The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A situation where one member (allele) of a gene pair is lost (LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY) or amplified.
A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.
The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The educational process of instructing.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Acid-base imbalance occurs when a significant insult causes the blood pH to shift out of the normal range (7.32 to 7.42[14]). ... Adrogué, H. E.; Adrogué, H. J. (April 2001). "Acid-base physiology". Respiratory Care. 46 (4): 328-341. ISSN 0020-1324. PMID ... ions, replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases.[11] This has the effect of damping the effect of pH ... Acid ash hypothesis. References[edit]. *^ a b Hamm, LL; Nakhoul, N; Hering-Smith, KS (7 December 2015). "Acid-Base Homeostasis" ...
... at Online acid-base physiology text Diagnoses at Interpretation at Acid Base ... Acid-base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to ... The traditional approach to the study of acid-base physiology has been the empirical approach. The main variants are the base ... "Mixed Acid Base Disorders: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center". Archived from the original on 2009-04- ...
... text at On-line text at Overview at Acid-Base Tutorial Online acid-base physiology ... and it is also the buffer whose acid to base ratio can be changed very easily and rapidly. An acid-base imbalance is known as ... "Acid-base physiology". Respiratory Care. 46 (4): 328-341. ISSN 0020-1324. PMID 11345941. "184 26.4 ACID-BASE BALANCE , Anatomy ... a weak acid and its conjugate base. It is the ratio concentration of the weak acid to its conjugate base that determines the pH ...
ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Yee AH, Rabinstein AA (February 2010). "Neurologic presentations of acid-base imbalance, electrolyte ... Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 7/7ch12/7ch12p43". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24.. ... A significant alteration in ventilation that affects elimination of CO2 can cause a respiratory acid-base disorder. The PaCO2 ... Metabolism rapidly generates a large quantity of volatile acid (H2CO3) and nonvolatile acid. The metabolism of fats and ...
He continued to study electrolyte imbalances and the physiological mechanisms of acid-base homeostasis. In 1930, he served as a ... His research focused on the biochemical underpinnings of physiology and included characterizing acid-base homeostasis in blood ...
However, a mixed acid-base disorder may be present especially if vomiting is contributing to a hypochloremic alkalosis. The ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by complex physiology that is the result of prolonged and heavy alcohol intake, usually in the ... Electrolyte imbalances, specifically hypokalaemia, should be corrected. Thiamine supplementation is often included to prevent ... They stated that "because of the many and complex factors, both physiologic and pathologic, which influence the acid-base ...
This failure of acid secretion may be due to a number of causes, and it leads to an inability to acidify the urine to a pH of ... In renal physiology, when blood is filtered by the kidney, the filtrate passes through the tubules of the nephron, allowing for ... Electrolyte imbalances remain the same, while in severe cases symptoms can advance to amino aciduria and hyperammonemia. In a ... RTA is usually an incidental finding based on routine blood draws that show abnormal results. Clinically, patients may present ...
"The effects of changes in acid-base balance on urinary citrate in the rat". The Journal of Physiology. 149 (2): 413-423. doi: ... "Amino acid imbalance in cystinuria". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 27 (6): 500-504. doi:10.1136/jcp.27.6.500. PMC 478164. PMID ... Milne, M. D. (1965). "Influence of Acid-base Balance on Efficacy and Toxicity of Drugs". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... was that on the excretion of weak acids and bases. In the 1950s and '60s journals were peppered with his contributions. One ...
... and Acid-Base Balance (New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010), 943-944. Walter F. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A ... Water-electrolyte imbalance produces headache and fatigue if mild; illness if moderate, and sometimes even death if severe. For ... ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Page 829 Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 7/7ch08/7ch08p33". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the ... Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 7/7ch08/7ch08p28". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24. 3.2 ...
Silicon has also been shown to improve plant vigor and physiology, resulting in increases to plant root and above ground ... Excellerator is a specialty micronutrient fertilizer produced by the U.S.-based company Harsco Minerals. It is a granular ... Excellerator aides in the correction of plant and soil nutrient imbalances and metal toxicities. It provides high ... boric acid, zinc sulfate, and copper sulfate) The amount of total silicon in Excellerator is 39%. Silicon has been shown to ...
... s were also classified based on the amino acid sequences, as that would be more helpful in understanding the ... Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 139 (3): 351-8. CiteSeerX ... may the slow disappearance of helminths be responsible for the imbalances in immune control mechanisms?". Journal of ... "A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities". The Biochemical Journal. 280 ( Pt 2): 309- ...
Henrissat B (December 1991). "A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities". The ... Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 139 (3): 351-8. CiteSeerX ... may the slow disappearance of helminths be responsible for the imbalances in immune control mechanisms?". Journal of ... Chitinases were also classified based on the amino acid sequences, as that would be more helpful in understanding the ...
... based or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based analytical methods to characterize the metabolite profiles of individual ... Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank:A Repository for Data from NMR Spectroscopy on Proteins, Peptides, Nucleic Acids, and ... Journal of Cellular Physiology. 227 (7): 2827-31. doi:10.1002/jcp.24003. PMID 22105661. Zhang, S; Nagana Gowda, GA; Ye, T; ... "Homeostatic imbalance of purine catabolism in first-episode neuroleptic-naïve patients with schizophrenia". PLOS ONE. 5 (3): ...
However, not all plant material is base forming, for example, nuts, grains and grain products add to the acid load. In the ... Grandison, Richard C.; Piper, Matthew D. W.; Partridge, Linda (2009). "Amino-acid imbalance explains extension of lifespan by ... "Restoration of metabolic health by decreased consumption of branched-chain amino acids". The Journal of Physiology. 596 (4): ... Grandison, Richard C.; Piper, Matthew D. W.; Partridge, Linda (2009). "Amino-acid imbalance explains extension of lifespan by ...
This imbalance leads to increased activity (excitability) in the muscles. Receptors in the muscles receive messages from the ... The effectiveness of medications vary between individuals, and vary based on location of the upper motor neuron lesion (in the ... Journal of Applied Physiology. 99 (6): 2166-2172. CiteSeerX doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00649.2005. PMID 16099891 ... Brunnstrom Approach Gamma-aminobutyric acid Pronator drift Rhizotomy Stroke rehabilitation Tizanidine Transverse myelitis ...
... to acid-base imbalance, including obesity, arthritis, and diabetes. Because the body produces more acids than bases, concluded ... From 1909 to 1921 Berg headed the physiology lab at the homeopathic sanatorium founded by Heinrich Lahmann at Weisser Hirsch ... Berg and Röse developed a theory of acid-base balance in the body that is affected by diet. They relied on the work of Ernst ... He is best known for promoting the importance of acid-base balance and inorganic minerals like calcium in the diet; later in ...
Based on data collected in 1982, women earn 54 percent of all bachelor's degrees in the United States, with 50 percent of these ... That imbalance is gradually being redressed.[citation needed] In the early 1980s, Margaret Rossiter presented two concepts for ... She was the first woman ever to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Cori is among several scientists whose ... One of her most important translation was that of Richard Kirwan's Essay on Phlogiston and the Constitution of Acids, which she ...
Electrolyte imbalance and acid-base imbalance (E86-E87, 276). Volume status. *Volume contraction (dehydration/hypovolemia) ... American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology. 273 (5): F698-F705. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.1997.273.5.F698. ISSN 1931-857X. ... Adrogué, HJ; Madias, NE (June 2010). "Secondary responses to altered acid-base status: the rules of engagement". Journal of the ... This condition is one of the four basic categories of disruption of acid-base homeostasis.[medical citation needed] ...
