Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
Insurance providing coverage for dental care.
Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.
Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Hospital department providing dental care.
Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The granting of a license to practice dentistry.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.
Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.
The process of reuniting or replacing a broken or worn dental prosthesis or its part.
Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)
The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
'Tooth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions affecting the teeth, including dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), tooth wear, tooth sensitivity, oral cancer, and developmental anomalies, which can result in pain, discomfort, or loss of teeth if left untreated.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.
The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)
Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.
Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Professional society representing the field of dentistry.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
'Dental libraries' are collections of resources, including books, journals, databases, and multimedia materials, that provide information and knowledge to support dental education, research, and practice.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)
Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.
Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.
Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).
Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.
'Dental pulp calcification' is a pathological condition characterized by the deposition of hard tissue within the pulp chamber and root canal(s), which can result in the obliteration of pulpal space, potentially leading to various clinical symptoms such as pain or dental sensitivity.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).
A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
'Mouth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions that cause inflammation, infection, or structural changes in any part of the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, cheeks, and teeth, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, discomfort, difficulty in chewing or speaking, and altered aesthetics.
A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.

In vitro comparison of the retention capacity of new aesthetic brackets. (1/389)

Tensile bond strength and bond failure location were evaluated in vitro for two types of aesthetic brackets (non-silanated ceramic, polycarbonate) and one stainless steel bracket, using bovine teeth as the substrate and diacrylate resin as the adhesive. The results show that metallic bracket had the highest bond strength (13.21 N) followed by the new plastic bracket (12.01 N), which does not require the use of a primer. The non-silanated ceramic bracket produced the lowest bond strength (8.88 N). Bond failures occurred mainly between bracket and cement, although a small percentage occurred between the enamel-cement interface with the metal and plastic brackets and within the cement for the plastic bracket. With the ceramic bracket all the failures occurred at the bracket-cement interface. This suggests that the problems of enamel lesions produced by this type of bracket may have been eliminated. The results also show that the enamel/adhesive bond is stronger than the adhesive/bracket bond in this in vitro study.  (+info)

The crystal growth technique--a laboratory evaluation of bond strengths. (2/389)

An ex vivo study was carried out to determine differences in the bond strengths achieved with brackets placed using a crystal growth technique compared with a conventional acid-etch technique. A solution of 37 per cent phosphoric acid was used for acid-etching and a commercially available polyacrylic acid gel, Crystal-lok for crystal growth. A heavily-filled composite resin was used for all samples to bond brackets to healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Polycrystalline ceramic and stainless steel brackets were used and tested to both tensile and shear failure using an Instron Universal Testing machine. The tensile and shear bond strengths were recorded in kgF. In view of difficulties experienced with previous authors using different units to describe their findings, the data were subsequently converted to a range of units in order to facilitate direct comparison. The crystal growth technique produced significantly lower bond strengths than the acid-etch technique for ceramic and stainless steel brackets, both in tensile and shear mode. The tensile bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 2.2 kg compared with 6.01 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the tensile bond strengths were 3.9 kg for crystal growth and 5.55 kg for acid-etch. The mean shear bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 12.61 kg compared with 21.55 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the shear bond strengths were 7.93 kg with crystal growth compared with 16.55 kg for acid-tech. These bond strengths were below those previously suggested as clinically acceptable.  (+info)

Super pulse CO2 laser for bracket bonding and debonding. (3/389)

A super pulse and a normal pulse CO2 laser were used to carry out enamel etching and bracket debonding in vitro and in vivo. The shear bond strength of the orthodontic brackets attached to laser-etched and conventional chemically-etched extracted premolars was measured. The pulp cavity temperature was also measured using the same laser irradiation conditions as the shear test. Both super pulse and normal pulse CO2 laser etching resulted in a lower shear bond strength (super pulse: 6.9 +/- 3.4 kg, normal pulse: 9.7 +/- 5.2 kg) than that of chemical etching (15.3 +/- 2.8 kg). Furthermore, the super pulse CO2 laser was able to create debonding at 2 watts within a period of less than 4 seconds (2.9 +/- 0.9 seconds). The super pulse, when irradiating the ceramic brackets from above, during debonding showed a 1.4 degrees C temperature increase in the dental pulp at 2 watts and an increase of 2.1 degrees C at 3 watts. While etching, directly irradiating the enamel surface at 3 watts, the dental pulp showed a temperature increase of 3.5 degrees C. These temperature increases were within the physiologically acceptable limits of the pulp. These results indicate that, in orthodontic treatments, super pulse CO2 laser debonding is more useful than laser etching.  (+info)

Vital pulp capping: a worthwhile procedure. (4/389)

Despite the progress made in the field of pulp biology, the technique and philosophy of direct vital pulp capping remains a controversial subject. Clinicians are well aware of the immediate and long-term success rates after root canal therapy, but are less certain of the success of vital pulp capping. Researchers have demonstrated that exposed pulps will heal and form reparative dentin. It is realized now that the variable prognosis of vital pulp capping is predominately a restorative issue. The factors that can produce a successful vital pulp cap are discussed in conjunction with two popular techniques.  (+info)

A laboratory investigation to compare enamel preparation by sandblasting or acid etching prior to bracket bonding. (5/389)

A laboratory investigation to compare the mean shear debonding force and mode of bond failure of metallic brackets bonded to sandblasted and acid-etched enamel is described. The buccal surfaces of 30 extracted human premolars were sandblasted for 5 seconds with 50 mu alumina and the buccal surfaces of a further 30 human premolars were etched with 37 per cent phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. Following storage for 24 hours at 37 degrees C in distilled water, shear debonding force was measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine with a cross-head speed of 10 mm/minute. Mean shear debonding force was significantly lower for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel compared to acid etched enamel (P < 0.001). Weibull analysis showed that at a given stress the probability of failure was significantly greater for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel. Brackets bonded to etched enamel showed a mixed mode of bond failure whereas following sandblasting, failure was adhesive at the enamel/composite interface (P < 0.01).  (+info)

Factors affecting the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain. (6/389)

The aim of this investigation was to establish a regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain, which ensures adequate bond strength (6-8 MPa) with minimal damage on debond and consisted of an ex vivo investigation measuring the effects of porcelain surface preparation and thermocycling on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. One-hundred-and-twenty feldspathic porcelain bonded crown surfaces were divided into 12 equally-sized groups to assess the effects of: (1) glaze removal, (2) application of hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, or omission of acid treatment, and (3) silane priming upon the bond strength of premolar brackets bonded with Right-on (TM) composite resin adhesive. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling and then to shear debonding forces on an Instron machine. Removal of the porcelain glaze, or use of hydrofluoric acid, prior to bonding were found to be unnecessary to secure the target bond strength. Hydrofluoric acid application was associated with increased porcelain surface damage. Thermocycling caused a significant reduction in shear bond strength to porcelain (P < 0*001). The best regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, and prime with silane prior to bonding. Usually the porcelain surfaces could be repolished. Refereed Paper  (+info)

Effect of ferric chloride/citric acid/phosphoric acid conditioner on adhesion of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to the tooth. (7/389)

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ferric chloride/citric acid/phosphoric acid conditioners on the surface morphology of enamel and dentin and on the adhesion of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to conditioned tooth surfaces. Seven conditioners, including phosphoric acid and its mixture with citric acid and ferric chloride, were prepared and used for treating bovine teeth before bonding with the resin. The effects of the conditioners on the surface morphology and adhesion were examined by scanning electron microscopy and by atomic force microscopy and by tensile bond strength tests, respectively. The maximum bond strengths to tooth surfaces were obtained by using 3% ferric chloride/5% citric acid/10% phosphoric acid conditioner. Thus, enamel and dentin can be treated simultaneously with this conditioner before bonding with the 4-META/MMA-TBB resin system.  (+info)

Effectiveness of the addition of water-soluble photoinitiator into the self-etching primers on the adhesion of a resin composite to polished dentin and enamel. (8/389)

The effectiveness of the addition of a photoinitiator into self-etching primer was investigated by measuring the tensile bond strength between a resin composite and dentin or enamel. The addition of camphorquinone to 5 M (5 wt% MDP -35 wt% HEMA aqueous solution) or 30 M (30 wt% MDP -35 wt% HEMA aqueous solution) did not increase the bond strengths of resin composite to dentin or enamel. On the other hand, the bond strength to dentin was increased by the addition of a water-soluble photoinitiator, 2-hydroxy-3-(3,4-dimethyl-9-oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2-yloxy)-N,N, N-trimethyl-1- propanaminium chloride (QTX) to 5 M or 30 M. The bond strengths to enamel were not influenced by the addition of QTX to 5 M or 30 M.  (+info)

Acid etching in dental terminology refers to a surface treatment technique used in dentistry, particularly for bonding procedures. This process involves the application of a mild acid (usually phosphoric or maleic acid) onto the enamel or dentin surface of a tooth. The acid etches the surface by selectively removing the minerals and creating microscopic irregularities or porosities.

This etched surface provides an increased surface area and better mechanical retention for bonding agents, resin composites, or dental cements. As a result, the bond between the tooth and the restorative material becomes stronger and more durable. Acid etching is widely used in various dental procedures such as direct and indirect tooth-colored restorations, veneers, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic attachments.

Phosphoric acids are a group of mineral acids known chemically as orthophosphoric acid and its salts or esters. The chemical formula for orthophosphoric acid is H3PO4. It is a weak acid that partially dissociates in solution to release hydrogen ions (H+), making it acidic. Phosphoric acid has many uses in various industries, including food additives, fertilizers, and detergents.

In the context of medical definitions, phosphoric acids are not typically referred to directly. However, they can be relevant in certain medical contexts, such as:

* In dentistry, phosphoric acid is used as an etching agent to prepare tooth enamel for bonding with dental materials.
* In nutrition, phosphorus is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in many bodily functions, including energy metabolism, bone and teeth formation, and nerve function. Phosphoric acid is one form of phosphorus found in some foods and beverages.
* In medical research, phosphoric acids can be used as buffers to maintain a stable pH in laboratory experiments or as reagents in various analytical techniques.

Dental etching is a dental procedure that involves the use of a chemical agent, such as phosphoric or maleic acid, to create microscopic roughness on the surface of teeth. This process is typically used to prepare the tooth enamel for the application of bonding agents, such as dental adhesives and composite resins, which are used in various restorative and cosmetic dental procedures, such as fillings, veneers, and crowns.

During dental etching, the chemical agent is applied to the tooth surface for a specific amount of time, usually between 15-60 seconds, depending on the strength of the acid and the desired level of etching. The acid dissolves the minerals in the enamel, creating small pores or irregularities that increase the surface area and improve the bonding of the restorative material to the tooth. After etching, the tooth is rinsed with water and dried, and the bonding agent is applied and cured to create a strong and durable bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Dental etching is a safe and effective procedure when performed by a trained dental professional. However, over-etching or improper use of the acid can weaken the tooth structure and lead to sensitivity or other complications. Therefore, it is important to follow proper techniques and guidelines for dental etching to ensure optimal outcomes and patient satisfaction.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

Air abrasion, dental, is a method of removing decay and minor defects from teeth using a stream of air and fine particles. This technique is an alternative to the traditional drilling method and is often used in preventative dentistry and for preparing teeth for fillings or sealants. The process is generally considered to be more comfortable for patients as it typically does not require anesthesia, and it can be more precise and less invasive than drilling. However, air abrasion may not be suitable for all types of dental work and its use is determined by the dentist on a case-by-case basis.

Hydrofluoric acid is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical one. However, it's important for medical professionals to be aware of its potential hazards and health effects.

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a highly corrosive and toxic liquid, which is colorless or slightly yellowish. It is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is used in various industries for etching glass, cleaning metal surfaces, manufacturing semiconductors, and in chemical research.

In terms of health effects, exposure to HF can cause severe burns and tissue damage. Even at very low concentrations, it can cause pain and irritation to the skin and eyes. Inhalation can lead to respiratory irritation, coughing, and choking. If ingested, it can be fatal due to its ability to cause deep burns in the gastrointestinal tract and potentially lead to systemic fluoride toxicity. Delayed medical attention can result in serious complications, including damage to bones and nerves.

Dental enamel is the hard, white, outermost layer of a tooth. It is a highly mineralized and avascular tissue, meaning it contains no living cells or blood vessels. Enamel is primarily composed of calcium and phosphate minerals and serves as the protective covering for the crown of a tooth, which is the portion visible above the gum line.

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and its primary function is to provide structural support and protection to the underlying dentin and pulp tissues of the tooth. It also plays a crucial role in chewing and biting by helping to distribute forces evenly across the tooth surface during these activities.

Despite its hardness, dental enamel can still be susceptible to damage from factors such as tooth decay, erosion, and abrasion. Once damaged or lost, enamel cannot regenerate or repair itself, making it essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices and seek regular dental checkups to prevent enamel damage and protect overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Dentin-bonding agents are substances used in dentistry to create a strong and durable bond between the dental restoration material (such as composite resin, glass ionomer cement, or crowns) and the dentin surface of a tooth. Dentin is the hard tissue that lies beneath the enamel and consists of microscopic tubules filled with fluid.

The primary function of dentin-bonding agents is to improve the adhesion of restorative materials to the tooth structure, enhancing the retention and durability of dental fillings, crowns, veneers, and other types of restorations. These agents typically contain one or more types of bonding resins, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), and/or phosphoric acid ester monomers.

The application process for dentin-bonding agents usually involves several steps, including:

1. Etching the dentin surface with a mild acid to remove the smear layer and expose the collagen network within the dentin tubules.
2. Applying a primer that penetrates into the etched dentin and promotes the infiltration of bonding resins into the dentinal tubules.
3. Applying an adhesive, which is typically a mixture of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers, to form a stable bond between the tooth structure and the restoration material.
4. Light-curing the adhesive to polymerize the resin and create a strong mechanical bond with the dentin surface.

Dentin-bonding agents have significantly improved the clinical success of various dental restorations by enhancing their retention, reducing microleakage, and minimizing postoperative sensitivity. However, they may still be susceptible to degradation over time due to factors such as moisture contamination, enzymatic degradation, or hydrolysis, which can lead to the failure of dental restorations. Therefore, continuous advancements in dentin-bonding technology are essential for improving the long-term success and durability of dental restorations.

Dental care refers to the practice of maintaining and improving the oral health of the teeth and gums. It involves regular check-ups, cleanings, and treatments by dental professionals such as dentists, hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental care also includes personal habits and practices, such as brushing and flossing, that help prevent tooth decay and gum disease.

Regular dental care is important for preventing common dental problems like cavities, gingivitis, and periodontal disease. It can also help detect early signs of more serious health issues, such as oral cancer or diabetes, which can have symptoms that appear in the mouth.

Dental care may involve a range of treatments, from routine cleanings and fillings to more complex procedures like root canals, crowns, bridges, and implants. Dental professionals use various tools and techniques to diagnose and treat dental problems, including X-rays, dental impressions, and local anesthesia.

Overall, dental care is a critical component of overall health and wellness, as poor oral health has been linked to a range of systemic health issues, including heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Light-curing of dental adhesives refers to the process of using a special type of light to polymerize and harden the adhesive material used in dentistry. The light is typically a blue spectrum light, with a wavelength of approximately 460-490 nanometers, which activates a photoinitiator within the adhesive. This initiates a polymerization reaction that causes the adhesive to solidify and form a strong bond between the tooth surface and the dental restoration material, such as a filling or a crown.

The light-curing process is an important step in many dental procedures as it helps ensure the durability and longevity of the restoration. The intensity and duration of the light exposure are critical factors that can affect the degree of cure and overall strength of the bond. Therefore, it is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using dental adhesives and light-curing equipment.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Dental enamel solubility refers to the degree to which the mineral crystals that make up dental enamel can be dissolved or eroded by acidic substances. Dental enamel is the hard, outermost layer of a tooth that helps protect it from damage. It is primarily made up of minerals, including hydroxyapatite, which can dissolve in an acidic environment.

When the pH in the mouth drops below 5.5, the oral environment becomes acidic and dental enamel begins to demineralize or lose its mineral content. This process is known as dental caries or tooth decay. Over time, if left untreated, dental caries can lead to cavities, tooth sensitivity, and even tooth loss.

Certain factors can increase the solubility of dental enamel, including a diet high in sugar and starch, poor oral hygiene, and the presence of certain bacteria in the mouth that produce acid as a byproduct of their metabolism. On the other hand, fluoride exposure can help to reduce dental enamel solubility by promoting remineralization and making the enamel more resistant to acid attack.

Freeze etching is not a medical term per se, but it is a technique used in scientific research and analysis, including some medical fields such as microbiology and cell biology. Here's a brief explanation:

Freeze etching (also known as freeze-fracture replication) is a preparation technique for electron microscopy that allows the observation of biological specimens at high resolution. This method involves rapid freezing of a sample to preserve its natural structure, followed by fracturing it at low temperatures to expose internal surfaces. The exposed surface is then etched, or lightly bombarded with ions to remove thin layers of ice and reveal more detail. A layer of metal (usually platinum or gold) is then evaporated onto the surface at an oblique angle, creating a replica of the surface structure. This replica can be examined in a transmission electron microscope (TEM).

This technique is particularly useful for studying cell membranes and their associated structures, as it allows researchers to observe the distribution and organization of proteins and lipids within these membranes at high resolution.

A smear layer is a thin, amorphous layer of debris that forms on the dentin surface when it comes into contact with instruments or solutions during dental procedures such as cavity preparation, root canal treatment, or biopsies. This layer is composed of organic and inorganic components, including dentinal cuttings, pulp tissue, bacteria, and materials from the irrigating solution. The smear layer can occlude the dentinal tubules, affecting the adhesion of filling materials and sealing ability of obturation points. Therefore, it is often removed during root canal preparation using various methods such as chemical dissolution, ultrasonic agitation, or laser ablation to ensure proper disinfection and seal of the root canal system.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

Orthodontic brackets are small square attachments that are bonded to the teeth or bands that are attached to the back molars. They have a slot in which the orthodontic archwire fits and is held in place. The bracket can be made of stainless steel, ceramic, plastic or a combination of these materials. They play an essential role in moving the teeth into the desired position during orthodontic treatment.

Dental education refers to the process of teaching, training, and learning in the field of dentistry. It involves a curriculum of academic and clinical instruction that prepares students to become licensed dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental education typically takes place in accredited dental schools or programs and includes classroom study, laboratory work, and supervised clinical experience. The goal of dental education is to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to deliver high-quality oral health care to patients and promote overall health and wellness.

"Schools, Dental" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems that there might be some confusion in the terminology used. If you are referring to "Dental Schools," they are educational institutions that offer professional training programs in dentistry, leading to a degree in dental surgery (DDS) or dental medicine (DMD).

If you meant something else, please clarify the term or concept, and I would be happy to provide more information.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Students, Dental" is not a medical term or definition. Instead, it likely refers to individuals who are studying to become dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, or dental assistants.

If you're looking for information about dental education or the field of dentistry, I would be happy to provide some resources or answer any questions you may have!

'Adhesiveness' is a term used in medicine and biology to describe the ability of two surfaces to stick or adhere to each other. In medical terms, it often refers to the property of tissues or cells to adhere to one another, as in the case of scar tissue formation where healing tissue adheres to adjacent structures.

In the context of microbiology, adhesiveness can refer to the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to attach themselves to surfaces, such as medical devices or human tissues, which can lead to infection and other health problems. Adhesives used in medical devices, such as bandages or wound dressings, also have adhesiveness properties that allow them to stick to the skin or other surfaces.

Overall, adhesiveness is an important property in many areas of medicine and biology, with implications for wound healing, infection control, and the design and function of medical devices.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during tooth development. It is characterized by hypomineralization of the enamel, resulting in various appearances ranging from barely noticeable white spots to brown staining and pitting of the teeth. The severity depends on the amount, duration, and timing of fluoride intake, as well as individual susceptibility. Mild dental fluorosis is typically asymptomatic but can affect the appearance of teeth, while severe cases may cause tooth sensitivity and increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

Solid-state lasers are a type of laser that uses solid materials as the gain medium – the material that amplifies the light energy to produce laser emissions. In contrast to gas or liquid lasers, solid-state lasers use a crystal, ceramic, or glass as the gain medium. The active laser medium in solid-state lasers is typically doped with rare earth ions, such as neodymium (Nd), yttrium (Y), erbium (Er), or thulium (Tm).

The most common type of solid-state laser is the neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. In this laser, neodymium ions are doped into a crystal lattice made up of yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (YAG). The Nd:YAG laser emits light at a wavelength of 1064 nanometers (nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce emissions at 532 nm.

Solid-state lasers have several advantages over other types of lasers, including high efficiency, long lifetimes, and compact size. They are widely used in various applications, such as material processing, medical treatments, scientific research, and military technology.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

Methacrylates are a group of chemical compounds that contain the methacrylate functional group, which is a vinyl group (CH2=CH-) with a carbonyl group (C=O) at the β-position. This structure gives them unique chemical and physical properties, such as low viscosity, high reactivity, and resistance to heat and chemicals.

In medical terms, methacrylates are used in various biomedical applications, such as dental restorative materials, bone cements, and drug delivery systems. For example, methacrylate-based resins are commonly used in dentistry for fillings, crowns, and bridges due to their excellent mechanical properties and adhesion to tooth structures.

However, there have been concerns about the potential toxicity of methacrylates, particularly their ability to release monomers that can cause allergic reactions, irritation, or even mutagenic effects in some individuals. Therefore, it is essential to use these materials with caution and follow proper handling and safety protocols.

Dental porcelain is a type of biocompatible ceramic material that is commonly used in restorative and cosmetic dentistry to create tooth-colored restorations such as crowns, veneers, inlays, onlays, and bridges. It is made from a mixture of powdered porcelain and water, which is heated to high temperatures to form a hard, glass-like substance. Dental porcelain has several desirable properties for dental restorations, including:

1. High strength and durability: Dental porcelain is strong enough to withstand the forces of biting and chewing, making it suitable for use in load-bearing restorations such as crowns and bridges.
2. Natural appearance: Dental porcelain can be matched closely to the color, translucency, and texture of natural teeth, allowing for highly aesthetic restorations that blend seamlessly with the surrounding dentition.
3. Biocompatibility: Dental porcelain is biologically inert and does not cause adverse reactions or toxicity in the body, making it a safe choice for dental restorations.
4. Chemical resistance: Dental porcelain is resistant to staining and chemical attack from substances such as coffee, tea, red wine, and acidic foods and drinks.
5. Low thermal conductivity: Dental porcelain has low thermal conductivity, which means it does not transmit heat or cold readily, reducing the risk of temperature sensitivity in dental restorations.

