Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Boronic Acids: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.CitratesLymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Oxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.PyruvatesSuccinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.GlyoxylatesFluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Succinate-CoA Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC 6.2.1.5) or GTP to GDP (EC 6.2.1.4) and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Heptanoates: Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.Lymphatic Abnormalities: Congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOID TISSUE) including the lymph vessels.Pyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.GlutaratesMitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Keto AcidsEnergy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Coenzyme AGlutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Alphapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.IsocitratesOsmeriformes: An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.Aconitic AcidQuinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.TartratesMetabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The compound undergoes beta oxidation, forming one or more molecules of acetyl-CoA. This, in turn, enters the citric acid cycle ... Acyl-CoA is a group of coenzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids. It is a temporary compound formed when coenzyme A ( ... First, the fatty acid displaces the diphosphate group of ATP, then coenzyme A (HSCoA) displaces the AMP group to form an acyl- ... Fatty acids are activated in the cytosol, but oxidation occurs in the mitochondria. Because there is no transport protein for ...
The TCA cycle, also referred to as the citric acid or Krebs cycle, is a series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions that ... it provides precursors for many compounds including some amino acids. α-KGDHC is an enzyme that is part of the citric acid ... The citric acid cycle occurs in between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (i.e. electron transport chain). In addition, ... The citric acid cycle is a cyclic metabolic pathway involved in cellular respiration, which eventually converts carbohydrates, ...
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle - or citric acid cycle - is an important step in cellular respiration. In the TCA cycle, a ... Plants, fungi, animals and bacteria all use this cycle to convert organic compounds to energy. This is how the majority of soil ... These bacteria will respire the carbon compounds through the TCA cycle; however, fermentation is also present. This is due to ... This is because soil respiration plays a large role in global carbon cycling as well as other nutrient cycles. The respiration ...
it is a metabolic poison which disrupts the citric acid cycle and was used as a rodenticide. Sodium fluoroacetate. ... Fluoroacetamide is an organic compound based on acetamide with one fluorine atom replacing hydrogen on the methyl group. ...
Catabolism does not involve a complete citric acid cycle. Some species of the Methylococcaceae have formed with certain marine ... This, in turn, is broken down to produce glyceraldehyde, which is used to produce new ribulose and other organic compounds. ... Methane is oxidized to give formaldehyde, which is fixed by a process called the RuMP cycle (Ribulose Monophosphate Cycle). ...
This energy is transferred to NAD+ by reduction to NADH, as part of beta oxidation, glycolysis, and the citric acid cycle. In ... Here, reduced compounds such as glucose and fatty acids are oxidized, thereby releasing energy. ... Lehninger proved that NADH linked metabolic pathways such as the citric acid cycle with the synthesis of ATP in oxidative ... or aspartic acid (Asp) in some bacteria and plants. The quinolinic acid is converted to nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) by ...
Fatty acid metabolism Urea cycle Aspartate amino acid group synthesis Porphyrins and corrinoids metabolism Citric acid cycle ... cycle, for it redirects the pathway of TCA to prevent full oxidation of carbon compounds, and to preserve high energy carbon ... Examples of amphibolic pathways are the citric acid cycle and the glyoxylate cycle. These sets of chemical reactions contain ... For instance, the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the ...
Citric acid is produced by some strains of Aspergillus niger as part of the citric acid cycle to acidify their environment and ... tryptophan and other amino acids. All of these compounds are produced during the normal "business" of the cell and released ... Some commodity chemicals, such as acetic acid, citric acid, and ethanol are made by fermentation. The rate of fermentation ... Some examples of primary metabolites are ethanol, citric acid, glutamic acid, lysine, vitamins and polysaccharides. Some ...
R2-amino acid. A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. Transamination of α- ... Glutamate is a key compound in cellular metabolism. In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, ... and the citric acid cycle. Glutamate also plays an important role in the body's disposal of excess or waste nitrogen. Glutamate ... Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E)[4] is an α-amino acid that is used by almost all living beings in the biosynthesis of proteins ...