Kerry Brandis, Acid-Base Physiology Archived 2005-12-10 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved December 31, 2006. Dawes, Laughlin. " ... There will be exchange of extracellular potassium with intracellular hydrogen ions in an attempt to correct the pH imbalance. ... Persistent vomiting results in loss of stomach acid (hydrochloric acid). The vomited material does not contain bile because the ... Pandya S, Heiss K (June 2012). "Pyloric stenosis in pediatric surgery: an evidence-based review". The Surgical Clinics of North ...
This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), under conditions of high ... In physiology, the primary ions of electrolytes are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride ( ... One important test conducted on urine is the specific gravity test to determine the occurrence of an electrolyte imbalance. In ... which are solid protic organic salts formed by proton transfer from a Brønsted acid to a Brønsted base and in essence are ...
... cyanic acid and fulminic acid, that apparently had the same composition, but very different characteristics. The silver ... One of his most recognized accomplishments is the development of nitrogen-based fertilizer. In the first two editions of his ... Liebig's work on applying chemistry to plant and animal physiology was especially influential. By 1842, he had published Chimie ... which he attempted to explain how protein degradation might balance within a healthy body and result in pathological imbalances ...
By oxidizing fatty acids, this spares glucose utilization and helps to maintain blood sugar level during exercise. Exercise for ... Accredited Exercise Physiologists (AEP's) are university trained professionals who prescribe exercise based interventions to ... prolonged exercise or sufficiently intense exercise can result in an imbalance leaning towards a higher rate of disposal than ... Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise. It is one of the allied health professions that involves the study ...
Nucleic acids were first discovered in 1868 by Friedrich Miescher and by 1939 RNA had been implicated in protein synthesis. Two ... The best characterised variant is an A-to-G transition at nucleotide 70 that is in a loop region two bases 5' of a conserved ... As with proteins, mutations or imbalances in the ncRNA repertoire within the body can cause a variety of diseases. Many ncRNAs ... "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. Madison JT, Everett GA, Kung H (July ...
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances and Acid-Base Disturbances: Case Examples Chapter S2: Microbial Bioterrorism Chapter S3: ... Physiology of Anterior Pituitary Hormones Chapter 372: Hypopituitarism Chapter 373: Pituitary Tumor Syndromes Chapter 374: ... and Gender-Based Medicine Chapter 383: Disorders of Sex Development Chapter 384: Disorders of the Testes and Male Reproductive ... Gene and Cell Based Therapy in Clinical Medicine Chapter 459: The Human Microbiome Part 17: Global Medicine Chapter 460: Global ...
Linoleic acid is commonly found in plant-based oils like sunflower oil. Arachidonic acid is also essential to cats because they ... Cats lack the specific physiology to extract nutrients efficiently from plant-based materials, and require a high protein diet ... allowing for less risk of an energy imbalance. Adult cats should be fed a diet that promotes maintaining a healthy weight, ... alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid. Alpha-linolenic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid that aids in the ...
Physiology. *Hemodynamics. *Hypotension. *Level of consciousness. *Acid-base imbalance. *Water-electrolyte imbalance ... A bundle is a selected set of elements of care distilled from evidence-based practice guidelines that, when implemented as a ...
Physiology. *Hemodynamics. *Hypotension. *Level of consciousness. *Acid-base imbalance. *Water-electrolyte imbalance ... Predicted body weight is calculated based on sex and height, and tools for this are available.[72] Recruitment maneuvers may be ... However, omega-3 fatty acids are not recommended as immune supplements for a person with sepsis or septic shock. The usage of ... The Campaign has published an evidence-based review of management strategies for severe sepsis, with the aim to publish a ...
Physiology. *Hemodynamics. *Hypotension. *Level of consciousness. *Acid-base imbalance. *Water-electrolyte imbalance ... APACHE II ("Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation II") is a severity-of-disease classification system (Knaus et al ... 2006). "Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV: hospital mortality assessment for today's critically ill ... Knaus WA, Zimmerman JE, Wagner DP, Draper EA, Lawrence DE (1981). "APACHE-acute physiology and chronic health evaluation: a ...
Physiology. *Hemodynamics. *Hypotension. *Level of consciousness. *Acid-base imbalance. *Water-electrolyte imbalance ... Diagnosis is based on a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 300 mmHg despite a PEEP of more than 5 cm H20.[1] ... "International evidence-based recommendations for point-of-care lung ultrasound". Intensive Care Medicine. 38 (4): 577-591. doi: ... from August 1997 to November 2003 titled LaSRS for ARDS demonstrated that despite an improvement in cardiovascular physiology, ...
Physiology. *Hemodynamics. *Hypotension. *Level of consciousness. *Acid-base imbalance. *Water-electrolyte imbalance ...
Renal regulation of acid-base balance. Adv Physiol Educ 20: 132-141, 1998), our understanding of the specific membrane ... Since the topic of the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance was last reviewed from a teaching perspective ... Acid-Base Equilibrium / physiology* * Acid-Base Imbalance / physiopathology * Animals * Humans * Kidney / metabolism ... The kidney and acid-base regulation Adv Physiol Educ. 2009 Dec;33(4):275-81. doi: 10.1152/advan.00054.2009. ...
Physiology of water and electrolyte balance. Sodium balance. Water and Sodium Imbalance ... The seminar explores fluid and electrolyte balance with reference to the normal physiology of body fluids and regulation of ... It also considers some conditions associated with fluid and electrolyte imbalance in chronic kidney disease and the important ... the importance of water and electrolyte balance on body homeostasis and the nutrition strategies in imbalance. ...
Acid-base physiology plays an underrated role in the prehospital and interfacility care of our patients. The ventilator is one ... 1. The body has multiple systems to fix a pH imbalance. Derived from the German potenz, or power, and the elemental symbol for ... "Acid-Base Physiology." Anesthesia Education. Kerry Brandis, 30 Aug. 2015. Web. 21 June 2016. ... Finally, the slowest compensatory mechanism is the renal system, which excretes excess acids or bases over the course of days. ...
... and acid-base physiology : a problem-based approach. Water-electrolyte imbalances, Acid-base imbalances, Acid-Base Imbalance, ... Handbook of blood gas/acid-base interpretation. Acid-base imbalances, Blood gases, Blood Gas Analysis, Acid-Base Imbalance, ... Physiology, Physiological processes, MEDICAL Physiology, Human Anatomy and Physiology, fysiologia, Human physiology, Physiology ... Anatomy, Human anatomy, Human body, Human physiology, Humans, Human Anatomy & Physiology, MEDICAL / Anatomy, SCIENCE / Life ...
... and acid-base physiology : a problem-based approach. Water-electrolyte imbalances, Acid-base imbalances, Acid-Base Imbalance, ... Handbook of blood gas/acid-base interpretation. Acid-base imbalances, Blood gases, Blood Gas Analysis, Acid-Base Imbalance, ... Physiology, Physiological processes, MEDICAL Physiology, Human Anatomy and Physiology, fysiologia, Human physiology, Physiology ... Human physiology, Medical physiology, Physiology, kurssikirja, sähkökirjat. Barman, Susan M;Barrett, Kim E;Boitano, Scott; ...
Facilitate normal physiology; for example, provide ventilatory support for patients who have respiratory acidosis or who are ... and strong acids and bases (including both organic and inorganic acids). Acid-base disorders can be recognized by any of the ... Acid-base homeostasis is defined by the pH of blood plasma and by the conditions of the acid-base pairs that determine it. ... Respiratory acid-base disorders are disorders of carbon dioxide (CO2) tension, and metabolic acid-base disorders comprise all ...
