... selective for binding the hybrids in the presence of the single stranded sample and probe nucleic acids. ... A nucleic acid hybridization assay employing an immobilized or immobilizable polynucleotide probe selected to form DNA.RNA or ... A hapten or ligand (e.g., biotin) labeled antibody can be detected by adding an antibody to the hapten or a protein (e.g., ...
813 pSG5L HA PTEN 1-274 was a gift from William Sellers (Addgene plasmid # 10740 ; http://n2t.net/addgene:10740 ; RRID:Addgene_ ... Contains PTEN amino acids 1-274. * Entrez Gene. PTEN (a.k.a. 10q23del, BZS, CWS1, DEC, GLM2, MHAM, MMAC1, PTEN1, PTENbeta, TEP1 ...
Nucleic acid sequences are provided that are useful as amplification primers, hybridization probes, and as a portion of ... Haptens, tracers, immunogens and antibodies for 3-phenyl-1-adamantaneacetic acids. US5464746. Jul 1, 1993. Nov 7, 1995. Abbott ... or nucleic acid analogs, such as uncharged nucleic acid analogs including but not limited to peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) which ... a) a nucleic acid having the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 and a nucleic acid having the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO ...
The invention describes an assay for detecting amplified target nucleic acid sequences with a visual signal. The sensitivity ... The hapten is bound to at least one position of the nucleic acid primer. For the derivatization of nucleic acid primers, ... uses a nucleic acid probe containing at least one hapten as a label for hybridization with a complementary target nucleic acid ... amplifying the target nucleic acid sequence with a first hapten derivatized complementary primer and dNTP and a second hapten ...
... haptens, metabolites, allergens, nucleic acids, nuclear materials, autoantibodies, blood proteins, cellular debris, enzymes, ... carboxylic acids, hydroxamic acids, and phosphonic acids on metalized thermoplastic films. The self-assembling monolayers have ... a nucleic acid, or an enzyme. The analyte which is specific to the bacteria may be a polysaccharide, an enzyme, a nucleic acid ... Devices and methods for optical detection of nucleic acid hybridization. US6060256 *. 16 Dec 1997. 9 May 2000. Kimberly-Clark ...
Haptens can induce an immune response when linked to a larger protein. 19. Hapten. Parham Fig. 10.25 20. Hapten. Parham Fig. ... heat, acid. Conformational epitopes - destroyed by denaturation Linear epitopes - unaffected by denaturation 17. Epitope ... Haptens. Small molecules that are not immunogenic by themselves, but can bind immunoglobulins or TCRs. ... Elution by competition with free hapten. Multiplication and purification ... , PowerPoint PPT presentation , free to view ...
A. M. Holzer; L. L. Kaplan; W. R. Levis (2006). "Haptens as drugs: contact allergens are powerful topical immunomodulators". J ... Cyclobutene, C 4H 6 Deltic acid, C 3H 2O 3 Croconic acid, C 5H 2O 5 Rhodizonic acid, C 6H 2O 6 Squaramides, the amides of ... Squaric acid, also called quadratic acid because its four carbon atoms approximately form a square, is an organic compound with ... Medically, squaric acid dibutylester is used for the treatment of warts. Squaric acid dibutylester is also used for treating ...
... for immobilizing nucleic acids (oligos, oligonucleotides, etc.) for plate-based assay techniques. ... Therefore, peptides, haptens, and DNA can be coupled. The surface uses a spacer arm to increase accessibly, thereby enhancing ... We offer a wide range of avidin-coated plates to capture biotinylated nuclec acids, for use in PCR-ELISA and nucleic acid ... Nucleic acid assay plate types Nunc NucleoLink. Nunc NucleoLink Breakable Modules are ideal for hybridization assays due to the ...
The first researched haptens were aniline and its carboxyl derivatives (o-, m-, and p-aminobenzoic acid). A well-known example ... Hapten inhibition or "semi-hapten" is the inhibition of a type III hypersensitivity response. In inhibition, free hapten ... The concept of haptens emerged from the work of Karl Landsteiner who also pioneered the use of synthetic haptens to study ... Sometimes the small-molecule hapten can even block immune response to the hapten-carrier adduct by preventing the adduct from ...
It was observed that, under these conditions, activation of the α-carboxylic acid of the intermediates led to near complete ... L-Aspartic acid building blocks bearing galactosyl moieties were used to synthesise glycolipid mimetics of variable hydrocarbon ... Ferrari, B.; Pavia, A.A. Artificial carbohydrate antigens: The synthesis of glycopeptidic haptens with TN specificity. Bioorg. ... Amino acids that allow for side chain functionalization with glycosyl moieties, such as serine and aspartic acid, have been ...