... who discovered the citric acid cycle bearing his name, confirmed the anaerobic dismutation of pyruvic acid in lactic acid, ... but when this compound reacts with water, it forms both nitric acid and nitrous acid, where nitrogen has oxidation states +5 ... Comproportionation Dismutase Oxidoreductase Fermentation (biochemistry) Krebs cycle: citric acid cycle Shriver, D. F.; Atkins, ... acetic acid and CO2 by certain bacteria according to the global reaction: 2 pyruvic acid + H2O → lactic acid + acetic acid + ...
The citric acid cycle (The Krebs Cycle) is a good example of amphibolic pathway. The first reaction of the cycle, in which ... oxaloacetate (a four carbon compound) condenses with acetate (a two carbon compound) to form citrate (a six carbon compound) is ... COO is lost in each step and succinate (a four carbon compound) is produced. There is an interesting and critical difference in ...
The reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid ... the reverse cycle takes CO2 and water to make carbon compounds. This process is used by some bacteria to synthesise carbon ... The reaction is the citric acid cycle run in reverse: Where the Krebs cycle takes complex carbon molecules in the form of ... Calvin Cycle. References[edit]. *^ Evans MC; Buchanan BB; Arnon DI (April 1966). "A new ferredoxin-dependent carbon reduction ...
... glycolysis and fed into the citric acid cycle. Although some more ATP is generated in the citric acid cycle, the most important ... The fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol; a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid ... He discovered the urea cycle and later, working with Hans Kornberg, the citric acid cycle and the glyoxylate cycle. Modern ... Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle ( ...
To avoid the overproduction of NADH, obligately fermentative organisms usually do not have a complete citric acid cycle. ... Methylotrophy refers to the ability of an organism to use C1-compounds as energy sources. These compounds include methanol, ... for sugar metabolism and the citric acid cycle to degrade acetate, producing energy in the form of ATP and reducing power in ... many bacteria and archaea utilize alternative metabolic pathways other than glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. A well- ...
... crassulacean acid metabolism) and C4 organisms, as well as to regulate flux through the citric acid cycle (also known as Krebs ... Estimation of the activities in the cells grown on various compounds". J. Biochem. 87 (2): 441-9. PMID 6987214. Smith, Thomas E ... which enters the citric acid cycle by reacting with oxaloacetate to form citrate. To increase flux through the cycle, some of ... the CAM cycle, and the citric acid cycle biosynthesis flux. The primary mechanism of carbon dioxide assimilation in plants is ...
... acting as one of the integral components of the Citric Acid/Kreb cycle, with the primary function of delivering an acetyl group ... Thus, the function of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is tied to the levels of two integral compounds within the body. ... resembling the Citric Acid/Kreb cycle enzyme complex 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. Two types of familial hyperlysinemia have ... First, lysine can be used in place of ornithine in the urea cycle resulting in the production of homoarginine. Additionally, ...
... to citric acid cycle intermediates as a part of the β-ketoadipate pathway in soil microbes. Some bacterial species are also ... capable of dehalogenating chloroaromatic compounds by the action of chloromuconate lactonizing enzymes. The bacterial MLEs ... doi:10.1016/0076-6879(71)17237-0. Sistrom, W.R.; Stanier, R.Y. (1954). "The mechanism of formation of β-ketoadipic acid by ...
... ornithine to putrescine 5-HTP to serotonin L-DOPA to dopamine Other decarboxylation reactions from the citric acid cycle ... Upon heating, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid decarboxylates to give the psychoactive compound Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. When ... Typically fatty acids do not decarboxylate readily. Reactivity of an acid towards decarboxylation depends upon stability of ... Exceptions are the decarboxylation of beta-keto acids, α,β-unsaturated acids, and α-phenyl, α-nitro, and α-cyanoacids. Such ...
Attention was turned to the citric acid cycle to solve the problem. Acetate can be used in the polyketide synthetic pathway or ... Brevetoxin (PbTx), or brevetoxins, are a suite of cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellate ... modified by the citric acid cycle. Intermediate products of this cycle can then be reintroduced to the polyketide synthetic ... synthesis that has the potential to incorporate larger carbon units originating from acetate modified by the citric acid cycle ...