Read Our Marvelous Bodies: An Introduction to the Physiology of Human Health now at Questia. ... An Introduction to the Physiology of Human Health - 2008, Page xi by Gary F. Merrill. ... Respiratory and renal conditions that lead to imbalances in physiological acid-base homeostasis in mammals. 91. ... Our Marvelous Bodies: An Introduction to the Physiology of Human Health. Table of contents Table of contents Table of contents ...
These mice had significantly reduced tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and an imbalance of intestinal microbiota, based on 16S ... These mice had significantly reduced tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and an imbalance of intestinal microbiota, based on 16S ... As TUDCA was deficient in AP mice, we gavaged AP mice with it, and evaluated subsequent expression changes in the bile acid ... As TUDCA was deficient in AP mice, we gavaged AP mice with it, and evaluated subsequent expression changes in the bile acid ...
One proposed cause involves an imbalance in plasma chloride and bicarbonate ion concentrations as a result of acid-base ... Acid base physiology, neurobiology and behaviour in relation to CO2-induced ocean acidification. Title. Acid base physiology, ... Acid base physiology, neurobiology and behaviour in relation to CO2-induced ocean acidification ... This article reviews the current knowledge on acid-base physiology, neurobiology, pharmacology and behaviour in relation to ...
... and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice - 4th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781437706543, 9781455757930 ... and acid-base imbalances in small animals, Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice, 4th Edition ... Information is easy to find and easy to use, with comprehensive coverage including fluid and electrolyte physiology and ... Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice 4th Edition. ...
Although, MELAS syndrome also affects acid-base balanced regulated by kidney cells, the main target of this mitochondrial ... imbalance of stone inhibitors and promoters, tubular cells injury, oxidative stress, inflammatory cascades, etc. (Bird and Khan ... Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle) and electron transport chain (ETC) are the two major ... acid-base balance, and blood pressure regulation (Bhargava and Schnellmann, 2017). The most important source of cellular energy ...
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Acid-base balance is the precise maintenance of the hydrogen… Last Updated: Apr 24, 2020 View ... Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances Medical Animation Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances ANM11040 03:46 Medical Animation MEDICAL ... MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Acid-base balance is the precise maintenance of the hydrogen… Last Updated: Apr 24, 2020 View ... ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: The bodys fluids are a mix of water, acids, bases, and… Last Updated: Apr 24, 2020 View Item ...
Acid-Base Disorders: Diet and Stress. *Acid-Base Balance and Blood pH ... ...
Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4) Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings ( ... Which body system will respond to compensate for this acid/base imbalance? Click the correct answer. Urinary system Respiratory ... Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Chest and Lungs C H A P T E R Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Chest and Lungs 1 1 ... acid-base balance in the body acid-base balance in the body 1 why acid/base balance is important a major homeostatic challenge ...
Acid-base imbalance, bicarbonate, isotonic solutions. UCL classification:. UCL. UCL , Provost and Vice Provost Offices. UCL , ... The anion study: effect of different crystalloid solutions on acid base balance, physiology, and survival in a rodent model of ... The anion study: effect of different crystalloid solutions on acid base balance, physiology, and survival in a rodent model of ... The anion study: effect of different crystalloid solutions on acid base balance, physiology, and survival in a rodent model of ...
Calculation of imbalance. The traditional approach to the study of acid-base physiology has been the empiric approach. The main ... Acid-base imbalance is an abnormality of the human bodys normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to ... This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article Acid-base imbalance; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution- ... "Mixed Acid Base Disorders: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center". Archived from the original on 26 April ...
base-substitute of single amino acid: mild clotting disorder vs. base sub. of codon-cause severe form. (x-linked recessive gene ... causes salt imbalance, thick secretions, obstructed pancreas, malabsorption, lungs clogged. ... 1)base pair substitution-can be silent if doesnt affect amino acid. 2)frameshift mutation- insertion, deletion. mutagens: ... messenger ribonucleic acid; coder for genes. transciption-copy of DNA. cDNA. complementary DNA made from extracted mRNA (c/ ...
High or low levels of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as disorders of acid-base ... Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may be further consequences of homeostatic failure and additional significant manifestations ... of homeostasis are fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base regulation, thermoregulation, and metabolic control. ...
... only explains fluid induced acid-base phenomena but also provides a framework for the design of fluids for specific acid-base ... the three independent acid-base variables are partial CO2 tension, the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acid (ATOT), and ... Fluid infusion causes acid-base effects by forcing extracellular SID and ATOT toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid ... Thus, fluids with vastly differing pH can have the same acid-base effects. The stimulus is strongest when large volumes are ...
Water-electrolyte imbalances., Acid-base imbalances., Acid-Base Imbalance., Kidney -- physiology., Water-Electrolyte Balance., ... and acid-base imbalances in small animals, Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice, 4th Edition ... and acid-base imbalances in small animals, Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice, 4th Edition ... The volume introduces fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance and imbalance, focusing on 10 specific elements such as ...
... base and electrolyte disorders , Clinical physiology of acid - base and electrolyte disorders , کتابخانه دیجیتال جندی شاپور ... Acid - Base imbalance Subject : Water - Electrolyte balance Subject : Water - electrolyte imbalance Class Number : ‭WD220‬ ... Clinical physiology of acid - base and electrolyte disorders [Book]/ Burton David Rose ...
Acid-Base Imbalances Table Terminology Related to Acid-Base Physiology. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of ... Acid-Base Imbalances Fig Kinds of acid-base imbalances. A, Respiratory imbalances caused by carbonic acid (CA) excess and ... Acid-Base Imbalances Acid-Base Regulation Buffer system Respiratory system Renal system Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., ... Acid-Base Imbalances Alterations in Acid-Base Balance Respiratory acidosis Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate ...
Thats the physiology underneath Respiratory Imbalances. Now lets look at how it plays out in a patient. ... Respiratory Acid-Base Imbalances. July 11, 2012. by Nicole Whitworth 5 Comments ... Have you ever felt confused or even intimidated by Acid-Base Imbalances? If so, youre not alone…the topic of Fluids and ... And being able to understand Acid-Base Imbalances are a big part of that. Lets jump into how we can better understand ...
Anatomy and Physiology for Nursing at Kentucky. Find ANA109 study guides, notes, and practice tests ... Fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Imbalances Chris Burns RN, MSN, FNP-C Marian University Functions of Water in Biology o o o ... Anatomy and Physiology for Nursing Advice. Showing 1 to 1 of 1. View all * * ... The scrotum is found posterior to the base of the penis in a region called the perineum 19. Explain where the cremaster and ...
... and acid-base imbalances in small animals, Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice, 4th Edition ... Information is easy to find and easy to use, with comprehensive coverage including fluid and electrolyte physiology and ... b> provides cutting-edge, evidence-based guidelines to enhance your care of dogs and cats. ... and acid-base imbalances in small animals, Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice, 4th Edition ...
Acid-base balance and buffering impacts exercise strategies.. Redistribution of Blood Flow (03:49). Increased cardiac output ... MRNA informs the nucleus of the imbalance. Foster describes how the body needs to train and then recover to create adaptations ... Exercise Physiology 101. DVD (Chaptered) Price: $169.95 Add to Cart *Add to Cart ... Introduction: Exercise Physiology 101 (01:51). FREE PREVIEW Carl Foster will address the benefits of exercise and issues that ...