Structural Analysis of Hapten Moiety of Complex Carbohydrate Antigens. * Structural Elucidation of Complex Carbohydrates ... N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid-Containing Gangliosides as a Tumor Associated Antigen in Human: Expression of Hanganutziu-Deicher ... Sialic Acid and N-Acetylgalactosamine Specific Bacterial Lectins of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) ...
nsted acid).. (via organic amino compound ). Bronsted acid A molecular entity capable of donating a hydron to an acceptor (Br. ... α-methyl-L-dopa (CHEBI:61058) has role hapten (CHEBI:59174) α-methyl-L-dopa (CHEBI:61058) has role peripheral nervous system ... hapten Any substance capable of eliciting an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein. Examples ... α-methyl-L-dopa (CHEBI:61058) is a non-proteinogenic L-α-amino acid (CHEBI:83822) ...
Amino Acid Composition Analysis - Used to determine the amino acid composition and/or the protein quantity. A two step process ... HAPTEN - A low molecular weight substance that alone can react with its corresponding antibody. In order to be immunogenic, ... Amino Acid Sequencing - A partial sequencing (8- 15 residues) of amino acids within a protein or polypeptide by either amino- ... Various sugars and amino acids can serve as attractants while some substances such as acid or alkali serve as repellants in ...
Isolation of nucleic acid. US8110351. 16 Jan 2003. 7 Feb 2012. Invitrogen Dynal As. Method for isolating nucleic acids and ... The bound hapten-conjugated antibody is further reacted with labeled anti-hapten antibody in order to determine the amount of ... The reaction includes a labeled hapten conjugate wherein the quantity of the labeled hapten conjugate which becomes bound to ... Isolation of nucleic acid. US9341620 *. 7 Feb 2012. 17 May 2016. Multi-Sense Technologies Limited. Microfluidics based assay ...
Bensasson RV, Land EJ, Salet C. Triplet excited state of furocoumarins: reaction with nucleic acid bases and amino acids. ... light-activated plant products act as haptens and produce a cell-mediated hypersensitivity response. Psoralens may not be ... Both mechanisms result in arachidonic acid pathway activation, cellular dysfunction, and tissue destruction. When acute, the ... crosslinking at cytosine and thymidine with the furan ring of the psoralen and result in epidermal cell nucleic acid damage ( ...
With hapten-mediated AIHA, hemolysis ceases when the drug is cleared from the plasma. Corticosteroids have only little effect ... the hapten may be stable (eg, high-dose penicillin, cephalosporins) or unstable (eg, quinidine, sulfonamides). ... Other drugs stimulate production of autoantibodies against the antibiotic-RBC-membrane complex as part of a transient hapten ...
  • Four antisera were elicited against two different immunizing haptens. (cdc.gov)
  • The data presented here shows a new systematic procedure that enables the fast generation of several competing haptens for the rapid development of sensitive heterologous immunoassays. (cdc.gov)
  • The present invention relates to detecting target nucleic acid sequences in pooled samples. (google.com)
  • In particular, the present invention relates to compositions and methods for detecting the presence or absence of target nucleic acid sequences (e.g. (google.com)
  • 8 . The method of claim 1 , wherein said target nucleic acid sequences is from a pathogen selected from HIV-1, HIV-2, HCV, HBV, HTLVI, HTLV2, and HCMV. (google.com)
  • The invention is also useful to detect nucleic acid sequences indicative of a genetic defect or contagious disease when used with the appropriate primers, as well as detect the existence of nucleic acid amplification. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to a process for the immobilization of a nucleic acid fragment on a solid support, the solid support thus obtained and its use, in particular in methods for the detection of target sequences containing a sequence complementary to the immobilized sequence. (google.com)
  • Disclosed are compositions and a method for of amplifying nucleic acid sequences useful for detecting the presence of molecules of interest. (patents.com)
  • Following rolling circle replication, the amplified probe sequences are detected and quantified using any of the conventional detection systems for nucleic acids such as detection of fluorescent labels, enzyme-linked detection systems, antibody-mediated label detection, and detection of radioactive labels. (patents.com)
  • Macromolecules consisting of long sequences of α-amino acids [H 2 N-CHR-COOH] in peptide (amide) linkage (elimination of H 2 O between the α-NH 2 and α-COOH of successive residues). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To determine the amino acid residues related to the binding of the bulky group, we determined the amino acid sequences of VL and VH regions of 4A1 by the cycle sequencing method, built the three-dimensional structure of the V regions, labeled 4A1 with [14C]phenyl glyoxal in the presence and absence of I-1 or I-13, and analyzed the labeled incubation mixture with SDS-PAGE. (ovid.com)
  • In the body, the iron in the heme is coordinated to the four nitrogen atoms of the porphyrin and also to a nitrogen atom from a histidine residue, one of the amino-acid residues in hemoglobin) of the hemoglobin proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • In order to obtain detailed information about the relationship between structure and function in antibody molecules, a method called affinity labeling has been devised to attach chemical labels specifically to amino acid residues in the active sites of antibody molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • Reactive aldehydes and hydroxyl radicals, which may be generated during periods of heavy ethanol intake, are known for their ability to attack amino acid residues of proteins thereby forming both stable and unstable adducts with proteins and cellular constituents (1, 7-14). (bioscience.org)
