Acid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Dental Etching: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Air Abrasion, Dental: A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Dental Enamel Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Orthodontic Brackets: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Dental Debonding: Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Acrylic ResinsSpecialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dental Prosthesis Repair: The process of reuniting or replacing a broken or worn dental prosthesis or its part.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Dentin Permeability: The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nanowires: Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.Tooth DiseasesNanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems: A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Dental Facilities: Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Orthodontic Retainers: Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Libraries, DentalSilicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Lasers, Gas: Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Dental Pulp CalcificationTooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Mouth DiseasesAge Determination by Teeth: A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

In vitro comparison of the retention capacity of new aesthetic brackets. (1/389)

Tensile bond strength and bond failure location were evaluated in vitro for two types of aesthetic brackets (non-silanated ceramic, polycarbonate) and one stainless steel bracket, using bovine teeth as the substrate and diacrylate resin as the adhesive. The results show that metallic bracket had the highest bond strength (13.21 N) followed by the new plastic bracket (12.01 N), which does not require the use of a primer. The non-silanated ceramic bracket produced the lowest bond strength (8.88 N). Bond failures occurred mainly between bracket and cement, although a small percentage occurred between the enamel-cement interface with the metal and plastic brackets and within the cement for the plastic bracket. With the ceramic bracket all the failures occurred at the bracket-cement interface. This suggests that the problems of enamel lesions produced by this type of bracket may have been eliminated. The results also show that the enamel/adhesive bond is stronger than the adhesive/bracket bond in this in vitro study.  (+info)

The crystal growth technique--a laboratory evaluation of bond strengths. (2/389)

An ex vivo study was carried out to determine differences in the bond strengths achieved with brackets placed using a crystal growth technique compared with a conventional acid-etch technique. A solution of 37 per cent phosphoric acid was used for acid-etching and a commercially available polyacrylic acid gel, Crystal-lok for crystal growth. A heavily-filled composite resin was used for all samples to bond brackets to healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Polycrystalline ceramic and stainless steel brackets were used and tested to both tensile and shear failure using an Instron Universal Testing machine. The tensile and shear bond strengths were recorded in kgF. In view of difficulties experienced with previous authors using different units to describe their findings, the data were subsequently converted to a range of units in order to facilitate direct comparison. The crystal growth technique produced significantly lower bond strengths than the acid-etch technique for ceramic and stainless steel brackets, both in tensile and shear mode. The tensile bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 2.2 kg compared with 6.01 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the tensile bond strengths were 3.9 kg for crystal growth and 5.55 kg for acid-etch. The mean shear bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 12.61 kg compared with 21.55 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the shear bond strengths were 7.93 kg with crystal growth compared with 16.55 kg for acid-tech. These bond strengths were below those previously suggested as clinically acceptable.  (+info)

Super pulse CO2 laser for bracket bonding and debonding. (3/389)

A super pulse and a normal pulse CO2 laser were used to carry out enamel etching and bracket debonding in vitro and in vivo. The shear bond strength of the orthodontic brackets attached to laser-etched and conventional chemically-etched extracted premolars was measured. The pulp cavity temperature was also measured using the same laser irradiation conditions as the shear test. Both super pulse and normal pulse CO2 laser etching resulted in a lower shear bond strength (super pulse: 6.9 +/- 3.4 kg, normal pulse: 9.7 +/- 5.2 kg) than that of chemical etching (15.3 +/- 2.8 kg). Furthermore, the super pulse CO2 laser was able to create debonding at 2 watts within a period of less than 4 seconds (2.9 +/- 0.9 seconds). The super pulse, when irradiating the ceramic brackets from above, during debonding showed a 1.4 degrees C temperature increase in the dental pulp at 2 watts and an increase of 2.1 degrees C at 3 watts. While etching, directly irradiating the enamel surface at 3 watts, the dental pulp showed a temperature increase of 3.5 degrees C. These temperature increases were within the physiologically acceptable limits of the pulp. These results indicate that, in orthodontic treatments, super pulse CO2 laser debonding is more useful than laser etching.  (+info)

Vital pulp capping: a worthwhile procedure. (4/389)

Despite the progress made in the field of pulp biology, the technique and philosophy of direct vital pulp capping remains a controversial subject. Clinicians are well aware of the immediate and long-term success rates after root canal therapy, but are less certain of the success of vital pulp capping. Researchers have demonstrated that exposed pulps will heal and form reparative dentin. It is realized now that the variable prognosis of vital pulp capping is predominately a restorative issue. The factors that can produce a successful vital pulp cap are discussed in conjunction with two popular techniques.  (+info)

A laboratory investigation to compare enamel preparation by sandblasting or acid etching prior to bracket bonding. (5/389)

A laboratory investigation to compare the mean shear debonding force and mode of bond failure of metallic brackets bonded to sandblasted and acid-etched enamel is described. The buccal surfaces of 30 extracted human premolars were sandblasted for 5 seconds with 50 mu alumina and the buccal surfaces of a further 30 human premolars were etched with 37 per cent phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. Following storage for 24 hours at 37 degrees C in distilled water, shear debonding force was measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine with a cross-head speed of 10 mm/minute. Mean shear debonding force was significantly lower for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel compared to acid etched enamel (P < 0.001). Weibull analysis showed that at a given stress the probability of failure was significantly greater for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel. Brackets bonded to etched enamel showed a mixed mode of bond failure whereas following sandblasting, failure was adhesive at the enamel/composite interface (P < 0.01).  (+info)

Factors affecting the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain. (6/389)

The aim of this investigation was to establish a regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain, which ensures adequate bond strength (6-8 MPa) with minimal damage on debond and consisted of an ex vivo investigation measuring the effects of porcelain surface preparation and thermocycling on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. One-hundred-and-twenty feldspathic porcelain bonded crown surfaces were divided into 12 equally-sized groups to assess the effects of: (1) glaze removal, (2) application of hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, or omission of acid treatment, and (3) silane priming upon the bond strength of premolar brackets bonded with Right-on (TM) composite resin adhesive. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling and then to shear debonding forces on an Instron machine. Removal of the porcelain glaze, or use of hydrofluoric acid, prior to bonding were found to be unnecessary to secure the target bond strength. Hydrofluoric acid application was associated with increased porcelain surface damage. Thermocycling caused a significant reduction in shear bond strength to porcelain (P < 0*001). The best regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, and prime with silane prior to bonding. Usually the porcelain surfaces could be repolished. Refereed Paper  (+info)

Effect of ferric chloride/citric acid/phosphoric acid conditioner on adhesion of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to the tooth. (7/389)

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ferric chloride/citric acid/phosphoric acid conditioners on the surface morphology of enamel and dentin and on the adhesion of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to conditioned tooth surfaces. Seven conditioners, including phosphoric acid and its mixture with citric acid and ferric chloride, were prepared and used for treating bovine teeth before bonding with the resin. The effects of the conditioners on the surface morphology and adhesion were examined by scanning electron microscopy and by atomic force microscopy and by tensile bond strength tests, respectively. The maximum bond strengths to tooth surfaces were obtained by using 3% ferric chloride/5% citric acid/10% phosphoric acid conditioner. Thus, enamel and dentin can be treated simultaneously with this conditioner before bonding with the 4-META/MMA-TBB resin system.  (+info)

Effectiveness of the addition of water-soluble photoinitiator into the self-etching primers on the adhesion of a resin composite to polished dentin and enamel. (8/389)