... then to acetic acid, then to acetyl-CoA via various enzymatic pathways which then joins the citric acid cycle to create energy ... acetic acids, acetylaldehydes, as well as formaldehyde and thymol. Out of these compounds, it is found that alcohols and acids ... Given that alcohols are the fungus's main food source, it is likely that the organism produces energy via the citric acid cycle ... Large colonies can amalgamate into amorphous structures that optimizes the absorption of volatile compounds from the air, ...
Glyoxylate is an important component of the glyoxylate cycle, a variant of the citric acid cycle, whereby acetyl-CoA is ... Hummel W, Kula MR (September 1989). "Dehydrogenases for the synthesis of chiral compounds". Eur. J. Biochem. 184 (1): 1-13. doi ... ZELITCH I (April 1953). "Oxidation and reduction of glycolic and glyoxylic acids in plants. II. Glyoxylic acid reductase". J. ... Studies have been conducted to trace the genes for the glyoxylate cycle enzymes to animals. The studies have shown that these ...
NADH is then no longer oxidized and the citric acid cycle ceases to operate because the concentration of NAD+ falls below the ... Compounds Use Site of action Effect on oxidative phosphorylation Cyanide. Carbon monoxide. Azide. Hydrogen sulfide Poisons ... Many catabolic biochemical processes, such as glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and beta oxidation, produce the reduced ... The NADH and succinate generated in the citric acid cycle are oxidized, releasing energy to power the ATP synthase. ...
Albert Szent-Györgyi and Hans Adolf Krebs discover the citric acid cycle of oxidative metabolism (1935-1937). Otto Hahn and ... Neil Bartlett mixes xenon and platinum hexafluoride leading to the first synthesis of a noble gas compound, xenon ... 1941-1950). Miller-Urey experiment demonstrates that organic compounds can arise spontaneously from inorganic ones (1953). ... Friedrich Wöhler synthesizes the organic compound urea using inorganic reactants, disproving the application of vitalism to ...
Fatty acid synthesis Cholesterol synthesis The citric acid cycle which in turn leads to: Amino acid synthesis Nucleotide ... iron compounds; manganese compounds; cobalt compounds; and uranium compounds. In aerobic organisms, a complex mechanism has ... The resulting acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle (or Krebs Cycle), where the acetyl group of the acetyl-CoA is converted ... Metabolism portal Molecular and cellular biology portal Carbohydrate catabolism Citric acid cycle Cori cycle Fermentation ( ...
... for example produced during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle) to establish an electrochemical gradient (often a proton ... The biogeochemical cycling of these compounds, which depends upon anaerobic respiration, significantly impacts the carbon cycle ... These oxidized compounds are often formed during the fermentation pathway itself, but may also be external. For example, in ... The reduced chemical compounds are oxidized by a series of respiratory integral membrane proteins with sequentially increasing ...
Several catabolic pathways converge on the citric acid cycle. Most of these reactions add intermediates to the citric acid cycle, and are therefore known as anaplerotic reactions, from the Greek meaning to "fill up". These increase the amount of acetyl CoA that the cycle is able to carry, increasing the mitochondrion's capability to carry out respiration if this is otherwise a limiting factor. Processes that remove intermediates from the cycle are termed "cataplerotic" reactions. In this section and in the next, the citric acid cycle intermediates are indicated in italics to distinguish them from other substrates and end-products. Pyruvate molecules produced by glycolysis are actively transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane, and into the matrix. Here they can be ...
The reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid cycle) is a sequence of chemical reactions that are used by some bacteria to produce carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and water. The reaction is the citric acid cycle run in reverse: Where the Krebs cycle takes complex carbon molecules in the form of sugars and oxidizes them to CO2 and water, the reverse cycle takes CO2 and water to make carbon compounds. This process is used by some bacteria to synthesise carbon compounds, sometimes using hydrogen, sulfide, or thiosulfate as electron donors.[1][2] In this process, it can be seen as an alternative to the fixation of inorganic ...
The α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis (synthesis of glutamate, glutamine, proline and arginine) begins with α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the Citric Acid Cycle. The concentration of α-ketoglutarate is dependent on the activity and metabolism within the cell along with the regulation of enzymatic activity. In E. coli citrate synthase, the enzyme involved in the condensation reaction initiating the Citric Acid Cycle is strongly inhibited by α-ketoglutarate feedback inhibition and can be inhibited by DPNH as well high concentrations of ATP.[5] This is one of the initial regulations of the α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis. The regulation of the synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate is subject to regulatory control of the Citric ...