Overall, dental porcelain is a versatile and reliable material for creating high-quality, natural-looking, and durable dental restorations.

Dental care for chronically ill refers to the oral health management and treatment provided to individuals who have chronic medical conditions. These patients often require specialized dental care due to their increased risk of developing oral health problems as a result of their underlying medical condition or its treatment. The goal of dental care for the chronically ill is to prevent and manage dental diseases, such as tooth decay and gum disease, in order to maintain overall health and quality of life. This may involve close collaboration between dental professionals, physicians, and other healthcare providers to ensure that the patient's oral health needs are being met in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.

Dental care for children, also known as pediatric dentistry, is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. The medical definition of dental care for children includes:

1. Preventive Dentistry: This involves regular dental check-ups, professional cleaning, fluoride treatments, and sealants to prevent tooth decay and other dental diseases. Parents are also educated on proper oral hygiene practices for their children, including brushing, flossing, and dietary habits.
2. Restorative Dentistry: If a child develops cavities or other dental problems, restorative treatments such as fillings, crowns, or pulpotomies (baby root canals) may be necessary to restore the health and function of their teeth.
3. Orthodontic Treatment: Many children require orthodontic treatment to correct misaligned teeth or jaws. Early intervention can help guide proper jaw development and prevent more severe issues from developing later on.
4. Habit Counseling: Dental care for children may also involve habit counseling, such as helping a child stop thumb sucking or pacifier use, which can negatively impact their oral health.
5. Sedation and Anesthesia: For children who are anxious about dental procedures or have special needs, sedation or anesthesia may be used to ensure their comfort and safety during treatment.
6. Emergency Care: Dental care for children also includes emergency care for injuries such as knocked-out teeth, broken teeth, or severe toothaches. Prompt attention is necessary to prevent further damage and alleviate pain.
7. Education and Prevention: Finally, dental care for children involves educating parents and children about the importance of good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups to maintain optimal oral health throughout their lives.

A dental clinic is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on providing oral health services to patients. These services may include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and bridges. Dental clinics may also offer specialized services, such as orthodontics, periodontics, or endodontics.

In a dental clinic, patients are typically seen by licensed dentists who have completed dental school and received additional training in their chosen area of specialty. Dental hygienists, dental assistants, and other support staff may also work in the clinic to provide care and assistance to patients.

Dental clinics can be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community health centers, private practices, and educational institutions. Some dental clinics may specialize in treating certain populations, such as children, elderly individuals, or low-income patients. Others may offer specialized services, such as oral surgery or cosmetic dentistry.

Overall, dental clinics play an important role in promoting oral health and preventing dental diseases and conditions. By providing access to high-quality dental care, dental clinics can help patients maintain healthy teeth and gums, prevent tooth decay and gum disease, and improve their overall quality of life.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

Dental pulp is the soft tissue located in the center of a tooth, surrounded by the dentin. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue, and plays a vital role in the development and health of the tooth. The dental pulp helps to form dentin during tooth development and continues to provide nourishment to the tooth throughout its life. It also serves as a sensory organ, allowing the tooth to detect hot and cold temperatures and transmit pain signals to the brain. Injury or infection of the dental pulp can lead to serious dental problems, such as tooth decay or abscesses, and may require root canal treatment to remove the damaged tissue and save the tooth.

A dental hygienist is a licensed healthcare professional who works as part of the dental team, providing educational, clinical, and therapeutic services to prevent and control oral diseases. They are trained and authorized to perform various duties such as:

1. Cleaning and polishing teeth (prophylaxis) to remove plaque, calculus, and stains.
2. Applying fluoride and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay.
3. Taking dental radiographs (x-rays) to help diagnose dental issues.
4. Providing oral health education, including proper brushing, flossing techniques, and nutrition counseling.
5. Performing screenings for oral cancer and other diseases.
6. Documenting patient care and treatment plans in medical records.
7. Collaborating with dentists to develop individualized treatment plans for patients.
8. Managing infection control protocols and maintaining a safe, clean dental environment.
9. Providing supportive services, such as applying anesthetics or administering nitrous oxide, under the direct supervision of a dentist (depending on state regulations).

Dental hygienists typically work in private dental offices but can also be found in hospitals, clinics, public health settings, educational institutions, and research facilities. They must complete an accredited dental hygiene program and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state of practice. Continuing education is required to maintain licensure and stay current with advancements in the field.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyurethanes" are not a medical term. They are a type of polymer that is used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including foam cushions, insulation, and packaging materials. Polyurethanes are created through a chemical reaction between diisocyanates and polyols. While they have many applications in the medical field, such as in the production of medical devices and equipment, they are not a medical term themselves.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery (FDS) is a division or department within a medical or dental school that focuses on the study, research, and practice of dental surgery. The faculty may be responsible for providing undergraduate and postgraduate education and training in dental surgery, as well as conducting research in this field.

Dental surgery encompasses various procedures related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders that affect the teeth, gums, and other structures of the mouth and jaw. This may include procedures such as tooth extractions, root canals, dental implants, and oral cancer surgery, among others.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery is typically composed of a group of dental surgeons who are experts in their field and have a commitment to advancing the practice of dental surgery through education, research, and clinical excellence. Members of the faculty may include professors, researchers, clinicians, and other professionals who are involved in the delivery of dental care.

Dental care for disabled refers to the specialized oral health services and treatments provided to individuals with physical, cognitive, or developmental disabilities. This type of dental care aims to prevent and manage dental diseases and conditions that can be more prevalent and challenging to treat in this population due to factors such as limited mobility, difficulty communicating, behavioral challenges, and the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Dental care for disabled may include routine cleanings, fillings, extractions, and other procedures, as well as education and counseling on oral hygiene and dietary habits. It may also involve collaboration with other healthcare providers to manage overall health and well-being.

Dental anxiety is a common feeling of fear or apprehension associated with dental appointments, treatments, or procedures. It can range from mild feelings of unease to severe phobias that cause people to avoid dental care altogether. Dental anxiety may stem from various factors such as negative past experiences, fear of pain, needles, or loss of control. In some cases, dental anxiety may lead to physical symptoms like sweating, rapid heartbeat, and difficulty breathing. It is important for individuals with dental anxiety to communicate their feelings with their dentist so that they can receive appropriate care and support.

Dental insurance is a type of health insurance specifically designed to cover the costs associated with dental care. It typically helps pay for preventive, basic, and major restorative procedures, including routine checkups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, and in some cases, orthodontic treatment.

Dental insurance plans often have a network of participating dentists who agree to provide services at pre-negotiated rates, helping to keep costs down for both the insured individual and the insurance company. The plan may cover a certain percentage of the cost of each procedure or have set copayments and deductibles that apply.

Like other forms of insurance, dental insurance plans come with annual maximum coverage limits, which is the most the plan will pay for dental care within a given year. It's essential to understand the terms and conditions of your dental insurance policy to make informed decisions about your oral health care and maximize the benefits available to you.

Dental auxiliaries are healthcare professionals who provide support to dentists in the delivery of oral healthcare services. They work under the supervision of a licensed dentist and perform tasks that require specific technical skills and knowledge. Examples of dental auxiliaries include dental hygienists, dental assistants, and dental lab technicians.

Dental hygienists are responsible for providing preventive dental care to patients, including cleaning teeth, taking x-rays, and educating patients on oral hygiene practices. They may also perform certain clinical procedures under the direct supervision of a dentist.

Dental assistants work closely with dentists during dental procedures, preparing instruments, mixing materials, and providing patient care. They may also perform administrative tasks such as scheduling appointments and managing patient records.

Dental lab technicians create dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures based on impressions taken by the dentist. They use a variety of materials and techniques to fabricate these devices with precision and accuracy.

It's important to note that the specific roles and responsibilities of dental auxiliaries may vary depending on the jurisdiction and local regulations.

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Dental research is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of teeth, oral health, and related diseases. It involves various aspects of dental sciences such as oral biology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology, biomaterials, and biotechnology. The main aim of dental research is to improve oral health care, develop new diagnostic tools, prevent dental diseases, and create better treatment options for various dental conditions. Dental researchers may study topics such as tooth development, oral cancer, periodontal disease, dental caries (cavities), saliva composition, and the effects of nutrition on oral health. The findings from dental research can help improve dental care practices, inform public health policies, and advance our understanding of overall human health.

Dental care for the elderly, also known as geriatric dentistry, refers to the dental care services provided to meet the specific needs and challenges of older adults. As people age, they may experience various oral health issues such as:

* Dry mouth due to medication side effects or medical conditions
* Gum disease and periodontitis
* Tooth loss and decay
* Oral cancer
* Uneven jawbone or ill-fitting dentures

Dental care for the aged may include routine dental exams, cleanings, fillings, extractions, denture fittings, oral surgery, and education on proper oral hygiene. It is important for elderly individuals to maintain good oral health as it can impact their overall health and quality of life. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent or manage these common oral health problems in the elderly.

The dental arch refers to the curved shape formed by the upper or lower teeth when they come together. The dental arch follows the curve of the jaw and is important for proper bite alignment and overall oral health. The dental arches are typically described as having a U-shaped appearance, with the front teeth forming a narrower section and the back teeth forming a wider section. The shape and size of the dental arch can vary from person to person, and any significant deviations from the typical shape or size may indicate an underlying orthodontic issue that requires treatment.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

A dental office is a healthcare facility where dental professionals, such as dentists, oral surgeons, and orthodontists, provide various dental treatments and services to patients. These services may include routine check-ups, teeth cleaning, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, implants, and orthodontic treatments like braces.

Dental offices typically have examination rooms equipped with dental chairs, dental instruments, and X-ray machines to diagnose and treat dental issues. They may also have a reception area where patients can schedule appointments, make payments, and complete paperwork.

In addition to clinical services, dental offices may also provide patient education on oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle habits that can affect dental health. Some dental offices may specialize in certain areas of dentistry, such as pediatric dentistry or cosmetic dentistry.

Dental records are a collection of detailed documentation related to a patient's dental history and treatment. These records typically include:

1. Patient demographics: This includes the patient's name, date of birth, contact information, and other identifying details.
2. Dental charts: These are graphic representations of the patient's teeth and gums, noting any existing restorations, decay, periodontal disease, or other oral health conditions.
3. Radiographs (x-rays): These images help dentists visualize structures that aren't visible during a clinical examination, such as between teeth, below the gum line, and inside the jaw bones.
4. Treatment plans: This includes proposed dental procedures, their estimated costs, and the rationale behind them.
5. Progress notes: These are ongoing records of each dental appointment, detailing the treatments performed, the patient's response to treatment, and any home care instructions given.
6. Medical history: This includes any systemic health conditions that could impact dental treatment, such as diabetes or heart disease, as well as medications being taken.
7. Consent forms: These are documents signed by the patient (or their legal guardian) giving permission for specific treatments.
8. Communication notes: Any correspondence between dental professionals regarding the patient's care.

Dental records play a crucial role in continuity of care, allowing dentists to track changes in a patient's oral health over time and make informed treatment decisions. They are also important for medicolegal reasons, providing evidence in case of malpractice claims or other disputes.

The term "dental staff" generally refers to the group of professionals who work together in a dental practice or setting to provide oral health care services to patients. The composition of a dental staff can vary depending on the size and type of the practice, but it typically includes:

1. Dentists: These are medical doctors who specialize in oral health. They diagnose and treat dental diseases, conditions, and disorders, and perform various procedures such as fillings, root canals, extractions, and crowns.
2. Dental Hygienists: These are licensed healthcare professionals who provide preventive dental care services to patients. They clean teeth, remove plaque and tartar, apply fluoride and sealants, take X-rays, and educate patients on proper oral hygiene practices.
3. Dental Assistants: These are trained professionals who assist dentists during procedures and perform various administrative tasks in a dental practice. They prepare patients for treatment, sterilize instruments, take impressions, and schedule appointments.
4. Front Office Staff: These are the receptionists, schedulers, and billing specialists who manage the administrative aspects of a dental practice. They handle patient inquiries, schedule appointments, process insurance claims, and maintain patient records.
5. Other Specialists: Depending on the needs of the practice, other dental professionals such as orthodontists, oral surgeons, endodontists, periodontists, or prosthodontists may also be part of the dental staff. These specialists have advanced training in specific areas of dentistry and provide specialized care to patients.

Overall, a well-functioning dental staff is essential for providing high-quality oral health care services to patients in a safe, efficient, and patient-centered manner.

Dental equipment refers to the various instruments and devices used by dental professionals to perform oral health examinations, diagnose dental conditions, and provide treatment to patients. Here are some examples:

1. Dental chair: A specially designed chair that allows patients to recline while receiving dental care.
2. Examination light: A bright light used to illuminate the oral cavity during examinations and procedures.
3. Dental mirror: A small, angled mirror used to help dentists see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.
4. Explorer: A sharp instrument used to probe teeth for signs of decay or other dental problems.
5. Dental probe: A blunt instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
6. Scaler: A handheld instrument or ultrasonic device used to remove tartar and calculus from teeth.
7. Suction device: A vacuum-like tool that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during procedures.
8. Dental drill: A high-speed instrument used to remove decayed or damaged tooth structure and prepare teeth for fillings, crowns, or other restorations.
9. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber used to isolate individual teeth during procedures, keeping them dry and free from saliva.
10. Dental X-ray machine: A device that uses radiation to capture images of the teeth and surrounding structures, helping dentists diagnose conditions such as decay, infection, and bone loss.
11. Curing light: A special light used to harden dental materials, such as composite fillings and crowns, after they have been placed in the mouth.
12. Air/water syringe: A handheld device that delivers a stream of air and water to clean teeth and rinse away debris during procedures.

"General practice dentistry" is a term used to describe the provision of primary dental care to patients of all ages. A general practice dentist provides a wide range of dental services, including preventative care (such as cleanings and fluoride treatments), restorative care (fillings, crowns, bridges), endodontics (root canals), oral surgery (extractions), periodontics (treatment of gum disease), prosthodontics (dentures, implants), and orthodontics (braces). They also diagnose and manage dental diseases and provide advice on oral health. General practice dentists aim to provide comprehensive and continuous care to their patients, coordinating with other dental and medical professionals as needed.

Dental amalgam is a commonly used dental filling material that consists of a mixture of metals, including silver, tin, copper, and mercury. The mercury binds the other metals together to form a strong, durable, and stable restoration that is resistant to wear and tear. Dental amalgam has been used for over 150 years to fill cavities and repair damaged teeth, and it remains a popular choice among dentists due to its strength, durability, and affordability.

However, there has been some controversy surrounding the use of dental amalgam due to concerns about the potential health effects of mercury exposure. While the majority of scientific evidence suggests that dental amalgam is safe for most people, some individuals may be more sensitive to mercury and may experience adverse reactions. As a result, some dentists may recommend alternative filling materials, such as composite resin or gold, for certain patients.

Overall, dental amalgam is a safe and effective option for filling cavities and restoring damaged teeth, but it is important to discuss any concerns or questions with a qualified dental professional.

A dental assistant is a healthcare professional who works under the direction of a dentist and provides patient care, takes and develops x-rays, assists the dentist during procedures, performs infection control procedures, and helps with office management. They may also provide education to patients on oral hygiene and other dental health topics. Dental assistants must be trained and certified in many states and are an important part of the dental care team.

Silanes are a group of chemical compounds that contain silicon and hydrogen. The general formula for silanes is Si_xH_(2x+2), where x is a positive integer. Silanes are named after their parent compound, silane (SiH4), which contains one silicon atom and four hydrogen atoms.

Silanes are colorless and highly flammable gases at room temperature. They are typically prepared by the reaction of metal silicides with acids or by the reduction of halogenated silanes. Silanes have a variety of industrial applications, including as intermediates in the production of silicon-based materials such as semiconductors and polymers.

In medical contexts, silanes are not typically used directly. However, some silane-containing compounds have been investigated for their potential therapeutic uses. For example, some organosilanes have been shown to have antimicrobial properties and may be useful as disinfectants or in the development of medical devices. Other silane-containing materials have been studied for their potential use in drug delivery systems or as imaging agents in diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that some silanes can be hazardous if not handled properly, and they should only be used by trained professionals in a controlled environment. Exposure to silanes can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Continuing dental education (CDE) refers to the ongoing education and training that dentists and other oral health professionals engage in after completing their initial professional degrees. The purpose of CDE is to help these professionals stay current with advances in dental technology, research, and patient care so they can continue to provide the highest quality of care to their patients.

CDE programs may cover a wide range of topics, including new techniques for treating oral diseases, advances in dental materials and equipment, ethical issues in dental practice, and strategies for managing a successful dental practice. These programs may take many forms, such as lectures, workshops, seminars, online courses, or hands-on training sessions.

In most states, dentists are required to complete a certain number of CDE credits each year in order to maintain their licensure. This helps ensure that all dental professionals are up-to-date on the latest research and best practices in their field, which ultimately benefits patients by promoting better oral health outcomes.

Dental anesthesia is a type of local or regional anesthesia that is specifically used in dental procedures to block the transmission of pain impulses from the teeth and surrounding tissues to the brain. The most common types of dental anesthesia include:

1. Local anesthesia: This involves the injection of a local anesthetic drug, such as lidocaine or prilocaine, into the gum tissue near the tooth that is being treated. This numbs the area and prevents the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.
2. Conscious sedation: This is a type of minimal sedation that is used to help patients relax during dental procedures. The patient remains conscious and can communicate with the dentist, but may not remember the details of the procedure. Common methods of conscious sedation include nitrous oxide (laughing gas) or oral sedatives.
3. Deep sedation or general anesthesia: This is rarely used in dental procedures, but may be necessary for patients who are extremely anxious or have special needs. It involves the administration of drugs that cause a state of unconsciousness and prevent the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.

Dental anesthesia is generally safe when administered by a qualified dentist or oral surgeon. However, as with any medical procedure, there are risks involved, including allergic reactions to the anesthetic drugs, nerve damage, and infection. Patients should discuss any concerns they have with their dentist before undergoing dental anesthesia.

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are surgically placed into the jawbone to replace missing or extracted teeth. They are typically made of titanium, a biocompatible material that can fuse with the bone over time in a process called osseointegration. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a dental crown, bridge, or denture can be attached to it to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental implants are a popular choice for tooth replacement because they offer several advantages over traditional options like dentures or bridges. They are more stable and comfortable, as they do not rely on adjacent teeth for support and do not slip or move around in the mouth. Additionally, dental implants can help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing.

The process of getting dental implants typically involves several appointments with a dental specialist called a prosthodontist or an oral surgeon. During the first appointment, the implant is placed into the jawbone, and the gum tissue is stitched closed. Over the next few months, the implant will fuse with the bone. Once this process is complete, a second surgery may be necessary to expose the implant and attach an abutment, which connects the implant to the dental restoration. Finally, the crown, bridge, or denture is attached to the implant, providing a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth.

Aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that consist of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen in their chemical structure. They are often found in nature and can be categorized into several groups, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite. These minerals have various industrial and commercial uses, including as fillers and extenders in products like paper, paint, and rubber. In the medical field, certain types of aluminum silicates (like bentonite) have been used in some medicinal and therapeutic applications, such as detoxification and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these minerals in medical treatments is not widely accepted or supported by extensive scientific evidence.

Dental prophylaxis is a dental procedure aimed at the prevention and treatment of dental diseases. It is commonly known as a "teeth cleaning" and is performed by a dentist or dental hygienist. The procedure involves removing plaque, tartar, and stains from the teeth to prevent tooth decay and gum disease. Dental prophylaxis may also include polishing the teeth, applying fluoride, and providing oral hygiene instructions to promote good oral health. It is recommended that individuals receive a dental prophylaxis every six months or as directed by their dentist.

Dental radiography is a specific type of imaging that uses radiation to produce detailed images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues surrounding them. It is a crucial tool in dental diagnostics and treatment planning. There are several types of dental radiographs, including:

1. Intraoral Radiographs: These are taken inside the mouth and provide detailed images of individual teeth or small groups of teeth. They can help detect cavities, assess periodontal health, plan for restorations, and monitor tooth development in children. Common types of intraoral radiographs include bitewing, periapical, and occlusal radiographs.
2. Extraoral Radiographs: These are taken outside the mouth and provide images of larger areas, such as the entire jaw or skull. They can help diagnose issues related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), detect impacted teeth, assess bone health, and identify any abnormalities in the facial structure. Common types of extraoral radiographs include panoramic, cephalometric, and sialography radiographs.
3. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT): This is a specialized type of dental radiography that uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam to create detailed 3D images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues. It is particularly useful in planning complex treatments such as dental implants, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery.

Dental radiographs are typically taken using a specialized machine that emits a low dose of radiation. Patients are provided with protective lead aprons to minimize exposure to radiation. The frequency of dental radiographs depends on the patient's individual needs and medical history. Dentists follow strict guidelines to ensure that dental radiography is safe and effective for their patients.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

"Dental, Graduate Education" refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study and training that lead to an advanced degree in the field of dentistry. These programs are designed to prepare students for specialized dental practice, research, or teaching careers. Examples of graduate dental degrees include:

1. Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS): A professional doctoral degree that qualifies the graduate to practice general dentistry.
2. Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD): A professional doctoral degree equivalent to the DDS; awarded by some universities in the United States and several other countries.
3. Master of Science (MS) in Dentistry: An academic master's degree focused on research, teaching, or advanced clinical practice in a specific dental discipline.
4. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Dental Sciences: A research-oriented doctoral degree that prepares students for careers in academia, research institutions, or the dental industry.
5. Specialty Training Programs: Postgraduate residency programs that provide advanced training in one of the nine recognized dental specialties, such as orthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, or pediatric dentistry. These programs typically lead to a certificate or a master's degree in the respective specialty area.

Graduate dental education usually involves a combination of classroom instruction, laboratory work, clinical experience, and research. Admission to these programs typically requires a DDS or DMD degree from an accredited dental school and satisfactory scores on the Dental Admission Test (DAT).

Dental ethics refers to the principles and rules that guide the conduct of dental professionals in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and society. These ethical standards are designed to promote trust, respect, and fairness in dental care, and they are often based on fundamental ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

Autonomy refers to the patient's right to make informed decisions about their own health care, free from coercion or manipulation. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide patients with accurate information about their dental conditions and treatment options, so that they can make informed choices about their care.