Emphysema may lead to acid-base imbalance. It is characterized By. A. Fall in [hi+ ions concentration in plasma ... CategoriesPhysiology MCQs. 4 Replies to "Acid-Base Balance Physiology MCQs (for FCPS Part 1)" * Dr-Muhammad Irfan says: ... Acid-Base Balance Physiology MCQs (for FCPS Part 1). The MCQs in this post are taken from the book "FCPS Pretest Series - ... you must be able to easily answer MCQs related to acid-base Physiology.. . ...
Fluid and electrolyte disorders and acid-base imbalance are very common in hospital inpatients, but they are often mismanaged. ... and acid-base balance is beyond the scope of this review, but valuable information can be obtained from standard physiology and ... Finally, there are many areas of current clinical practice where the evidence base concerning intravenous therapy is weak and ... Skin preparation and disinfection (using alcohol based chlorhexidine gluconate 0.5%, with two minutes of drying time). ...
Physiology of Acid-base (AB) Balance H Ion is expressed in pH Unit: H = 24 x (PaCO2 ÷ HCO3). The body changes PaCO2 and HCO3 ... General principles in the management of A-B imbalance Acidosis: treat underlying cause; if pH , 7.1, give HCO3 (be careful, as ... Calculation is based on the Harris-Benedict equation, which calculates the basal energy expenditure (based on sex, age, weight ... Free amino acid: 1.5g/kg. Maintain a calorie-to-nitrogen ratio of 150:1 to support protein synthesis ...
Acid-base imbalance occurs when a significant insult causes the blood pH to shift out of the normal range (7.32 to 7.42[14]). ... Adrogué, H. E.; Adrogué, H. J. (April 2001). "Acid-base physiology". Respiratory Care. 46 (4): 328-341. ISSN 0020-1324. PMID ... ions, replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases.[11] This has the effect of damping the effect of pH ... Acid ash hypothesis. References[edit]. *^ a b Hamm, LL; Nakhoul, N; Hering-Smith, KS (7 December 2015). "Acid-Base Homeostasis" ...
  • CONCLUSIONS: With progressive haemodilution, resuscitation with a chloride-based solution induced more acidosis compared with lactate- and acetate-based solutions, but outcomes were similar. (
  • An excess of acid is called acidosis or acidaemia and an excess in bases is called alkalosis or alkalemia. (
  • The process that causes the imbalance is classified based on the etiology of the disturbance (respiratory or metabolic) and the direction of change in pH (acidosis or alkalosis). (
  • The process that causes the imbalance is classified based on the cause of the disturbance (respiratory or metabolic) and the direction of change in pH (acidosis or alkalosis). (
  • Sequelae of prolonged hypercapnia include respiratory acidosis Acid base imbalance and increased intracranial pressure Intracranial pressure measurement . (
  • This method of evaluating acid-base disorders was developed to help determine the mechanism of the disorder rather than simply categorizing them into metabolic vs. respiratory acidosis/alkalosis as with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. (
  • Bicarbonate insufficiencies and elevations cause acid-base disorders (i.e., acidosis, alkalosis). (
  • As shown in Figure 1, a nongap metabolic acidosis can result from the direct loss of sodium bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney, addition of hydrochloric acid (HCl) or substances that are metabolized to HCl, impairment of net acid excretion, marked urinary excretion of organic acid anions with replacement with endogenous or administered Cl− (12,13), or administration of Cl−-rich solutions during resuscitation (14). (
  • There are four simple acid-base disorders: respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis. (
  • Frequently, electrolyte imbalance and acidosis (a disturbance in the acid-base balance) are concurrent with fluid deficit. (
  • there is a lot of information on acid-base balance here and includes information on respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. (
  • It presents more detailed coverage of basic anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology, medical management, and nursing care than any other book available. (
  • Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. (
  • Chemistry is the foundation for anatomy and physiology and pathophysiology and is important to understand these concepts IMHO. (
  • Human Anatomy & Physiology BSC101 or equivalent. (
  • This revised edition answers the demand for a leaner version of MariebOsHuman Anatomy & Physiology, one that assumes less need for in-depth coverage of pregnancy, heredity, and the developmental aspects of various body systems, while keeping basic themes such as homeostatic imbalances strategically in place. (
  • Elaine MariebOs instinct for providing colorful, dynamic explication of body system anatomy & physiology creates a focused presentation of basic principles. (
  • PREREQUISITE: Admission to Nursing program and COREQUISITE: 10806177 General Anatomy and Physiology. (
  • COREQUISITES: 10543101 Nursing Fundamentals, 10543102 Nursing Skills, and 10543103 Nursing Pharmacology, 10801136 English Composition I, 10809188 Developmental Psychology, and 10806177 General Anatomy and Physiology. (
  • Prepared by: Tesfa D. (ANP)-2010 First Edition-2014 Objectives At the end of this chapter, the learner be able to: Discuss the anatomy and physiology of body fluids and electrolytes Describe common fluid and electrolyte changes, their causes and management Identify common acid base imbalances and their treatment 2. (
  • This page describing kidney disease is very thorough, with pictures and information on anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology, in addition to symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. (
  • The thirteenth edition of the phenomenally successful Principles of Anatomy and Physiology continues to set the standard for the discipline. (
  • The authors have maintained a superb balance between structure and function and continue to emphasize the correlations between normal physiology and pathophysiology, normal anatomy and pathology, and homeostasis and homeostatic imbalances. (
  • This text covers all the bases of human anatomy -- the organ systems from the cellular to the histological to the functional level -- then ties them all together to explain the biological functioning of human beings. (
  • 1 Burdon Sanderson Cardiac Science Centre, Department of Physiology Anatomy & Genetics, Oxford, UK. (
  • We will cover the functional anatomy and physiology of muscle tissue, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and understand how oxygen is extracted from the air and is delivered to working muscles. (
  • One proposed cause involves an imbalance in plasma chloride and bicarbonate ion concentrations as a result of acid-base regulation, causing the reversal of ionic fluxes through GABA(A) receptors, which leads to altered neuronal function. (
  • The main variants are the base excess approach and the bicarbonate approach. (
  • The bicarbonate buffering system is especially key, as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) can be shifted through carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) to hydrogen ions and bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) as shown below. (
  • Some of the Carbonic Acid separates to become Bicarbonate (HCO3-, which is a base) and H+. (
  • The H+ and the bicarbonate recombine to become Carbonic Acid again, and then the Carbonic Acid breaks up into CO2 and H2O again. (
  • [5] The bicarbonate is derived from metabolic carbon dioxide which is enzymatically converted to carbonic acid in the renal tubular cells . (
  • [5] [13] Similarly an excess of H + ions is partially neutralized by the bicarbonate component of the buffer solution to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), which, because it is a weak acid, remains largely in the undissociated form, releasing far fewer H + ions into the solution than the original strong acid would have done. (
  • The buffer systems functioning in blood plasma include plasma proteins, phosphate, and bicarbonate and carbonic acid buffers. (
  • The kidneys help control acid-base balance by excreting hydrogen ions and generating bicarbonate that helps maintain blood plasma pH within a normal range. (
  • Respiratory alkalosis is an acid-base disorder characterized by a primary reduction of PCO₂ to below the normal range of 35 to 45 mmHg, leading to an increase in pH to above 7.45 and a subsequent decrease in bicarbonate from a normal value of 24 mEq/L. The decrease in PCO₂ typically occurs as a result of alveolar hyperventilation with an excess of CO₂ excretion compared to production. (
  • 3. Metabolic Component: The third line of defense is slow, best measured by the Base Excess, and mostly depends on the renal system which can add or remove bicarbonate ions to or from the ECF. (
  • The most abundant buffer in the ECF consists of a solution of carbonic acid (H2CO3), and the bicarbonate (HCO− 3) salt of, usually, sodium (Na+). (
  • A strong base such as the hydroxyl ion (OH-) has a strong tendency to bind H+ and raise the pH, whereas a weak base such as the bicarbonate ion (HCO3~) binds less of the available H+ and has less effect on pH. (