The effectiveness of the addition of a photoinitiator into self-etching primer was investigated by measuring the tensile bond strength between a resin composite and dentin or enamel. The addition of camphorquinone to 5 M (5 wt% MDP -35 wt% HEMA aqueous solution) or 30 M (30 wt% MDP -35 wt% HEMA aqueous solution) did not increase the bond strengths of resin composite to dentin or enamel. On the other hand, the bond strength to dentin was increased by the addition of a water-soluble photoinitiator, 2-hydroxy-3-(3,4-dimethyl-9-oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2-yloxy)-N,N, N-trimethyl-1- propanaminium chloride (QTX) to 5 M or 30 M. The bond strengths to enamel were not influenced by the addition of QTX to 5 M or 30 M.  (+info)

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Wipe the surface with wax and grease remover to get it clean enough so nothing interferes i.e. fingerprints. The self-etching primer is usually gray or olive drab gray but the color is just there to show you where youve put it on and it is very thin and one thin coat is enough. Putting more of the primer wont make it work better. You can apply it over paint or bondo but it is only effective on bare metal. You can apply your high build primer or body filler over the self-etching primer but be careful it is not a finished product by it self ...
A method and apparatus for etching photomasks are provided herein. In one embodiment, a method of etching an ARC layer or an absorber layer disposed on a photomask includes transferring a film stack into an etching chamber, the film stack having an ARC layer or an absorber layer partially exposed through a patterned layer, providing a gas mixture including at least one fluorine containing gas in to a processing chamber, applying a source RF power to form a plasma from the gas mixture, applying a first type of RF bias power to the substrate for a first period of time, applying a second type of RF bias power away from the substrate for a second period of time, and etching the ARC layer or the absorber layer through the patterned layer in the presence of the plasma.
태양전지에서 고효율 달성을 위해 태양광을 더 많이 활용하기 위해서는 태양전지 표면에서의 광 반사를 줄여야 하는데 가장 효과적인 방법은 실리콘 기판의 wet etching 공정을 통한 텍스쳐링이다. 태양전지에서 가장 많이 사용되는 파장대역은 가시광선 영역인데 555 nm 파장에서 실리콘 표면의 total reflectance는 30.1%로 매우 높고 diffuse reflectance는 0.1%로서 무시할만큼 적다. 하지만 wet etching을 한 후 total reflectance는 18%까지 감소하였고, diffuse reflectance는 16%까지 증가하였다. 결정면에 따른 식각선택성을 이용하는 이방성 etching으로 V groove 모양의 표면형상을 얻을 수 있었고, 후속 등방성 etching을 하여 U groove 표면형상을 얻을 수 있었다. 또한 wet etching의 문제점중의 하나는 반응중에 생성되는 수소기체가 실리콘 표면에 부착되어 etching이 불균일하게 진행되는 것인데 ...
Edouard Manet, presentation by the Gallery Champetier, etchings books lithographs, of works on paper by Edouard Manet, prints, etchings, lithographs.
170 Series Uni Solvent. National Rule Universal Reducer. 171 - Fast 172 - Medium 173 - Slow 174 - Very Slow 160 Series Stabilizers. (For use with 333 series basecoat). 161 - Fast 162 - Medium 163 - Slow Exempt Reducers - Uni-Solvent LV. X01 - Fast Exempt X02 - Medium Exempt Blending Solvent. BZ1 - Universal Blending Solvent HPC Universal Activators. HPC0 - Slow HPC1 - Standard HPC2 - Fast HPC3 - Very Fast Specialty Activators. HPC218 - 3.5 VOC Activator HPC007 - Activator 700C000 - Alkyd Enamel Hardener VPC50 - VP50 Activator VPC5X - VP50 Fast Activator DTMA2035 - DTM2035 / CPS2035 Activator VPC210 - VPLV Low VOC Activator ...
Medline oxygen regulators use a patent-pending Intelliflo TM disc to regulate oxygen flow. This advanced disc allows flows down to 1/32 LPM with very tight flow tolerances. Laser etching on knob and body is permanent so markings will not peel, flake or wear off. Gauge protector helps prevent damage. Anodized aluminum will not rust. Brass core for maximum safety. Five-year warranty (excludes contents gauge and gauge protector ...
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Our Re-design Brand Ambassadors have come up with some inspiring ways to use our latest Fungi Forest décor transfer. With its botanical etching feel, it will find suitable uses on a variety of surfaces. Take a look at the wonderful projects below for some great ideas!. ...
Sale: Save up to 10% on Lithographs, Etchings & Woodcuts. Browse page 147 of 210. Deals on Unknown, IRISMARU, Allstate, WillLight, Verones, and more.
This thesis is about thermal etching of quartz single crystals with boron oxide melt and thermal etchings on inorganic polymeric single crystals of orthosilicates, willemite (Zn2SiO4) and phenakite (Be2SiO4), where isolated [SiO4] groups are polymerized by corner-sharing with other tetrahedral groups, such as [ZnO4] and [BeO4]. On the thermal etching of quartz, experiments were performed on quartz (10 0), (0001), (10 1) and (11 1) from 500¢J to 700¢J. Three types of etch figures were recognized by scanning electron microscopy: isolated dislocation etch pit, aligned etch pits and flat etch pits. The effects of defect specification and £\-£] displacive phase transformation of quartz on its development of thermal etch figures were evaluated. By doing so, boron oxide melt was proved to be a useful etchant on the studies of defect types and dynamics of quartz. As for the thermal etching of phenakite type silicate, we conducted thermal-cycle etching of willemite at 1250¢J, hydrochloric and ...
A method for using an isotropic wet etching process chemical process for trimming semiconductor feature sizes with improved critical dimension control including providing a hard mask overlying a substrate included in a semiconductor wafer said hard mask patterned for masking a portion of the substrate for forming a semiconductor feature according to an anisotropic plasma etching process; isotropically wet etching the hard mask to reduce a dimension of the hard mask prior to carrying out the anisotropic plasma etching process; and, anisotropically plasma etching a portion of the substrate not covered by the hard mask to form the semiconductor feature.
Red acetate square-framed sunglasses with rose graduated lenses. Fendi sunglasses have a transparent rose and green rose etching on front, rose etching on arms, a designer logo at hinge and come in a signature designer-stamped protective case. 100% UV protection.
Conventional methods of etching TiSix use Cl2 or HBr as the plasma etchant. However, these methods can lead to undesirable residues, due to the presence of silicon nodules in the TiSix The present invention overcomes the residue problem by adding a fluorine containing gas to the plasma etchant, which is then able to effectively etch the Si nodules at an etch rate which is approximately the same as the etch rate of the TiSix, so that the undesirable residue is not formed. A method of etching TiSix is provided, wherein the surface of the TiSix is exposed, typically through a patterned mask, to a plasma etchant. The plasma etchant comprises (i) at least one fluorine containing gas, such as SF6, NF3, CxFy, and compatible mixtures of such gases; and (ii) a gas selected from the group consisting of HBr, Cl2, and combinations thereof.
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Detailed Phosphoric Acid 85% 1.Phosphoric Acid food grade&tech grade 2.Molecular formula: H3PO4 3.CAS No: 766-38-2 4.phosphates Phosphoric Acid Product Name: Phosphoric Acid Molecular formula: H3PO4 Molecular weight: 98.00 CAS No: 7664-38-2 Package: 35kg/drum; 21MTS/20FCL Applications: Use
Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa, Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck and Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira Degradation of resin-dentin bonds of etch-and-rinse adhesive system to primary and permanent teeth. Braz. oral res., Dec 2012, vol.26, no.6, p.511-515. ISSN 1806- ...
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MasonrySaver® No-Rinse Concrete Etch is a hydrofluoric acid etching material designed for etching concrete or other masonry surfaces prior to coating or sealing. A thin film of Etch will etch any silica-containing surface in as little as 15 seconds.. ...
This is bringing back some long lab hours had nearly erased :tongue: . My 1st impression especially from the 2nd and 3rd figs is that your surface preparation doesnt quite cut it, meaning its too rough and hides any microstructural detail of orientation (see what brewnog said about sanding and polishing). Also, Id do the etching in stages not to overdo it (time-wise) and see whether something starts to appear, then etch more if not. Also2 whatever youre going so see is probably not going to appear macroscopically (too well at least), but rather youre going to have to take a pretty close look near the bottom of the threads (since the deformation probably isnt close to what youd see in for example a forged piece of material ...
