Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Trans Fatty Acids: UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.TriglyceridesEicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.EstersLinoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lauric Acids: 12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.alpha-Linolenic Acid: A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.Caprylates: Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I: Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.Linolenic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coenzyme ASoybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Arachidonic AcidsGlycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.gamma-Linolenic Acid: An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase: An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Stearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.AmidohydrolasesMyristic Acid: A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.CyclopropanesTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Cerebrosides: Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)Enoyl-CoA Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase, Long-Chain: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for long-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Flax: A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.MalonatesLipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Adrenoleukodystrophy: An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).Eicosanoic Acids: 20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Acetyl-CoA C-Acyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)IodobenzenesEating: The consumption of edible substances.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Linseed Oil: The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.DiglyceridesPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase: Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.TritiumStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) ... Fatty Acids. 73 (3-4): 141-62. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2005.05.002. PMID 16005201. Wang Q1, He Y, Shen Y, Zhang Q, Chen D, Zuo C, ... Fatty Acids. 66 (1): 13-8. doi:10.1054/plef.2001.0335. PMID 12051953. Saukkonen K, Rintahaka J, Sivula A, Buskens CJ, Van Rees ... Arachidonic acid can bind to E-cat and E-allo, but the affinity of AA for E-allo is 25 times that for Ecat. Palmitic acid, an ...
... initial characterization and relationship to fatty acid transport protein". Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 60 (5-6 ... Long-chain fatty acid transport protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC27A6 gene. This gene encodes a ... member of the fatty acid transport protein family (FATP). FATPs are involved in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids and have ... Hirsch D, Stahl A, Lodish HF (1998). "A family of fatty acid transporters conserved from mycobacterium to man". Proc. Natl. ...
Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. Science writer Susan Allport, in her book on dietary fatty acids, states that Horrobin ... many diseases involve a lack of fatty acid precursors and might be alleviated by supplementing with the appropriate fatty acid ... Fatty Acids. 70 (4): 339-43. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2004.01.001. PMID 15085824. "'A rotter, a snake oil salesman, a chancer' - how ... Horrobin, David F. (2000). "Essential fatty acid metabolism and its modification in atopic eczema". Am J Clin Nutr. 71 (1 Suppl ...
Fatty Acids. 69 (2-3): 195-205. doi:10.1016/S0952-3278(03)00081-4. PMID 12895603. Chiba T, Kanda A, Ueki S, et al. (2007). " ... Kobayashi T, Ushikubi F, Narumiya S (2000). "Amino acid residues conferring ligand binding properties of prostaglandin I and ...
These cells produce the eoxins by initially metabolizing arachidonic acid, an omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acid, via any enzyme ... Fatty Acids. 87 (4-5): 159-63. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2012.07.003. PMID 22921794. James A, Daham K, Backman L, Brunnström A, ... The eoxin-forming pathway sequence is as follows: Arachidonic acid → 15(S)-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,13E-eicosatetraenoic acid (15( ... metabolizes arachidonic acid to 15(S)-HpETE (see 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid); 15(S)-HpETE is then converted to its 14,15- ...
... initial characterization and relationship to fatty acid transport protein". Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 60 (5-6 ... Its primary role is in fatty acid elongation or complex lipid synthesis rather than in degradation. This gene has a mouse ... Hirsch D, Stahl A, Lodish HF (1998). "A family of fatty acid transporters conserved from mycobacterium to man". Proc. Natl. ... "Entrez Gene: SLC27A5 solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 5". Fisher E, Nitz I, Lindner I, et al. (2007 ...
... and Arachidonic acid. Desaturase enzymes (such as those encoded by FADS1) regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the ... Fatty acid desaturase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FADS1 gene. The protein encoded by the FADS1 gene is a ... member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family and desaturates omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids at the ... Fatty Acids. 75 (2): 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2006.05.001. PMID 16846730. Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, et al. (2007). "Large- ...