  • The bicarbonate buffer system is a solution of carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions. (
  • When the reaction proceeds to the left, bicarbonate acts as a weak base by binding H+, removing the ions from solution, and raising pH. (
  • If a strong acid were added to a beaker of carbonic acid-bicarbonate solution at pH 7.4, the preceding reaction would shift only slightly to the left. (
  • In the bloodstream CO2 combines with water to form carbonic acid, which dissociates to form hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. (
  • Bicarbonate is most common base. (
  • Then carbonic acid can be split apart to make bicarbonate and hydrogen. (
  • Determination of the severity of metabolic acidemia is usually based on the extent of the decrease in the plasma bicarbonate concentration. (
  • 6 The relation between the increase (Δ) in the plasma anion gap and the decrease (Δ) in the plasma bicarbonate concentration which is commonly referred to as delta-delta (Δ-Δ) is used to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the acid load and to detect the presence of coexisting metabolic acid base disorders. (
  • It involves carbonic acid (a weak acid) and its salt form, sodium bicarbonate (a weak base). (
  • When blood becomes more acidic, carbonic acid does not release its hydrogen, and sodium bicarbonate dissociates, exchanging the sodium for the excess hydrogen ion. (
  • It acts the same as the bicarbonate buffer system by converting strong bases to weak bases and strong acids to weak acids. (
  • 4) Bicarbonate is the most important extracellular buffer, while phosphates and proteins contribute mostly to intracellular acid-base balance. (
  • Adv Physiol Educ 20: 132-141, 1998), our understanding of the specific membrane transporters involved in H(+), HCO(3)(-), and NH(4)(+) transport, and especially how these transporters are regulated in response to systemic acid-base disorders, has advanced considerably. (
  • The clinical features of acid-base disorders vary by the type of disorder and according to the underlying disease process. (
  • 4. Specific therapy for acid-base disorders (e.g., buffer therapy) should be reserved for severe and/or persistent disorders. (
  • Disorders of bile acids (BAs) are closely related to the development of liver and intestinal diseases, including acute pancreatitis (AP). (
  • The leading reference for the diagnosis and management of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances in small animals, Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice, 4th Edition provides cutting-edge, evidence-based guidelines to enhance your care of dogs and cats. (
  • High or low levels of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as disorders of acid-base metabolism, also have neurological effects such as confusion, seizures, muscle weakness, tetany (spasm and irritability of muscles), and cramps. (
  • Book Description: This handy compact user-friendly book is aimed to provide easy to use, up-to-date practical guidelines about fluid, electrolyte and acid base disorders to all students, physicians, intensivist, anesthetists, pediatricians, surgeons and all clinicians. (
  • Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders: Clinical Evaluation & Management is a clear and concise presentation of the fundamentals of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base disorders frequently encountered in clinical practice. (
  • Fluid and electrolyte disorders and acid-base imbalance are very common in hospital inpatients, but they are often mismanaged. (
  • The tutorial homepage offers a colourful, box-structured table of contents made up of 21 main links covering topics such as the physiology of acid-base disorders, the interpretation of blood gases, respiratory and metabolic treatments, and also includes a direct e-mail link to the author. (
  • Acid-base disorders are common especially in intensive care, and the acid-base status is one of the vital clinical signs for the patient management. (
  • Because acid-base balance is connected to many bodily processes and regulations, complex mathematical models are needed to get insight into the mixed disorders and to act accordingly. (
  • Acid-base disturbances are associated with a number of fluid, electrolyte, metabolic and respiratory disorders. (
  • Ring T, Acid-base physiology and diagnosis of disorders. (
  • Fluid Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders 2nd Edition: Clinical Evaluation and Management PDF Author Alluru S. Reddi Isbn File size 2 MB Year Pages Language English Books Download the Book Download Book Description: Like the previous edition, the second edition of Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders provides. (
  • The A.S.P.E.N. Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Disorders Handbook is Here! (
  • Approximate electrolyte concentrations in the extracellular and intracellular fluids (ECF and ICF) (Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders, Vol 1. (
  • With a clear, comprehensive approach, this quick-reference handbook on the basic principles of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances, imbalances, and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. (
  • ASPEN Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Disorders Handbook, Second Edition Completely updated and provides the foundation needed to treat these complex conditions. (
  • all of the issues are related to acid base disorders. (
  • Simple acid-base disorders are those that are confined to one primary alteration in CO2 or HCO3- with or without a compensatory response. (
  • An important distinction needs to be made at this point with respect to certain definitions in acid-base disorders. (
  • There are also mixed acid-base disorders in which opposing primary disorders can effectively cancel each other out and produce a normal pH balance. (
  • The fastest method is the buffer system, which works immediately to release hydrogen ions from carbonic acid in order to lower pH, or to absorb hydrogen ions into carbonic acid when the pH must be increased. (
  • When CO2 is blown away through the respiratory system, pH increases by reducing the amount of CO2 available to create carbonic acid, causing less carbonic acid to be available in the body to then release hydrogen ions. (
  • Via the respiratory mechanism, the volatile acid, carbonic acid is eliminated from the body as carbon dioxide. (
  • By the way, here's a less simplified explanation of what I wrote above for those of you that want more info: When there's too much CO2 in the body, the body tries to get rid of it by combining with H2O to become Carbonic Acid (H2CO3). (
  • The Bicarb and H+ neutralize each other, but there's still extra Carbonic Acid which makes the body's pH turn acidic. (
  • The second line of defence of the pH of the ECF consists of controlling of the carbonic acid concentration in the ECF. (
  • This is achieved by changes in the rate and depth of breathing (i.e. by hyperventilation or hypoventilation ), which blows off or retains carbon dioxide (and thus carbonic acid) in the blood plasma. (
  • 2. Respiratory Component: The second line of defense of the extracellular fluid pH is rapid, measured by PCO2, and consists of controlling the carbonic acid concentration in the ECF by changing the rate and depth of breathing (i.e. by hyperventilation or hypoventilation). (
  • This blows off or retains carbon dioxide (and thus carbonic acid) in the blood plasma as required. (
  • Such a narrow range of variation is remarkable considering that our metabolism constantly produces acid: lactic acid from anaerobic fermentation, phosphoric acids from nucleic acid catabolism, fatty acids and ketones from fat catabolism, and carbonic acid from carbon dioxide. (
  • A weak acid such as carbonic acid (H2CO3) ionizes only slightly and keeps most hydrogen in a chemically bound form that does not affect pH. (
  • When it proceeds to the right, carbonic acid acts as a weak acid by releasing H+ and lowering pH. (
  • Easyif the body needs more acid, the buffer system takes water and carbon dioxide and makes carbonic acid (with the help of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase). (
  • INTRODUCTION On a typical Western diet, approximately 15,000 mmol of carbon dioxide (which can generate carbonic acid as it combines with water) and 50 to 100 mEq of nonvolatile acid (mostly sulfuric acid derived from the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids) are produced each day. (
  • When hydrogen ion levels fall and blood becomes more alkaline, carbonic acid will give up its hydrogen, which combines with an OH - to create water. (
  • In the lungs, carbonic acid is converted to water and carbon dioxide. (
  • Changes in ventilatory rates can generate alterations in blood pH by ultimately increasing or decreasing carbonic acid through the exchange of carbon dioxide with the environment. (
  • Carbonic anhydrase 5 regulates acid-base homeostasis in zebrafish. (