Graphic Chemical Vine Black ink printed on Rives BFK 250 gm paper 5 x 7 inch etching on 8 x 10 paper Signed, embossed, deckled and hand-numbered edition of 4 Includes COA
Adriaen van de Velde, Spotted Steer and Three Sheep, 1670, etching on laid paper, 13.8 x 16.5 cm trimmed within platemark; image: 13.1 x 15.9 cm, National Gallery of Canada
Top quality electrolytes designed for use with the Pryor chemical etching system. Comes with fluids, application pads & sponge. Enquire online today.
This is either an original etching or an engraved print. It is not a modern printed copy as there are no pixel dots. Having visited Clovelly just a couple of months ago I can say that this is an excellent depiction but one I think done quite some time ago. Measures 12 1/2" x 9 1/2" in frame. ...
ABSTRACT-In evaluating the effectiveness of consolidants for limestone, difficulty is encountered in the determination of the depth of penetration of consolidants. A simple procedure using iodine vapor for visualizing penetration depth is described. The technique is compared with other methods, such as fluorescent dye indicators, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, charring in an inert atmosphere, and acid etching, for effectiveness, applicability, and suitability. ...
[118 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Wet Process Phosphoric Acid Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Wet Process Phosphoric...
On 3 Dec., 2019, Yunnan Phosphate Haikou Co., Ltd. (YPH)’s project of 70,000 t/a food grade phosphoric acid was completed. Started on 8 Aug., 2
Tile cleaning can prove frustrating, especially if the tile has become riddled with difficult rust or mineral deposits. Certain types of tiles can benefit from the cleaning properties of phosphoric acid, particularly when other cleaning solutions fail.
Lookup HS Codes for vi 28.09 Diphosphorus pentaoxide; phosphoric acid; polyphosphoric acids, whether or not chemically defined. Automate your import duty and taxes with Avalara LandedCosts.
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A method for fabricating a magnetic film structure is provided. The method comprises forming a magnetic structure on a bottom electrode layer, the magnetic structure comprising at least one pinned bo
Whistler made a number of etchings of Venetian scenes from about 1880, of which this is one. In the first three states of the plate, a second boy was on the steps; in the fourth states, he was replaced by the cat. Whistler ...
Erectafil - Experiments, at first upon himself, convinced Joulie that the most convenient means of counteracting this hypo-acidity was by the administration of Phosphoric Acid, which he came ultimately to take in quantities far exceeding the pharmacopoeial doses, with sustained benefit to the symptoms.
Purpose: To assess the effect of different peri- and intertubular dentin mineralization conditions and etching on shear bond strength in vitro. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty crowns of extracted bovine incisors were embedded in resin and ground to expose the buccal coronal dentin. Sixty specimens were subjected to a demineralizing solution (DS) and another 60 teeth to a bacterial-based laboratory caries model (S. mutans, SM). Thirty specimens of each demineralization protocol (DS and SM) were randomly selected and remineralized (-R). Thirty sound dentin specimens served as control (C). Resin composite buildups (Tetric) were bonded after application of one of the following adhesives: a one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno III), and a self-etching adhesive (Syntac Classic) without (three-step) and with prior additional 35% phosphoric acid etching (etch-and-rinse, four-step). Teeth were subjected to shear bond strength testing in a universal testing device at a crosshead speed of 0.5 ...
Introduction. The mechanism for adhesive bonding to dental substrates, especially to dentin, has been extensively studied in the last few decades. The establishment of effective interlocking occurs when the adhesive penetrates into the intratubular and intertubular dentin so that resin penetration into the conditioned dentin results in the formation of intratubular resin tags and a "hybrid layer."1 Micromechanical attachment is the most important mechanism of resin adhesion to dentin. However, there are several factors that can affect hybrid layer and resin tag formation, such as acid-etching, the moisture conditions of the substrate, and adhesive and dentin depth.2. During dentin acid-etching, the mineral content of the dentin surface is removed, and the collagen fibrils remain supported by water.3 The moist bonding technique prevents the collagen fibers from collapsing and provides stability to the collagen, thus enabling greater infiltration of adhesive monomers.4 However, some studies have ...
2017 July/August; 65(4):e1-e6.. This study investigated the influence of surface treatments (acid etching, ultrasonic vibration, sandblasting, and pumice cleaning) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of 3 self-etching adhesives to dentin. In the Scotchbond Universal and Clearfil S3 Bond Plus groups, the SBSs of surface treatment and control (distilled water) subgroups were not significantly different. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, mean SBSs were significantly higher with use of vibration or pumice. ...
0104] Next, a mask 208 made of a resist is formed by a photolithography method and a first etching processing for forming electrodes and wirings is performed. The first etching processing is performed under a first etching condition and a second etching condition. In this embodiment, as the first etching condition, an ICP (inductively coupled plasma) etching method is used. Also, CF4, Cl2, and O2 are used as etching gases and a ratio of respective gas flow rates is set to be 25/25/10 (sccm). RF power having 500 W and 13.56 MHz is supplied to a coil type electrode at a pressure of 1 Pa to produce plasma and thus to perform etching. Note that a chlorine system gas represented by Cl2, BCl3, SiCl4, CCl4, and the like, a fluorine system gas represented by CF4, SF6, NF3, or the like, or O2 can be suitably used as an etching gas. Here, a dry etching apparatus (Model E645-quadratureICP) using ICP, which is produced by Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. is used. Also, RF power having 150 W and ...
The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD) to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature Nitrazepam solubilization and their value decreased with increase in the cyclodextrin concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of Nitrazepam were prepared with cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, kneading, spray-drying and lyophilization. The complexes were characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry, ...
35 materials fee includes plates, ink, and paper. Etching is a fabulous printmaking technique where you use chemistry to incise a hand drawn image into a metal plate for printing. This workshop will focus on technical mastery and image making in etching. We will spend the weekend experimenting together through demonstrations and printing exercises.. You will learn how to apply BIG to a copper printing plate and manipulate it as a hard ground and as a soft ground, to achieve a variety of line and texture. Basic etching in ferric chloride mordant will be introduced, including stop-out techniques. We will work in black and white and you will learn basic intaglio printing techniques.. Baldwin Intaglio Ground (BIG) is produced by printmaker Andrew Baldwin of Trefeglwys Print Studio in Wales, UK as a substitute for toxic traditional grounds. There are many advantages of BIG in the intaglio studio such as the ability to use it as both a hard and soft ground. Weve been using it for years at Zea Mays ...
The disclosure relates to a plasma etch chemistry which allows a near perfectly anisotropic etch of silicon. A Cl-containing compound such as HCl has HBr added thereto, readily allowing the anisotropic etching of silicon. This is due to the low volatility of SiBr4. The silicon surface facing the discharge is subjected to ion bombardment, allowing the volatilization (etching) of silicon as a Si-Cl-Br compound. The Br which adsorbs on the sidewalls of the etched silicon passivates them from the etching. This new plasma etch chemistry yields a very smooth etched surface, and the etch rate is relatively insensitive to the electrical conductivity of the silicon.