All subunits of human mitochondrial SDH are encoded in nuclear genome. After translation, SDHA subunit is translocated as apoprotein into the mitochondrial matrix. Subsequently, one of the first steps is covalent binding of the FAD cofactor (flavinylation). This process seems to be regulated by some of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Specifically, succinate, isocitrate and citrate stimulate flavinylation of the SDHA.[14] In case of eukaryotic Sdh1 (SDHA in mammals), another protein is required for process of FAD incorporation - namely Sdh5 in yeast, succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor 2 (SDHAF2) in mammal cells. Before forming a heterodimer with subunit SDHB, some portion of SDHA with covalently bound FAD appears to interact with other assembly factor - SDHAF4 (Sdh8 in yeast). Unbound flavinylated SDHA dimerizes with SDHAF4 which serves as a chaperone. Studies suggest that formation of SDHA-SDHB dimer is impaired in absence of SDHAF4 so the ...
As a Computational Biology PhD student working with biological networks, I find the notion of "modularity" really ambiguous and troublesome - an opinion shared by other colleagues, even though the concept has been really successful, especially in the previous years. I suggest to assume a more critical perspective on the issue. For instance, the statement "Many organisms consist of modules" could be better formulated as "Modular parts can be recognized within organisms, at different organizational levels".. Specifically, I would like to point out that the example on the Citric Acid Cycle (a.k.a. Krebs Cycle, or TCA Cycle) is quite misleading. Refer to this resource for a diagramtic representation of the Krebs Cycle (human version): http://www.genome.ad.jp/dbget-bin/get_pathway?org_name=hsa&mapno=00020. First of all, the Krebs Cycle is composed just by a few reactions (10 ...
In animals, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver, adipose tissue, and the mammary glands during lactation.[16]. Carbohydrates are converted into pyruvate by glycolysis as the first important step in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids.[16] Pyruvate is then decarboxylated to form acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids occurs. This cannot occur directly. To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol.[16] There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondrion as malate.[17] The ...
In animals, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver, adipose tissue, and the mammary glands during lactation.[16] Carbohydrates are converted into pyruvate by glycolysis as the first important step in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids.[16] Pyruvate is then decarboxylated to form acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids occurs. This cannot occur directly. To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol.[16] There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondrion as malate.[17] The ...
In animals, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver, adipose tissue, and the mammary glands during lactation.[16] Carbohydrates are converted into pyruvate by glycolysis as the first important step in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids.[16] Pyruvate is then decarboxylated to form acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids occurs. This cannot occur directly. To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol.[16] There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondrion as malate.[17] The ...
... are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the ...
... consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies). Fatty acids are a family of molecules classified within the lipid macronutrient class. One role of fatty acids in animal metabolism is energy production, captured in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When compared to other macronutrient classes (carbohydrates and protein), fatty acids yield the most ATP on an energy per gram basis, when they are completely oxidized to CO2 and water by beta oxidation and the citric acid cycle. Fatty acids (mainly in the form of triglycerides) are therefore the foremost storage form of fuel in most animals, and to a lesser extent in plants. In addition, fatty ...
The effect can be explained; as the yeast being facultative anaerobes can produce energy using two different metabolic pathways. While the oxygen concentration is low, the product of glycolysis, pyruvate, is turned into ethanol and carbon dioxide, and the energy production efficiency is low (2 moles of ATP per mole of glucose). If the oxygen concentration grows, pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA that can be used in the citric acid cycle, which increases the efficiency to 32 moles of ATP per mole of glucose. Therefore, about 16 times as much glucose must be consumed anaerobically as aerobically to yield the same amount of ATP.[2]. Under anaerobic conditions, the rate of glucose metabolism is faster, but the amount of ATP produced (as already mentioned) is smaller. When exposed to aerobic conditions, the ATP and Citrate production increases and the rate of glycolysis slows, because the ATP and citrate produced act as allosteric inhibitors ...