Beneficence means acting in the best interests of the patient, and doing what is medically necessary and appropriate to promote their health and well-being. Dental professionals have a duty to provide high-quality care that meets accepted standards of practice, and to use evidence-based treatments that are likely to be effective.

Non-maleficence means avoiding harm to the patient. Dental professionals must take reasonable precautions to prevent injuries or complications during treatment, and they should avoid providing unnecessary or harmful treatments.

Justice refers to fairness and equity in the distribution of dental resources and services. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide care that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive, and to advocate for policies and practices that promote health equity and social justice.

Dental ethics also encompasses issues related to patient confidentiality, informed consent, research integrity, professional competence, and boundary violations. Dental professionals are expected to adhere to ethical guidelines established by their professional organizations, such as the American Dental Association (ADA) or the British Dental Association (BDA), and to comply with relevant laws and regulations governing dental practice.

A "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized department or unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients. This type of service is typically equipped with advanced dental technology and staffed by oral health professionals such as dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, endodontists, periodontists, and dental hygienists.

The dental services offered in a hospital setting may include preventive care, restorative treatments, oral surgery, prosthodontics (dentures and implants), periodontal therapy, endodontic treatment (root canals), orthodontic treatment, and specialized care for patients with medical conditions that affect their oral health.

Hospital dental services often provide care to patients who require complex or extensive dental treatments, have medical conditions that make it difficult to receive dental care in a traditional dental office setting, or those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. They may also provide emergency dental care for patients with severe dental pain, infection, or trauma.

In summary, a "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients, typically offering advanced technology and staffed by oral health professionals.

Dental debonding is a dental procedure that involves the removal or separation of orthodontic appliances, such as brackets and bands, from the surface of teeth. This process is typically performed by an orthodontist or dentist using specialized tools to carefully remove the bonding material that attaches the appliance to the tooth without causing damage to the tooth enamel. Debonding is usually done after the completion of orthodontic treatment, such as when braces are removed. It may also be necessary in cases where an appliance becomes loose or damaged and needs to be replaced.

A dentist is a healthcare professional who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect the oral cavity and maxillofacial region. This includes the teeth, gums, jaw, and related structures. Dentists are trained to provide a wide range of services, including:

1. Routine dental exams and cleanings
2. Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments
3. Root canals and extractions
4. Dental implants and dentures
5. Orthodontic treatment (braces, aligners)
6. Treatment of gum disease
7. Oral cancer screenings
8. Cosmetic dental procedures (teeth whitening, veneers)
9. Management of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ)
10. Emergency dental care

To become a dentist, one must complete a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD) degree from an accredited dental school and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state. Many dentists also choose to specialize in a particular area of dentistry, such as orthodontics, oral surgery, or pediatric dentistry, by completing additional training and residency programs.

A dental society is a professional organization composed of dentists who have come together to promote and advance the practice of dentistry. These societies can be local, regional, national or international in scope and may include general dentists as well as specialists in various fields of dentistry. The members of dental societies often engage in continuing education, advocacy, research, and community service activities to improve oral health and the delivery of dental care. Additionally, dental societies may establish guidelines for ethical practice and provide resources and support for their members.

Dental technology refers to the application of science and engineering in dentistry to prevent, diagnose, and treat dental diseases and conditions. It involves the use of various equipment, materials, and techniques to improve oral health and enhance the delivery of dental care. Some examples of dental technology include:

1. Digital radiography: This technology uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray films to produce images of the teeth and supporting structures. It provides higher quality images, reduces radiation exposure, and allows for easier storage and sharing of images.
2. CAD/CAM dentistry: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology is used to design and fabricate dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and veneers in a single appointment. This technology allows for more precise and efficient production of dental restorations.
3. Dental implants: These are artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to replace missing teeth. They provide a stable foundation for dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures.
4. Intraoral cameras: These are small cameras that can be inserted into the mouth to capture detailed images of the teeth and gums. These images can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient education.
5. Laser dentistry: Dental lasers are used to perform a variety of procedures such as cavity preparation, gum contouring, and tooth whitening. They provide more precise and less invasive treatments compared to traditional dental tools.
6. 3D printing: This technology is used to create dental models, surgical guides, and custom-made dental restorations. It allows for more accurate and efficient production of dental products.

Overall, dental technology plays a crucial role in modern dentistry by improving the accuracy, efficiency, and quality of dental care.

Dental health surveys are epidemiological studies that aim to assess the oral health status and related behaviors of a defined population at a particular point in time. These surveys collect data on various aspects of oral health, including the prevalence and severity of dental diseases such as caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), and oral cancer. They also gather information on factors that influence oral health, such as dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, access to dental care, and socioeconomic status.

The data collected in dental health surveys are used to identify trends and patterns in oral health, plan and evaluate public health programs and policies, and allocate resources for oral health promotion and disease prevention. Dental health surveys may be conducted at the local, regional, or national level, and they can target specific populations such as children, adolescents, adults, or older adults.

The methods used in dental health surveys include clinical examinations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups. Clinical examinations are conducted by trained dentists or dental hygienists who follow standardized protocols to assess the oral health status of participants. Interviews and questionnaires are used to collect information on demographic characteristics, oral health behaviors, and attitudes towards oral health. Focus groups can provide insights into the perceptions and experiences of participants regarding oral health issues.

Overall, dental health surveys play a critical role in monitoring and improving the oral health of populations and reducing oral health disparities.

Dental licensure is the process by which a state or jurisdiction grants a dental professional the authority to practice dentistry within its borders. In order to obtain a dental license, individuals must meet certain education, examination, and other requirements established by the licensing body. These requirements typically include graduation from an accredited dental school, passing written and clinical examinations, and completion of continuing education courses.

The purpose of dental licensure is to protect the public by ensuring that dental professionals have the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities to provide safe and effective dental care. Licensing boards are responsible for enforcing standards of practice and disciplining dentists who engage in unprofessional or unethical conduct.

It's important to note that dental licensure requirements may vary from state to state, so it's essential for dental professionals to familiarize themselves with the specific requirements of the state(s) in which they intend to practice.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Dental laboratories are specialized facilities where dental technicians create and manufacture various dental restorations and appliances based on the specific measurements, models, and instructions provided by dentists. These custom-made dental products are designed to restore or replace damaged, missing, or decayed teeth, improve oral function, and enhance the overall appearance of a patient's smile.

Some common dental restorations and appliances produced in dental laboratories include:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial caps that cover and protect damaged or weakened teeth, often made from ceramics, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of materials.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth (pontics) to adjacent natural teeth or dental implants.
3. Dentures: Removable prosthetic devices that replace all or most of the upper and/or lower teeth, providing improved chewing function, speech clarity, and aesthetics.
4. Orthodontic appliances: Devices used to correct malocclusions (improper bites) and misaligned teeth, such as traditional braces, clear aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.
5. Custom dental implant components: Specialized parts designed for specific implant systems, which are used in conjunction with dental implants to replace missing teeth permanently.
6. Night guards and occlusal splints: Protective devices worn during sleep to prevent or manage bruxism (teeth grinding) and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).
7. Anti-snoring devices: Mandibular advancement devices that help reduce snoring by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, preventing airway obstruction during sleep.
8. Dental whitening trays: Custom-fitted trays used to hold bleaching gel against tooth surfaces for professional teeth whitening treatments.
9. Specialty restorations: Including aesthetic veneers, inlays, onlays, and other customized dental solutions designed to meet specific patient needs.

Dental laboratories may be standalone facilities or part of a larger dental practice. They are typically staffed by skilled technicians who specialize in various aspects of dental technology, such as ceramics, orthodontics, implantology, and prosthodontics. Collaboration between dentists, dental specialists, and laboratory technicians ensures the highest quality results for patients undergoing restorative or cosmetic dental treatments.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silicon" does not have a specific medical definition. Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. In the human body, silicon is not considered an essential nutrient, although it is found in trace amounts in various tissues. Some research suggests that silicon might play a role in collagen synthesis and bone health, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings and establish recommended intake levels.

Electroplating is not a medical term, but rather a process used in the industrial field. It refers to the process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal through the use of an electrical current. This process involves immersing the object in a solution containing dissolved ions of the metal to be deposited, and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object serves as the cathode, and the metal ions are reduced at its surface, forming a thin layer of pure metal.

While electroplating is not directly related to medicine, it does have some medical applications. For example, medical devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators may be coated with gold or other metals through electroplating to improve their biocompatibility and reduce the risk of corrosion or rejection by the body. Similarly, dental restorations may be electroplated with precious metals to enhance their strength and durability.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

Dental specialties are recognized areas of expertise in dental practice that require additional training and education beyond the general dentist degree. The American Dental Association (ADA) recognizes nine dental specialties:

1. Dental Public Health: This specialty focuses on preventing oral diseases and promoting oral health through population-level interventions, research, and policy development.
2. Endodontics: Endodontists are experts in diagnosing and treating tooth pain and performing root canal treatments to save infected or damaged teeth.
3. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: This specialty involves the diagnosis and management of diseases that affect the oral cavity, jaws, and face, using clinical, radiographic, and microscopic examination techniques.
4. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology: Oral and maxillofacial radiologists use advanced imaging technologies to diagnose and manage conditions affecting the head and neck region.
5. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Oral surgeons perform surgical procedures on the face, jaws, and mouth, including tooth extractions, jaw alignment surgeries, and cancer treatments.
6. Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Orthodontists specialize in diagnosing and treating dental and facial irregularities, using appliances such as braces and aligners to straighten teeth and correct bite problems.
7. Pediatric Dentistry: Pediatric dentists are trained to care for the oral health needs of children, including those with special health care needs.
8. Periodontics: Periodontists diagnose and treat gum diseases, place dental implants, and perform surgical procedures to regenerate lost tissue and bone support around teeth.
9. Prosthodontics: Prosthodontists are experts in replacing missing teeth and restoring damaged or worn-out teeth using crowns, bridges, dentures, and implant-supported restorations.

Dental fees refer to the charges that dentists or dental professionals bill for their services, procedures, or treatments. These fees can vary based on several factors such as:

1. Location: Dental fees may differ depending on the region or country where the dental practice is located due to differences in cost of living and local market conditions.
2. Type of procedure: The complexity and duration of a dental treatment will impact the fee charged for that service. For example, a simple teeth cleaning will have a lower fee compared to more complex procedures like root canals or dental implants.
3. Dental professional's expertise and experience: Highly skilled and experienced dentists may charge higher fees due to their superior level of knowledge and proficiency in performing various dental treatments.
4. Type of dental practice: Fees for dental services at a private practice may differ from those charged by a community health center or non-profit organization.
5. Dental insurance coverage: The amount of coverage provided by a patient's dental insurance plan can also affect the final out-of-pocket cost for dental care, which in turn influences the fees that dentists charge.

Dental fee schedules are typically established by individual dental practices based on these factors and may be periodically updated to reflect changes in costs or market conditions. Patients should consult their dental providers to understand the specific fees associated with any recommended treatments or procedures.

Dental restoration failure refers to the breakdown or loss of functionality of a dental restoration, which is a procedure performed to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of a tooth that has been damaged due to decay, trauma, or wear. The restoration can include fillings, crowns, veneers, bridges, and implants. Failure of dental restorations can occur due to various reasons such as recurrent decay, fracture, poor fit, or material failure, leading to further damage or loss of the tooth.

Pit and fissure sealants are a preventive dental treatment that involves the application of a thin, plastic coating to the chewing surfaces of teeth, usually the molars and premolars. The goal of this treatment is to protect the pits and fissures, which are the grooves and depressions on the chewing surfaces of teeth, from decay.

The sealant material flows into the pits and fissures, creating a smooth, protective barrier that prevents food and bacteria from becoming trapped in these areas and causing cavities. The procedure is typically quick, painless, and non-invasive, and can be performed during a routine dental checkup. Sealants are most commonly recommended for children and adolescents, but they may also be appropriate for adults who are at high risk of tooth decay.

A dental technician is a healthcare professional who designs, fabricates, and repairs custom-made dental devices, such as dentures, crowns, bridges, orthodontic appliances, and implant restorations. They work closely with dentists and other oral health professionals to meet the individual needs of each patient. Dental technicians typically have an associate's degree or certificate in dental technology and may be certified by a professional organization. Their work requires a strong understanding of dental materials, fabrication techniques, and the latest advances in dental technology.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Practice management in dentistry refers to the administration and operation of a dental practice. It involves various aspects such as:

1. Business Operations: This includes financial management, billing and coding, human resources, and office management.

2. Patient Care: This includes scheduling appointments, managing patient records, treatment planning, and ensuring quality care.

3. Marketing and Promotion: This includes advertising the practice, attracting new patients, and maintaining relationships with existing ones.

4. Compliance: This includes adhering to laws and regulations related to dental practices, such as HIPAA for patient privacy and OSHA for workplace safety.

5. Continuous Improvement: This involves regularly assessing the practice's performance, implementing changes to improve efficiency and effectiveness, and keeping up-to-date with advancements in dentistry and healthcare management.

The goal of dental practice management is to ensure the smooth running of the practice, provide high-quality patient care, and maintain a successful and profitable business.

The dental sac, also known as the dental follicle, is a soft tissue structure that surrounds the developing tooth crown during odontogenesis, which is the process of tooth development. It is derived from the ectoderm and mesenchyme of the embryonic oral cavity. The dental sac gives rise to several important structures associated with the tooth, including the periodontal ligament, cementum, and the alveolar bone that surrounds and supports the tooth in the jaw.

The dental sac plays a critical role in tooth development by regulating the mineralization of the tooth crown and providing a protective environment for the developing tooth. It also contains cells called odontoblasts, which are responsible for producing dentin, one of the hard tissues that make up the tooth. Abnormalities in the development or growth of the dental sac can lead to various dental anomalies, such as impacted teeth, dilacerated roots, and other developmental disorders.

Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate (BPAGM) is a type of chemical compound that belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycidyl methacrylates. It is created by the reaction between bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate.

BPAGM is used in various industrial applications, including the production of coatings, adhesives, and resins. In the medical field, it has been used as a component in some dental materials, such as bonding agents and composite resins. However, due to concerns about its potential health effects, including its possible estrogenic activity and potential to cause reproductive toxicity, its use in dental materials has become more restricted in recent years.

It is important to note that exposure to BPAGM should be limited as much as possible, and appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling this chemical compound.

Polymethacrylic acids are not typically referred to as a medical term, but rather as a chemical one. They are a type of synthetic polymer made up of repeating units of methacrylic acid (MAA). These polymers have various applications in different industries, including the medical field.

In medicine, polymethacrylates are often used in the formulation of controlled-release drug delivery systems, such as beads or microspheres, due to their ability to swell and shrink in response to changes in pH or temperature. This property allows for the gradual release of drugs encapsulated within these polymers over an extended period.

Polymethacrylates are also used in dental applications, such as in the production of artificial teeth and dentures, due to their durability and resistance to wear. Additionally, they can be found in some surgical sealants and adhesives.

While polymethacrylic acids themselves may not have a specific medical definition, their various forms and applications in medical devices and drug delivery systems contribute significantly to the field of medicine.

Dental veneers, also known as dental porcelain laminates or just veneers, are thin custom-made shells of tooth-colored materials designed to cover the front surface of teeth to improve their appearance. These shells are bonded to the front of the teeth, changing their color, shape, size, or length.

Dental veneers can be made from porcelain or resin composite materials. Porcelain veneers are more stain-resistant and generally last longer than resin veneers. They also better mimic the light-reflecting properties of natural teeth. Resin veneers, on the other hand, are thinner and require less removal of the tooth's surface before placement.

Dental veneers are often used to treat dental conditions like discolored teeth, worn down teeth, chipped or broken teeth, misaligned teeth, irregularly shaped teeth, or gaps between teeth. The procedure usually requires three visits to the dentist: one for consultation and treatment planning, another to prepare the tooth and take an impression for the veneer, and a final visit to bond the veneer to the tooth.

It is important to note that while dental veneers can greatly improve the appearance of your teeth, they are not suitable for everyone. Your dentist will evaluate your oral health and discuss whether dental veneers are the right option for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semiconductors" is a term from the field of materials science and electronics rather than medicine. Semiconductors are materials, often silicon-based, that have properties between conductors and insulators. They are used in various electronic devices due to their unique property of controlling the flow of electrical current. If you have any medical questions, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the examination, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity (mouth), including the teeth, gums, and other supporting structures. Dentists use a variety of treatments and procedures to help patients maintain good oral health and prevent dental problems from developing or worsening. These may include:

* Routine cleanings and checkups to remove plaque and tartar and detect any potential issues early on
* Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments to repair damaged teeth
* Root canal therapy to treat infected or inflamed tooth pulp
* Extractions of severely decayed or impacted teeth
* Dentures, bridges, and implants to replace missing teeth
* Orthodontic treatment to align crooked or misaligned teeth
* Treatment for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and other issues affecting the jaw and surrounding muscles

Dental health is an important part of overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been linked to a variety of systemic conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent these and other dental problems from developing.

Dental esthetics refers to the branch of dentistry concerned with the aesthetic appearance of teeth and smile. It involves the use of various dental treatments and procedures to improve the color, shape, alignment, and position of teeth, thereby enhancing the overall facial appearance and self-confidence of a person. Some common dental esthetic treatments include tooth whitening, dental veneers, composite bonding, orthodontic treatment (braces), and dental implants. It is important to note that dental esthetics not only focuses on improving the appearance but also maintaining or improving oral health and function.

Comprehensive dental care is a broad term that refers to a dental approach that involves the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide range of oral health issues. It aims to provide patients with complete and optimal oral health care, including:

1. Oral examination and assessment: This includes a thorough examination of the patient's oral cavity, head, and neck to identify any existing dental problems or potential issues that may arise in the future.
2. Preventive care: Comprehensive dental care emphasizes preventive measures such as regular dental cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to help protect against tooth decay and gum disease.
3. Restorative dentistry: If dental problems are identified, comprehensive dental care includes restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, bridges, or implants to restore the function and appearance of damaged teeth.
4. Periodontal (gum) treatment: Comprehensive dental care also addresses periodontal health through deep cleanings, scaling and root planing, and other therapies to manage gum disease.
5. Oral surgery: In some cases, comprehensive dental care may involve oral surgery procedures like tooth extractions or jaw realignment.
6. Endodontic (root canal) treatment: If the pulp of a tooth becomes infected or inflamed, endodontic treatment may be necessary to save the tooth and alleviate pain.
7. Prosthodontics: This includes the replacement of missing teeth with dentures, bridges, or implants.
8. Orthodontic care: Comprehensive dental care can also involve orthodontic treatments like braces or aligners to straighten misaligned teeth and improve bite.
9. Oral cancer screening: Regular oral cancer screenings are an essential part of comprehensive dental care, as early detection significantly increases the chances of successful treatment.
10. Patient education: Comprehensive dental care also focuses on educating patients about proper oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle choices that can impact their oral health. This helps empower patients to take an active role in maintaining their oral health between appointments.

In summary, comprehensive dental care is a holistic approach to dental care that aims to provide complete and personalized oral health solutions for each patient, addressing all aspects of their oral health and promoting long-term wellbeing.

Health education in the context of dentistry refers to the process of educating and informing individuals, families, and communities about oral health-related topics, including proper oral hygiene practices, the importance of regular dental checkups and cleanings, the risks and consequences of poor oral health, and the relationship between oral health and overall health. The goal of dental health education is to empower individuals to take control of their own oral health and make informed decisions about their dental care. This can be achieved through various methods such as lectures, demonstrations, printed materials, and interactive activities. Dental health education may also cover topics related to nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, and the prevention and treatment of oral diseases and conditions.

Dental prosthesis repair refers to the process of fixing or mending a broken or damaged dental prosthesis. A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces missing teeth and can be removable or fixed. Examples of dental prostheses include dentures, bridges, and crowns.

Repairs to dental prostheses may be necessary due to damage caused by normal wear and tear, accidents, or poor oral hygiene. The repair process typically involves cleaning the prosthesis, identifying the damaged or broken parts, and replacing or fixing them using appropriate dental materials. The repaired prosthesis should then be properly fitted and adjusted to ensure comfortable and effective use.

It is important to seek professional dental care for dental prosthesis repair to ensure that the repairs are done correctly and safely. A dentist or a dental technician with experience in prosthodontics can perform dental prosthesis repair.

Curing lights, dental, are specialized devices used in dentistry to initiate the polymerization (hardening) of light-cured restorative materials, such as composite resins and sealants. These lights emit high-intensity, visible blue light with a wavelength range typically between 450-490 nanometers. This blue light activates photoinitiators within the dental material, which then undergo a chemical reaction that causes the material to harden and solidify.

There are two primary types of curing lights used in dental practice:

1. Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH) Lamps: These are traditional curing lights that use a halogen bulb to produce the necessary light intensity. They provide a broad spectrum of light, which allows them to cure a wide variety of materials. However, they tend to produce more heat and have a shorter lifespan compared to newer alternatives.
2. Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) Curing Lights: These are more modern curing lights that utilize LEDs as the light source. They offer several advantages over QTH lamps, including cooler operation, longer lifespan, and lower energy consumption. Additionally, some LED curing lights can emit higher light intensities, which may lead to shorter curing times and better polymerization of the restorative material.

Proper use of dental curing lights is essential for ensuring optimal physical and mechanical properties of the restored teeth, such as strength, wear resistance, and marginal seal.

Potassium compounds refer to substances that contain the element potassium (chemical symbol: K) combined with one or more other elements. Potassium is an alkali metal that has the atomic number 19 and is highly reactive, so it is never found in its free form in nature. Instead, it is always found combined with other elements in the form of potassium compounds.

Potassium compounds can be ionic or covalent, depending on the properties of the other element(s) with which it is combined. In general, potassium forms ionic compounds with nonmetals and covalent compounds with other metals. Ionic potassium compounds are formed when potassium donates one electron to a nonmetal, forming a positively charged potassium ion (K+) and a negatively charged nonmetal ion.

Potassium compounds have many important uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture. For example, potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute and to treat or prevent low potassium levels in the blood. Potassium citrate is used to treat kidney stones and to alkalinize urine. Potassium iodide is used to treat thyroid disorders and to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine during medical imaging procedures.