The present invention is a persulfate etchant composition especially useful for dissolving copper during fabrication of microelectronic packages. The etchant is characterized by its ability to selectively etch copper in the presence of nickel, nickel-phosphorous and noble metal alloys therefrom. Furthermore, no deleterious galvanic etching occurs in this etchant-substrate system so that substantially no undercutting of the copper occurs. The combination of high selectivity and no undercutting allows for a simplification of the microelectronic fabrication process and significant improvements in the design features of the microelectronic package, in particular higher density circuits. The persulfate etchant composition is stabilized with acid and phosphate salts to provide a process that is stable, fast acting, environmentally acceptable, has high capacity, and can be performed at room temperature. A preferred etchant composition is 230 gm/liter sodium
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hello to all. is this etching the same as the etching solution that you can purchase from radio shack? also, has anyone tried electroforming. i am very much interested in this. i am actually going to purchase all items needed to electroform soon. another thing, i saw that you had some issues with melting your metal clay at one point. i had that issue when i first started. but my point is, i also purchased some base metal clay from a new source and it is very very difficult to get mixed correctely and the two firing phases are crazy. i read the instructions very well and each test piece came out bad. my silver, i can make all day. i really wanted that base metal clay to work out. polymer clay is another medium that i have started using with my stainless wire and nickel and copper and brass. resisn and enameling are another path that i am wanting to go down. i really do enjoy this blog. this is my first blog to join. ive read several, but i like this one. your art path is similar to mine. cool. ...
hello to all. is this etching the same as the etching solution that you can purchase from radio shack? also, has anyone tried electroforming. i am very much interested in this. i am actually going to purchase all items needed to electroform soon. another thing, i saw that you had some issues with melting your metal clay at one point. i had that issue when i first started. but my point is, i also purchased some base metal clay from a new source and it is very very difficult to get mixed correctely and the two firing phases are crazy. i read the instructions very well and each test piece came out bad. my silver, i can make all day. i really wanted that base metal clay to work out. polymer clay is another medium that i have started using with my stainless wire and nickel and copper and brass. resisn and enameling are another path that i am wanting to go down. i really do enjoy this blog. this is my first blog to join. ive read several, but i like this one. your art path is similar to mine. cool. ...
Among the etchings on display at the MFAs recent Goya exhibit, one from the series of Caprichos depicts an old woman, sat before a mirror, assuming the airs and accessories of youth. The lines might have been etched beneath: . As hags hold Sabbaths, less for joy than spight, So these their merry, miserable night; Still round…
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A method for inscribing a pattern on a wafer by shooting hot ions through a mask to evaporate the silicon dioxide insulation layer. Dry plasma etching replaces the wet processing method that uses film and acid for developing the pattern ...
Save big on tools for printmaking! Shop brayers, etching supplies, silk screen, lithography, and wood block printing - all at the lowest prices, guaranteed. Prices ranging from $0-9999.99.
Evaporation - air blast from a dental instrument. Chemical - acids, e.g. dietary, gastric, acid etch during dental treatments. ... coolant water jet from a dental instrument. Electrical - electric pulp testers. Mechanical-tactile - dental probe during dental ... Inflammation of the dental pulp, termed pulpitis, produces true hypersensitivity of the nerves in the dental pulp. Pulpitis is ... dental abrasion), or a sign of chronic periodontitis (gum disease). Other less common causes are acid erosion (e.g. related to ...
Although the effect on enamel is less detrimental than seen after phosphoric acid etch, the increased roughness of the surface ... Bleaching agents are only allowed to be given via dental practitioners, dental therapists and dental hygienists. Bleaching is ... Causes of intrinsic staining include: Dental caries (tooth decay) Dental trauma which may cause staining either as a result of ... either supplied by a dental professional or available over the counter). In some countries non dental professionals also carry ...
A 5% to 9% hydrofluoric acid gel is also commonly used to etch all ceramic dental restorations to improve bonding.[6] For ... Unlike other hydrohalic acids, such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen fluoride is only a weak acid in dilute aqueous solution.[19] ... or nitric when using concentrated hydrofluoric acid solutions.[22] Although hydrofluoric acid is regarded as a weak acid, it is ... It is commonly used to etch glass and silicon wafers. When hydrofluoric acid comes into contact with human skin it causes deep ...
... in soft drinks has the potential to cause dental erosion. Phosphoric acid may be used to remove rust by direct ... phosphoric acid is a common wet etching agent: for example, in combination with hydrogen peroxide and water it is used to etch ... Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the ... is used to distinguish the acid from related phosphoric acids, called polyphosphoric acids. Orthophosphoric acid is a non-toxic ...
... dental etching MeSH E06.095.585.111 --- acid etching, dental MeSH E06.170.100 --- dental care for aged MeSH E06.170.152 --- ... dental care for children MeSH E06.170.205 --- dental care for chronically ill MeSH E06.170.310 --- dental care for disabled ... MeSH E06.186.210 --- dental articulators MeSH E06.186.250 --- dental devices, home care MeSH E06.186.376 --- dental high-speed ... dental clasps MeSH E06.780.345.593 --- dental implants MeSH E06.780.345.593.185 --- dental implants, single-tooth MeSH E06.780. ...
Although this effect is not as damaging as phosphoric acid etch,[60] the increased irregularity of the teeth surface makes the ... doi:10.1016/j.dental.2004.04.002. ISSN 0109-5641. PMID 15451241.. *^ American Dental Association (November 2010) [September ... Bleaching agents are only allowed to be given by dental practitioners, dental therapists, and dental hygienists. ... Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a clear biofilm of bacteria that naturally forms in the mouth, particularly along the gumline, ...
"How the introduction of the acid-etch technique revolutionized dental practice". The Journal of the American Dental Association ... the American Dental Association, the Australian Dental Association, the British Dental Association, and the Canadian Dental ... dental hygienist, an oral health therapist and dental assistants (in some states in the USA) are able to apply dental sealants ... Once the patient is prepared, the surface of the tooth must be cleaned to allow maximum contact of the etch and the dental ...
Bonding material back onto exposed porcelain involves abrading, hydrofluoric acid etching and silanating then followed by a ... Some define a dental emergency in terms of the individual's willingness to attend for emergency dental treatment at any time at ... Dental restoration falling out or fracturing can also be considered a dental emergency as these can impact on function in ... All dental emergencies should be treated under the supervision or guidance of a dental health professional in order to preserve ...
Michael Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. Technologies have changed multiple times since then, with generally ... Dental bonding agents have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4th- and 5th-generation) to self-etch (6th- and 7th-generation) ... In 1979 he published a guide to aesthetic dentistry entitled "Dental Health/Dental Beauty." In 2012, new dental universal ... Dental bonding is a dental procedure in which a dentist applies a tooth-colored resin material (a durable plastic material) and ...
The discovery of acid etching (producing enamel irregularities ranging from 5-30 micrometers in depth) of teeth to allow a ... Dental Materials. 27: 39-52. doi:10.1016/j.dental.2010.10.021. Shenoy, A. (2008). "Is it the end of the road for dental amalgam ... patients with poorer dental health (possibly due to poor dental hygiene, diet, genetics, frequency of dental checkups, etc.) ... It was decided, after further research, that this type of composite could be used for most restorations provided the acid etch ...