Certain segments of rickettsial genomes resemble those of mitochondria.[19] The deciphered genome of R. prowazekii is 1,111,523 bp long and contains 834 genes.[20] Unlike free-living bacteria, it contains no genes for anaerobic glycolysis or genes involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of amino acids and nucleosides. In this regard, it is similar to mitochondrial genomes; in both cases, nuclear (host) resources are used. ATP production in Rickettsia is the same as that in mitochondria. In fact, of all the microbes known, the Rickettsia is probably the closest relative (in a phylogenetic sense) to the mitochondria. Unlike the latter, the genome of R. prowazekii, however, contains a complete set of genes encoding for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain complex. Still, the genomes of the Rickettsia, as well as the mitochondria, are frequently said to be "small, highly derived products of several types of ...
A boronic acid is a compound related to boric acid in which one of the three hydroxyl groups is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. As a compound containing a carbon-boron bond, members of this class thus belong to the larger class of organoboranes. Boronic acids act as Lewis acids. Their unique feature is that they are capable of forming reversible covalent complexes with sugars, amino acids, hydroxamic acids, etc. (molecules with vicinal, (1,2) or occasionally (1,3) substituted Lewis base donors (alcohol, amine, carboxylate)). The pKa of a boronic acid is ~9, but they can form tetrahedral boronate complexes with pKa ~7. They are occasionally used in the area of molecular recognition to bind to saccharides for fluorescent detection or ...
Oxaloacetic Acid manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Oxaloacetic Acid buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors ... Citric acid. The citric acid is in the tricarboxylic acid circulation the tricarboxylic acid compound which first synthesizes ... start a new cycle. It is a part of the citric acid cycle. CAS number:.... Wuxi Cima Science Co., Ltd ... Oxaloacetate Acid. Product name: oxaloacetate acid Introduction: oxaloacetate is catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase malic acid ...
Overview of the Krebs or citric acid cycle, which is a series of reactions that takes in acetyl CoA and produces carbon dioxide ... Theres intermediate compounds. Ill show you those in a second. Another NAD plus molecule will be reduced to NADH. It will ... or the Krebs cycle or the citric acid cycle gets credit for this step. But its really a preparation step for the Krebs cycle. ... The Krebs cycle, or the citric acid cycle. And that actually takes place in the inner membrane, or I should say the inner space ...
In which of the following listings of citric acid cycle intermediates are the compounds listed in the order in .... Organic And ... Give the formula and the number of each ion that makes up each of the following compounds: (a) Mg(CH3CO2)2 (b) .... Chemistry ... Write the IUPAC name, and where possible, the common name of each compound. Show stereochemistry where relevant.... Organic ...
The first step in the citric acid cycle of food metabolism is reaction of oxaloacetate with acetyl CoA to give .... Organic ... Name each of the following compounds: a. CuI b. CuI2 c. CoI2 d. Na2CO3 e. NaHCO3 f. S4N4 g. SF4 h. NaOCl i. BaC.... Chemistry: ... Which of the following structural statements about citric acid is incorrect? a. It is a hydroxy acid. b. It is .... Organic And ... Nitric acid gives the H. +. ion to water molecule and forms the hydronium ...
23.4: High-Energy Phosphate Compounds (1). *23.5: Biochemical Energy Production (1). *23.6: The Citric Acid Cycle (4) ... Chapter 16: Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Other Acid Derivatives 16.P. 24. 002 004 006 008.mrv 010 020 022 024.mrv 026 028 032 ... Chapter 10: Acids, Bases, and Salts *10.1: Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory (1) ... Chapter 16: Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Other Acid Derivatives *16.1: The Carboxyl Functional Group (1) ...
The TCA cycle, also referred to as the citric acid or Krebs cycle, is a series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions that ... it provides precursors for many compounds including some amino acids. α-KGDHC is an enzyme that is part of the citric acid ... The citric acid cycle occurs in between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (i.e. electron transport chain). In addition, ... The citric acid cycle is a cyclic metabolic pathway involved in cellular respiration, which eventually converts carbohydrates, ...