Fatty Acids. 69 (1): 45-50. doi:10.1016/S0952-3278(03)00055-3. PMID 12878450. Edwards, AD; Yue, X; Squier, MV; Thoresen, M; ... Cordey, R; Chiolero, R; Miller, JA; Jr (1973). "Resuscitation of neonates by hypothermia: report on 20 cases with acid-base ... 1989). "Effect of mild hypothermia on ischemia-induced release of neurotransmitters and free fatty acids in rat brain". Stroke ... 1996). "Effects of hypothermia on the rate of excitatory amino acid release after ischemic depolarization". Stroke. 27 (5): 913 ...
Fatty Acids. 80 (2-3): 165-71. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2009.01.001. PMID 19217763. Bzoma B; Debska-Slizieñ A; Dudziak M; et al. ( ... 2009). "Docosahexaenoic acid is a substrate for ACAT1 and inhibits cholesteryl ester formation from oleic acid in MCF-10A cells ... in which the dysfunction of a specific step of amino acid catabolism results in the excretion of non-amino acids in the urine. ... the diagnostic markers are 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-methylacetoacetic acid, and tiglylglycine. The disease is managed ...
... behenic acid; erucyl alcohol; behenyl alcohol; wax esters; fatty acids; brassylic acid and pelargonic acid. These products are ... Erucic acid is traditionally derived from older varieties of rapeseed. Crambe oil is considered to be a possible replacement ... The oil has been shown to consist of 55-60% erucic acid. The Australian Farm Diversification Information Service writes: ... Intermediate product derived from high erucic acid oil include: triglycerides; erucamides; amines, ...
ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eiosapentaenoic acid), to 5- ... It transforms essential fatty acids (EFA) substrates into leukotrienes as well as a wide range of other biologically active ... ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid), to 5- ... ALOX5 acts in series with ALOX15 to metabolize the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, i.e. 4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z- ...
Fatty Acids. 66 (5-6): 505-9. doi:10.1054/plef.2002.0391. PMID 12144871. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003 ... 1994). "Immunohistochemical localization, messenger ribonucleic acid abundance, and activity of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin ... antagonism in the regulation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity and messenger ribonucleic acid levels in human ...
... initial characterization and relationship to fatty acid transport protein". Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 60 (5-6 ... all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in ... The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... This isozyme activates long-chain, branched-chain and very long chain fatty acids containing 22 or more carbons to their CoA ...
... the liver fatty acid binding protein) are also able to bind bile acids. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid ... Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and ... FABP6 fatty acid binding protein 6, ileal (gastrotropin)". Börchers T, Hohoff C, Buhlmann C, Spener F (1997). "Heart-type fatty ... Fatty acid binding protein 6, ileal (gastrotropin), also known as FABP6, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FABP6 ...
Fatty acid oxidation was also found to increase to levels of wild-type mice that were deficient in non-AdPLA deficient obese ... Fatty Acids. 47 (3): 171-82. doi:10.1016/0952-3278(92)90235-B. PMID 1475271. Jaworski K, Sarkadi-Nagy E, Duncan RE, Ahmadian M ... WAT is responsible for releasing fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol as energy sources for other tissues which is regulated ... AdPLA regulates adipocyte lipolysis and release of fatty acids through a G-protein coupled pathway involving prostaglandin and ...
... and CYP2S1 metabolize arachidonic acid to the non-classic Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by coverting one of the fatty acid's ... Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), i.e.i.e. 5Z, 8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosapentaenoic acid is an ω-3 fatty acid with five cis double bonds ... Mead acid, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid, is an ω-9 fatty acid containing three cis double bonds, each located between ... Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), 8Z, 11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid is an ω-6 fatty acid with three cis double bonds, each ...
The production of ketone bodies is then initiated to make available energy that is stored as fatty acids. Fatty acids are ... However, if the amounts of acetyl-CoA generated in fatty-acid β-oxidation challenge the processing capacity of the TCA cycle; i ... Glew, Robert H. "You Can Get There From Here: Acetone, Anionic Ketones and Even-Carbon Fatty Acids can Provide Substrates for ... doi:10.1016/0041-008X(72)90032-4. J D McGarry; Foster, and D. W. (1980-01-01). "Regulation of Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation and ...