Second, the implant was grit blasted and acid etched, which provided both a larger surface area and more preferable substrate ... Bicon Dental Implants is a privately owned company located in Boston, MA. The company specializes in short dental implants that ... "Failing Bicon Implants". dental-implants-guide.com/index.html. Dental Implants Guide, Corp. Retrieved 2000. Check date values ... In addition to dental implants, Bicon also offers implant-abutments, β-tricalcium phosphate, and other dental restorative ...
Other sources include glass-etching or chrome-cleaning agents like ammonium bifluoride or hydrofluoric acid, industrial ... For optimal dental health, the World Health Organization recommends a level of fluoride from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L (milligrams per ... Although it is helpful for dental health in low dosage, chronic exposure to fluoride in large amounts interferes with bone ... Jay D. Shulman; Linda M. Wells (1997). "Acute Fluoride Toxicity from Ingesting Home-use Dental Products in Children, Birth to 6 ...
Her experience with a rare double-acid etching process helped her win the contract. Thomas had created replacement panes for ... Later, as a medic in the Air Force she began using a diamond dental drill to create images on glass, developing a steady hand ... was recognized by The Austin Chronicle Best Of Awards as the "Best Acid Drop For Art's Sake". In 2004 The Austin Chronicle ... IBM and 3M are among the corporations that have commissioned her engraved and etched-glass awards. Her artwork has been ...
Involves repeated cycles of etching with 37% phosphoric acid followed by applying 5% sodium hypochlorite until improvement of ... These conditions include: Dental caries, which is the most common cause of destruction of dental hard tissues. This is more ... Self-etching adhesive was found to have better bond strength to enamel affected by MIH compared to total etch single-bottle ... Jälevik, B.; Klingberg, G. A. (January 2002). "Dental treatment, dental fear and behaviour management problems in children with ...
... but are acid etched and bonded into place using very strong resin materials, decreasing the need for physical retention. ... A crownlay is a type of dental restoration. A crownlay is a hybrid dental restoration typically placed over an endodontically ...
... using composite resin or acid-etch composite bonding. For fixed canine and canine retainer, it is only bonded to the canine ... As with dental braces, patients often must use floss threaders to pass dental floss through the small space between the ... with VFR in situ as it will lead to substantial loss of tooth surface and dental caries. The retainer can behave like a ...
Modern dental bonding systems come as a "three-step system", where the etchant, primer, and adhesive are applied sequentially; ... Adhesive resin should create the so-called hybrid layer (consisting of a collagen network exposed by etching and embedded in ... For proper bonding of resin composite restorations, dentin should be conditioned with polyacrylic acids to remove the smear ... are resin materials used to make a dental composite filling material adhere to both dentin and enamel. Bonding agents are often ...
... , also known as dental erosion, is a type of tooth wear. It is defined as the irreversible loss of tooth structure ... This method has proven sensitive to 10 minutes of acid etching on tooth enamel, which is a lesion so incipient that is not ... Colgate Dental Aegis. Mandel, Louis (2005). "Dental erosion due to wine consumption". American Dental Association. 136: 71-5. ... and regurgitation of gastric acids. Extrinsic acid erosion is when the source of acid originates from outside of the body. ...
Direct techniques involve conventional acid etch and chemical or light cured composites. The indirect technique involves the ... "Dhaka Dental College". Dhaka Dental College. Retrieved October 28, 2017.. *^ "List of recognized medical and dental colleges". ... Dhaka Dental College in Bangladesh is one of the many schools recognized by the Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council (BM&DC) ... In Canada, obtaining a dental degree, such as a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD), would be ...
Stomatologija, Baltic Dental and Maxillofacial Journal, 17 (1): 9-12. Choi, O., Deng, K. K., Kim, N. J., Ross, L., Jr., ... The etched structure of silver nanoparticles provides the chloride with the preferred atomic steps for nucleation to occur. ... Approximately half of the peptidoglycan wall is composed of teichoic acids linked by phosphodiester bonds, which results in an ... Sidenius U, Skonberg C, Olsen J, Hansen S (2003). In vitro reactivity of carboxylic acid-CoA thioesters with glutathione. ...
It should also be used with care on objects with copper alloy components as the tannic acid can have a slight etching effect on ... A Manual Of Dental Materia Medica And Therapeutics", by Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas. ... Quercitannic acid is one of the two forms of tannic acid found in oak bark and leaves. The other form is called gallotannic ... Similarly tannic acid can also be used as an aftertreatment to improve wash fastness properties of acid dyed polyamide. It is ...
4-Methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitic acid anhydride (4-META) that adhere to not only tooth structures but also dental alloys, was ... "Hydrolytic Stability of Self-etch Adhesives Bonded to Dentin", J Dent Res 84(12):1160-1164 (2005). K. Yoshihara, N. Nagaoka, T ... Dental bonding agent Dental adhesive Dental resin cement Dental adhesive primer Adhesive Dental bonding Dentine bonding agents ... Adhesion of PMMA with Bovine Enamel or Dental Alloys", Journal of the Japan Society for Dental Apparatus and Materials, 19(47) ...
It is a common flavoring for dental hygiene products such as mouthwash and toothpaste. It is a component of the American-origin ... These therapeutic effects likely arose because the primary metabolite of methyl salicylate is salicylic acid, a proven NSAID ... then placing it face-down on the target paper and pressing the pieces of paper together under pressure using a standard etching ... that is also the metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin. During the American Revolution, wintergreen ...
Method and apparatus for acid blast etching of metal plates 1900. Pencoyd Iron Works, Pencoyd Iron Works[4] Engenharia Bridge ... Electro Magnetic Dental Mallet 1875. Fiss, Banes, Erben & Co., Fiss, Banes, Erben & Co.[1] Engenharia Worsted Yarns ... Machine for preparation of plates for etching 1904. Lovekin, L. D.L. D. Lovekin[5] Engenharia Expanding and Flanging Machinery ... "The Econometer: A Gas Balance for Indicating Continuously the Proportion of Carbonic Acid Gas in the Flow of Furnace Gases" ...
"The Separation and Determination of the Alkali Metals Using Perchloric Acid. V. Perchloric Acid and Chloroplatinic Acid in the ... By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings, indelible ink, plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and ... dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples. Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one ... Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but dissolves in hot aqua regia (nitric acid hydrochloride), to form ...
Steps may then be taken to "etch" away, deposit on or otherwise modify areas of the sample where no photoresist remains. ... In biological research, UV radiation is used for quantification of nucleic acids or proteins. ... dental fillings, and decorative fingernail "gels". ...
How is a bond formed between the tooth and dental composite (tooth bonding). , What is the composition of dental composite? , ... Total-etch vs. selective-etch vs. self-etch.. a) Total-etch.. This refers to a protocol where the etching gel is placed over ... What kind of acid is used to etch teeth?. The most common etchant used in dentistry is phosphoric acid. 35% phosphoric acid is ... Variations and advances in acid-etch technique.. What weve outline above describes a dentists use of acid-etch technique in ...
Dental Product Shopper delivers practical, unbiased product information. Our peer to peer product reviews help you select the ... phosphoric acid etching liquid. This high quality liquid is convenient and reliable as it is able to etch a single thin layer ... Home Product Categories Bonding Agents, Adhesives & Etchants Etchant Intraoral SureEtch 37% Phosphoric Acid Etching Liquid ... Game-Changers in Dental Technology. Congratulations to the following innovative dental manufacturers for winning the ...
... enhance bonding strength 37 etching gel Indication for use: Enamel and dentin etching PACKING &... ... Dentex dental etching gel 37 phosphoric acid etchant for etching enamel and dentin. Payment ... Dentex Dental Supreme Ultra Flowable Restorative for Class III and V restorations ...