Inside of mitochondria matrix, there is citric acid cycle. Throughout this citric acid cycle, the carbon backbones will be ... This six carbon organic compound glucose becomes split into C₃ compound pyruvic acid and this pyruvic acid further ... This is an example for complex one, mitochondria membrane reduced NADH or lets say TCA cycle or citric acid cycle and NADH ... Again, throughout those citric acid cycle and glucose oxidation give us huge amount of reduced electron carriers. And they ...
... beta oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids ppt, lean mean fighting machine stripes, la weight loss take off juice recipe ... This compound is converted to Succinyl-CoA, a constituent of the citric acid cycle (figure-1). The propionyl residue from an ... In the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, most of the reactions are the same as those for saturated fatty acids, only two ... thus when fatty acid synthesis is active, fatty acid oxidation is inhibited. Shred diet recipes pinterest. Healthy eating ...
It inhibits the aconitase step of the citric acid cycle. Fluoroacetate occurs naturally in at least 40 plants in Australia, ... Fluoroacetic acid is a chemical compound with formula CH2FCOOH. The sodium salt, sodium fluoroacetate, is used as a pesticide. ... Difluoroacetic acid Trifluoroacetic acid Proudfoot, A. T.; Bradberry, S. M.; Vale, J. A. (2006). "Sodium fluoroacetate ... As early as 1904, colonists in Sierra Leone used extracts of Chailletia toxicaria, which also contains fluoroacetic acid or its ...
Propylene glycol is metabolized to compounds that are normal constituents of the citric acid cycle. ... Both of these metabolites are normal constituents of the citric acid cycle and are further metabolized to ...
... light-dependent dissimilation of organic compounds to carbon dioxide and molecular hydrogen by an anaerobic citric acid cycle. ... Eisenberg MA (1953) The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Rhodospirillum rubrum. J Biol Chem 203:815-836PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Li J-D, Hu C-Z, Yoch DC (1987) Changes in amino acid and nucleotide pools of Rhodospirillum rubrum during switch-off of ... Kanemoto RH, Ludden PW (1987) Amino acid concentrations in Rhodospirillum rubrum during expression and switch-off of ...
metabolized to compounds that are normal constituents of the citric acid cycle. · No health effects have been reported in ... lactic acid, and then · pyruvic acid Both of these metabolites are normal constituents of the citric acid cycle and are further ... D. Propylene glycol is metabolized to compounds that are normal constituents of the citric acid cycle. To review relevant ... Propylene glycol toxicity is metabolized to compounds that are normal constituents of the citric acid cycle. · Large doses and ...
Citric acid is also a central compound in the citric acid cycle. The citric acid cycle is the pathway in many organisms, ... The citric acid ingredients most commonly used in cosmetics are citric acid, sodium citrate, tributyl citrate and triethyl ... which contains about 5-8 percent citric acid. The dominant use of citric acid is as a natural flavoring and preservative. in ... These ingredients are made by combining butyl or ethyl alcohol with citric acid and are called organic esters of citric acid. ...
As part of the citric acid cycle, the SDH enzyme converts a compound called succinate to another compound called fumarate. ... The SDH enzyme links two important cellular pathways called the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle) and oxidative ... Accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and over-expression of HIF1alpha in tumours which result from germline FH and SDH ... Succinate links TCA cycle dysfunction to oncogenesis by inhibiting HIF-alpha prolyl hydroxylase. Cancer Cell. 2005 Jan;7(1):77- ...
Oxaloacetic acid is also the first compound to react with acetyl CoA in the citric acid cycle. The concentration of acetyl CoA ... At first glycolysis produces pyruvic acid which is then converted into acetyl CoA and is metabolized in the citric acid cycle ... When this happens, the citric acid cycle is inhibited and causes pyruvic acid to accumulate. However, glycolysis continues even ... some must be converted to pyruvic acid and then to acetyl CoA. The citric acid cycle and electron transport chain must provide ...
... as well as 200 carboxylic acids and compounds structurally related to succinate, including the citric acid cycle intermediates ... C) Cellular stress such as hypoxia may affect normal functioning of the citric acid cycle and induce a part of the cycle to run ... From left to right: succinic acid, compound "4g," compound "5g," and compound "7e." Structures were derived from (Bhuniya et al ... As part of the citric acid - or Krebs - cycle in the mitochondrial matrix, succinate is formed from succinyl-CoA by succinyl- ...