It's important to note that some potassium compounds can be toxic or even fatal if ingested in large quantities, so they should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Dentist-patient relations refer to the professional relationship between a licensed dentist and their patient. This relationship is based on trust, communication, and ethical obligations. The dentist is responsible for providing competent and appropriate dental care while considering the patient's needs, preferences, and values. The patient, on the other hand, should be honest with their dentist regarding their medical history, oral health habits, and any concerns they may have. Effective dentist-patient relations are crucial in ensuring positive dental experiences, treatment compliance, and overall satisfaction with dental care.

Nanostructures, in the context of medical and biomedical research, refer to materials or devices with structural features that have at least one dimension ranging between 1-100 nanometers (nm). At this size scale, the properties of these structures can differ significantly from bulk materials, exhibiting unique phenomena that are often influenced by quantum effects.

Nanostructures have attracted considerable interest in biomedicine due to their potential applications in various areas such as drug delivery, diagnostics, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. They can be fabricated from a wide range of materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, and carbon-based materials.

Some examples of nanostructures used in biomedicine include:

1. Nanoparticles: These are tiny particles with at least one dimension in the nanoscale range. They can be made from various materials like metals, polymers, or lipids and have applications in drug delivery, imaging, and diagnostics.
2. Quantum dots: These are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit unique optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. They are used as fluorescent labels for bioimaging and biosensing applications.
3. Carbon nanotubes: These are hollow, cylindrical structures made of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. They have exceptional mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal stability, making them suitable for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biosensors.
4. Nanofibers: These are elongated nanostructures with high aspect ratios (length much greater than width). They can be fabricated from various materials like polymers, ceramics, or composites and have applications in tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery.
5. Dendrimers: These are highly branched, nanoscale polymers with a well-defined structure and narrow size distribution. They can be used as drug carriers, gene delivery vehicles, and diagnostic agents.
6. Nanoshells: These are hollow, spherical nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric core covered by a thin metallic shell. They exhibit unique optical properties that make them suitable for applications such as photothermal therapy, biosensing, and imaging.

'Infection Control, Dental' refers to the practices and procedures implemented in dental settings to prevent the transmission of infectious agents from person to person, or from contaminated instruments, equipment, or environmental surfaces to patients or dental personnel. It includes a range of measures such as hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, masks, eyewear), sterilization and disinfection of instruments and equipment, safe injection practices, and environmental cleaning and disinfection. The goal of infection control in dentistry is to eliminate or minimize the risk of infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis, among others, being transmitted in dental settings.

The dental papilla is a type of tissue found in the developing tooth within the jawbone. It is composed of cells that will eventually differentiate into odontoblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing dentin, one of the main hard tissues that make up the tooth. The dental papilla is located in the center of the tooth germ and is surrounded by the dental follicle, another type of tissue that helps to form the tooth. As the tooth develops, the dental papilla becomes smaller and eventually forms the pulp chamber, which contains the blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support and nourish the tooth.

A bicuspid valve, also known as a mitral valve in the heart, is a heart valve that has two leaflets or cusps. It lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle and helps to regulate blood flow between these two chambers of the heart. In a healthy heart, the bicuspid valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle and closes tightly to prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium during contraction of the ventricle.

A congenital heart defect known as a bicuspid aortic valve occurs when the aortic valve, which normally has three leaflets or cusps, only has two. This can lead to narrowing of the valve (aortic stenosis) or leakage of the valve (aortic regurgitation), which can cause symptoms and may require medical treatment.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces one or more missing teeth or parts of teeth to correct deficiencies in chewing ability, speech, and aesthetics. It can be removable or fixed (permanent) and can be made from various materials such as acrylic resin, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of these. Examples of dental prostheses include dentures, bridges, crowns, and implants.

Dentin permeability refers to the ability of various substances to penetrate or diffuse through the dentin, which is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and forms the bulk of a tooth. Dentin is composed of microscopic tubules that run from the pulp chamber (which contains the dental pulp) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and are lined with odontoblastic processes, which are extensions of the cells that form dentin.

When the dentin is exposed due to tooth decay, wear, or other factors, various substances can penetrate through these tubules and cause sensitivity, discomfort, or pain. The permeability of dentin can be influenced by several factors, including the diameter and number of tubules, the thickness and composition of the dentinal tissue, and the presence of dental sealants or other protective coatings.

In general, a higher dentin permeability is associated with increased susceptibility to tooth decay, sensitivity, and other dental problems. Therefore, understanding the factors that influence dentin permeability and developing strategies to reduce it is an important area of research in dental medicine.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nanowires" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of materials science and nanotechnology. Nanowires are one-dimensional structures with a diameter of 1-100 nanometers (nm) and an aspect ratio (length/diameter) greater than 1000. They have unique electrical, mechanical, and optical properties that make them useful in various applications such as electronics, sensors, energy storage, and biomedical devices.

Tooth diseases are conditions that affect the teeth and can cause discomfort, pain, and even loss of teeth if left untreated. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, bacterial infections, trauma, genetics, and certain medical conditions. Some common tooth diseases include:

1. Dental caries (tooth decay): This is a breakdown of the tooth enamel due to the action of acid-producing bacteria that feed on sugars and starches in the mouth. Over time, this can lead to cavities or holes in the teeth.
2. Gingivitis: This is an inflammation of the gums caused by the buildup of plaque and tartar at the gum line. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more serious form of gum disease that can cause tooth loss.
3. Periodontitis: This is a severe infection of the gums and bones that support the teeth. It is caused by the buildup of plaque and tartar, which leads to the destruction of the tissue and bone that hold the teeth in place.
4. Abscess: This is a pocket of pus that forms in the tooth or gum due to a bacterial infection. An abscess can cause pain, swelling, and fever, and may require antibiotics or surgical drainage.
5. Tooth erosion: This is the loss of tooth structure due to acid wear, which can be caused by factors such as diet, stomach acid, and teeth grinding.
6. Hypersensitivity: This is a condition in which the teeth become sensitive to hot, cold, or sweet foods and drinks. It can be caused by factors such as gum recession, tooth decay, and tooth wear.
7. Oral cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the mouth, lips, tongue, or throat. It can cause symptoms such as sores, lumps, or difficulty swallowing, and may require surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy for treatment.

Nanotechnology is not a medical term per se, but it is a field of study with potential applications in medicine. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology is defined as "the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

In the context of medicine, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoscale materials, devices, or systems for medical applications. These can include drug delivery systems that target specific cells or tissues, diagnostic tools that detect biomarkers at the molecular level, and tissue engineering strategies that promote regeneration and repair.

While nanotechnology holds great promise for medicine, it is still a relatively new field with many challenges to overcome, including issues related to safety, regulation, and scalability.

A dental audit is a systematic review and evaluation of the dental records, procedures, and care provided by a dentist or dental practice. The purpose of a dental audit is to assess the quality of care, identify any areas for improvement, and ensure that appropriate policies and procedures are being followed. This can include reviews of patient records, treatment plans, billing practices, and adherence to infection control guidelines.

The results of a dental audit may be used to improve the quality of care provided to patients, reduce the risk of errors or complications, and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. Dental audits may be conducted internally by dental practices themselves, or externally by dental organizations, insurance companies, or government agencies.

Oral health is the scientific term used to describe the overall health status of the oral and related tissues, including the teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and mucosal lining. It involves the absence of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, oral soft tissue lesions, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity.

Good oral health also means being free of decay, gum disease, and other oral infections that can damage the teeth, gums, and bones of the mouth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups to prevent dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease (gum disease).

Additionally, oral health is closely linked to overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been associated with various systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and stroke. Therefore, maintaining good oral health can contribute to improved general health and quality of life.

Argon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonreactive noble gas that occurs in the Earth's atmosphere. It is chemically inert and is extracted from air by fractional distillation. Argon is used in various applications such as illumination, welding, and as a shielding gas in manufacturing processes.

In medical terms, argon is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent or medication. However, it has been used in some medical procedures such as argon laser therapy for the treatment of certain eye conditions like diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. In these procedures, an argon laser is used to seal off leaking blood vessels or destroy abnormal tissue in the eye.

Overall, while argon has important uses in medical procedures, it is not a medication or therapeutic agent that is commonly administered directly to patients.

Dental instruments are specialized tools that dentists, dental hygienists, and other oral healthcare professionals use to examine, clean, and treat teeth and gums. These instruments come in various shapes and sizes, and each one is designed for a specific purpose. Here are some common dental instruments and their functions:

1. Mouth mirror: A small, handheld mirror used to help the dentist see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth and reflect light onto the teeth and gums.
2. Explorer: A sharp, hooked instrument used to probe teeth and detect cavities, tartar, or other dental problems.
3. Sickle scaler: A curved, sharp-edged instrument used to remove calculus (tartar) from the tooth surface.
4. Periodontal probe: A blunt, calibrated instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
5. Dental syringe: A device used to inject local anesthesia into the gums before dental procedures.
6. High-speed handpiece: Also known as a dental drill, it is used to remove decay, shape teeth, or prepare them for fillings and other restorations.
7. Low-speed handpiece: A slower, quieter drill used for various procedures, such as placing crowns or veneers.
8. Suction tip: A thin tube that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during dental procedures.
9. Cotton rolls: Small squares of cotton used to isolate teeth, absorb fluids, and protect soft tissues during dental treatments.
10. Dental forceps: Specialized pliers used to remove teeth or hold them in place while restorations are being placed.
11. Elevators: Curved, wedge-shaped instruments used to loosen or lift teeth out of their sockets.
12. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber or latex that isolates a specific tooth or area during dental treatment, keeping it dry and free from saliva and debris.

These are just a few examples of the many dental instruments used in modern dentistry. Each one plays an essential role in maintaining oral health and providing effective dental care.

Dental waste refers to the byproducts and discarded materials generated from dental treatments and procedures. This can include:

1. Amalgam waste: This consists of a mixture of metals, including mercury, used to fill dental cavities.
2. Sharps waste: Includes needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp instruments used in dental procedures.
3. Infectious waste: Materials that have been contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids during dental treatments, such as gloves, gauze, and used dental bibs.
4. Pharmaceutical waste: Unused or expired medications, including analgesics, antibiotics, and anesthetics.
5. Chemical waste: Includes fixer and developer solutions used in developing X-rays, as well as disinfectants and other chemicals used in dental practices.
6. Radioactive waste: Dental X-ray film packets and lead foil from X-ray processing.

Proper management and disposal of dental waste is essential to protect public health and the environment. Regulations governing dental waste disposal vary by location, so it's important for dental practices to be aware of and comply with local requirements.

Dental implantation is a surgical procedure in which a titanium post or frame is inserted into the jawbone beneath the gum line to replace the root of a missing tooth. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a replacement tooth (crown) is attached to the top of the implant, providing a stable and durable restoration that looks, feels, and functions like a natural tooth. Dental implants can also be used to support dental bridges or dentures, providing added stability and comfort for patients who are missing multiple teeth.

In the field of medicine, ceramics are commonly referred to as inorganic, non-metallic materials that are made up of compounds such as oxides, carbides, and nitrides. These materials are often used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand high temperatures. Some examples of medical ceramics include:

1. Bioceramics: These are ceramic materials that are used in medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and bone grafts. They are designed to be biocompatible, which means they can be safely implanted into the body without causing an adverse reaction.
2. Ceramic coatings: These are thin layers of ceramic material that are applied to medical devices and implants to improve their performance and durability. For example, ceramic coatings may be used on orthopedic implants to reduce wear and tear, or on cardiovascular implants to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Ceramic membranes: These are porous ceramic materials that are used in medical filtration systems, such as hemodialysis machines. They are designed to selectively filter out impurities while allowing essential molecules to pass through.
4. Ceramic scaffolds: These are three-dimensional structures made of ceramic material that are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They provide a framework for cells to grow and multiply, helping to repair or replace damaged tissues.

Overall, medical ceramics play an important role in modern healthcare, providing safe and effective solutions for a wide range of medical applications.

Dental economics is a branch of economics that focuses on the financial aspects of oral health and dental care. It involves the study of various economic factors that influence the provision, accessibility, affordability, and utilization of dental services. This includes analyzing the costs of dental treatments, pricing strategies, financing options, and insurance policies related to dental care. Additionally, dental economics also examines the impact of government policies, regulations, and market dynamics on dental care delivery and oral health outcomes. The ultimate goal of dental economics is to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and equity of dental care systems, ultimately leading to better oral health for individuals and populations.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for "DMF Index." The abbreviation "DMF" could potentially stand for many things, as it is used in various contexts across different fields. In the field of dentistry, DMF stands for Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth/surfaces, which is a method for measuring dental caries or tooth decay. However, there is no standard medical definition for "DMF Index." If you could provide more context or specify the field of study or practice, I would be happy to help further!

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is not typically considered a medical definition, but it is a term used in physical and analytical chemistry. However, I can provide a definition for you:

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is a technique used to study the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids by irradiating them with photons (usually from a laser or a synchrotron light source) and measuring the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. The technique provides information about the energy levels of the electrons in the sample, which can be used to determine its chemical composition, bonding, and electronic structure. PES is a valuable tool in surface science, materials research, and environmental analysis.

Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are a type of dental restorative material that have the ability to chemically bond to tooth structure. They are composed of a mixture of silicate glass powder and an organic acid, such as polyacrylic acid. GICs have several clinical applications in dentistry, including as a filling material for small to moderate sized cavities, as a liner or base under other restorative materials, and as a cement for securing crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

GICs are known for their biocompatibility, caries inhibition, and adhesion to tooth structure. They also have the ability to release fluoride ions, which can help protect against future decay. However, they are not as strong or wear-resistant as some other dental restorative materials, such as amalgam or composite resin, so they may not be suitable for use in high-load bearing restorations.

GICs can be classified into two main types: conventional and resin-modified. Conventional GICs have a longer setting time and are more prone to moisture sensitivity during placement, while resin-modified GICs contain additional methacrylate monomers that improve their handling properties and shorten their setting time. However, the addition of these monomers may also reduce their fluoride release capacity.

Overall, glass ionomer cements are a valuable dental restorative material due to their unique combination of adhesion, biocompatibility, and caries inhibition properties.

Dental caries susceptibility refers to the likelihood or predisposition of an individual to develop dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. It is influenced by various factors such as oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, saliva composition, and the presence of certain bacteria in the mouth, particularly mutans streptococci and lactobacilli.

People with a higher dental caries susceptibility may have thinner or softer enamel, reduced saliva flow, or a greater concentration of cavity-causing bacteria in their mouths. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using fluoride toothpaste, can help reduce the risk of developing dental caries. Additionally, a balanced diet that limits sugary and starchy foods and beverages can also help lower the likelihood of tooth decay.

Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is not a medical term, but rather a technology term that refers to the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronic components on a single silicon chip through microfabrication technology. MEMS devices are extremely small (typically measured in micrometers or millionths of a meter), and can be found in various consumer products such as accelerometers in smartphones and automobiles, inkjet printheads, and biosensors.

In the medical field, MEMS technology has been used to develop various diagnostic and therapeutic devices, including lab-on-a-chip platforms for point-of-care diagnostics, drug delivery systems, and implantable sensors for monitoring physiological parameters such as glucose levels or blood pressure.

Therefore, while MEMS is not a medical definition itself, it is a technology that has significant applications in the medical field.

Dental Informatics is a branch of health informatics that deals with the application of information technology and computer systems to improve dental care delivery, oral health education, research, and management. It involves the development, implementation, and evaluation of information systems that support dental practice, including electronic health records (EHRs), imaging systems, decision support tools, and data analytics. The goal of dental informatics is to enhance patient care, improve clinical outcomes, increase efficiency, and reduce costs in dental care. It also includes the study of the structure, processing, and dissemination of biomedical and health data, information, and knowledge as it relates to dentistry.

Orthodontic appliances are devices used in orthodontics, a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. These appliances can be fixed or removable and are used to align teeth, correct jaw relationships, or modify dental forces. They can include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, space maintainers, and headgear, among others. The specific type of appliance used depends on the individual patient's needs and the treatment plan developed by the orthodontist.

"Wettability" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term that is more commonly used in the fields of chemistry, physics, and materials science to describe how well a liquid spreads on a solid surface. In other words, it refers to the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, which can have implications for various medical applications such as the design of medical devices or the study of biological surfaces. However, it is not a term that would typically be used in a clinical medical context.

Adhesives are substances that are used to bind two surfaces together. They can be composed of a variety of materials, including natural substances like tree sap or animal glue, or synthetic substances like cyanoacrylates (super glues) or epoxies. Adhesives can be classified based on their chemical composition, how they cure (set), and their properties such as strength, flexibility, and resistance to environmental factors. In a medical context, adhesives may be used in a variety of applications, such as wound closure, securing medical devices, or attaching bandages or dressings. It's important to choose the right type of adhesive for each application to ensure proper adhesion, safety, and effectiveness.

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental issues such as cavities, gum disease, bad breath, and other oral health problems. It involves regular brushing, flossing, and using mouthwash to remove plaque and food particles that can lead to tooth decay and gum disease. Regular dental check-ups and cleanings are also an essential part of maintaining good oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections, so it is important to prioritize oral health as part of overall health and wellbeing.

Dental occlusion refers to the alignment and contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. It is the relationship between the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or biting.

A proper dental occlusion, also known as a balanced occlusion, ensures that the teeth and jaw joints function harmoniously, reducing the risk of tooth wear, damage, and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Malocclusion, on the other hand, refers to improper alignment or contact between the upper and lower teeth, which may require orthodontic treatment or dental restorations to correct.

Dental scaling is a professional dental cleaning procedure that involves the removal of plaque, tartar (calculus), and stains from the tooth surfaces. This is typically performed by a dentist or dental hygienist using specialized instruments called scalers and curettes. The procedure helps to prevent gum disease and tooth decay by removing bacterial deposits that can cause inflammation and infection of the gums. Dental scaling may be recommended as part of a routine dental check-up or if there are signs of periodontal disease, such as red, swollen, or bleeding gums. In some cases, local anesthesia may be used to numb the area and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microtechnology" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Microtechnology generally refers to the development and application of technologies on a microscopic or tiny scale. It is used in various fields including engineering, physics, electronics, and materials science.

In the context of medicine, microtechnologies can be used in the development of medical devices, diagnostic tools, drug delivery systems, and other healthcare applications. For example, microfabrication techniques are used to create microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip applications, which can perform complex biochemical analyses for disease diagnosis or drug screening.

However, it's important to note that the application of microtechnologies in medicine is constantly evolving, and new developments and techniques are being explored all the time.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Sulfuric acid is not a medical term, but instead a chemical compound with the formula H2SO4. It's one of the most important industrial chemicals, being a strong mineral acid with numerous applications.

If you are asking for a definition related to human health or medicine, I can tell you that sulfuric acid has no physiological role in humans. Exposure to sulfuric acid can cause irritation and burns to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Prolonged exposure may lead to more severe health issues. However, it is not a term typically used in medical diagnoses or treatments.

Operative dentistry is a branch of dental medicine that involves the diagnosis, treatment, and management of teeth with structural or functional damage due to decay, trauma, or other causes. It primarily focuses on restoring the function, form, and health of damaged teeth through various operative procedures such as fillings, crowns, inlays, onlays, and root canal treatments. The goal is to preserve natural tooth structure, alleviate pain, prevent further decay or damage, and restore the patient's oral health and aesthetics.

Here are some of the key aspects and procedures involved in operative dentistry:

1. Diagnosis: Operative dentists use various diagnostic tools and techniques to identify and assess tooth damage, including visual examination, dental X-rays, and special tests like pulp vitality testing. This helps them determine the most appropriate treatment approach for each case.
2. Preparation: Before performing any operative procedure, the dentist must prepare the tooth by removing decayed or damaged tissue, as well as any existing restorations that may be compromised or failing. This process is called tooth preparation and involves using specialized dental instruments like burs and excavators to shape the tooth and create a stable foundation for the new restoration.
3. Restoration: Operative dentistry encompasses various techniques and materials used to restore damaged teeth, including:
a. Fillings: Direct fillings are placed directly into the prepared cavity using materials like amalgam (silver), composite resin (tooth-colored), glass ionomer, or gold foil. The choice of filling material depends on factors such as the location and extent of the damage, patient's preferences, and cost considerations.
b. Indirect restorations: These are fabricated outside the mouth, usually in a dental laboratory, and then cemented or bonded to the prepared tooth. Examples include inlays, onlays, and crowns, which can be made from materials like gold, porcelain, ceramic, or resin composites.
c. Endodontic treatments: Operative dentistry also includes root canal therapy, which involves removing infected or inflamed pulp tissue from within the tooth's root canals, cleaning and shaping the canals, and then filling and sealing them to prevent reinfection.
d. Veneers: These are thin layers of porcelain or composite resin that are bonded to the front surfaces of teeth to improve their appearance, shape, or alignment.
4. Follow-up care: After placing a restoration, patients should maintain good oral hygiene practices and have regular dental checkups to ensure the long-term success of the treatment. In some cases, additional adjustments or repairs may be necessary over time due to wear, fracture, or secondary decay.

Dental facilities refer to establishments that provide dental care and treatment. These facilities can include private dental practices, community health centers, hospital dental departments, and specialized dental clinics. They are equipped with the necessary dental equipment and staffed by dental professionals such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental facilities offer a range of services including routine check-ups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery. Some dental facilities may also offer specialized services such as periodontics, prosthodontics, and endodontics.

Dental devices for home care are products designed for use by individuals or their caregivers in a home setting to maintain oral hygiene, manage dental health issues, and promote overall oral health. These devices can include:

1. Toothbrushes: Manual, electric, or battery-operated toothbrushes used to clean teeth and remove plaque and food debris.
2. Dental floss: A thin string used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
3. Interdental brushes: Small brushes designed to clean between the teeth and around dental appliances, such as braces or implants.
4. Water flossers/oral irrigators: Devices that use a stream of water to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
5. Tongue scrapers: Tools used to clean the tongue's surface, removing bacteria and reducing bad breath.
6. Rubber tips/gum stimulators: Devices used to massage and stimulate the gums, promoting blood circulation and helping to maintain gum health.
7. Dental picks/sticks: Pointed tools used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
8. Mouthguards: Protective devices worn over the teeth to prevent damage from grinding, clenching, or sports-related injuries.
9. Night guards: Similar to mouthguards, these are designed to protect the teeth from damage caused by nighttime teeth grinding (bruxism).
10. Dental retainers: Devices used to maintain the alignment of teeth after orthodontic treatment.
11. Whitening trays and strips: At-home products used to whiten teeth by applying a bleaching agent to the tooth surface.
12. Fluoride mouth rinses: Anticavity rinses containing fluoride, which help strengthen tooth enamel and prevent decay.
13. Oral pain relievers: Topical gels or creams used to alleviate oral pain, such as canker sores or denture irritation.