  • This organ and its related urinary tract system require sufficient energy for body homeostasis, blood filtration, nutrient reabsorption, regulation of body fluid and electrolyte, acid-base balance, and blood pressure regulation ( Bhargava and Schnellmann, 2017 ). (
  • 1 Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4) Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings ( 5. (
  • of homeostasis are fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base regulation, thermoregulation, and metabolic control. (
  • Acid-base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF). (
  • Series 1: What is acid base homeostasis? (
  • An extensive international scientific evidence based literature review, performed Spring 2013 shows that maintaining acid base homeostasis is our first line of defense against diseases of the muscle, spine, bones, kidney's, heart, diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. (
  • The body is composed of approximately 85 percent water and dissolved substances including electrolytes, which function with hydrogen and oxygen to maintain fluid acid base homeostasis in the body as measured by the pH of the body fluids. (
  • ABG interpretation can be perplexing to a provider, although an imbalance can lead to severe complications from the lack of homeostasis of the body and thus become a life-threatening event. (
  • Consequently, acid-base balance is one of the most important aspects of homeostasis. (
  • Maintaining a proper balance between acids and bases in the body is essential for the body to maintain homeostasis. (
  • Acid-base balance is critical when testing feline biochemistry to assess homeostasis. (
  • In addition to buffers, the lungs and kidneys play a major role in acid-base homeostasis. (
  • Fluids and electrolytes play a vital role in homeostasis within the body by regulating various bodily functions including cardiac, neuro, oxygen delivery and acid-base balance and much more. (
  • Fluid balance, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance work together to maintain homeostasis within the body. (
  • The regulation of the acid-base balance in cells is essential for proper cellular homeostasis. (
  • Continuous acidification of oral biofilms results in increases in the proportions of acid-producing and acid-tolerant organisms, a selective process that alters dental plaque pH homeostasis and shifts the demineralization-remineralization balance toward loss of tooth minerals. (
  • Information is easy to find and easy to use, with comprehensive coverage including fluid and electrolyte physiology and pathophysiology and their clinical applications, as well as the newest advances in fluid therapy and a discussion of a new class of drugs called vaptans. (
  • Activation of bile acid receptors can further activate several specific signaling pathways including lipid metabolism, the immune system, signal transduction, and others ( Kliewer and Mangelsdorf, 2015 ). (
  • [1] The proper balance between the acids and bases (i.e. the pH) in the ECF is crucial for the normal physiology of the body, and cellular metabolism . (
  • The latter is the primary adaptive response since ammonia production from the metabolism of glutamine can be appropriately increased in response to an acid load [2]. (
  • Blood pH decreases, becoming more acidic, from consuming excessive acid-producing foods such as proteins, lactic acid production during metabolism , a decreased ventilation rate, and the loss of excess OH - from diarrhea. (
  • Negative electrolyte that impacts metabolism and regulates acid-base balance and calcium levels. (
  • Homeostatic imbalance directly affects cellular metabolism, which eventually leads to physiological defects and pathologic conditions. (
  • In oral biofilms, arginine metabolism via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) produces ammonia, which inhibits tooth demineralization by neutralizing glycolytic acids and by suppressing the emergence of a cariogenic microflora. (
  • Since the topic of the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance was last reviewed from a teaching perspective (Koeppen BM. (
  • Renal regulation of acid-base balance. (
  • The seminar explores fluid and electrolyte balance with reference to the normal physiology of body fluids and regulation of fluids and electrolytes. (
  • The key to acid-base regulation is controlling hydrogen ion concentrations. (
  • CapnoLearning® is about learning breathing behaviors that facilitate optimal respiration and its associated regulation of acid- base physiology. (
  • CapnoLearning is about learning breathing behavior that serves respiratory physiology and its associated acid-base regulation, that is, respiratory fitness. (
  • Internal respiration is about ensuring the transport of oxygen in the blood from the lungs to tissue cells, and then the transport of metabolic CO2 from tissue cells to the lungs for both its excretion and its reallocation to systemic circulation for acid- base regulation. (
  • This places breathing center stage in moment- to- moment acid-base regulation. (
  • In this article, we examine the available data and attempt to integrate the data with principles of physiology and metabolic regulation and provide clinical guidance. (
  • The kidneys are slower to compensate, but renal physiology has several powerful mechanisms to control pH by the excretion of excess acid or base. (
  • Practical Clinical Nephrology Using principles of renal physiology to analyze, diagnose and treat patients Professor Internal Medicine (nephrology) Molecular. (
  • In this review, these new aspects of renal function are presented, as are the broader and more general concepts related to the role of the kidneys in maintaining the acid-base balance. (
  • Alterations in acid-base balance produce characteristic patterns in arterial blood gases and plasma electrolytes. (
  • The anion study: effect of different crystalloid solutions on acid base balance, physiology, and survival in a rodent model of acute isovolaemic haemodilution. (
  • Acid-base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to deviate out of the normal range (7.35 to 7.45). (
  • The body's acid-base balance is tightly regulated. (
  • On this background we consider the effects of intravenous fluids on acid-base balance. (
  • The volume introduces fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance and imbalance, focusing on 10 specific elements such as potassium and calcium, and developing the techniques and procedures for maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance, as well Cited by: 8. (
  • Fluids and Electrolytes: Essentials for Healthcare Practice is designed to give a solid understanding of fluid and electrolyte physiology and its implications for practice, including acid-base balance and intravenous (IV) therapy, in a concise and easily understandable format. (
  • Offers LPNs/LVNs explanations of concepts related to fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. (
  • After introducing each factor in the fluids and electrolytes composite such as extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid, excesses, deficits, acid-base balance, and ion exchanges, the authors take great care to present the nursing obligations involved. (
  • Magnesium Imbalances Fig Effects of stress on fluid and electrolyte balance. (
  • I use an easy, over-simplified way to help me remember how the lungs can effect the acid-base balance in the body. (
  • Acid-base balance and buffering impacts exercise strategies. (
  • Electrolytes are highly charged mineral particles or ions that dissolve in body fluids and regulate the acid base balance by their chemical attraction to hydrogen (H+) and oxygen. (
  • Acid-base and electrolyte balance are equivalent terms (Terzano, C. 2012). (
  • In addition to their role in maintaining acid base balance, electrolytes function as cofactors for enzymes, action potential for nerve and muscle cells, secretion and action of hormones and neurotransmitters, muscle contraction, secondary active transport, and osmosis. (
  • Proper physiological functioning depends on a very tight balance between the concentrations of acids and bases in the blood. (
  • Acid-balance balance is measured using the pH scale, as shown in Figure 26.4.1 . (
  • Acid-base balance is linked to fluid and electrolyte balance, and is normally controlled and maintained by immediate buffer systems via the kidneys and the pulmonary system. (
  • Here we examine mechanisms for resisting these challenges and maintaining acid-base balance. (
  • Acid-Base and Electrolyte Handbook for Veterinary Technicians provides an easy to understand yet comprehensive approach to acid-base and electrolyte balance. (
  • Bringing together these two simple facts means integrating the biological and behavioral sciences in profoundly practical ways relevant to the lives of millions who have unwittingly learned breathing behaviors that compromise respiration and acid-base balance. (
  • Fluids and Electrolytes: A Thorough Guide covering Fluids, Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balance of the Human Body. (