Specializing in dental products, dental supply company, discount dental supplies and dental comparison shopping ... Prime-Dent Porcelain Etch Gel 3gm Syringe. 10% hydrofluoric acid gel conditions. $11.95 /ea + FREE Std. Shipping ... River Dental Supplies * River Dental Supplies Ships from NJ in 4 business days. ... Prime-Dent Porcelain Etch Gel 3gm Syringe. 10% hydrofluoric acid gel conditions has been successfully added to your Auto Order ...
Phosphoric Acid by MARK3. Etch Gel 37% Phosphoric Acid 4/pk 1.2ml syringes by MARK3 Has optimum consistency ensures material ... Etch Gel 37% Phosphoric Acid 4/pk 1.2ml syringes by MARK3 Has optimum consistency ensures material stays where it is placed. ... MARK3 Etch Gel 37% Phosphoric Acid Bulk Pack (25) 1.2 ml syringes $30.99 ... MARK3 Etch Gel 37% Phosphoric Acid Jumbo Pack 50ml Syringe Kit $29.95 ...
Pulp response to phosphoric acid 37% during a 15 seconds etching period was studied. Class V cavities in cervical third of ... Histopathological analysis of phosphoric acid 37% etching activity on tooth pulp E. Yasini , M. Eslami , E. Aleksanian , M. ... In test group, 15 seconds etching period by phosphoric acid 37% was done. The teeth were then restored by ZOE. Only one case ... In 9 patients of 11-20 years old, Pulp response to phosphoric acid 37% during a 15 seconds etching period was studied. Class V ...
The effects of etching enamel with acid on human dental pulp. A preliminary study. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology ... The effects of etching enamel with acid on human dental pulp. A preliminary study. In: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral ... The effects of etching enamel with acid on human dental pulp. A preliminary study. / Lipke, Edward; Mautner, Richard; Browdy, ... Lipke, E., Mautner, R., Browdy, D., & Rosenberg, P. (1979). The effects of etching enamel with acid on human dental pulp. A ...
We cordially invite those of you who wish to make a difference in tomorrows dental materials and oral health development to ... Acid Etching: Bonding to Enamel and Dentine. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web ... Assistant Professor in Dental Materials Science, Assistant Dean of Electives and Experiential Learning ... dental implants, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and even regenerative medicine. Oral biomaterials research today is an ...
Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Acid Etching, Dental / Tooth Demineralization / Dental Enamel / Molar Type of study: ... Humans , Child , Tooth Demineralization/diagnosis , Dental Enamel/ultrastructure , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Molar/ ... Ultrastructure of the surface of dental enamel with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) with and without acid etching / ... Acid etching increased the presence of cracks and deep pores in the adamantine structure of the enamel with lesion. In moderate ...
Here is a list of common dental terms you may encounter. ... Hearing dental terminology that you do not understand in the ... Acid Etching: A process that prepares tooth surface for bonding to fillings or sealants by toughening enamel with a weak acid ... Find your Delta Dental Find your Delta Dental The national network of Delta Dental companies protects more smiles than any ... Effective Date: The date the coverage under a dental plan begins.. Exclusions: Dental services that are not covered by a dental ...
We evaluated the influence of protease inhibitors on the bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system to caries-affected dentin ... A decline in pH and dissolution of the inorganic content of the dental tissues are followed by exposure of the organic portion ... which require phosphoric acid etching prior to application [18] . Self-etch adhesive may be classified on the basis of pH as ... Effect of Hesperidin Incorporation into a Self-Etching Primer on Durability of Dentin Bond. Dental Materials, 30, 1205-1212. ...
An improved dental etchant and a process for using it which comprises a phosphoric acid etchant containing a colorant which ... 6. In the process of etching a tooth with phosphoric acid for a subsequent dental operation, the improvement of employing a ... Dental compositions. CN101018534B. Jul 7, 2005. Jul 4, 2012. 3M刓斱有陘公叻. Dental methods, compositions, and kits including acid- ... Dental etch with improved flavor. WO2006014597A1 *. Jul 7, 2005. Feb 9, 2006. 3M Innovative Properties Company. Dental methods ...
2005 Dec;16(6):631-8. 19 Roccuzzo M1, Aglietta M, Bunino M, Bonino L. Early loading of sandblasted and acid-etched implants: a ... Part 1: sandblasted and acid-etched implants and mucosal tissue. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012 Dec;14(6):808-15. 15 van ... A 5-year prospective multicenter study of early loaded titanium implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface. Int J Oral ... This is followed by acid-etching that superposes a micro-roughness. The resulting topography offers an ideal structure for cell ...
Early Bone Response to Dual Acid-Etched and Machined Dental Implants Placed in the Posterior Maxilla: A Histologic and ... Early Bone Response to Dual Acid-Etched and Machined Dental Implants Placed in the Posterior Maxilla: A Histologic and ... Dental Implant News , American Dental Association News , Dental News. Subscribe to our Patient Testimonial Video Feed! ... Including All-on-4 Dental Implants, Dental Implants, Snap-in Dentures, Permanent Dentures, Teeth-in-a-day, ClearcChoice Dental ...
"Theres a reason Ultra-Etch took the dental world by storm in 1984 and continues to be the gold standard of phosphoric acid for ... Ultra-Etch etchant is a 35% phosphoric acid solution for use on dentin and enamel to create ideal bonding surfaces. Ultra-Etch ... Whenever I have the unfortunate opportunity to use another companys acid-etch product, I cannot wait to use Ultradents acid ... Ultra-Etch etchant is intended to be used only with the total-etch technique. For the self-etch technique, we recommend using ...
Coating of Sandblasted and Acid-Etched Dental Implants With Tantalum Using Vacuum Plasma Spraying. Zhou, Xian; Hu, Xiulian; Lin ... Surface Characterization and In Vivo Evaluation of Dual Acid-Etched and Grit-Blasted/Acid-Etched Implants in Sheep. Yoo, Daniel ... Early-Loaded Laser-Sintered Versus Acid-Etched One-Piece Dental Implants for Mandibular Premolars Replacement: A Preliminary ... Is It Safe to Reuse Dental Implant Healing Abutments Sterilized and Serviced by Dealers of Dental Implant Manufacturers? An In ...
We cordially invite those of you who wish to make a difference in tomorrows dental materials and oral health development to ... dental implants, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and even regenerative medicine. Oral biomaterials research today is an ... Surface Treatment Method: Acid Etching6m. Acid Etching: Bonding to Enamel and Dentine4m ... The Teachers of the course are dental practitioners and experts in dental materials from around the world:. Professor Jukka P. ...
Use a toothbrush to help clean the tooth surface before acid etching. ... CDC Dental Public Health Residency Programplus icon *Lecture Series. *How to Apply to the CDC Dental Public Health Residency ... Dental Sealants: Proven to Prevent Tooth Decayexternal icon is a report, published by the Childrens Dental Health Project that ... Infection Prevention & Control in Dental Settingsplus icon * Summary of Infection Prevention Practices in Dental Settingsplus ...
We evaluated the influence of protease inhibitors on the bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system to caries-affected dentin ... A decline in pH and dissolution of the inorganic content of the dental tissues are followed by exposure of the organic portion ... Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects, 8, 141- 147.. *33. Sanabe, M.E., Costa, C.A. and Hebling, J. ( ... which require phosphoric acid etching prior to application [18] . Self-etch adhesive may be classified on the basis of pH as ...
Acetic Acid Derivatives and Related Substances. Not Available. 5. 25. Details. Acid Etching, Dental. Not Available. 2. 5. ...
What is acid etching used for?. to selectively dissolve dental or restorative surfaces--,microporosities to enhance ... How is nitric acid effective?. must be continuously rubbed. What concentration of phosphoric acid is used to etch enamel? ... What happens if the tooth is rinsed for too long after etching?. damages the etched surface which reduces bond srength. ... What are the 2 most common acid etchants?. nitric and phosphoric acids. ...