Proper use of these dental devices, along with regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings, can help maintain good oral health and prevent dental issues.

Zirconium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a gray-white, strong, corrosion-resistant transition metal that is used primarily in nuclear reactors, as an opacifier in glazes for ceramic cookware, and in surgical implants such as artificial joints due to its biocompatibility.

In the context of medical devices or implants, zirconium alloys may be used for their mechanical properties and resistance to corrosion. For example, zirconia (a form of zirconium dioxide) is a popular material for dental crowns and implants due to its durability, strength, and natural appearance.

However, it's important to note that while zirconium itself is not considered a medical term, there are various medical applications and devices that utilize zirconium-based materials.

Preventive dentistry is a branch of dental medicine that focuses on preventing the occurrence or progression of oral diseases and maintaining optimal oral health. It encompasses a set of practices, behaviors, and interventions aimed at preserving the integrity and functionality of teeth and gums through early detection, intervention, and patient education.

The primary goal of preventive dentistry is to minimize the risk of dental caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral cancer, and other oral health conditions. This is achieved through a combination of professional dental care, personal oral hygiene habits, and lifestyle modifications.

Professional dental care includes regular dental examinations, cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay. Patient education plays a crucial role in preventive dentistry, as it empowers individuals to take an active part in their oral health by teaching them proper brushing and flossing techniques, nutritional counseling, and the importance of regular dental visits.

Preventive dentistry also emphasizes the significance of risk assessment and early intervention for high-risk populations, such as children, elderly individuals, and those with medical conditions that may impact oral health. By promoting a proactive approach to dental care, preventive dentistry aims to improve overall quality of life, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance patient satisfaction.

Dental photography is a type of clinical photography that focuses on documenting the condition and treatment of teeth and oral structures. It involves using specialized cameras, lenses, and lighting to capture high-quality images of the mouth and related areas. These images can be used for diagnostic purposes, patient education, treatment planning, communication with other dental professionals, and monitoring progress over time. Dental photography may include various types of shots, such as extraoral (outside the mouth) and intraoral (inside the mouth) views, close-ups of individual teeth or restorations, and full-face portraits. It requires a strong understanding of dental anatomy, lighting techniques, and image composition to produce accurate and informative images.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

A nanopore is a tiny, narrow opening or passage at the molecular level, with a diameter typically measured in nanometers (nm). In the context of medicine and biology, nanopores are often used to describe protein structures that form water-filled channels across lipid membranes. These nanopores allow for the selective transport of ions, small molecules, or RNA/DNA strands between intracellular and extracellular spaces.

Nanopore technology has gained significant attention in medical research due to its potential applications in single-molecule analysis, diagnostics, and targeted drug delivery. For instance, nanopores can be used for rapid DNA sequencing by threading individual DNA strands through the pore and detecting changes in ionic current as nucleotides pass through. This information can then be translated into a sequence of bases, providing valuable insights into genetic makeup and potential disease markers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "silicates" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Silicates are a broad class of minerals that are composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in various arrangements. They are abundant in Earth's crust and are commonly found in sand, quartz, and many types of rocks.

While not directly related to human health, some silicate-based materials can have medical applications. For example, certain forms of magnesium silicate (talc) have been used as a component in some medications for their ability to absorb moisture and help reduce the risk of skin irritation. However, exposure to certain types of silica dust (like crystalline silica) has been linked to lung diseases such as silicosis, bronchitis, and lung cancer, especially in occupational settings like construction, sandblasting, and mining.

If you have any concerns about silicates or their potential impact on your health, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional for personalized advice based on your specific situation.

Tooth demineralization is a process that involves the loss of minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, from the hard tissues of the teeth. This process can lead to the development of dental caries or tooth decay. Demineralization occurs when acids produced by bacteria in the mouth attack the enamel of the tooth, dissolving its mineral content. Over time, these attacks can create holes or cavities in the teeth. Fluoride, found in many toothpastes and public water supplies, can help to remineralize teeth and prevent decay. Good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, can also help to prevent demineralization by removing plaque and bacteria from the mouth.

Orthodontic retainers are dental appliances that are custom-made and used after orthodontic treatment (such as braces) to help maintain the new position of teeth. They can be fixed or removable and are designed to keep the teeth in place while the surrounding gums and bones stabilize in their new positions. Retainers play a crucial role in preserving the investment made during orthodontic treatment, preventing the teeth from shifting back to their original positions.

Dental digital radiography is a type of medical imaging that uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray film to produce highly detailed images of the teeth, gums, and surrounding structures. This technology offers several advantages over conventional dental radiography, including:

1. Lower radiation exposure: Digital sensors require less radiation to produce an image compared to traditional film, making it a safer option for patients.
2. Instant results: The images captured by digital sensors are immediately displayed on a computer screen, allowing dentists to quickly assess the patient's oral health and discuss any findings with them during the appointment.
3. Improved image quality: Digital radiography produces clearer and more precise images compared to traditional film, enabling dentists to better detect issues such as cavities, fractures, or tumors.
4. Enhanced communication: The ability to easily manipulate and enhance digital images allows for better communication between dental professionals and improved patient education.
5. Environmentally friendly: Digital radiography eliminates the need for chemical processing and disposal of used film, making it a more environmentally conscious choice.
6. Easy storage and retrieval: Digital images can be stored electronically and accessed easily for future reference or consultation with other dental professionals.
7. Remote consultations: Digital images can be shared remotely with specialists or insurance companies, facilitating faster diagnoses and treatment planning.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

A third molar is the most posterior of the three molars present in an adult human dental arch. They are also commonly known as wisdom teeth, due to their late eruption period which usually occurs between the ages of 17-25, a time traditionally associated with gaining maturity and wisdom.

Anatomically, third molars have four cusps, making them the largest of all the teeth. However, not everyone develops third molars; some people may have one, two, three or no third molars at all. In many cases, third molars do not have enough space to fully erupt and align properly with the rest of the teeth, leading to impaction, infection, or other dental health issues. As a result, third molars are often extracted if they cause problems or if there is a risk they will cause problems in the future.

Community dentistry, also known as public health dentistry, is a branch of dental science that focuses on the prevention and control of oral diseases and promoting oral health within communities and populations. It involves the application of epidemiological, social, behavioral, and administrative sciences to improve the oral health of populations. The goal of community dentistry is to reduce oral health disparities by providing accessible, affordable, and culturally competent dental care to all members of a community, particularly those who are underserved or vulnerable.

Community dentistry programs may include school-based dental sealant programs, fluoridation initiatives, oral health education campaigns, and policy advocacy efforts to improve access to dental care. Dental public health professionals work in a variety of settings, including public health departments, community health centers, academic institutions, and non-profit organizations. They collaborate with other healthcare providers, policymakers, and community stakeholders to promote oral health and prevent oral diseases.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

Stomatognathic diseases are a group of disorders that affect the stomatognathic system, which includes the teeth, periodontal tissues, temporomandibular joints, muscles of mastication, and associated structures. These diseases can manifest as various symptoms such as pain, difficulty in chewing or swallowing, limited mouth opening, and abnormal jaw movements.

Some examples of stomatognathic diseases include temporomandibular disorders (TMD), oral mucosal diseases, dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The diagnosis and management of these conditions often require a multidisciplinary approach involving dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, physicians, and other healthcare professionals.

Dental leakage, also known as "microleakage" in dental terminology, refers to the seepage or penetration of fluids, bacteria, or other substances between the walls of a dental restoration (such as a filling, crown, or bridge) and the prepared tooth structure. This occurs due to the presence of microscopic gaps or spaces at the interface of the restoration and the tooth.

Dental leakage can lead to several problems, including:

1. Recurrent decay: The seepage of fluids, bacteria, and sugars from the oral environment can cause secondary tooth decay around the margins of the restoration.
2. Sensitivity: Microleakage may result in temperature sensitivity or pain when consuming hot or cold foods and beverages due to fluid movement within the gap.
3. Discoloration: Over time, dental leakage might lead to staining of the tooth structure around the restoration, resulting in an unaesthetic appearance.
4. Failed restorations: Persistent dental leakage can weaken the bond between the restoration and the tooth, increasing the risk of restoration failure and the need for replacement.

To prevent dental leakage, dentists employ various techniques during restoration placement, such as using appropriate adhesives, following meticulous preparation protocols, and ensuring a tight seal around the margins of the restoration. Regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings are essential to monitor the condition of existing restorations and address any issues before they become more severe.

Pediatric Dentistry is a specialty of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. It involves comprehensive dental care that includes prevention, early detection and treatment of dental diseases, and counseling to promote healthy oral habits and behaviors. Pediatric dentists are trained to understand and meet the unique needs of children, including those with special healthcare needs. They provide services such as routine check-ups, cleanings, fluoride treatments, sealants, fillings, crowns, extractions, and interceptive orthodontics. The goal of pediatric dentistry is to ensure that children maintain good oral health throughout their lives.

The American Dental Association (ADA) is not a medical condition or diagnosis. It is the largest professional organization of dentists in the United States, with the mission to serve and advance the dental profession, promote oral health, and protect the public. The ADA develops and publishes guidelines and standards for the practice of dentistry, provides continuing education opportunities for dentists, advocates for oral health legislation and policies, and engages in scientific research and evidence-based dentistry.

Dental polishing is a procedure in dentistry that is performed to smooth and clean the surfaces of teeth after professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis), restoration, or other dental treatments. It is usually done using a slow-speed handpiece with a soft, rubber cup attached to it, which holds a polishing paste or a slurry of pumice and water. The polishing paste may contain an abrasive agent, fluoride, or a flavoring agent. The dental professional moves the handpiece in a circular motion over the tooth surface to remove stains, plaque, and minor surface roughness, leaving the teeth smooth and shiny. Dental polishing helps to prevent the buildup of plaque and tartar, reduce the risk of decay and gum disease, and improve the overall oral hygiene and aesthetics of the teeth.

Dentist's practice patterns refer to the typical habits, behaviors, and procedures followed by dental professionals when providing oral health care to patients. These patterns can encompass a wide range of factors, including:

1. Clinical Procedures: The types of dental treatments and services that a dentist routinely performs, such as fillings, crowns, root canals, extractions, cleanings, or orthodontic care.
2. Diagnostic Approaches: The methods used by the dentist to identify oral health issues, such as visual examinations, X-rays, or diagnostic tests.
3. Treatment Planning: How a dentist develops and communicates treatment plans to patients, including discussing various treatment options, potential risks and benefits, and costs.
4. Preventive Care: The emphasis placed on preventive dental care, such as regular cleanings, fluoride treatments, and patient education about oral hygiene practices.
5. Use of Technology: The adoption and integration of new technologies in dental practice, such as digital radiography, CAD/CAM systems for restorations, or 3D printing.
6. Referral Patterns: How often a dentist refers patients to specialists for more complex treatments, and which specialists they typically refer to.
7. Patient Communication: The manner in which a dentist communicates with patients, including explaining procedures, discussing treatment plans, and addressing concerns or questions.
8. Record Keeping: The systems used by the dentist to maintain patient records, including electronic health records (EHRs), treatment notes, and communication with other healthcare providers.
9. Infection Control: The practices and protocols in place to prevent the spread of infectious diseases within the dental practice.
10. Practice Management: The business aspects of running a dental practice, such as scheduling, billing, insurance management, and staffing.

Understanding dentist's practice patterns can provide valuable insights into the quality and consistency of dental care provided by different practitioners, as well as help identify areas for improvement in dental education, policy, and research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plasma Gases" is not a recognized medical term or concept. Plasma is a state of matter, like solid, liquid, or gas, and it is often referred to as the fourth state of matter. It consists of ionized particles, or particles that have been stripped of some of their electrons.

In the context of medicine, plasma is most commonly discussed in relation to blood plasma, which is the yellowish fluid in which blood cells are suspended. Plasma carries cells, hormones, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or concepts, I'd be happy to help further if I can!

Endosseous dental implantation is a medical procedure that involves the placement of an artificial tooth root (dental implant) directly into the jawbone. The term "endosseous" refers to the surgical placement of the implant within the bone (endo- meaning "within" and -osseous meaning "bony"). This type of dental implant is the most common and widely used method for replacing missing teeth.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the gum tissue to expose the jawbone, and a hole is drilled into the bone to receive the implant. The implant is then carefully positioned and secured within the bone. Once the implant has integrated with the bone (a process that can take several months), a dental crown or bridge is attached to the implant to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Endosseous dental implantation is a safe and effective procedure that has a high success rate, making it an excellent option for patients who are missing one or more teeth due to injury, decay, or other causes.

A toothache is defined as pain or discomfort in or around a tooth, usually caused by dental cavities, gum disease, tooth fracture, or exposed tooth roots. The pain may be sharp and stabbing, throbbing, or constant and dull. It can also be aggravated by hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks, or by biting or chewing. Toothaches are serious and should not be ignored as they can be a sign of more significant dental issues that require immediate professional attention from a dentist.

Dental legislation refers to laws, regulations, and policies that govern the practice of dentistry and oral health care. These laws are designed to protect the public's health and safety by establishing standards for dental education, licensure, and practice. They may also address issues related to dental insurance, Medicaid reimbursement, and access to oral health care for underserved populations. Dental legislation can be enacted at the federal, state, or local level, and it is typically overseen by a regulatory agency or board of dentistry. Examples of dental legislation include laws that require dentists to complete continuing education courses to maintain their licenses, regulations that establish infection control standards in dental offices, and policies that provide funding for dental clinics in underserved communities.

Tooth abnormalities refer to any variations or irregularities in the size, shape, number, structure, or development of teeth that deviate from the typical or normal anatomy. These abnormalities can occur in primary (deciduous) or permanent teeth and can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, systemic diseases, or localized dental conditions during tooth formation.

Some examples of tooth abnormalities include:

1. Microdontia - teeth that are smaller than normal in size.
2. Macrodontia - teeth that are larger than normal in size.
3. Peg-shaped teeth - teeth with a narrow, conical shape.
4. Talon cusps - additional cusps or points on the biting surface of a tooth.
5. Dens invaginatus - an abnormal development where the tooth crown has an extra fold or pouch that can trap bacteria and cause dental problems.
6. Taurodontism - teeth with large pulp chambers and short roots.
7. Supernumerary teeth - having more teeth than the typical number (20 primary and 32 permanent teeth).
8. Hypodontia - missing one or more teeth due to a failure of development.
9. Germination - two adjacent teeth fused together, usually occurring in the front teeth.
10. Fusion - two separate teeth that have grown together during development.

Tooth abnormalities may not always require treatment unless they cause functional, aesthetic, or dental health issues. A dentist can diagnose and manage tooth abnormalities through various treatments, such as fillings, extractions, orthodontic care, or restorative procedures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glass" is not a medical term. Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has various uses in everyday life, including medical devices and equipment. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please provide them, and I'll be happy to help.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

Silicon compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element silicon (Si) combined with other elements. Silicon is a Group 14 semimetal in the periodic table, and it often forms compounds through covalent bonding. The most common silicon compound is silicon dioxide (SiO2), also known as silica, which is found in nature as quartz, sand, and other minerals.

Silicon can form compounds with many other elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, halogens, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. For example:

* Silanes (SiHn) are a series of silicon-hydrogen compounds where n ranges from 1 to 6.
* Silicones are synthetic polymers made up of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms.
* Silicates are a class of minerals that contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metal cations. They have a wide range of structures and uses, including as building materials, ceramics, and glass.
* Siloxanes are a group of compounds containing alternating silicon-oxygen bonds with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms.

Silicon compounds have various applications in industry, medicine, and daily life. For instance, silicones are used in medical devices such as breast implants, contact lenses, and catheters due to their biocompatibility and flexibility. Silicates are found in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food additives. Silicon-based materials are also used in dental restorations, bone cement, and drug delivery systems.

Methyl Methacrylates (MMA) are a family of synthetic materials that are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. Medically, MMA is often used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic implants, such as artificial hips or knees, into place during surgeries.

Methyl methacrylates consist of a type of acrylic resin that hardens when mixed with a liquid catalyst. This property allows it to be easily molded and shaped before it sets, making it ideal for use in surgical procedures where precise positioning is required. Once hardened, MMA forms a strong, stable bond with the bone, helping to secure the implant in place.

It's important to note that while MMA is widely used in medical applications, there have been concerns about its safety in certain situations. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of methyl methacrylate fumes released during the setting process may be harmful to both patients and surgical staff. Therefore, appropriate precautions should be taken when using MMA-based products in medical settings.

Dental enamel hypoplasia is a condition characterized by the deficiency or reduction in the thickness of the tooth's enamel surface. This results in the enamel being thin, weak, and prone to wear, fractures, and dental cavities. The appearance of teeth with enamel hypoplasia may be yellowish, brownish, or creamy white, and they can have pits, grooves, or bands of varying widths and shapes.

Enamel hypoplasia can occur due to various factors, including genetics, premature birth, low birth weight, malnutrition, infections during childhood (such as measles or chickenpox), trauma, exposure to environmental toxins, and certain medical conditions that affect enamel formation.

The condition is usually diagnosed through a dental examination, where the dentist can observe and assess the appearance and structure of the teeth. Treatment options depend on the severity of the hypoplasia and may include fluoride treatments, sealants, fillings, crowns, or extractions in severe cases. Preventive measures such as maintaining good oral hygiene, a balanced diet, and regular dental check-ups can help reduce the risk of developing enamel hypoplasia.

I'm not a medical professional, but I can provide some information on this topic. "Dental libraries" generally refer to collections of resources related to dental medicine and oral health. These libraries may contain various materials such as books, journals, articles, multimedia resources, and electronic databases. They serve as a valuable source of knowledge and information for dental professionals, students, researchers, and educators in the field of dentistry. Dental libraries play an essential role in supporting evidence-based practice, continuing education, and research advancements in oral health care.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

A diagnosis that is made based on the examination and evaluation of the oral cavity, including the teeth, gums, tongue, and other soft tissues. This type of diagnosis may involve a visual exam, medical history review, and various diagnostic tests such as imaging studies or tissue biopsies. The goal of an oral diagnosis is to identify any underlying conditions or diseases that may be present in the oral cavity and determine the appropriate course of treatment. Dentists, dental specialists, and other healthcare professionals may perform oral diagnoses.

In the context of medicine, particularly in physical therapy and rehabilitation, "pliability" refers to the quality or state of being flexible or supple. It describes the ability of tissues, such as muscles or fascia (connective tissue), to stretch, deform, and adapt to forces applied upon them without resistance or injury. Improving pliability can help enhance range of motion, reduce muscle stiffness, promote circulation, and alleviate pain. Techniques like soft tissue mobilization, myofascial release, and stretching are often used to increase pliability in clinical settings.

Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) is a systematic approach to professional dental practice that incorporates the best available scientific evidence from research, along with clinical expertise and patient values and preferences. The goal of EBD is to provide dental care that is safe, effective, efficient, and equitable. It involves the integration of three key components:

1. Clinical Judgment and Experience: The dentist's knowledge, training, and experience play a critical role in the application of evidence-based dentistry. Clinical expertise helps to identify patient needs, determine the most appropriate treatment options, and tailor care to meet individual patient preferences and values.
2. Patient Values and Preferences: EBD recognizes that patients have unique perspectives, values, and preferences that must be taken into account when making treatment decisions. Dentists should engage in shared decision-making with their patients, providing them with information about the benefits and risks of various treatment options and involving them in the decision-making process.
3. Best Available Scientific Evidence: EBD relies on high-quality scientific evidence from well-designed clinical studies to inform dental practice. This evidence is systematically reviewed, critically appraised, and applied to clinical decision-making. The strength of the evidence is evaluated based on factors such as study design, sample size, and statistical analysis.

In summary, Evidence-Based Dentistry is a method of practicing dentistry that combines clinical expertise, patient values and preferences, and the best available scientific evidence to provide high-quality, individualized care to dental patients.

A Group Practice, Dental is a type of dental care delivery model where two or more dentists collaborate and share resources to provide comprehensive dental services to patients. This can include sharing office space, equipment, staff, and support services. The goal of this arrangement is often to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance the quality of patient care through collaboration and coordination of services.

In a group practice, dentists may work together as partners or employees, and they may share profits or salaries based on pre-determined agreements. Patients may have access to a wider range of dental services and specialists within the same practice, which can improve continuity of care and patient satisfaction. Additionally, group practices may be better equipped to invest in advanced technology and training, further enhancing the quality of care they provide.

Dental pulp diseases are conditions that affect the soft tissue inside a tooth, known as dental pulp. The two main types of dental pulp diseases are pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

Pulpitis is inflammation of the dental pulp, which can be either reversible or irreversible. Reversible pulpitis is characterized by mild to moderate inflammation that can be treated with a dental filling or other conservative treatment. Irreversible pulpitis, on the other hand, involves severe inflammation that cannot be reversed and usually requires root canal therapy.

Apical periodontitis, also known as a tooth abscess, is an infection of the tissue surrounding the tip of the tooth's root. It occurs when the dental pulp dies and becomes infected, causing pus to accumulate in the surrounding bone. Symptoms of apical periodontitis may include pain, swelling, and drainage. Treatment typically involves root canal therapy or extraction of the affected tooth.

Other dental pulp diseases include pulp calcification, which is the hardening of the dental pulp due to age or injury, and internal resorption, which is the breakdown and destruction of the dental pulp by the body's own cells. These conditions may not cause any symptoms but can weaken the tooth and increase the risk of fracture.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces missing teeth or parts of teeth and restores their function and appearance. The design of a dental prosthesis refers to the plan and specifications used to create it, including the materials, shape, size, and arrangement of the artificial teeth and any supporting structures.

The design of a dental prosthesis is typically based on a variety of factors, including:

* The number and location of missing teeth
* The condition of the remaining teeth and gums
* The patient's bite and jaw alignment
* The patient's aesthetic preferences
* The patient's ability to chew and speak properly

There are several types of dental prostheses, including:

* Dentures: A removable appliance that replaces all or most of the upper or lower teeth.
* Fixed partial denture (FPD): Also known as a bridge, this is a fixed (non-removable) appliance that replaces one or more missing teeth by attaching artificial teeth to the remaining natural teeth on either side of the gap.
* Removable partial denture (RPD): A removable appliance that replaces some but not all of the upper or lower teeth.
* Implant-supported prosthesis: An artificial tooth or set of teeth that is supported by dental implants, which are surgically placed in the jawbone.