Reactions between other fatty acids and these pathways (the COX products of pinolenic and mead acid). Docosanoids Funk, Colin D ... is the collective term for oxygenated derivatives of three different 20-carbon essential fatty acids-Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA ... Fatty Acids. 61 (1): 55-64. doi:10.1054/plef.1999.0074. PMID 10477044. Cyberlipid Center. "Prostanoids and Related Products". ... Nonclassic eicosanoids are biologically active signaling molecules made by oxygenation of twenty-carbon fatty acids other than ...
... free fatty acids; enzymes such as amylase; and prostaglandins. Its consistency is determined by the influence of the hormones ... A cheap, cost-effective and practical alternative in poorer countries is visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Instituting ... It contains electrolytes such as calcium, sodium, and potassium; organic components such as glucose, amino acids, and soluble ...
High oleic sunflower oil has at least 82% oleic acid. Variation in unsaturated fatty acids profile is strongly influenced by ... While the original oilseed was high in linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated ω-6 fatty acid, a premium high oleic acid strain was ... The British Pharmacopoeia lists the following profile: Palmitic acid (saturated): 5% Stearic acid (saturated): 6% Oleic acid ( ... Because sunflower oil is primarily composed of less-stable polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, it can be ...
At low glucose levels, the production of acetyl-CoA is linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are first converted to ... In plants, de novo fatty acid synthesis occurs in the plastids. Many seeds accumulate large reservoirs of seed oils to support ... where the fatty acids are combined with glycerol to form triglycerides, the major fuel reservoir of most animals. Fatty acids ... Unlike free fatty acids, ketone bodies can cross the blood-brain barrier and are therefore available as fuel for the cells of ...
Based on her research on fatty acids she developed a diet that she believed was useful in the treatment of cancer. There is no ... Budwig used these techniques to compare the fatty acid profiles of sick and healthy individuals. This made her one of the first ... "Omega-3 Fatty Acids". cancer.org. American Cancer Society. 2013-01-17. Archived from the original on 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2014 ... Budwig researched the theory that a low oxygen environment would develop in the absence of sulphydryl groups and/or fatty acid ...
"Omega 7 Fatty Acids , Palmitoleic Acid , Sibu Beauty". Omega7.com. Retrieved February 24, 2015. "Signifying Science". Archived ...
... specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name. Monounsaturated oleic acid is also ... The approximate concentration of esterified fatty acids in palm oil is: Red palm oil is rich in carotenes, such as alpha- ... Like palm kernel oil, red palm oil contains around 50% medium chain fatty acids but it also contains the following nutrients:[ ... Fats and fatty acids". Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Release SR-21. 2014. Archived from the original on ...
Alpha-linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid, and is the form that is most common and widespread of the omega-3 fatty acids. ... There are three types of omega-3 fatty acids; namely alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and ... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are essential for proper brain and cognitive development. They ... L-Carnitine is an amino acid that plays a key role in energy production, and facilitates the transport of fatty acids into the ...
... fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after ... Fatty acid synthesis proceeds via ketones. Acetoacetate is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which releases energy from sugars ... Acid/base properties of ketonesEdit. Ketones are far more acidic (pKa ≈ 20) than a regular alkane (pKa ≈ 50). This difference ... Acids as weak as pyridinium cation (as found in pyridinium tosylate) with a pKa of 5.2 are able to serve as catalysts in this ...
Synthesis of Cyclopropane Fatty Acids by C(sp3)−C(sp3) Cross-Coupling Reaction and Formal Synthesis of α-Mycolic Acid. In: ... This method could be applicable to the synthesis of trans-cyclopropane fatty acids and enantioenriched cyclopropane fatty acids ... This method could be applicable to the synthesis of trans-cyclopropane fatty acids and enantioenriched cyclopropane fatty acids ... This method could be applicable to the synthesis of trans-cyclopropane fatty acids and enantioenriched cyclopropane fatty acids ...
... and would be useful for seeking methods to improve the production of unsaturated fatty acids and enhance efforts for the ... The results revealed that the fatty acid desaturases genes in A. oryzae were highly expressed in adaptive phase growth and up- ... In addition, the expression pattern of 13 fatty acid desaturases genes of A. oryzae was tested in different growth stages and ... This study provided a better understanding of the evolution and functions of the fatty acid desaturases gene family in the four ...