  • The DIG labeling moiety is the steroid hapten digoxigenin, isolated from digitalis plants (Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata), the natural source of digoxigenin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, PA was found to be more potent than BP with respect to stimulation of T cells from patients with penicillin hypersensitivity, illustrating the functional relevance of diastereoisomeric hapten formation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Schneider and De Weck, 1965 ) or via the reaction of penicillenic acid (PA), an intermediate formed from the rearrangement of penicillin (pathway 2). (aspetjournals.org)
  • eg, penicillin itself is not antigenic, but its main degradation product, benzylpenicilloic acid, can combine with tissue proteins to form benzylpenicilloyl (BPO), a major antigenic determinant. (merckmanuals.com)
  • This study confirms the importance of appropriate hapten design and synthesis in controlling the specificity and sensitivity of the immunoassay. (elsevier.com)
  • Polyclonal antibody-based heterologous immunoassays have shown superior sensitivities to homologous ones, but the synthesis of heterologous haptens may be time-consuming, requiring expertise in synthetic chemistry. (cdc.gov)
  • This study investigates the protective effects of turmeric ( Curcuma longa , CL) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was induced in male Wistar rats by intra-rectal administration of 1 ml of 4 % acetic acid at 8 cm proximal to the anus for 30 s. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CL improved body weight gain, mean macroscopic and microscopic ulcer scores in the colon of rats suffering from acetic acid-induced IBD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the chelating portion comprises a diamine having four acetic acid moieties attached to the two amino groups of said diamine. (google.es)
  • Hapten inhibition or "semi-hapten" is the inhibition of a type III hypersensitivity response. (wikipedia.org)
  • light-activated plant products act as haptens and produce a cell-mediated hypersensitivity response. (medscape.com)
  • We expressed VHHs from an immunized alpaca and developed a VHH-based immunoassay using 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a major metabolite of pyrethroid insecticides as a model system. (elsevier.com)
  • Other carbohydrate haptens, such as methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, maltose, and alginic and D-glucuronic acids were less effective. (deepdyve.com)
  • In certain embodiments, the present invention allows target nucleic acid sequence detection in pooled biological samples (e.g. pooled blood samples) without prior amplification of the target. (google.com)
  • 4 . The method of claim 1 , wherein said target nucleic acid sequence is RNA. (google.com)
  • 13 . The method of claim 1 , further comprising, prior to step b), the step of performing polymerase chain reaction on said pooled sample such that said target nucleic acid sequence is amplified if present in said pooled sample. (google.com)
  • 14 . The method of claim 1 , wherein said contacting step is performed under conditions such that said target nucleic acid sequence is not amplified before said presence or said absence of said target nucleic acid sequence is determined. (google.com)
  • 16 . The method of claim 15 , wherein said contacting indicates that said target nucleic acid sequence is absent from said sub-pool. (google.com)
  • Method for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to nucleic acid polymorphisms and, in particular, relates to detecting a single nucleotide polymorphism using nucleic acid amplification technology. (google.com)
  • The method is useful for detecting specific nucleic acids in a sample with high specificity and sensitivity. (patents.com)
  • By labeling such complementary probe nucleic acids with some readily detectable chemical group, it was then made possible to detect the presence of any polynucleotide sequence of interest in a test medium containing sample nucleic acids in single stranded form. (google.ca)
  • Resulting hybrids are detected by binding of an antibody reagent, preferably labeled with a detectable chemical group, selective for binding the hybrids in the presence of the single stranded sample and probe nucleic acids. (google.ca)
  • Haptens have been used to study allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and the mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to induce autoimmune-like responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some haptens can induce autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nature of the building blocks should allow for a modular approach which could lead to the facile preparation of a small collection of glycolipids of different fatty acids chain lengths, such as 1 - 4 , shown in Figure 1 b. (mdpi.com)
  • NHC-stabilized parent sulfenyl (H S+), selenenyl (H Se+) and tellurenyl (H Te+) cations have been achieved by treatment of NHC chalcogen adducts with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. (utoronto.ca)
  • Antisera were characterized in combination with several coating haptens. (cdc.gov)
  • hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid, exhibiting little or no cross-reactivities with cholesterol (0.001%) and related compounds. (eurekamag.com)
  • Structurally, it comprises repeating sialic acid monomers with α2,8 linkages. (jimmunol.org)
  • L-Aspartic acid building blocks bearing galactosyl moieties were used to synthesise glycolipid mimetics of variable hydrocarbon chain length. (mdpi.com)
  • Amino acids that allow for side chain functionalization with glycosyl moieties, such as serine and aspartic acid, have been popular choices as the starting point for the preparation of glycolipid analogues [ 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The carboxylic acid present on the aspartic acid side chain offers the possibility for attachment of mono or oligosaccharides, while both the amino and carboxylic acid groups at the α-carbon allow for further functionalization. (mdpi.com)
  • Heme D is another form of heme B. Instead, the hydroxylated propionic acid side chain forms a gamma-spirolactone. (wikibooks.org)
  • This is reinforced by recently obtained amino acid sequence data which reveal homologies between the two chains near their carboxyl-terminals. (sciencemag.org)