The design of a dental prosthesis must be carefully planned and executed to ensure a good fit, proper function, and natural appearance. It may involve several appointments with a dentist or dental specialist, such as a prosthodontist, to take impressions, make measurements, and try in the finished prosthesis.

Gas lasers are a type of laser that uses a gas as the gain medium, or the material through which the laser beam is amplified. In a gas laser, the gas is excited electrically or through the use of a radio frequency (RF) generator, causing the atoms or molecules within the gas to emit light at specific wavelengths.

The most common type of gas laser is the helium-neon (HeNe) laser, which produces a red beam at a wavelength of 632.8 nanometers. Other types of gas lasers include the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, which produces an infrared beam and is commonly used for industrial cutting and welding applications, and the nitrogen laser, which produces a ultraviolet beam.

Gas lasers are known for their high efficiency, stability, and long lifespan. They are also relatively easy to maintain and operate, making them popular choices for a variety of industrial, scientific, and medical applications. In medicine, gas lasers are used for procedures such as laser surgery, where they can be used to cut or coagulate tissue with high precision.

Tooth injuries are damages or traumas that affect the teeth's structure and integrity. These injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as accidents, sports-related impacts, falls, fights, or biting on hard objects. The severity of tooth injuries may range from minor chips and cracks to more severe fractures, luxations (displacement), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Tooth injuries are typically classified into two main categories:

1. Crown injuries: These involve damages to the visible part of the tooth, including chipping, cracking, or fracturing. Crown injuries may be further categorized as:
* Uncomplicated crown fracture: When only the enamel and dentin are affected without pulp exposure.
* Complicated crown fracture: When the enamel, dentin, and pulp are all exposed.
2. Root injuries: These involve damages to the tooth root or the supporting structures, such as the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Root injuries may include luxations (displacements), intrusions (teeth pushed into the socket), extrusions (teeth partially out of the socket), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe tooth injuries, as they can lead to complications like infection, tooth decay, or even tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately. Treatment options may include dental fillings, crowns, root canal therapy, splinting, or reimplantation in the case of avulsions. Preventive measures, such as wearing mouthguards during sports activities, can help reduce the risk of tooth injuries.

Dental calculus, also known as tartar, is a hardened deposit that forms on the surface of teeth. It's composed of mineralized plaque, which is a sticky film containing bacteria, saliva, and food particles. Over time, the minerals in saliva can cause the plaque to harden into calculus, which cannot be removed by brushing or flossing alone. Dental calculus can contribute to tooth decay and gum disease if not regularly removed by a dental professional through a process called scaling and root planing.

Dental pulp calcification, also known as pulp stones or denticles, refers to the formation of hard tissue within the pulp chamber of a tooth. The pulp chamber is the central part of a tooth that contains its nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues.

Pulp calcification occurs when the soft tissue of the pulp gradually transforms into a harder, calcified substance. This can happen as a result of aging, injury, or inflammation in the pulp chamber. Over time, these calcifications can build up and make the pulp chamber smaller, which can potentially lead to problems with the tooth's nerve and blood supply.

While dental pulp calcification is not usually harmful on its own, it can cause issues if it becomes severe enough to compress the tooth's nerve or restrict blood flow. In some cases, calcifications may also make root canal treatment more difficult, as there may be less space to work within the pulp chamber.

A deciduous tooth, also known as a baby tooth or primary tooth, is a type of temporary tooth that humans and some other mammals develop during childhood. They are called "deciduous" because they are eventually shed and replaced by permanent teeth, much like how leaves on a deciduous tree fall off and are replaced by new growth.

Deciduous teeth begin to form in the womb and start to erupt through the gums when a child is around six months old. By the time a child reaches age three, they typically have a full set of 20 deciduous teeth, including incisors, canines, and molars. These teeth are smaller and less durable than permanent teeth, but they serve important functions such as helping children chew food properly, speak clearly, and maintain space in the jaw for the permanent teeth to grow into.

Deciduous teeth usually begin to fall out around age six or seven, starting with the lower central incisors. This process continues until all of the deciduous teeth have been shed, typically by age 12 or 13. At this point, the permanent teeth will have grown in and taken their place, with the exception of the wisdom teeth, which may not erupt until later in adolescence or early adulthood.

Dentition refers to the development, arrangement, and appearance of teeth in the dental arch. It includes the number, type, size, and shape of teeth, as well as their alignment and relationship with each other and the surrounding structures in the oral cavity. Dentition can be classified into two main types: deciduous (primary) dentition and permanent (secondary) dentition. Deciduous dentition consists of 20 temporary teeth that erupt during infancy and childhood, while permanent dentition consists of 32 teeth that replace the deciduous teeth and last for a lifetime, excluding the wisdom teeth which may or may not erupt. Abnormalities in dentition can indicate various dental and systemic conditions, making it an essential aspect of oral health assessment and diagnosis.

Dental cavity preparation is the process of removing decayed and damaged tissue from a tooth and shaping the remaining healthy structure in order to prepare it for the placement of a filling or a crown. The goal of cavity preparation is to remove all traces of decay and create a clean, stable surface for the restoration to bond with, while also maintaining as much of the natural tooth structure as possible.

The process typically involves the use of dental drills and other tools to remove the decayed tissue and shape the tooth. The size and depth of the preparation will depend on the extent of the decay and the type of restoration that will be used. After the preparation is complete, the dentist will place the filling or crown, restoring the function and integrity of the tooth.

The dental plaque index (DPI) is a clinical measurement used in dentistry to assess the amount of dental plaque accumulation on a person's teeth. It was first introduced by Silness and Löe in 1964 as a method to standardize the assessment of oral hygiene and the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions.

The DPI is based on a visual examination of the amount of plaque present on four surfaces of the teeth, including the buccal (cheek-facing) and lingual (tongue-facing) surfaces of both upper and lower first molars and upper and lower incisors. The examiner assigns a score from 0 to 3 for each surface, with higher scores indicating greater plaque accumulation:

* Score 0: No plaque detected, even after probing the area with a dental explorer.
* Score 1: Plaque detected by visual examination and/or probing but is not visible when the area is gently dried with air.
* Score 2: Moderate accumulation of soft deposits that are visible upon visual examination before air drying, but which can be removed by scraping with a dental explorer.
* Score 3: Abundant soft matter, visible upon visual examination before air drying and not easily removable with a dental explorer.

The DPI is calculated as the average score of all surfaces examined, providing an overall measure of plaque accumulation in the mouth. It can be used to monitor changes in oral hygiene over time or to evaluate the effectiveness of different oral hygiene interventions. However, it should be noted that the DPI has limitations and may not accurately reflect the presence of bacterial biofilms or the risk of dental caries and gum disease.

Toothbrushing is the act of cleaning teeth and gums using a toothbrush to remove plaque, food debris, and dental calculus (tartar) from the surfaces of the teeth and gums. It is typically performed using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste, with gentle circular or back-and-forth motions along the gumline and on all surfaces of the teeth. Toothbrushing should be done at least twice a day, preferably after every meal and before bedtime, for two minutes each time, to maintain good oral hygiene and prevent dental diseases such as tooth decay and gum disease. It is also recommended to brush the tongue to remove bacteria and freshen breath.

Endodontics is a branch of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases or injuries of the dental pulp (the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue) and the tissues surrounding the root of the tooth. The most common endodontic procedure is root canal therapy, which involves removing infected or inflamed pulp tissue from within the tooth, cleaning and shaping the root canals, and filling and sealing the space to prevent reinfection. Endodontists are dental specialists who have undergone additional training in this field beyond dental school.

Prosthodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis, restoration, and replacement of missing or damaged teeth. A prosthodontist is a dental professional who has completed additional training beyond dental school in this field, learning advanced techniques for creating and placing various types of dental prostheses, such as:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial restorations that cover damaged or weakened teeth to restore their function and appearance.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth to adjacent natural teeth or implants.
3. Complete dentures: Removable appliances that replace all the teeth in an arch, resting on the gums and supported by the underlying bone structure.
4. Partial dentures: Removable appliances that replace some missing teeth, typically attached to remaining natural teeth with clasps or precision attachments.
5. Dental implants: Titanium screws that are surgically placed into the jawbone to serve as anchors for crowns, bridges, or dentures, providing a more secure and stable solution for tooth replacement.
6. Maxillofacial prosthetics: Custom-made devices used to restore or improve the function and appearance of facial structures affected by congenital defects, trauma, or surgical removal of tumors.

Prosthodontists work closely with other dental specialists, such as oral surgeons, periodontists, and orthodontists, to develop comprehensive treatment plans for their patients, ensuring optimal functional and aesthetic outcomes.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Odontogenesis is the process of tooth development that involves the formation and calcification of teeth. It is a complex process that requires the interaction of several types of cells, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and odontoblasts. The process begins during embryonic development with the formation of dental lamina, which gives rise to the tooth bud. As the tooth bud grows and differentiates, it forms the various structures of the tooth, including the enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp. Odontogenesis is completed when the tooth erupts into the oral cavity. Abnormalities in odontogenesis can result in developmental dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis, microdontia, or odontomas.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

A dental impression technique is a method used in dentistry to create a detailed and accurate replica of a patient's teeth and oral structures. This is typically accomplished by using an impression material, which is inserted into a tray and then placed in the patient's mouth. The material sets or hardens, capturing every detail of the teeth, gums, and other oral tissues.

There are several types of dental impression techniques, including:

1. Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This is a common type of impression material that is made of alginate powder mixed with water. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth.

2. Reversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This type of impression material is similar to irreversible hydrocolloid, but it can be reused. It is made of agar and water and is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and reheated to be used again.

3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS) Impression Material: This is a two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. PVS is known for its high accuracy and detail.

4. Addition Silicone Impression Material: This is another two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is similar to PVS, but it has a longer working time and sets slower. It is often used for full-arch impressions or when there is a need for a very detailed impression.

5. Elastomeric Impression Material: This is a type of impression material that is made of a rubber-like substance. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. Elastomeric impression materials are known for their high accuracy and detail.

The dental impression technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, including creating crowns, bridges, dentures, and orthodontic appliances. The accuracy and detail of the impression can significantly impact the fit and function of the final restoration or appliance.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

A dental abutment is a component of a dental implant restoration that connects the implant to the replacement tooth or teeth. It serves as a support structure and is attached to the implant, which is surgically placed in the jawbone. The abutment provides a stable foundation for the placement of a crown, bridge, or denture, depending on the patient's individual needs.

Dental abutments can be made from various materials such as titanium, zirconia, or other biocompatible materials. They come in different shapes and sizes to accommodate the specific requirements of each implant case. The selection of an appropriate dental abutment is crucial for ensuring a successful and long-lasting dental implant restoration.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

Histological techniques are a set of laboratory methods and procedures used to study the microscopic structure of tissues, also known as histology. These techniques include:

1. Tissue fixation: The process of preserving tissue specimens to maintain their structural integrity and prevent decomposition. This is typically done using formaldehyde or other chemical fixatives.
2. Tissue processing: The preparation of fixed tissues for embedding by removing water, fat, and other substances that can interfere with sectioning and staining. This is usually accomplished through a series of dehydration, clearing, and infiltration steps.
3. Embedding: The placement of processed tissue specimens into a solid support medium, such as paraffin or plastic, to facilitate sectioning.
4. Sectioning: The cutting of thin slices (usually 4-6 microns thick) from embedded tissue blocks using a microtome.
5. Staining: The application of dyes or stains to tissue sections to highlight specific structures or components. This can be done through a variety of methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry, and special stains for specific cell types or molecules.
6. Mounting: The placement of stained tissue sections onto glass slides and covering them with a mounting medium to protect the tissue from damage and improve microscopic visualization.
7. Microscopy: The examination of stained tissue sections using a light or electron microscope to observe and analyze their structure and composition.

These techniques are essential for the diagnosis and study of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infections. They allow pathologists and researchers to visualize and understand the cellular and molecular changes that occur in tissues during disease processes.

Mouth diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and lining of the mouth. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. They can also result from injuries, chronic illnesses, or genetic factors.

Some common examples of mouth diseases include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral herpes, candidiasis (thrush), lichen planus, and oral cancer. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, bad breath, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and changes in the appearance of the mouth or teeth. Treatment depends on the specific diagnosis and may involve medications, dental procedures, or lifestyle changes.

"Age determination by teeth" is a method used in forensic dentistry to estimate the age of an individual based on the development and wear of their teeth. This process involves examining various features such as tooth eruption, crown and root formation, and dental attrition or wear.

The developmental stages of teeth can provide a rough estimate of age during childhood and adolescence, while dental wear patterns can offer insights into an individual's age during adulthood. However, it is important to note that there can be significant variation in tooth development and wear between individuals, making this method somewhat imprecise.

In addition to forensic applications, age determination by teeth can also be useful in archaeology and anthropology for studying past populations and their lifestyles.

Dental disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are used to inactivate or destroy microorganisms present on dental instruments, equipment, and surfaces in order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. These disinfectants are intended to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe and poses minimal risk of infection.

Dental disinfectants can be classified based on their spectrum of activity, which ranges from low-level disinfectants that are effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses, to high-level disinfectants that also inactivate bacterial spores. The choice of a particular dental disinfectant depends on the intended use, the level of contamination, and the type of microorganisms present.

It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use, including the recommended contact time, concentration, and method of application, to ensure the effectiveness of dental disinfectants. Additionally, proper handling, storage, and disposal of these agents are essential to prevent harm to patients, staff, and the environment.

Dimethylpolysiloxanes are a type of silicone-based compound that are often used as lubricants, coatings, and fluid ingredients in various industrial and consumer products. In medical terms, they can be found in some pharmaceutical and medical device formulations as inactive ingredients. They are typically included as anti-foaming agents or to improve the texture and consistency of a product.

Dimethylpolysiloxanes are made up of long chains of silicon and oxygen atoms, with methyl groups (CH3) attached to the silicon atoms. This gives them unique properties such as low toxicity, thermal stability, and resistance to oxidation and water absorption. However, some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to dimethylpolysiloxanes, so they should be used with caution in medical applications.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Forensic dentistry, also known as forensic odontology, is a specialty in forensic science that involves the examination, identification, and evaluation of dental evidence for legal purposes. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Identification of deceased individuals through dental records comparison (e.g., during mass disasters or unidentified human remains).
2. Analysis of bite marks found on victims or objects related to criminal investigations.
3. Assessment of age, sex, ancestry, and other personal characteristics based on dental features.
4. Examination of cases of abuse, neglect, or malpractice in dentistry.
5. Evaluation of occupational dental injuries and diseases.

Forensic dentists often work closely with law enforcement agencies, medical examiners, and other legal professionals to provide expert testimony in court proceedings.

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

A cuspid, also known as a canine tooth or cuspid tooth, is a type of tooth in mammals. It is the pointiest tooth in the dental arch and is located between the incisors and bicuspids (or premolars). Cuspids have a single cusp or pointed tip that is used for tearing and grasping food. In humans, there are four cuspids, two on the upper jaw and two on the lower jaw, one on each side of the dental arch.

Periodontics is a specialty of dentistry that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases affecting the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. It deals with the maintenance of the health, function, and esthetics of these structures and the teeth themselves. Common periodontal treatments include scaling and root planing (deep cleanings), pocket reduction procedures, regenerative treatments, and dental implant placement. Periodontists are dentists who have completed additional training in this specialized field.

The Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) is a psychological self-reporting measurement tool used to assess the level of anxiety in individuals. It was developed by psychologist Charles D. Spielberger and his colleagues in the 1950s as part of their research on anxiety and stress. The MAS measures the subjective experience of anxiety or feelings of tension, worry, and nervousness that an individual may be experiencing.

The MAS consists of a series of statements or items that describe various symptoms or manifestations of anxiety. Respondents are asked to rate how well each statement describes their own experiences on a scale, typically ranging from "not at all" to "very much." The total score is calculated by summing up the ratings for all the items, with higher scores indicating greater levels of anxiety.

It's important to note that while the MAS can provide useful information about an individual's subjective experience of anxiety, it should not be used as a standalone diagnostic tool. A comprehensive assessment by a qualified mental health professional is necessary for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

Dental deposits, also known as dental plaque or calculus, are accumulations of bacteria and other substances on the surface of teeth. Plaque is a soft, sticky film that constantly forms on the teeth due to the presence of bacteria in the mouth. When plaque is not removed regularly through brushing and flossing, it can harden into a rough, crusty deposit called calculus or tartar.

Calculus can form above and below the gum line and can cause inflammation and irritation of the gums, leading to gum disease if left untreated. Dental deposits can also contribute to tooth decay, bad breath, and other oral health problems. Regular dental checkups and cleanings are necessary to remove dental deposits and prevent further buildup.

"School Admission Criteria" is not a medical term. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

School admission criteria are the set of standards and qualifications that a student must meet in order to be considered for acceptance into a particular school or educational program. These criteria may include academic achievements, standardized test scores, behavioral records, extracurricular activities, interviews, and other factors that the school deems relevant to assess a student's potential for success in their learning environment.

While not medical, these criteria can impact a child's educational experience and overall well-being, which may have indirect effects on their health.

Malocclusion is a term used in dentistry and orthodontics to describe a misalignment or misrelation between the upper and lower teeth when they come together, also known as the bite. It is derived from the Latin words "mal" meaning bad or wrong, and "occludere" meaning to close.

There are different types of malocclusions, including:

1. Class I malocclusion: The most common type, where the upper teeth slightly overlap the lower teeth, but the bite is otherwise aligned.
2. Class II malocclusion (overbite): The upper teeth significantly overlap the lower teeth, causing a horizontal or vertical discrepancy between the dental arches.
3. Class III malocclusion (underbite): The lower teeth protrude beyond the upper teeth, resulting in a crossbite or underbite.

Malocclusions can be caused by various factors such as genetics, thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, premature loss of primary or permanent teeth, and jaw injuries or disorders. They may lead to several oral health issues, including tooth decay, gum disease, difficulty chewing or speaking, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. Treatment for malocclusions typically involves orthodontic appliances like braces, aligners, or retainers to realign the teeth and correct the bite. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

Tooth erosion is defined as the progressive, irreversible loss of dental hard tissue, primarily caused by chemical dissolution from acids, rather than mechanical forces such as abrasion or attrition. These acids can originate from extrinsic sources like acidic foods and beverages, or intrinsic sources like gastric reflux or vomiting. The erosion process leads to a reduction in tooth structure, altering the shape and function of teeth, and potentially causing sensitivity, pain, and aesthetical concerns. Early detection and management of tooth erosion are crucial to prevent further progression and preserve dental health.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