... plasma fatty acids) are not in their ester, fatty acids are known as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) or free fatty acids ( ... Essential fatty acids[edit]. Main article: Essential fatty acid. Fatty acids that are required for good health but cannot be ... Fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms are called odd-chain fatty acids, whereas the rest are even-chain fatty acids. ... Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These fatty acids are widely distributed in ...
essential fatty acid (plural essential fatty acids) *(biochemistry) any fatty acid required for human metabolism that cannot be ... any fatty acid required for human metabolism that cannot be synthesized. *Chinese: Cantonese: 必需脂肪酸 (bit1 seoi1 zi1 fong1 syun1 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=essential_fatty_acid&oldid=53790424" ...
Natural fatty acids commonly have a chain of 4 to 28 carbons (usually unbranched and even-numbered), which may be saturated or ... fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). oxa fatty acid (CHEBI:61410) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). oxo fatty acid (CHEBI:59644) is a fatty ... fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). thia fatty acid (CHEBI:59643) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). thio-fatty acid (CHEBI:59913) is a fatty ... long-chain fatty acid (CHEBI:15904) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). medium-chain fatty acid (CHEBI:59554) is a fatty acid (CHEBI ...
Natural fatty acids commonly have a chain of 4 to 28 carbons (usually unbranched and even-numbered), which may be saturated or ... fatty acid 7:0 (CHEBI:141070) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). fatty acid 8:0 (CHEBI:141071) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). fatty ... fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). oxa fatty acid (CHEBI:61410) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). oxo fatty acid (CHEBI:59644) is a fatty ... fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). thia fatty acid (CHEBI:59643) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). thio-fatty acid (CHEBI:59913) is a fatty ...
Study finds that the current level of evidence does not clearly support guidelines restricting saturated fatty acid consumption ... Some saturated fatty acids may present a bigger risk to diabetes than others 06 Aug 2014 The relationship between saturated fat ... The study found that saturated fatty acids can be associated with both an increased and decreased risk of developing the ... New evidence raises questions about the link between fatty acids and heart disease. 18 Mar 2014 ...
Essential fatty acids are extremely important nutrients for health. ... Essential fatty acids Description Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are fats that are essential to the diet because the body cannot ... the omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, and two others called EPA and DHA. Alpha-linolenic acid is ... Scientists classify essential fatty acids into two types, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids , depending on their ...
The Chemical Sciences Division is working to develop natural-matrix and solution-based SRMs that are characterized for fatty ... acid composition. The natural-matrix SRMs are intended primarily for use as control materials, but other uses include method ... For value assignment of fatty acid levels in SRMs, two independent methods are utilized. Multiple deuterated fatty acids are ... When this conversion is required, the fatty acids are reported as the triglycerides. Free fatty acids do not require ...
Mobilization of fatty acids: In times of stress when the body requires energy, fatty acids are released from adipose cells and ... Other articles where Fatty acid mobilization is discussed: lipid: ... molecules in a process called fatty acid mobilization. The fatty acids are broken down into smaller molecules that can enter ... In lipid: Mobilization of fatty acids. In times of stress when the body requires energy, fatty acids are released from adipose ...
... add a slight excess of acid, heat with gentle stirring until the fatty acid layer separates. Transfer the fatty acids into a ... where R1 and R2 represent one fatty acid moiety and hydrogen in the case of mono-esters and two fatty acid moieties in the case ... Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids, INS No. 477. DEFINITION. Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids are mixtures of ... Periodic Acid solution: Dissolve 5.4 g of periodic acid, H5IO6 in 100 ml of water, add 1900 ml of glacial acetic acid, and mix ...
Omega-6 Fatty Acids: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... Adding the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid along with an omega-3 fatty acid called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to infant ... N-6 Essential Fatty Acids, Omega 6, Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Omega 6 Oils, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, PUFAs.. ... on omega-6 fatty acid supplements comes from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids ...
Alpha-linolenic acid and its conversion to longer chain n-3 fatty acids: Benefits for human health and a role in maintaining ... There is no known toxicity risk consistently associated with diets high in omega-3 fatty acids. Like any fatty acids, omega-3s ... The cardiovascular effects of flaxseed and its omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid. Can J Cardiol 2010; 26:489-96. * ... of alpha-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Am J Clin Nutr ...
Fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration (FAHN) is a progressive disorder of the nervous system (neurodegeneration) ... This enzyme modifies fatty acids, which are building blocks used to make fats (lipids). Specifically, fatty acid 2-hydroxylase ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/fatty-acid-hydroxylase-associated-neurodegeneration/ Fatty acid hydroxylase-associated ... adds a single oxygen atom to a hydrogen atom at a particular point on a fatty acid to create a 2-hydroxylated fatty acid. ...
... but what do fatty acids offer during pregnancy and lactation? ... studies have supported a role for omega-3 fatty acids in ... Intervention Studies of Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation & Maternal Depression *. Omega-3 fatty acid ... Maternal & Fetal Concentrations of Essential Fatty Acids & Long-chain PUFAs. *Other Factors that May Influence Fatty Acid ... Maternal & Fetal Concentrations of Essential Fatty Acids & Long-chain PUFAs. *Other Factors that May Influence Fatty Acid ...
"The ratio of 2.3:1 translates to 6.7g n-6 fatty acids and 2.9g n-3 fatty acids in a 8360 kJ (2000 kcal) diet. The difficulty in ... 3 fatty acids: Benefits for human health and a role in maintaining tissue n−3 fatty acid levels," Progress in Lipid Research, ... 3 fatty acids: Benefits for human health and a role in maintaining tissue n−3 fatty acid levels," Progress in Lipid Research, ... highly unsaturated fatty acids] in cell membranes."[3] Types of Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Fats are categorized by the number of ...
... are small organic acids with less than six carbons, which are produced by fermentation of unabsorbed and undigested components ... The most abundant (making up 90-95 percent) among these are acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The three important ... Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are small organic acids with less than six carbons, which are produced by fermentation of ... Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs). News-Medical. 16 October 2019. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Short-Chain-Fatty-Acids-( ...
Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency. Did you know that the deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) can make us vulnerable to ... Omega-6 Fatty Acids. Omega-6 fatty acids, also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFAs, omega-6 oils, or simply omega-6 is ... Omega-3 Fatty Acids Foods List. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids. Since our body cannot produce them, we are ... An Overview of Essential Fatty Acid Supplements. Essential fatty acids play an important role in a number of metabolic ...
There was a discussion a few days ago on media supplemented with fatty acids. I missed the answers and I would like to know ... Fatty acid medium. truan at cgmvax.cgm.cnrs-gif.fr truan at cgmvax.cgm.cnrs-gif.fr Tue Mar 8 08:11:39 EST 1994 *Previous ... about the detergent to solubilize the fatty acids (with oleic, palmitoleic, palmitic and stearic acids). Is there a specific ... I cannot use tween because I want to be sure that the detergent itself will not interfere with the fatty acis supplementation. ...
Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and ... Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) ( ... an omega-3 fatty acid; and linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid. The human body cannot synthesize essential fatty acids, ... Omega-6 fatty acid content in grass-fed beef. There are two essential fatty acids (EFAs) in human nutrition: α-linolenic acid ( ...
... in borage and linseed oil fatty acids. The effects of solvent,... ... was employed for the enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids ... International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, Recommendations for the Essential Fatty Acid Requirements for ... in borage and linseed oil fatty acids. The effects of solvent, operation temperature, and solvent to free fatty acid (FFA) ... Syed Rahmatullah, M.S.K., V.K.S. Shukla, and K.D. Mukherjee, γ-Linolenic Acid Concentrates from Borage Oil Fatty Acids via ...
... but the fatty acids always benefit the cardiovascular system, a U.S. doctor says. ... Omega-3 fatty acids may sometimes result in fishy burp, ... of 32,000 participants randomized to receive omega-3 fatty acid ... KANSAS CITY, Mo., March 12 (UPI) -- Omega-3 fatty acids may sometimes result in "fishy burp," but the fatty acids always ... Omega-3 fatty acids get FDA health claim *Omega 6 fats and bad gene up heart disease *Wine boosts omega-3 in blood the best * ...