  • Study Acid Base Balance And Fluid Electrolytes using smart web & mobile flashcards created by top students, teachers, and professors. (
  • Acid-base balance is maintained by pulmonary and renal excretion of carbon dioxide and nonvolatile acid, respectively. (
  • These molecules, which are either positive (cations) or negative (anions), conduct an electric current and help to balance pH and acid-base levels in the body. (
  • Acid-base balance is important for maintaining the narrow pH range that is required for various enzyme systems to function optimally in the body. (
  • Objectives Define normal ranges of electrolytes Compare/contrast intracellular, extracellular, and intravascular volumes Outline methods of determining fluid and acid/base balance Describe the clinical manifestations of various electrolyte imbalances. (
  • Disturbed acid-base balance directly affects cellular physiology, which often results in various pathological conditions. (
  • In addition we show that CA5 regulates acid-base balance during embryonic development, since lowering the pH can compensate for the loss of CA5 activity. (
  • Discuss the relationship between acid-base balance & potassium movement into the cell or into interstitial fluid. (
  • Acid-base imbalances affect electrolyte balance. (
  • - this is an abg and acid/base balance tutorial. (
  • Like we talked about in the last lesson, there are three main things we can gather from an arterial blood gas: acid-base balance, oxygenation status, and other issues. (
  • Fluids were administered in a protocolised manner to achieve euvolaemia based on echocardiography-derived left ventrical volumetric measures. (
  • Stewart's quantitative physical chemical approach enables us to understand the acid-base properties of intravenous fluids. (
  • Thus, fluids with vastly differing pH can have the same acid-base effects. (
  • Thus, Stewart's approach not only explains fluid induced acid-base phenomena but also provides a framework for the design of fluids for specific acid-base effects. (
  • What must be understood is that fluids with widely disparate pH values can have exactly the same systemic acid-base effects. (
  • Until recently, the challenge was to find a logical basis for predicting the acid-base properties of intravenous fluids. (
  • There are just three independent variables that, when imposed on the physical chemical milieu of body fluids, dictate their acid-base status. (
  • The single exception is the addition of weak base (e.g. tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane) [ 6 ], which is normally absent from body fluids. (
  • Fluids And Electrolytes 984165 PPT Presentation Summary : Any seriously ill patient is at risk for a fluid and electrolyte imbalance. (
  • Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance 329486 PPT Presentation Summary : Nursing management: assessment and prevention, dietary sodium and fluid intake, identify and monitor at-risk patients, effects of medications (diuretics, External sources of volume come from oral fluids, food and IV infusion. (
  • Define Key Terms associated with fluids, electrolytes and acid base balances. (
  • We will explore the physiology of body fluids, how to assess a fluid imbalance, administering and monitoring fluid therapy, and various types of fluids. (
  • Having a fundamental understanding of the physiology of body fluids is key in treating patients and understanding fluid calculations. (
  • Deficiency or excess in key minerals like calcium and phosphorous, electrolyte imbalances like sodium and potassium, dehydration and fluid retention can all have their genesis in the A range of factors can compromise the kidneys' ability to perform their vital work. (
  • Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. (
  • For essential fatty acids (EFA), such studies started eighty years ago [ 1 ] with identification of vitamin-like properties of linoleic acid (18:2 n -6) and linolenic acid (18:3 n -3). (
  • Competition between n -6 and n -3 forms of essential fatty acids (EFA). (
  • Glutamine is an amino acid that is metabolized in the tubule cells of the kidney. (
  • nucleotide sequences of DNA- 64 different combination, 61 that can make 20 amino acids for protein. (
  • 1)base pair substitution-can be silent if doesn't affect amino acid. (
  • A Guide to Amino Acid and Protein Nutrition. (
  • Now available for the first time in E-Book format, the world's leading PhD expert on Amino Acid nutrition shares this comprehensive look into exciting new field of Amino Acid Nutrition! (
  • Dietary Essential Amino Acids (EAAs) are the fundamental building blocks of life as we know it. (
  • In this groundbreaking new book Dr. Wolfe shares the secrets to losing weight, correcting metabolic imbalances and enhancing quality of life through amino acid nutrition. (
  • EAASE (Essential Amino Acid Solutions for Everyone) is a lifestyle program designed by Dr. Wolfe which combines simple nutrition and exercise strategies with regular use of dietary supplements of essential amino acids (EAAs) to lose weight, improve health and gain strength. (
  • The early chapters of the book contain a basic overview of the role of amino acids in the body. (
  • This information is followed by a discussion of the ways in which amino acids maintain the functions of skeletal muscle, brain and liver. (
  • Dr. Robert R Wolfe is widely respected the world's foremost authority on amino acid nutrition. (
  • Proteins are made up of amino acids, which contain positively charged amino groups and negatively charged carboxyl groups. (
  • Amino Acid-Based Metabolic Panel Provides Robust Prognostic Value Additive to B-Natriuretic Peptide and Traditional Risk Factors in Heart Failure. (
  • Metabolites applied for clinical diagnosis and prognosis included amino acids and a variety of lipids [1-5]. (
  • Amino acids are metabolites that are feasible to quantify by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) available worldwide. (
  • Targeting amino acids with relatively high plasma concentrations and measurable by UPLC offers a promising solution. (
  • They still contain the important amino acids, called essential, that are needed by the body to make proteins. (
  • These essential amino acids are obtained only from the diet. (
  • The other amino acids, which are produced by the liver, and not needed in the diet, and are called non-essential. (
  • The point of these foods is to decrease the total protein in the diet by restricting the amount on non-essential amino acids. (
  • By having less of these non-essential amino acids, the kidney have less work to do to deaminate the protein. (
  • Even though this page is thorough, the physiology of the kidneys is complicated, and only a summary of how the kidneys work is presented on this page. (
  • Pregnancy (OR 8.03), pneumonia (OR 8.91), dyspnea (OR 3.95), central nervous system (CNS) symptom (OR 1.55), higher APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score (OR 1.06), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (OR 1.002), and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (OR 1.001) were independent risk factors for death among adults without chronic medical conditions. (
  • Phosphates are found in the blood in two forms: sodium dihydrogen phosphate (Na 2 H 2 PO 4 − ), which is a weak acid, and sodium monohydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO4 2- ), which is a weak base. (
  • When Na 2 HPO4 2- comes into contact with a strong acid, such as HCl, the base picks up a second hydrogen ion to form the weak acid Na 2 H 2 PO 4 − and sodium chloride, NaCl. (
  • When Na 2 HPO4 2− (the weak acid) comes into contact with a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), the weak acid reverts back to the weak base and produces water. (
  • When the human body's pH begins to creep outside of normal ranges, it attempts to fix the imbalance in three different ways. (
  • A physiological buffer is a system-namely the respiratory or urinary system-that stabilizes pH by controlling the body's output of acids, bases, or CO2. (
  • This may cause an imbalance in your body's electrolytes. (
  • Another way to conceptualize this information is to simply think of CO2 as an acid and HCO3- as a base. (
  • Acid extrusion on Na(+)-coupled pH-regulatory proteins (pH-transporters), Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE1) and Na(+)-HCO3(-) co-transport (NBC), drives Na(+) influx into the ventricular myocyte. (
  • Aqueous buffer solutions will react with strong acids or strong bases by absorbing excess hydrogen H + ions, or hydroxide OH − ions, replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases . (
  • Most commonly, the substance that absorbs the ions is either a weak acid, which takes up hydroxyl ions, or a weak base, which takes up hydrogen ions. (
  • Acids and bases are still present, but they hold onto the ions. (
  • The traditional model by Siggaard-Andersen [ 1 ] (SA) is a behavioral model of full blood acid-base (i.e. including erythrocytes), but it is originally defined for standard albumin and phosphates only (though added later [ 2 ]) and, on its own, the model is unable to assess hemodilution and hemoconcentration (e.g. during fluid replacement), and the individual levels of ions are not considered. (