"Acid-etching and Hydration Influence on Dentin Roughness and Wettability". Journal of Dental Research. 78 (9): 1554-1559. doi: ... Surface treatments, such as corona treatment, plasma treatment and acid etching, can be used to increase the surface energy of ... Dental Materials. 26 (2): e11-e16. doi:10.1016/j.dental.2009.11.157. PMID 20018362. Laurén, S. "How To Measure Surface Free ...
"How the introduction of the acid-etch technique revolutionized dental practice". Journal of the American Dental Association. ... the American Dental Association, the Australian Dental Association, the British Dental Association, and the Canadian Dental ... dental hygienists, oral health therapists and dental assistants (in some states in the US) are able to apply dental sealants to ... Once the patient is prepared, the surface of the tooth must be cleaned to allow maximum contact of the etch and the dental ...
Michael Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching.[citation needed] Technologies have changed multiple times since then, with ... Dental bonding agents have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4th- and 5th-generation) to self-etch (6th- and 7th-generation) ... In 1979 he published a guide to aesthetic dentistry entitled "Dental Health/Dental Beauty." In 2012, new dental universal ... Dental bonding is a dental procedure in which a dentist applies a tooth-colored resin material (a durable plastic material) and ...
Bonding material back onto exposed porcelain involves abrading, hydrofluoric acid etching and silanating then followed by a ... Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects. 9 (3): 193-8. doi:10.15171/joddd.2015.035. PMC 4682017. PMID ... Some define a dental emergency in terms of the individual's willingness to attend for emergency dental treatment at any time at ... Dental restoration falling out or fracturing can also be considered a dental emergency as these can impact function in regards ...
Aalam AA, Nowzari H (2005). "Clinical evaluation of dental implants with surfaces roughened by anodic oxidation, dual acid- ... etched implants, and machined implants". The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 20 (5): 793-8. PMID ... Rafiee, Rafiel M (2011). Dental papilla analysis: A multifactorial view point (Thesis). ProQuest 914190602. D 'addona, Antonio ... Tabanella, Giorgio; Nowzari, Hessam; Slots, Jorgen (2009). "Clinical and Microbiological Determinants of Ailing Dental Implants ...
Involves repeated cycles of etching with 37% phosphoric acid followed by applying 5% sodium hypochlorite until improvement of ... These conditions include: Dental caries, which is the most common cause of destruction of dental hard tissues. This is more ... Self-etching adhesive was found to have better bond strength to enamel affected by MIH compared to total etch single-bottle ... Jälevik, B.; Klingberg, G. A. (January 2002). "Dental treatment, dental fear and behaviour management problems in children with ...
Second, the implant was grit blasted and acid etched, which provided both a larger surface area and preferable substrate for ... Bicon Dental Implants is a privately owned company located in Boston, MA. The company specializes in short dental implants that ... "Failing Bicon Implants". dental-implants-guide.com/index.html. Dental Implants Guide, Corp. Debenham, Clive. "The short implant ... In addition to dental implants, Bicon also offers implant-abutments, β-tricalcium phosphate, and other dental restorative ...
Not only instruments or debris, but also chemical materials used in dental procedures (such as acid etch, seals, and amalgam) ... dental restorations, endodontic treatments including root canal therapy, fissure sealants, preparation of dental crown, dental ... Dental dams are also used for safer oral sex. The technique used to apply the dental dam is selected according to the tooth ... The dental dam is prepared by punching one or more holes in the dental dam sheet to enable isolation of the appropriate number ...
Evaporation - air blast from a dental instrument. Chemical - acids, e.g. dietary, gastric, acid etch during dental treatments. ... A less common cause is acid erosion, which is the loss of hard dental tissues due to acids e.g. related to gastroesophageal ... coolant water jet from a dental instrument. Electrical - electric pulp testers. Mechanical-tactile - dental probe during dental ... Inflammation of the dental pulp, termed pulpitis, produces true hypersensitivity of the nerves in the dental pulp. Pulpitis is ...
... dental etching MeSH E06.095.585.111 - acid etching, dental MeSH E06.170.100 - dental care for aged MeSH E06.170.152 - dental ... dental abutments MeSH E06.780.345.562 - dental clasps MeSH E06.780.345.593 - dental implants MeSH E06.780.345.593.185 - dental ... dental) MeSH E06.912.115 - dental casting technique MeSH E06.912.130 - dental impression technique MeSH E06.912.145 - dental ... dental care for disabled MeSH E06.186.210 - dental articulators MeSH E06.186.250 - dental devices, home care MeSH E06.186.376 ...
The discovery of acid etching (producing enamel irregularities ranging from 5-30 micrometers in depth) of teeth to allow a ... patients with poorer dental health (possibly due to poor dental hygiene, diet, genetics, frequency of dental checkups, etc.) ... It was decided, after further research, that this type of composite could be used for most restorations provided the acid etch ... In preparing a cavity for restoration with composite resin combined with an acid etch technique, all enamel cavosurface angles ...
... and was later confirmed in 1997 with the discovery of acid-etched fish scales inside the body cavity of its holotype skeleton. ... Based on dental traits, Siamosaurus and "S." fusuiensis have been placed in the subfamily Spinosaurinae. Like in all ... The discovery of the Khok Kruat skeleton and of baryonychine teeth with dental flutes similar to those of Siamosaurus, were ... The authors noted that this dental morphology is also seen in other piscivorous predators like plesiosaurs and long-snouted ...
Invented in 1955, acid-etching employs dental etchants and is used frequently when bonding dental restoration to teeth. This is ... The effects of acid-etching on enamel can vary. Important variables are the amount of time the etchant is applied, the type of ... There are three types of patterns formed by acid-etching. Type 1 is a pattern where predominantly the enamel rods are dissolved ... The most popular example is the dental sealant. In the past, the process of placing dental sealants involved removing enamel in ...
Seal exposed dentin with microhybrid acid-etched flowable light-cured resin Perform pulpotomy with MTA using a modified Cvek ... It is a challenging task to differentiate between a true periapical lesion and a normal periapical radiolucency of a dental ... DE may occur as a result of an unusual growth and folding of the inner enamel epithelium and ectomesenchymal cells of dental ... a rare developmental dental anomaly with great clinical significance". BMJ Case Reports. 2013: bcr2013009184. doi:10.1136/bcr- ...
... but are acid etched and bonded into place using very strong resin materials, decreasing the need for physical retention. ... A crownlay is a type of dental restoration. A crownlay is a hybrid dental restoration typically placed over an endodontically ... Medicine portal The Academy of CAD/CAM Dentistry Same Day CAD/CAM Dentistry, p. 41 v t e (Dental materials, Restorative ...
... in soft drinks has the potential to cause dental erosion. Phosphoric acid also has the potential to contribute ... etching) of metals like aluminium or for passivation of steel products in a process called phosphatization. Phosphoric acid is ... Phosphoric acid (orthophosphoric acid, monophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a colorless, odorless phosphorus- ... The name "orthophosphoric acid" can be used to distinguish this specific acid from other "phosphoric acids", such as ...
Michael Buonocore developed the foundations of bonding and adhesive dentistry with the "acid etch technique." Dr. Buonocore and ... Academic Dental Institution by the American Dental Education Association. The school has a Collaborative School-Based Dental ... Unlike other dental schools in the United States, it does not have an undergraduate dental program. It is affiliated with ... of the American Dental Association (ADA). University of Rochester Medical Center Strong Memorial Hospital Eastman Dental ...
Other sources include glass-etching or chrome-cleaning agents like ammonium bifluoride or hydrofluoric acid, industrial ... For optimal dental health, the World Health Organization recommends a level of fluoride from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L (milligrams per ... Yang H, Xing R, Liu S, Yu H, Li P (February 1, 2016). "γ-Aminobutyric acid ameliorates fluoride-induced hypothyroidism in male ... Jay D. Shulman; Linda M. Wells (1997). "Acute Fluoride Toxicity from Ingesting Home-use Dental Products in Children, Birth to 6 ...
Her experience with a rare double-acid etching process helped her win the contract. Thomas had created replacement panes for ... Later, as a medic in the Air Force she began using a diamond dental drill to create images on glass, developing a steady hand ... was recognized by The Austin Chronicle Best Of Awards as the "Best Acid Drop For Art's Sake". In 2004 The Austin Chronicle ... IBM and 3M are among the corporations that have commissioned her engraved and etched-glass awards. Her artwork has been ...
45 degree at Lingual side using diamond bur Etching with phosphoric acid to the enamel including all beveled surfaces Etching ... Elderton, R J (May 1985). "Six-monthly examinations for dental caries". British Dental Journal. 158 (10): 370-374. doi:10.1038/ ... Dental Materials. 33 (4): 467-476. doi:10.1016/j.dental.2017.02.001. ISSN 0109-5641. PMID 28256273. Frese, Cornelia; Schiller, ... Dental Materials. 30 (5): 493-498. doi:10.1016/j.dental.2014.02.002. PMID 24602519. Korkut, Bora; Yanikoglu, Funda; Tagtekin, ...
... nitric acid, maleic acid, citric acid, EDTA. Most manufacturers now supply a single agent to simultaneously etch enamel and ... Impaired disinfection If the smear layer is not removed during dental procedures, the disinfection process will be compromised ... It has been argued that self-etching systems may not be as effective as a phosphoric acid at etching enamel alone. Clark-Holke ... Effect of phosphoric acid etching and self-etching primer application methods on dentinal shear bond strength. Testing and ...
Although this effect is not as damaging as phosphoric acid etch, the increased irregularity of the teeth surface makes the ... Dental Materials. 20 (9): 852-861. doi:10.1016/j.dental.2004.04.002. ISSN 0109-5641. PMID 15451241. American Dental Association ... Bleaching agents are only allowed to be given by dental practitioners, dental therapists, and dental hygienists. Bleaching is ... Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a clear biofilm of bacteria that naturally forms in the mouth, particularly along the gumline, ...
In some cases, small missing areas can be restored by using techniques such as resin boded bridge (acid etch bridge) and ... Medicine portal Teeth cleaning Tooth brushing Flossing Tongue cleaning Dental surgery Wisdom tooth Dental implant Periodontist ... including a fixed dental bridge, dentures, and dental implants. Each alternative has its own benefits and drawbacks. It is ... Dental check-ups should occur every six months. Children or adults who are incapable of caring for their own teeth should be ...
They commonly consist of a wire bonded with acid etch and composite to the lingual/palatal surface of the anterior teeth. In ... Dental practitioners and orthodontists are sometimes resistant to providing younger patients with removable retainers due to ...
The acid-etched resin bonded splint is a relatively new alternative method to protect teeth from further injury by more ... Dental Clinical Guidance. Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme. 2014. Fan, Jingyuan; Caton, Jack G. (June 2018). " ... The acid-etching provides a mechanical retention for the resin. Splints are classified into three groups according to their ... The risk factors of oral cancer may include caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family ...
Acid and/or chelators present in the food humans consume penetrate through the dental plague, the pellicle and the protein/ ... giving rise to direct surface etching/ erosion. Reducing the frequency of intake, minimises the duration to which enamel is ... Colgate Dental Aegis. Mandel L (January 2005). "Dental erosion due to wine consumption". Journal of the American Dental ... Intrinsic dental erosion, also known as perimolysis, is the process whereby gastric acid from the stomach comes into contact ...
Research in 1982 by Simonsen and Calamia revealed that porcelain could be etched with hydrofluoric acid, and bond strengths ... A composite veneer may be directly placed (built-up in the mouth), or indirectly fabricated by a dental technician in a dental ... Porcelain dental veneers Pincus CL."Building mouth personality" A paper presented at: California State Dental Association;1937: ... Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 63, March 1984, Abstract #79. Calamia John R. "Etched Porcelain Veneers: The Current State of ...
... there was no evidence to suggest that phosphoric acid etching gel is any more clinically advantageous than scaling or ... Dental Panoramic Tomography or a variety of intra-oral radiographs can be used to monitor marginal bone levels and evaluate ... Irrigants were also tested as part of a set of interventions administered by dental professionals but it was found that there ... A randomized, dental hygiene practice-based multicenter study". American Journal of Dentistry. 30 (4): 190-196. ISSN 0894-8275 ...
It can be accomplished by either etch-and-rinse (total etch) or self-etch adhesives. In etch-and rinse, acid will dissolve the ... Modern dental bonding systems come as a "three-step system", where the etchant, primer, and adhesive are applied sequentially; ... phosphoric acid nitric acid maleic acid citric acid ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) Dentin bonding refers to process ... which gets decreased after etching of acid. e) Bonding mechanism is when: When primer and bonding resin are applied to etched ...
... dental health surveys MeSH E05.318.308.250.300.300 - dental plaque index MeSH E05.318.308.250.300.350 - dmf index MeSH E05.318. ... freeze etching MeSH E05.200.500.620.670 - staining and labeling MeSH E05.200.500.620.670.130 - chromosome banding MeSH E05.200. ... periodic acid-schiff reaction MeSH E05.200.500.620.670.660 - prussian blue reaction MeSH E05.200.500.620.670.770 - shadowing ( ... freeze etching MeSH E05.200.750.600.670 - staining and labeling MeSH E05.200.750.600.670.130 - chromosome banding MeSH E05.200. ...
DRD Dental has been providing acid etching Services for several years in the Bunkerville, NV. ... Choose a local Bunkerville, NV company that handles acid etching Services. If you need acid etching Services help..Call 702 ... Diana and her knowledgeable staff provide when it comes to your acid etching services. For all of your acid etching services in ... Thank you for visiting our acid etching website. Please contact us with any questions or comments about our acid etching ...
Pulpdent Etch-Rite Etch Gel is a superior quality dental etching gel specially formulated for maximum working and handling ... Etching Products. ETCH-RITE 38% PHOSPHORIC ACID ETCHING GEL - PULPDENT. Add to wishlist ... HomeCosmetic DentistryEtching ProductsETCH-RITE 38% PHOSPHORIC ACID ETCHING GEL - PULPDENT. ... Pulpdent Etch-Rite Etch Gel is a superior quality dental etching gel specially formulated for maximum working and handling ...
Antique Dental Cabinet American Cabinet Tiger Oak acid etched Antique Dental Cabinet - acid etched glass, made by American ... The item "Antique Dental Cabinet American Cabinet Tiger Oak acid etched" is in sale since Thursday, November 21, 2019. This ...
Keywords: Acid etch, Demineralization, Dentin bonding agents, Interfaces and Polymerization See more of: Adhesion - Leakage/ ... See more of: Dental Materials 2: Adhesion - Leakage/Margin Assessments ,, Previous Abstract , Next Abstract ,, ... Methods: Two self-etch adhesives Adper Easy Bond (AEB) and Adper Prompt L-Pop (APLP) were used. Each adhesive was applied onto ... Objectives: To investigate effect of static vs. dynamic application of self-etch adhesives with different aggressiveness on the ...
Distribution of acid-etched, fixed, and removable prostheses in dental patients. / Gustavsen, Finn; Katz, Ralph V. In: The ... Distribution of acid-etched, fixed, and removable prostheses in dental patients. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 1987 Mar; ... Gustavsen, Finn ; Katz, Ralph V. / Distribution of acid-etched, fixed, and removable prostheses in dental patients. In: The ... Gustavsen, F & Katz, RV 1987, Distribution of acid-etched, fixed, and removable prostheses in dental patients, The Journal of ...
Phosphoric Acid Etching Gel Kit Package: 4 x 1.2 ml Syringes, 8 Pre-bent Needle Tips SKU: ETCH Exp: 2024-10/2025-01 ... Pulpdent Etch-Rite 38% Phosphoric Acid Etching Gel Kit 4 x 1.2 ml syringes. 4 Syringe Kit - $18.99 USD. 4 Syringe Kit + 100 pcs ... Home › Pulpdent Etch-Rite 38% Phosphoric Acid Etching Gel Kit 4 x 1.2 ml syringes ... 3M Adper Prompt L-Pop One-Step Unit-Dose Self-etch Adhesive 100 Applicators ...
Photothermal radiometric quantitative detection of the different degrees of demineralization of dental enamel by acid etching. ... Photothermal radiometric quantitative detection of the different degrees of demineralization of dental enamel by acid etching. ... Photothermal radiometric quantitative detection of the different degrees of demineralization of dental enamel by acid etching ... "Photothermal radiometric quantitative detection of the different degrees of demineralization of dental enamel by acid etching ...
Low levels of fluorides can help prevent dental cavities. At high levels, fluorides can result in tooth and bone damage. ... Hydrofluoric acid is used for etching glass. Other fluoride compounds are used in making steel, chemicals, ceramics, lubricants ... Low levels of fluorides can help prevent dental cavities. At high levels, fluorides can result in tooth and bone damage. ... Hydrogen fluoride gas will be absorbed by rain and into clouds and fog to form hydrofluoric acid, which will fall to the ground ...
... was inserted after treatment using the subtraction method of triple acid etching. The flaps were sutured. Seven animals were ... This preliminary study revealed that treatment with triple acid etching can create a promising and efficient surface for the ... The present study aimed to evaluate the removal torque of titanium implants treated with triple acid etching. Twenty-one rats ... "Characterization and biocompatibility of a titanium dental implant with a laser irradiated and dual-acid etched surface," Bio- ...
Indian Journal of Dental Research is peer-reviewed open access scholarly publication of the Indian Society of Dental Research ... A new dental cement. Br Dent J 1968;125:381-4.. 16. Maijer R, Smith DC. Crystal growth on the outer enamel surface: An ... A poor etch pattern was produced by 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid when etched at 60 sec.A comparable etch pattern was produced ... 21],[22] Etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 and 60 sec produced different etching patterns. Etching for 30 seconds ...
"Acid-etching and Hydration Influence on Dentin Roughness and Wettability". Journal of Dental Research. 78 (9): 1554-1559. doi: ... Surface treatments, such as corona treatment, plasma treatment and acid etching, can be used to increase the surface energy of ... Dental Materials. 26 (2): e11-e16. doi:10.1016/j.dental.2009.11.157. PMID 20018362. Laurén, S. "How To Measure Surface Free ...
Phosphoric acid etchant for etching enamel and dentin. The etch syringe facilitates controlled direct extrusion for faster ... D-Tech Etching Gel is 37% Phosphoric acid etchant for etching enamel and dentin. The etch syringe facilitates controlled direct ... 37% phosphoric acod etching gel. Bright blue colour - highly visible. Homogenous gel - no seperation. Has excellent water ... At team D-Tech we have over two decades of experience in dental cements, especially Glass ionomers & UV cured composites. In ...
Use a toothbrush to help clean the tooth surface before acid etching. ... Dental Sealants: Proven to Prevent Tooth Decayexternal icon is a report, published by the Childrens Dental Health Project that ... Infection Prevention & Control in Dental Settingsplus icon *Summary of Infection Prevention Practices in Dental Settingsplus ... This study concludes that having a dental assistant help the dental professional place the sealant (four-handed technique) may ...
Enamel surfaces were etched with 37 percent phosphoric acid for 30 seconds and stainless steel orthodontic brackets were bonded ... AFM characterization of bovine enamel and dentine after acid-etching. Micron. 2009; 40(4):502-6. ...
Acid Etching, Dental, Animals, Cattle, Dental Bonding, Dental Enamel, Resins, Synthetic. Links ... The etchant used in this study was 40% phospholic acid gel and the etching times were 0, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds. All of the ... 3) In the etched groups, significant differences between the bond strengths were not obtained among the different etching times ... When the enamel was etched with all of the etching times, the bond strengths were significantly higher than those of the enamel ...
Dental bonding can improve your smile in a single visit to the dentist, with a simple laminate stuck to the surface of the ... He will create mechanical retention tags on the surface by etching the surface of the tooth with phosphoric acid. A bonding ... What is dental bonding? Instant veneers or dental laminates are... dental,bonding,cost,procedure,tooth bonding,what is dental ... Tags: dental , bonding , cost , procedure , tooth bonding , what is dental bonding , dental amalgam ...
... steel wire is attached to the crowns of the teeth using a dental composite restorative material that requires acid etching of ... An acid-etch wire composite splint can be used to stabilize an alveolar segment in selected patients. Support from a dentist is ... A dental alveolus is a tooth socket. The alveolar process of the mandible is defined as the portion of the mandible surrounding ... The panoramic dental radiograph was long the criterion standard for evaluating the mandible and is still an excellent ...
MIS implant surface treatment combines sand-blasting and acid-etching. These treatment types increase the potential for surface ...
A 40% phosphoric acid gel for etching. * Phosphoric acid gel with silica thickener ...
Bone-implant contact on machined an dual acid-etched surfaces after 2 months of healing in the human maxilla. ... Early endosseous integration enhanced by dual acid etching of titanium a torque removal study in rabbit. ... Some aspects of bone remodeling around dental implants Consideraciones con respecto remodelación ósea alrededor de los ... c Dental Surgeon, School of Dentistry, University Center of Araraquara - UNIARA, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil ...
keywords = "bulk fill packable composite, carbonic acid, microleakage, self-etch bonding, total-etch bonding", ... In: Dental Journal, Vol. 52, No. 4, 12.2019, p. 192-196.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ... The microleakage of total-etch bonding was lower than self-etch bonding in bulk fill packable composite after carbonic acid ... The microleakage of total-etch bonding was lower than self-etch bonding in bulk fill packable composite after carbonic acid ...
In my google image search I saw a dental image where we put the acid etch on the tooth to prepare for a composite filling. Yet ... Here is a google image search for hydrofluoric acid dental __________________. To view links or images in signatures your post ... Most dentists do not use dental dams, and often the acid is sprayed off and suctioned out, but often it gets lost into the ... When working with the glacial acids (as in the fatility story - way more concentrated than etch-all! - hate scare stories...) ...
THE DENTAL ADVISOR Online delivers practical, reliable, unbiased information. Our concise, evidenced-based and clinically ... the place to go when you are searching for in-depth information regarding dental products, manufacturers, industry news and ... A self-etching primer is provided and eliminates the need for phosphoric acid etchant. The primer contains acidic monomers in ... BeautiSealant is easy to use and eliminates the need for phosphoric acid etching and rinsing. Seventy-four percent of ...
... phosphoric acid etching when bonding premixed MTA and composite resin as a dental base. ... When bonded to composite resin, the use of 37% phosphoric acid etching before applying the Clearfil SE bond significantly ... Non-etched sintered zirconia specimens were used as the control, while experimental groups were etched with a 40% HF solution ... Surface property changes observed in zirconia during etching with high-concentration hydrofluoric acid over various immersion ...
Palavras-chave : resin cement; bond strength; dental enamel; dentin; dental acid etching. ... PRIETO, Lúcia Trazzi et al. Influence of selective acid etching on microtensile bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement ... CONCLUSIONS: Acid etching prior to RelyX Unicem application did not improve microtensile bond strength for enamel and dentin. ... AIM: To evaluate the selective acid etching of enamel and dentin on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of a self-adhesive resin ...
Acid Etching, Dental 3. *. Acid Etching, Dental/methods 1. *. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 1 ...
The post core was then soaked in 2% chlorhexidine (Vista Dental) for two minutes. The hole in the core was etched with 37% ... The post was then etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 20 seconds, rinsed and air-dried, and then Monobond Plus was applied and ... Dental implants are a fantastic addition to the repertoire of any restorative dentist and allow us to provide a tooth ... The purpose of this is that the dental floss ligature acts as a stress breaker, thereby preventing excessive force on the root ...
Buonocore1 introduced the acid-etch technique to the dental profession in 1955. The concept involved creating microporosity in ... For the three etch-and-rinse systems, the recommended etching time with phosphoric acid was 15 seconds, and this time was ... The acid conditioning time recommended for both enamel and dentin with phosphoric acid gels commonly employed with etch-and- ... The increased conditioning time increased surface roughness for the phosphoric acid etch and one self-etch system, but this ...
Clinical Success The surface roughness and micro-morphology of all MIS implants, is a result of sand-blasting and acid-etching ... Identification Card and Codification of the Chemical and Morphological Characteristics of 62 Dental Implant Surfaces. ...
  • To investigate effect of static vs. dynamic application of self-etch adhesives with different aggressiveness on the polymerization efficacy and interfacial chemistry, and to understand the role of chemical interaction/reaction between self-etch adhesives and dentin in the above processes. (umich.edu)
  • The application method of self-etch adhesives on dentin might influence the polymerization efficacy depending on adhesive aggressiveness. (umich.edu)
  • D-Tech Etching Gel is 37% Phosphoric acid etchant for etching enamel and dentin. (dtechasia.com)
  • Acid etching prior to RelyX Unicem application did not improve microtensile bond strength for enamel and dentin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Extending the treatment time of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives does not appear to result in relevant increases in the bond strength of resin composites to enamel or dentin. (allenpress.com)
  • This study examined the effect of different enamel and dentin conditioning times on the shear bond strength of a resin composite using etchand-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. (allenpress.com)