Increased σE Activity Alters Cellular Fatty-Acid Composition.. Fatty acids are targets for direct or indirect damage by ROS (1 ... fatty acyl methylase. Fatty acids have crucial, yet diverse, roles in biology. In cells and organelles, fatty acids maintain ... 2005) Furan fatty acids: Occurrence, synthesis, and reactions. Are furan fatty acids responsible for the cardioprotective ... we prepared fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to compare the fatty acid content of wild-type cells and mutant cells (ΔChrR; see ...
Buy Fatty and Amino Acids by Nil Sen (eBook) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings, and ... www.lulu.com/shop/nil-sen/fatty-and-amino-acids/ebook/product-15258894.html. ...
Non-esterified fatty acid levels increase long before hyperglycaemia becomes present. Raised non-esterified fatty acids impair ... Free fatty acids (FFA) and endothelial dysfunction; role of increased oxidative stress and inflammation. --to: Steinberg et al ... Vascular function, insulin resistance and fatty acids.. Steinberg HO1, Baron AD. ...
  • An iterative Ni-catalyzed C(sp 3 )−C(sp 3 ) cross-coupling reaction of a novel cis-cyclopropane containing bifunctional building blocks with alkyl halides and alkyl Grignard reagents enabled the introduction of a cyclopropane ring into the desired position(s) of saturated carbon frameworks, providing a straightforward synthetic route to cyclopropane fatty acids. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer, or triglycerides in lipid droplets, cis bonds limit the ability of fatty acids to be closely packed, and therefore can affect the melting temperature of the membrane or of the fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to produce a highly concentrated form of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that is free from lipid peroxides, heavy metals, environmental contaminants, and other harmful compounds. (iherb.com)
  • A significant body of research worked on the relationship between membrane lipid and fatty acid composition and ability of cell to tolerate adverse change in temperature. (hindawi.com)
  • N-3 vs. n-6 fatty acids differentially influence calcium signalling and adhesion of inflammatory activated monocytes: impact of lipid rafts. (cambridge.org)
  • lipid infusion) plasma free fatty acid levels under euglycemic (approximately 5.2 mM) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 400 pM) clamp conditions for 6 h. (jci.org)
  • The process involves' the treatment of fatty acids or monohydric alcohol esters of fatty acids containing two double bonds separated by a methylene group, with certain organic peroxides at temperatures in excess of 50 C. and usually in excess of 100 C., the temperature depending on the particular peroxide used. (google.co.uk)
  • In the following table, SIM masses are grouped by the internal standard that was used to normalize recovery for the group of fatty acids. (cdc.gov)
  • Audrey Noble, Harper's BAZAAR , "The Beauty Benefits of Rosehip Oil," 2 May 2019 The tiny black olives make a beautiful golden oil rich in fatty acids and renowned for its fruity aroma. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Jennifer Goldstein, Marie Claire , "Davines' Newest Shampoo Took 203 Years to Make," 8 May 2019 The crucial factor here is the size of the fatty acid molecules that make up the oil. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Jenn Sinrich, SELF , "What You Should Know Before Using a Trendy New Face Oil," 13 Mar. 2019 The cream features hyaluronic acid, arginine, and vitamin E to help soften the texture of uneven skin, while the serum, packed with essential fatty acids , has a soothing effect on the physical discomfort stretch marks can sometimes cause. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Because most or all mitochondrial membrane fatty acids are believed to originate outside the mitochondria, the role of the mitochondrial fatty acid biosynthetic pathway is unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this, activated CD8 T cells lacking TRAF6 display defective AMP-activated kinase activation and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in response to growth factor withdrawal. (nih.gov)
  • Raised non-esterified fatty acids impair insulin's effect on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and the vascular endothelium and thus could have detrimental effects on the vasculature, leading to premature cardiovascular disease. (nih.gov)
  • John Wenz, Popular Mechanics , "This Purple Plant Has a Secret That Could Replace Synthetic Engine Oil," 27 Aug. 2018 Side effects from omega 3 fatty acids can include burping up a fishy taste, stomach distress, and heartburn. (merriam-webster.com)