Many techniques for preparing dental implant surfaces are in clinical use: turning, plasma spraying … ... The surface characteristics of dental implants play an important role in their clinical success. One of the most important ... acid etching, and electropolishing. The Osseotite surface is prepared by a process of thermal dual etching with hydrochloric ... Bone Contact Around Acid-Etched Implants: A Histological and Histomorphometrical Evaluation of Two Human-Retrieved Implants ...
Evaporation - air blast from a dental instrument.[8]. *Chemical - acids,[8] e.g. dietary, gastric, acid etch during dental ... Mechanical-tactile - dental probe during dental examination,[8] periodontal scaling and root planing,[8] toothbrushing.[7] ... dental abrasion),[8][9] or a sign of chronic periodontitis (gum disease).[9] Other less common causes are acid erosion (e.g. ... Inflammation of the dental pulp, termed pulpitis, produces true hypersensitivity of the nerves in the dental pulp.[5] Pulpitis ...
All the dental implants studied in the work showed osseointegration. Since anodized and acid etched implants with the same ... Scanning electron micrographs of the surfaces of acid etched and anodized dental implants are shown in Fig 1. ... In the present work, the titanium dental implant surface morphology was modified by acid etching and electrochemical treatments ... 3. Anodized dental implants exhibit a higher removal torque than acid etched implants. ...
"Influence of acid-etching after grit-blasted on osseointegration of titanium dental implants: in vitro and in vivo studies," ... 22] found that acid etching does not improve the mechanical properties of glass ceramic coatings and Bächle et al. [11] ... acid etching, and titanium plasma spray were used [1, 4, 21].. In a preliminary study, the surface modification of ceramics ... Surface Modifications of Dental Ceramic Implants with Different Glass Solder Matrices: In Vitro Analyses with Human Primary ...
  • 2 Acids with this greater depth of etch go beyond the optimum level and increase the potential for incomplete resin impregnation. (ultradent.com)
  • Resin-based dental restorative materials are extensively used today in dentistry. (mdpi.com)
  • The development and widespread use of new generations of resin-based dental restorative materials has allowed for the application of more conservative, esthetic and long lasting restorative techniques. (mdpi.com)
  • These adhesive techniques are extensively used in a wide variety of applications in dentistry, including restorative procedures, prosthodontics, orthodontics and preventive dentistry, making resin-based composites one of the most important groups of materials in dental practice. (mdpi.com)
  • Ultradent 60-second Silane is used after hydrofluoric acid etching to prepare the surface for bonding resin. (ultradent.com)
  • Studies have demonstrated that Silane, when used with Porcelain Etch and a quality bonding resin, yields the highest bond strength to porcelain when compared with other porcelain bonding products. (ultradent.com)
  • Porcelain Etch and Silane are designed to be used together when etching porcelain to provide high porcelain-to-resin bond strengths. (ultradent.com)
  • When used with a high-quality bonding resin, Porcelain Etch and Silane can produce one of the highest porcelain-to-resin bond strengths compared to other porcelain bonding products. (ultradent.com)
  • One dental section was used for light microscope analysis, in which both the resin tag length and hybrid layer thickness were measured, while the other section was analyzed using a microtensile test (0.5 mm/min). (scielo.org.ar)
  • The microtensile bond strength of Adper Prompt L Pop self-etching adhesive system does not depend on hybrid layer thickness or resin tag length. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Our dental curing lights are designed with the latest in technology for optimized polymerization of all of the resin based composite materials used in your dental work. (kerrdental.com)
  • In this study, several kinds of amino-acid monomers with different molecular structure were newly synthesized and their effect on the adhesion between resin and tooth was investigated to clarify the relation between the bonding effectiveness and molecular structure of adhesive monomer. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Acid etched bonded splint is a fixed splint made of heavy wire, fibrous resin materials or/and cast metal that is bonded to the labial or lingual surface of natural teeth with an acid etch technique. (costdentures.com)
  • The success rates of a glass ionomer cement and a resin-based fissure sealant placed by fifth-year undergraduate dental students. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AIM: To evaluate retention and caries prevention of a glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and a resin-based fissure sealant placed by fifth-year undergraduate dental students. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are basically two dental materials that are used to seal pits and fissures: resin-based/composites and glass ionomer sealants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Teeth bonding is a cosmetic dental treatment that makes use of a tooth-colored composite resin. (colgate.com)
  • A notable breakthrough in the development of effective sealant materials occurred in 1955, when Buonocore reported the use of acid to etch the enamel surface prior to applying acrylic resin. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The acid-etch technique allowed for sufficient bonding between the resin material and enamel, and provided the basis for further development of effective sealant materials. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • What kind of acid is used to etch teeth? (animated-teeth.com)
  • In 100 sections made from extracted teeth of 5 patients , pulpal response to acid reaction was a mild inflammation with good prognosis. (ac.ir)
  • Effects of various acids on the buccal surface of human permanent teeth: a study using scanning electron microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Dental sealants are mainly used in children who are at higher risk of tooth decay, and typically they are placed as soon as the adult molar teeth come through. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loss of minerals from our teeth occurs from the bacteria within our mouths fermenting foods and producing acids, whereas the tooth gains minerals from our saliva and fluoride that is present within our mouths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the tooth is cavitated it requires a dental restoration in order to repair the damage, this emphasizes the importance of prevention in preserving our teeth for a lifetime of chewing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple oral health care professionals including a dentist, dental therapist, dental hygienist, an oral health therapist and dental assistants (in some states in the USA) are able to apply dental sealants to teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental floss id used to work the rubber between the teeth. (prezi.com)
  • They may cause your teeth to chip or break, requiring dental work. (onhealth.com)
  • Chronic effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system and teeth. (cdc.gov)
  • The chronic effects of sulfuric-acid (7664939) on teeth and the respiratory system of workers in lead (7439921) acid battery factories were examined. (cdc.gov)
  • Chest radiograms were taken and teeth were examined for evidence of etching or erosion. (cdc.gov)
  • Teeth etching and erosion showed a very strong association with acid exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • At this point, your dentist gently etches the surface of your teeth and then applies a conditioning liquid to make it easier for the bonding to adhere. (colgate.com)
  • If you have other dental problems in addition to your gap - such as crooked or crowded teeth or a misaligned bite - your dentist will recommend you see an orthodontist. (colgate.com)
  • If your only dental problem is a small gap between your two front teeth, orthodontic treatment may not be necessary and your dentist can consider closing the gap with this common bonding procedure. (colgate.com)
  • The process of bonding teeth is a dental procedure that is designed to help the form and function of your teeth. (colgate.com)
  • While this procedure did not provide long-term protection, it did introduce the concept of preventing dental caries in teeth fissures using a physical barrier. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Intrinsic acids, which are produced by the body, cause dental erosion following vomiting, regurgitation, or reflux, and can be extremely damaging to the teeth. (deardoctor.com)