  • A strong acid such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) ionizes freely, gives up most of its hydrogen ions, and can markedly lower the pH of a solution. (
  • An acid is a substance that lowers pH in the blood by increasing the levels of hydrogen ions. (
  • A base is a substance that increases blood pH by removing hydrogen ions. (
  • A strong acid is going to be more detrimental to the body than a weak acid because it releases more hydrogen ions. (
  • Test Yourself' is an interactive multiple choice test for sample blood gases, with automatic assessment and evaluation of the overall acid-base scenario. (
  • Physiological approach to assessment of acid-base disturbances. (
  • This factor affects the assessment of their acid base status and in some cases their therapy. (
  • Scientific, evidence-based insights and advances integrate basic physiological principles into practice, covering patient evaluation, differential diagnosis, normal and abnormal clinical features and laboratory test results, approaches to therapy, technical aspects of therapy, patient monitoring, assessing risk, and prediction of outcomes for each disorder. (
  • The Acid-Base Tutorial is an innovative tool that students at all levels can use to build a better understanding of acid-base physiology and the clinical interpretation. (
  • The vitamin C is based upon Japanese research by Morishige and the folic acid is based upon Santi's clinical experience. (
  • So, to get energy, the body breaks down lipids into fatty acids which are converted to acetyl Co.A and then to ketones in the liver. (
  • The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n -3 and n -6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. (
  • Ash of Dedecyl solution" is the name of a fatty acid from coconut husk which is used to stabilize the foaming agent. (
  • Blood can become more alkaline from an increased ventilation rate , consuming antacids, or the loss of hydrochloric acid from the stomach during vomiting. (
  • Finally, the slowest compensatory mechanism is the renal system, which excretes excess acids or bases over the course of days. (
  • A buffer is a chemical system that prevents a radical change in fluid pH by dampening the change in hydrogen ion concentrations in the case of excess acid or base. (
  • The resulting model is capable of providing variations in arterial pCO2, base excess, strong ion difference, hematocrit, plasma protein, phosphates and hemodilution/hemoconcentration, but insensitive to DPG and CO concentrations. (
  • When I talk about other issues I'm referring to the information we can gather from lactic acid, base excess, and base deficit. (
  • The common ion effect for weak acids is to significantly decrease the dissociation of the acid in water. (
  • 2 Acid Base Problems in Diabetic Ketoacidosis preciable decrease in the effective arterial blood volume, and hence there is a higher value for the plasma anion gap. (
  • The major contribution to growth inhibition by acetate may originate in systemic effects like the uncoupling effect of organic acids or the perturbation of the anion composition of the cell, as previously proposed. (
  • Classical explanations invoke the uncoupling effect of acetate and the establishment of an anion imbalance. (
  • Chloride is the most abundant anion in plasma and interstitial fluid, accounting for approximately one third of plasma tonicity, and affects acid-base disorder in the light of physicochemical approach[ 4 ]. (
  • Using the example of osteoporosis, it was thought that acidic byproducts forced our body to leach alkaline minerals like calcium from our bones to correct this imbalance. (
  • These mechanisms are important in the elimination of fixed acids from the body. (
  • This book describes specific imbalances, their pathophysiologic mechanisms, and. (
  • There's two primary mechanisms you'll see with respiratory imbalances: breathing too fast (hyperventilation) and breathing too slow (hypoventilation). (
  • Consequently, a major focus of caries research has been on identifying and characterizing acid-generating bacteria and the mechanisms of acid resistance of cariogenic bacteria. (
  • Moreover, growth inhibition by acetate and other organic acids is an important problem in biotechnological fermentation processes, limiting their utilization as a substrate for biorefining applications ( 6 ) and reducing the production of recombinant proteins in aerobic high-cell-density cultures ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • Proteins can act as acids or bases depending on the pH of the environment. (
  • The most frequently reported nursing problems (>20% of the patients) were wounds, threatened or disrupted vital functions, dehydration or fluid imbalance, pain, secretion problems and fever. (
  • This revolutionary program is based on documented scientific principles of physiology and nutrition. (
  • The aim of this unit is to provide students with an understanding of the fundamental principles of exercise physiology. (
  • - the home page of an interactive acid-base tutorial for medical students by professor alan grogono at tulane university, but there are things in it that are useful for nursing students. (
  • It is intended that this review will assist those who teach this aspect of human physiology to first-year health profession students. (
  • Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. (
  • The pH of a buffer solution depends solely on the ratio of the molar concentrations of the weak acid to the weak base. (
  • It is important to recognize that this ratio is based on concentrations and not contents and to take into account changes in the volume of extracellular fluid when using this ratio to gauge the magnitude of the acid load. (
  • IMPORTANCE High concentrations of organic acids such as acetate inhibit growth of Escherichia coli and other bacteria. (
  • Derangements in blood pH result from increased intake, altered production or impaired/excessive excretion of acid or base. (
  • The presence of only one of the above derangements is called a simple acid-base disorder. (
  • Because the more we know about acid-base derangements the better we can treat patients in order to correct the derangements. (
  • They also can be due to efforts of the body to compensate for the primary acid-base disorder. (
  • So that means that as CO2 increases, H+ will increase, which means that there will be more acid in the body…which means that pH will decrease to become more acidic. (
  • The resulting full-blood acid-base model is designed to be a core part of a complex dynamic whole-body acid-base and gas transfer model. (
  • Many acids are generated through metabolic processes and need to be removed from the body to prevent the blood from becoming more acidic. (
  • An understanding of total body water volumes aids in fluid therapy: for example, knowing that fluid loss from young puppies takes a much higher percentile of their body weight, making fluid replacement vital, and, conversely, understanding that fluid administration to an obese patient may need to be based on their lean or ideal body weight rather than their actual weight. (
  • The second model, Stewart's physicochemical [ 3 ] model, or the so-called modern approach, is a structural model of plasma only, but it is essential for assessing hemodilution, ion and protein imbalances, which are common in critically ill patients. (
  • 3 ) salt in solution, is the most abundant buffer in the extracellular fluid, and it is also the buffer whose acid to base ratio can be changed very easily and rapidly. (
  • CO2 + H2O}}} Acid-base imbalances that overcome the buffer system can be compensated in the short term by changing the rate of ventilation. (
  • A buffer, broadly speaking, is any mechanism that resists changes in pH by converting a strong acid or base to a weak one. (
  • Of all buffer systems, the urinary system buffers the greatest quantity of acid or base, but it requires several hours to days to exert an effect. (
  • They function as mixtures called buffer systems composed of a weak acid and a weak base. (
  • The amount of acid or base that can be neutralized by a chemical buffer system depends on two factors: the concentration of the buffers and the pH of their working environment. (
  • What is Exercise Physiology? (
  • Karlman Wasserman was the forefather of exercise physiology. (
  • Foster describes literature on exercise physiology from Frank Booth. (
  • A focus of Fundamentals of Exercise Physiology is the practical application of physiological measurements and critical evaluation of data for physiological understanding. (
  • There is a persistent misconception among critical care personnel that the systemic acid-base properties of a fluid are dictated by its pH. (
  • This workshop aims to provide a structured approach to arterial blood gas (ABG) interpretation while also increasing your understanding of a potential etiology for an acid-base disorder. (