Assays of intermediates of the citric acid cycle and related compounds by fluorometric enzyme methods. Methods Enzymol 1969;13: ... Colorimetric ultramicro method for the determination of free fatty acids. J Lipid Res 1965;6:431-433pmid:14336215. ... Disturbed Fatty Acid Oxidation, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Apoptosis in Left Ventricle of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes ... There were no statistically significant differences in plasma levels of insulin, glucagon, cortisol, free fatty acids, C- ...
FAD is also used to carry energy away from the citric acid cycle. FAD removes two hydrogen atoms from the four-carbon compound ... generated in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. During respiration, electrons are released from NADH and FAD. H. 2. then ... N. Nakashimaet al., "Picosecond fluorescence lifetime of the coenzyme of D-amino acid oxidase," J. Biol. Chem. 255(11), 5261- ... main compounds participating in oxidative phosphorylation in cells. In this study, we have applied FLIM to characterize the ...
Succinate is produced mainly by a mixed-acid fermentation process using anaerobically growing bacteria ... Citric Acid / metabolism. Citric Acid Cycle. Fumarates / metabolism. Gene Expression. Glucose / metabolism. Oxidation-Reduction ... 0/Fumarates; 0/Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 0/Succinates; 0/Tricarboxylic Acids; 50-99-7/Glucose; 56-65-5/Adenosine ... Succinate is then excreted because the oxidative part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is inactive. A possible role of succinate ...
The compound undergoes beta oxidation, forming one or more molecules of acetyl-CoA. This, in turn, enters the citric acid cycle ... Acyl-CoA is a group of coenzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids. It is a temporary compound formed when coenzyme A ( ... First, the fatty acid displaces the diphosphate group of ATP, then coenzyme A (HSCoA) displaces the AMP group to form an acyl- ... Fatty acids are activated in the cytosol, but oxidation occurs in the mitochondria. Because there is no transport protein for ...
is the metabolic pathway that prepares amino acids for entrance into the citric acid cycle. ... A simple saponifiable lipid differs from a compound saponifiable lipid by the products it. yields when it undergoes:. a) ... The fatty acid cycle removes units per cycle, until the fatty acid has been completely. oxidized. ... b) It occurs in two independent set of metabolic reactions, the citric acid cycle and the. electron transport chain. ...
mitochondria membrane reduced NADH or lets say TCA cycle or. citric acid cycle and NADH capture ... becomes split into C₃ compound pyruvic acid. and this pyruvic acid further decarboxylate it, ...
The intermediates enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the citric acid cycle, also giving rise to NADH and FADH2. ... The final degradation leads to several intermediate compounds, as well as into the reduced electron carrier coenzymes NADH and ... Each molecule of fatty acid releases over 100 molecules of ATP and each amino acid molecule releases almost forty ATP molecules ... This then undergoes a variety of oxidation-reduction reactions wherein the mitochondria degrade fatty acids, amino acids, and ...
Malic acid is one of the final intermediary metabolites of our bodies ATP production cycle (a.k.a. Citric Acid Cycle, Krebs ... Many other amino acids can be used to create such chemical compounds though vary in their suitability. Amino acids such as ... Amino Acid Chelates. As it turns out, several amino acids play the role of the acid very well when creating chemical salts. ... Citric Acid. Magnesium Glycinate vs. Magnesium Malate. Magnesium malate is another bioavailable form of magnesium and is often ...
This process is called fermentation The Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycle begins after the two molecules of the three carbon ... several compounds capable of storing "high energy" electrons are produced along with two ATP molecules. These compounds, known ... The Citric Acid Cycle occurs only when oxygen is present but it doesnt use oxygen directly. * Physics Forums - The Premier ... Cellular respiration has three main stages: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and electron transport. Glycolysis literally ...