  • 2-5 Steady advancement in adhesive systems continued and, by the late 1980s, dentin bonding became possible with the introduction of the total-etch technique. (allenpress.com)
  • As materials and techniques for dentin bonding evolved, a 15-second phosphoric acid treatment time also yielded good bond values to this substrate. (allenpress.com)
  • Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proteolytic inhibitors on the bond strength of a universal adhesive system (etch-and-rinse mode) applied to artificial carious and eroded dentin. (niom.no)
  • In this in vitro experimental study, 60 extracted human upper premolars were cut 0.5 mm deep under occlusal DEJ and were randomly divided into six groups ( n = 10) based on the method of dentin treatment and adhesive system: (A) two steps self-etch adhesive system (Clearfil SE bond) and (B) two steps of total etch bonding system (Adper single bond 2). (thejcdp.com)
  • Additionally, the application of bromelain enzyme as dentin treatment before two adhesive systems and papain before total etch adhesive system had no effect on the SBS of composite to superficial dentin. (thejcdp.com)
  • 1 , 2 The dentin bonding agents such as total etch and self-etch, which are employed may not completely penetrate into the demineralized dentin. (thejcdp.com)
  • The discrepancy between depth of dentin demineralization after the acid-etching and depth of resin infiltration can provide a pathway for hydrolytic degradation. (thejcdp.com)
  • DenMat offers traditional phosphoric acid formulas as well as phosphoric acid and aluminum oxalate combined so you can etch enamel and condition dentin at the same time. (denmat.com)
  • Etching Gel is a 37% phosphoric acid gel used for etching enamel and dentin to prepare the tooth surface prior to the application of a bonding agent. (pentron.com)
  • to evaluate the bond strength (BS) to dentin pre-treated with ethanol in single application for 20 s after etching and before application of a two- step etch-and-rinse adhesive and to analyze the morphological features at the resin-dentin interface. (bvsalud.org)
  • Self-etch adhesive systems are promoted as being more efficient for bonding procedures by using fewer treatment steps to condition tooth surfaces for bonding resin-based materials. (allenpress.com)
  • 6-8 The total-etch or etch-and-rinse technique generally uses a phosphoric acid that is applied, then rinsed with water before an adhesive resin is applied. (allenpress.com)
  • The group with 10% papain as a deproteinizing agent before the self-etching adhesive system showed the highest SBS ( p = 0.029). (thejcdp.com)
  • There were no significant differences considering the specimens exposed to papain before the total etch adhesive system ( p = 0.13), and the specimens were exposed to bromelain enzyme before self-etch and total etch adhesive systems ( p = 0.25, p = 0.84, respectively). (thejcdp.com)
  • Papain enzyme treatment with the self-etch adhesive system increased the SBS value. (thejcdp.com)
  • 1 The application of phosphoric acid etching gels in total etch adhesive systems removes the smear layer completely. (thejcdp.com)
  • 1 To overcome these problems, a number of self-etch adhesive systems were introduced based on a smear layer-modifying bonding strategy. (thejcdp.com)
  • The depth of demineralization with self-etch adhesive systems is less comparable to total etch adhesive systems. (thejcdp.com)
  • Indications: Etching of enamel surface or dentine before the preparation of a composite or bonded amalgam filling, before the preparation of a sandwich composite filling with a glass ionomer cement, before adhesive fixation of an aesthetic facet, either ceramic or composite, before the fixation of an inlay or onlay, the root pin, a crown or a bridge with a composite cement. (pentron.com)
  • self-etch bonding and total-etch bonding. (unair.ac.id)
  • Purpose: This study aims to determine the difference in microleakage between total-etch and self-etch bonding in bulk fill packable composite following carbonic acid immersion. (unair.ac.id)
  • Groups I and III used total-etch bonding, while groups II and IV used self-etch bonding. (unair.ac.id)
  • Conclusion: The microleakage of total-etch bonding was lower than self-etch bonding in bulk fill packable composite after carbonic acid immersion. (unair.ac.id)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the removal torque of titanium implants treated with triple acid etching. (hindawi.com)
  • A predictable way to achieve long-term clinical success with dental implants is to ensure the intimate contact between the living bone and the implant, known as osseointegration [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Considering that success of dental implants is not only related to osseointegration, but also with their survival rates, the aim of this study was to perform a literature review about bone remodeling around osseointegrated implants. (elsevier.es)
  • Clinical Success The surface roughness and micro-morphology of all MIS implants, is a result of sand-blasting and acid-etching. (mis-implants.com)
  • Part 1: sandblasted and acid-etched implants and mucosal tissue. (straumann.com)
  • 4 van Velzen FJ, Ofec R, Schulten EA, Ten Bruggenkate CM,.10-year survival rate and the incidence of peri-implant disease of 374 titanium dental implants with a SLA surface: a prospective cohort study in 177 fully and partially edentulous patients. (straumann.com)
  • 5 Cochran DL, Jackson JM, Bernard JP, ten Bruggenkate CM, Buser D, Taylor TD, Weingart D, Schoolfield JD, Jones AA, Oates TW Jr. A 5-year prospective multicenter study of early loaded titanium implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface. (straumann.com)
  • 7 Bornstein MM, Schmid B, Belser UC, Lussi A, Buser D. Early loading of non-submerged titanium implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface. (straumann.com)
  • 8 Roccuzzo M1, Aglietta M, Bunino M, Bonino L. Early loading of sandblasted and acid-etched implants: a randomized-controlled double-blind split-mouth study. (straumann.com)
  • Dental implants offer an effective and long-term solution for missing teeth. (ubc.ca)
  • What Are Dental Implants? (ubc.ca)
  • Dental implants are metal anchors designed to act as tooth root replacements. (ubc.ca)
  • Properly maintained dental implants can last a lifetime when taken care of correctly, offering one of the highest success rates among replacement tooth options and helping preserve facial structure while decreasing bone resorption. (ubc.ca)
  • Dental implants can be an ideal solution for most individuals in good general and oral health. (ubc.ca)
  • How Are Dental Implants Placed? (ubc.ca)
  • Dental implants are small anchors made of biocompatible metals such as titanium that are placed into the jawbone through a process known as osseointegration to fuse permanently to it, making removal impossible by either the patient or dentist. (ubc.ca)
  • What Are the Benefits of Dental Implants? (ubc.ca)
  • Dental implants integrate seamlessly with your jawbone for a secure foundation to hold any replacement tooth(s). (ubc.ca)
  • Dental implants tend to provide less discomfort than other replacement options, and local anesthesia and nitrous oxide can be utilized during your procedure to ensure maximum comfort during its completion. (ubc.ca)
  • Dental implants offer long-term solutions to enhance oral health and function, especially when compared with restoration options such as bridges. (ubc.ca)
  • additionally, dental implants anchor securely into your jawbone which improves speech and chewing capabilities. (ubc.ca)
  • Dental implants can help preserve and protect the bone in your jaw by preventing further bone loss. (ubc.ca)
  • however, well-planned and cared-for dental implants have an excellent survival rate comparable to other teeth replacement options. (ubc.ca)
  • The rate of dental implants osseo-intergration is strongly related the implant material composition and surface roughness. (com.pk)
  • Ahmed F, Rashid H, Farookhi S, Verma V, Mulyar Y, Khalifa M, Sheikh Z. Surface modifications of endosseous dental implants by incorporation of roughness and hydroxyapatite coatings. (com.pk)
  • In the past few decades, there has been a great increase in the number of dental implants being placed. (com.pk)
  • It has been well established already that the success of dental implants is dependent on early as well as late osseointegration. (com.pk)
  • Surface modifications like passivation, anodization, ion-implantation and texturing are essential methods for making dental implants perform better in terms of physical and biological standpoint after implantation. (com.pk)
  • 12 The aim of the current review is to discuss various implant surfaces and methods that could accelerate the osseointegration process of dental implants. (com.pk)
  • 8,15-17 The surface roughness of dental implants can actually be created by subjecting the surfaces to various treatment methods. (com.pk)
  • The suggested guidelines are geared toward providing more stable and esthetic results when restoring dental implants in the esthetic zone. (researchgate.net)
  • Scanning electron microscopic images of the microrough sandblasted and thermal acid-etched surface of Thommen implants with increasing magnification. (thommenmedical.com)
  • O ral reconstruction and rehabilitation using dental implants in patients with partial and complete edentulism has become extremely common in clinical practice. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Deeb et al 1 report that 49% of patients who had a consultation expected dental implants to last more than 20 years. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Thus, the treatment plan for dental implants must be comprehensive and include a multidisciplinary approach. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • We investigated Acid Etching and Plasma Cleaning on titanium implants. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • XPS analyses of the implant surface thus cleaned show no traces of sulphur, silicon, zinc or chlorine, inorganic impurities frequently found in the XPS analyses of the sandblasted and acid-etched surfaces of implants by other manufacturers. (keystonedental.com)
  • All AB Dental implants undergo special calcium-phosphate sandblasting, followed by thermal and acid etching treatments for surface roughening. (ab-dent.com)
  • METHODS: This critical review article revised intensely the literature until July 2023 to demonstrate, discuss, and summarize the current knowledge about marketable and innovative trans-mucosal components for dental implants. (bvsalud.org)
  • Multifunctional surfaces may display the potential to accelerate and promote the healing process around dental implants. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our findings suggest that polymeric-antibiotic-loaded coating might be applied for the prevention of early infections, favoring its application in multifunctional surfaces for intra- and/or trans-mucosal components of dental implants, while, hydrophilic nanotextured surfaces promoted optimistic properties to stimulate early bone-related cell responses, favoring its application in bone-anchored surfaces. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hydrogen fluoride dissolves in water to form hydrofluoric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrofluoric acid is used for etching glass. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen fluoride gas will be absorbed by rain and into clouds and fog to form hydrofluoric acid, which will fall to the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • IMPORTANT: make sure they understand that they are dealing with exposure to Hydrofluoric Acid, NOT Hydrochloric Acid. (lampworketc.com)
  • This study investigated the degree of phase transformation, surface roughness, and bond strength of zirconia immersed for various times in a 40% hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. (go.jp)
  • Hydrofluoric acid is used for etching levels of naturally-occurring fluoride may be exposed to glass. (cdc.gov)
  • In animals, exposure to extremely high doses of clouds and fog to form hydrofluoric acid, which will fall to fluoride can result in decreased fertility and sperm and testes the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrofluoric acid is extensively used for etching the glass of light bulbs, etc. (tabulka.cz)
  • The etch syringe facilitates controlled direct extrusion for faster procedures and easier access into difficult to reach areas. (dtechasia.com)
  • R. J. Jeon, T. D. T. Phan, A. Wu, G. Kulkarni, S. H. Abrams and A. Mandelis, "Photothermal radiometric quantitative detection of the different degrees of demineralization of dental enamel by acid etching", Proc. (utoronto.ca)
  • The manufacturer states that Giomer have been shown to slow demineralization, promote remineralization, provide fluoride uptake, neutralize acid, and decrease cariogenic bacteria production. (dentaladvisor.com)
  • It was determined from the present study that a 30 sec application of 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid produced comparable etching topography with that of 37% phosphoric acid applied for 30 sec. (ijdr.in)
  • The proprietary K-LEAN™ surface is created by two sequential stages: sandblasting, aimed at creating a porous surface topography, followed by acid etching, intended to generate micro-roughened surface structure. (keystonedental.com)
  • This preliminary study revealed that treatment with triple acid etching can create a promising and efficient surface for the process of osseointegration. (hindawi.com)
  • Neither the acid etching nor the plasma cleaning offered any advantage in terms of implant osseointegration. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • A self-etching primer is provided and eliminates the need for phosphoric acid etchant. (dentaladvisor.com)
  • Consultants commonly used sealants with phosphoric acid etchant, and they expressed interest in confirming the long-term retention results of BeautiSealant were competitive with acid etched sealants. (dentaladvisor.com)
  • Two self-etch adhesives Adper Easy Bond (AEB) and Adper Prompt L-Pop (APLP) were used. (umich.edu)
  • Polymerization efficacy of the two self-etch adhesives was apparently different, depending on the application method. (umich.edu)
  • Concern has been expressed regarding the ability of the newer self-etch adhesives to yield strong, durable bonds when compared to more traditional etch-and-rinse systems. (allenpress.com)
  • However, is essential for successful bonding using etch-and- rinse the permeation of resin monomers within exposed collagen adhesives, it also affects the long-term bonding stability9,10. (bvsalud.org)
  • fibrils is not complete8,15 and one of the reasons for this to Although immediate bond strengths of contemporary adhesives occur is the presence of residual water from the etch-and-rinse have been acceptable and in some cases relatively high6,7,11,12, technique16. (bvsalud.org)
  • Instant veneers or dental laminates are made of a composite tooth-colored material, which can be stuck or bonded directly onto the tooth surface. (newsmax.com)
  • In such patients, dental amalgam is removed and composite material is refilled in same cavities. (newsmax.com)
  • Unfortunately, this composite is subject to potential microleakage which occurs due to erosion resulting from the consumption of carbonated drinks containing carbonic acid. (unair.ac.id)
  • In my google image search I saw a dental image where we put the acid etch on the tooth to prepare for a composite filling. (lampworketc.com)
  • Even though the moisture after etching composite and the underlying mineralized dentin8. (bvsalud.org)
  • For all animals, the tibia was prepared with a 2 mm drill, and a titanium implant (2 × 4 mm) was inserted after treatment using the subtraction method of triple acid etching. (hindawi.com)
  • MIS implant surface treatment combines sand-blasting and acid-etching. (mis-implants.com)
  • 6 Cochran D, Oates T, Morton D, Jones A, Buser D, Peters F. Clinical field trial examining an implant with a sand-blasted, acid-etched surface. (straumann.com)
  • Dental implant surgeons usually employ local anesthetic during surgical procedures, and patients may experience swelling, bruising or pain at the site of surgery. (ubc.ca)
  • This paper discusses the processes of grit-blasting, plasma spraying, acid-etching, anodization and implant surface coatings with hydroxyapatite. (com.pk)
  • Various dental implant surface modification techniques. (com.pk)
  • Objective Emergence profile design is important for stable peri‐implant tissues and esthetically pleasing results with dental implant restorations, influenced by factors, such as, implant position and surrounding soft tissues. (researchgate.net)
  • Many consider the sandblasted, thermal acid-etched microrough Surface to be the Gold Standard for Implant Surface modification. (thommenmedical.com)
  • In this study we attempt to improve early fixation/bone-implant interaction by 1) making micro-scale topographical changes by acid etching and 2) removing surface-adherent pro-inflammatory agents thereby potentially increasing biocompatibility by plasma cleaning. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • RESULTS: A large number of dental implant brands have promoted the development of several implant-abutment designs in the clinical market. (bvsalud.org)
  • Eighty teeth were used to study the efficacy of the etching agents on the enamel surface, penetration depth, and tensile bond strength. (ijdr.in)
  • The exact dental bonding cost is calculated depending on the teeth that that are bonded as well as the end result. (newsmax.com)
  • Periapical dental radiographs are often helpful in providing precise information about the status of teeth within a fractured segment of the alveolar process. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, most kids have bi-annual dental appointments that keep their teeth healthy. (ubc.ca)
  • The dentist or dental hygienist will use a dental handpiece or air polisher to remove any plaque and debris from the teeth. (newdelhidentist.com)
  • After the sealant is applied, the dentist or dental hygienist will check the patient's bite to ensure that the sealant is not interfering with the way the teeth come together. (newdelhidentist.com)
  • Pit and fissure sealants are a dental treatment used to protect the deep grooves and crevices on the chewing surfaces of teeth from decay. (newdelhidentist.com)
  • Chronic effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system and teeth. (cdc.gov)
  • The chronic effects of sulfuric-acid (7664939) on teeth and the respiratory system of workers in lead (7439921) acid battery factories were examined. (cdc.gov)
  • Chest radiograms were taken and teeth were examined for evidence of etching or erosion. (cdc.gov)
  • Teeth etching and erosion showed a very strong association with acid exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Pulpdent Etch-Rite Etch Gel is a superior quality dental etching gel specially formulated for maximum working and handling characteristics. (vaghardental.ca)
  • The concept involved creating microporosity in enamel tooth surfaces by using acid conditioning, then bonding resin-based materials to this altered surface. (allenpress.com)
  • Suboptimal adaptation of fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) can lead to technical and biological complications. (niom.no)
  • Have an assistant help the dental professional place sealants when resources allow. (cdc.gov)
  • Dental Sealants: Proven to Prevent Tooth Decay external icon is a report, published by the Children's Dental Health Project that used research funded by CDC to explore the factors that shape school sealant programs' ability to reach more children in effective, sustainable ways. (cdc.gov)
  • Sealants for Preventing and Arresting Pit-and-Fissure Occlusal Caries in Primary and Permanent Molars external icon ," published in the August 2016 Journal of the American Dental Association, provides a systematic review of the clinical evidence of how dental sealants are effective in preventing and managing cavities in primary and permanent molars compared with fluoride varnishes, a control without sealants, or other head-to-head comparisons. (cdc.gov)
  • The Effectiveness of Sealants in Managing Caries Lesions ," published in the February 2008 issue of the Journal of Dental Research, is a study that shows if sealants are placed over early tooth decay, they will stop early decay from becoming a cavity. (cdc.gov)
  • The Effect of Dental Sealants on Bacteria Levels in Caries Lesions: A Review of the Evidence external icon ," published in the March 2008 issue of the Journal of the American Dental Association, is a study that shows sealing over tooth decay lowers the number of bacteria in the cavity by at least 100-fold. (cdc.gov)
  • Pit and fissure sealants are a type of dental treatment that helps prevent tooth decay. (newdelhidentist.com)
  • If you are interested in getting sealants for yourself or your child, talk to your dentist or dental hygienist to see if this treatment is right for you. (newdelhidentist.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on enamel surface, penetration depth, and bond strength produced by 37% phosphoric acid and 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid as etching agents for direct bonding. (ijdr.in)
  • The efficacy of a number of organic and inorganic acids along with chelating agents of different concentrations and the duration of their application have been evaluated in an effort to obtain optimal etching of the enamel surface. (ijdr.in)
  • The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid (in which the ion solution used was potassium sulfate) and 37% phosphoric acid on enamel surface, penetration depth, and tensile bond strength. (ijdr.in)
  • They were used to study the efficacy of the two etching agents on enamel surface, for direct bonding of orthodontic attachments. (ijdr.in)
  • Your dentist will evaluate each case individually and will let you know the dental bonding cost and the time required for the procedure. (newsmax.com)
  • So, when you go to the dentist, make sure you get a DENTAL DAM! (lampworketc.com)
  • To make a bond, a dentist etches away some of the dentin's minerals with phosphoric acid to expose a network of collagen, known as the hybrid layer. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Procedure recommended by AB Dental should not replace the dentist/surgeon's judgement and experience. (ab-dent.com)
  • Preventing Dental Caries Through School-Based Sealant Programs: Updated Recommendations and Review of Evidence external icon ," published in the November 2009 issue of Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA) provides guidance to using school-based sealant programs. (cdc.gov)
  • These recommendations are designed to guide practices of state and community public health programs for planning, carrying out, and evaluating school-based sealant programs, as well as to complement the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs' article " Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations for Sealant Use external icon " published in the August 2016 issue of the Journal of American Dental Association (JADA). (cdc.gov)
  • The Implementation of Evidence-Based Preventive Interventions: School-Based and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs website describes requirements related to dental sealant programs of states funded by a CDC cooperative agreement. (cdc.gov)
  • Seal America: The Prevention Invention external icon is an online manual designed to assist health professionals initiate and carry out a school-based dental sealant program. (cdc.gov)
  • A special etching gel is applied to the tooth surface for a few seconds to create a rough surface that the sealant can bond to. (newdelhidentist.com)
  • Instron Universal testing machine was used to evaluate the bond strengths of the two etching agents. (ijdr.in)
  • Laboratory testing by THE DENTAL ADVISOR found that BeautiSealant had a shear bond strength of 19.0 MPa to unground enamel and 23.4 MPa to ground enamel. (dentaladvisor.com)
  • Use a toothbrush to help clean the tooth surface before acid etching. (cdc.gov)
  • Cotton rolls or a dental dam may be used to keep saliva and other fluids from contaminating the tooth surface. (newdelhidentist.com)
  • Jumbo Kit 2-25ml Syringes, Jumbo Refill 2-25ml Syringes, Etch Gel Syr. (vaghardental.ca)
  • Since Buonocore first introduced the use of phosphoric acid for enamel etching, various other alternative acids and chelating agents have been studied. (ijdr.in)
  • Buonocore 1 introduced the acid-etch technique to the dental profession in 1955. (allenpress.com)
  • Non-etched sintered zirconia specimens were used as the control, while experimental groups were etched with a 40% HF solution for 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 min. (go.jp)
  • Low levels of fluorides can help prevent dental cavities. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorides are often added to drinking water supplies and to a variety of dental products, including toothpaste and mouth rinses, to prevent dental cavities. (cdc.gov)
  • in smaller amounts, however, fluorides are said to be beneficial and used in water supplies to prevent dental cavities. (tabulka.cz)
  • The 37% phosphoric acid dissolves enamel to a greater extent than does the 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid. (ijdr.in)
  • It was ascertained that crystal growth can be an alternative to conventional phosphoric acid etching as it dissolves lesser enamel and provides adequate tensile bond strength. (ijdr.in)
  • 1] Iatrogenic effects of conventional acid etch bonding are: loss of enamel while debonding, increased plaque retention, loss of fluoride rich enamel with aging, etc. (ijdr.in)
  • RelyX Unicem showed similar bond strength value (16.5 MPa) when compared to the pretreatment with acid etching (11.9 Mpa) and to the conventional resin cement (18.1 MPa) for enamel. (bvsalud.org)
  • As a result, the surface roughness of zirconia increased as the application time increased during the 40% HF etching, but the bond strength between zirconia and resin cement did not increase proportionally. (go.jp)
  • Most dentists do not use dental dams, and often the acid is sprayed off and suctioned out, but often it gets lost into the patients mouth and swallowed. (lampworketc.com)
  • Dentists and dental assistants belong to the professional groups most frequently experiencing work-related eczema. (niom.no)
  • Dr. Diana and her team at DRD Dental in the Bunkerville, NV area provide complete state of the art acid etching services in order to achieve optimal dental health. (drddental.com)
  • As the first line of defense, True Dental Dam provides significant reduction in aerosol contamination and a clean, clear operative field for optimal clinical results. (clinicianschoice.com)
  • INICELL ® represents the further Development of the Sandblasted and Thermal Acid Etched Thommen Surface. (thommenmedical.com)
  • Please contact us with any questions or comments about our acid etching products or services. (drddental.com)
  • True Dental Dams Stand Out From the Crowd " with Dr. Nate Lawson featured in Dental Products Report. (clinicianschoice.com)
  • Clinician's Choice Dental Products Inc. (clinicianschoice.com)
  • The authors conclude that sulfuric-acid at low concentrations does not irritate the upper respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • The SBS was also significantly affected by the interaction of treatment and etching techniques ( p = 0.028). (thejcdp.com)
  • Among the alternatives for surface conditioning, acid subtraction appears to be an option for production of a rough surface without the presence of residual contaminants [ 5 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 8] Crystal bonding solutions are based on a mixture of polyacrylic acid and residual sulfate ions. (ijdr.in)
  • This article gives a brief overview of antimicrobial compounds used for biofilm control and new technologies and strategies to combat dental biofilms. (niom.no)
  • To produce a rough surface, various surface modification techniques, such as blasting particles, acid etching, anodizing, adding bioactive molecules, and modification by laser, have been developed and applied, as reported by Piattelli et al. (hindawi.com)
  • Acid-etched fixed partial dentures were found most frequently in the youngest and oldest age groups. (nyu.edu)