  • Brushing your teeth after consuming an acidic product, before the saliva has had a chance to buffer (neutralize) the acid and re-mineralize the tooth surface, will actually cause the removal of the softened enamel. (deardoctor.com)
  • Preventing Dental Caries Through School-Based Sealant Programs: Updated Recommendations and Review of Evidence external icon ," published in the November 2009 issue of Journal of the American Dental Association provides guidance to using school-based sealant programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Effect of acid-etching on fluoride-treated caries-like lesions of enamel: a SEM study. (nih.gov)
  • Dental caries is an upset of the balance between loss and gain of minerals from a tooth surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach facilitates prevention and early intervention, in order to prevent or stop the dental caries process before it reaches the ends stage of the disease, which is also known as the "hole" or cavitation of a tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1929, Bödecker attempted to prevent occlusal caries by cleaning the pit and fissures with an explorer and then sealing the pits and fissures with dental cement, such as oxyphosphate cement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The children were selected from a population that had a high risk for dental caries. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dental caries is an infectious disease that can be arrested in its early stages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Participants, including boys and girls ranging from 7-15 years of age (mean age 9.4 years), were selected from a patient population at high risk for dental caries at the University of Gazi Department of Paediatric Dentistry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These recommendations are designed to guide practices of state and community public health programs for planning, carrying out, and evaluating school-based sealant programs, as well as to complement the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs' article " Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations for Sealant Use external icon " published in the August 2016 issue of the Journal of American Dental Association. (cdc.gov)
  • The Implementation of Evidence-Based Preventive Interventions: School-Based and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs website describes requirements related to dental sealant programs of states funded by a CDC cooperative agreement. (cdc.gov)
  • Seal America: The Prevention Invention external icon is an online manual designed to assist health professionals initiate and carry out a school-based dental sealant program. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of the investigators study is to compare how two different bonding agents affects retention in a preventive dental procedure of pit and fissure sealant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will help in deciding whether the self etch bonding agent requiring less steps in completion is as effective as the total etch bonding agent requiring multiple steps in fissure sealant placement. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There are no published clinical trials on the retentiong rate comparison of total etch bonding agent with no mix slef etch bonding agents in pit and fissure sealant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sealant materials were applied by fifth-year undergraduate dental students on 346 fissures of the first permanent molars in 173 children. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the fluoridated specimens, there were no statistically significant differences between any of the contamination groups and the control group when maleic acid was used. (quintpub.com)
  • When the tissues of the developing tooth are seen under a microscope, different cellular aggregations can be identified, including structures known as the enamel organ , dental lamina , and dental papilla . (bionity.com)
  • Assist dentists or dental residents in a hospital ambulatory, inpatient, recovery room and/or intensive care setting to provide dental care to medically compromised, trauma, or special needs patients in multiple specialty areas such as periodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, oral surgery and hospital dentistry. (wa.gov)
  • The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats. (authorstream.com)
  • He has also authored several chapters on dental adhesion in several textbooks, including the Sturdevant's Art and Science of Operative Dentistry (Mosby). (umn.edu)
  • Our long history of developing state of the art impression materials that cater to the expectations of experts in the field of dentistry puts Kerr Dental above the rest. (kerrdental.com)
  • He also is the founder of Berland Dental Arts, a multidoctor specialty practice celebrating 25 years in the Dallas Arts District that pioneered the concept of spa dentistry. (dentalproductsreport.com)
  • DearDoctor.com is the home of Dear Doctor - Dentistry & Oral Health , a quarterly dental magazine written exclusively by dental health care professionals for the education and well-being of you, the general public. (deardoctor.com)
  • With a substantial array of wavelengths ranging from LED to Halogen, at Kerr Dental, you are sure to find the tool that is best suited for the needs of your dental practice. (kerrdental.com)
  • For superior impression materials that are efficient and withstand disinfectants, choose Kerr Dental. (kerrdental.com)
  • Whether you seek a quality temporary dental cement or permanent option, Kerr Dental has you covered. (kerrdental.com)
  • You will immediately recognize the Kerr Dental difference with effortless removal and minimal post-op sensitivity. (kerrdental.com)
  • Kerr Dental is proud to offer the CoreRestore2 complete core buildup system. (kerrdental.com)
  • Kerr Dental knows that this delicate tissue requires specialized care, and offers a variety of products to assist with your soft tissue management needs for many different procedures. (kerrdental.com)
  • Whether you need a temporary retraction system, impregnated retraction cords, or hemostatic agents, Kerr Dental has the soft tissue management solutions you need for your practice. (kerrdental.com)
  • Kerr Dental also features the OptiMix programmable amalgamator, which eliminates the need for control cards and ensures consistency and convenience. (kerrdental.com)
  • In the control groups, the etch-and-rinse adhesive (Optibond FL, Kerr) and the self-etching adhesive (iBOND Self Etch, Hereaus) were applied without former contamination with the infiltrant system. (uzh.ch)
  • Dental practices have different procedures. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Although early laser use in general surgery (notably Carbon Dioxide, wavelength 10.6 μm) was applied to soft tissue surgical procedures in the mouth, the first true dental laser was a Neodymium YAG (1.064 μm) which was launched in 1989. (springer.com)
  • It is now mainly produced by treatment of the mineral fluorite , CaF 2 , with concentrated sulfuric acid at ca. 265 °C. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digestion of the mineral with sulfuric acid at elevated temperatures releases a mixture of gases, including hydrogen fluoride, which may be recovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Workers exposed to sulfuric-acid mist were given questionnaires. (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory symptoms such as cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and wheezing showed no significant differences between factories or by amount of sulfuric-acid exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • High sulfuric- acid exposure groups had reduced forced vital capacity. (cdc.gov)
  • There was no excess of industrial bronchitis in the sulfuric-acid exposed workers. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that sulfuric-acid at low concentrations does not irritate the upper respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • The sulfuric-acid may cause dental changes, even when it is at a concentration below what is considered the recommended standard. (cdc.gov)
  • Karl Scheele and many later researchers-including Humphry Davy , Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac , Antoine Lavoisier , and Louis Thenard-experimented with hydrofluoric acid (HF), which was readily obtained by treating calcium fluoride (fluorspar) with concentrated sulfuric acid. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For similar reasons, dilute hydrofluoric acid is a component of household rust stain remover, in car washes in "wheel cleaner" compounds, in ceramic and fabric rust inhibitors, and in water spot removers. (wikipedia.org)