  • Definition: it is a metabolites glycine of vitamin C in the human body oxidation , such as further metabolic disorders can also be oxidized to oxalic acid , even with calcium ions can be combined with precipitation and the urinary calculus all kinds. (ecplaza.net)
  • CAS NO:108-56-5 Content:At least 96% Molecular weight:188.18 Boiling point :254.2 °C at 760 mmHg Synonyms :Butanedioic acid ,2-oxo-, 1,4-diethyl ester;Butanedioicacid, oxo-, diethyl ester (9CI);Oxalacetic acid , diethyl ester. (ecplaza.net)
  • CIR reviewed scientific literature and data which indicated that at concentrations used in cosmetics and personal care products, citric acid and its salts and esters were not eye irritants, nor did they cause skin irritation or allergic skin reactions. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Several of the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle were established in the 1830s by the research of Albert Szent-Györgyi , who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937 specifically for his discoveries pertaining to fumaric acid , a key component of the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The citric acid cycle uses multiple reactions for the release of energy. (coursehero.com)
  • The Krebs cycle explains two simultaneous processes: the degradation reactions which yield energy, and the building-up processes which use up energy. (todayinsci.com)
  • The cycle also produces hydrogen atoms, which then continue in another series of biochemical reactions to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and water. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Topics include chemical thermodynamics, chemical equilibria including acid-base equilibria, electrochemistry, kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions, and the relationship of structure to physical and chemical properties. (pct.edu)
  • Some experts believe that the fact that the body has managed to manufacture these non-essential amino acids, even though they are often easily consumed through the diet, is an indication of just how important they really are. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • More than 500 amino acids exist in nature, but the proteins in all species, from bacteria to humans, consist mainly of only 20 called the essential amino acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • To be oxidatively degraded, a fatty acid must first be activated in a two-step reaction catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the overall reaction has a free energy change near zero: Fatty acid + CoA + ATP ⇌ Acyl-CoA + AMP + PPi Subsequent hydrolysis of the product PPi (by the enzyme inorganic pyrophosphatase) is highly exergonic, and this reaction makes the formation of acyl-CoA spontaneous and irreversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reversed phase LC coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has been frequently used as for targeted measurements of specific acyl-CoA compounds, because acyl-CoA compounds undergo a common fragmentation, the neutral loss of adenosine diphosphate, which is the basis of multiple reaction monitoring for acyl-CoA measurements. (mcponline.org)
  • In this reaction one High energy compound is synthesized. (biochemden.com)
  • In the first reaction, glycerol-3-phosphate is esterified at position 1 with a fatty acid, followed by a duplicate reaction at position 2 to make phosphatidic acid (diacylglycerol phosphate). (libretexts.org)
  • There's plenty more to learn about chemical salts and ionic compounds, but that's enough to understand the basics of the different types of magnesium. (organicnewsroom.com)
  • Active fatty acid synthesis takes place in the well fed state under the effect of insulin, thus when fatty acid synthesis is active, fatty acid oxidation is inhibited. (amazonaws.com)
  • In light of the recent findings by Haemmerle et al 10 of increased myocardial TAG in mouse hearts deficient of adipose triglyceride lipase ( ATGL +/ − ), it is enticing to speculate that myocardial TAG is an important contributor to cardiac fatty acid oxidation (FAO). (ahajournals.org)
  • A partial cause of such loss is the reduction of the brain metabolism, which mainly originates from the diminished activity of the key metabolic enzyme in the tricaboxylic acid (TCA) cycle - α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (α-KGDHC). (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. Prostaglandins are hormone-like compounds made from arachidonic acid by action of an enzyme known as prostaglandin synthase. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 8. Arachidonic acid is produced from linoleic acid released from glycerophospholipids by action of an enzyme known as phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Also called the Krebs cycle, this is an aerobic process even though oxygen is not required within the cell itself. (coursehero.com)
  • While iron is the second most abundant metal on Earth (after aluminum), it is present in very insoluble compounds (oxides-hydroxides) in aerobic environments ( 37 , 87a , 94 ). (asm.org)
  • Fumaric acid has been used as a food acidulant since 1946. (chemicalbook.com)
  • As an additive, fumaric acid is produced synthetically, mainly from malic acid from apples. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Fumaric acid as an additive is regulated under the Codex Alimentarius General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA), a collection of internationally recognized standards.The U.S. Food and Drug Administration considers it safe. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Fumaric acid is naturally presented in Corydalis, mushrooms and fresh beef. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Fumarate, or fumaric acid, is an important compound, which is also naturally present in the body. (pureprescriptions.com)