Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Allelic Imbalance: A situation where one member (allele) of a gene pair is lost (LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY) or amplified.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.GuanineCarbocysteine: A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.DNA, B-Form: The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.Alkalosis, Respiratory: A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)N-Acetylgalactosamine-4-Sulfatase: An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 3.1.6.12.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hypermedia: Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.UracilMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.ThymineGases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.PolynucleotidesWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Glycoside HydrolasesBuffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Meclofenoxate: An ester of DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL and para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Bromelia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Genes, Modifier: GENES with ALLELES that affect the PHENOTYPE associated with a nonallelic gene.Lewis Bases: Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Antazoline: An antagonist of histamine H1 receptors.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Abnormalities, MultipleLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases: A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.DNA Copy Number Variations: Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
(1/110) Genetic heterogeneity in propionic acidemia patients with alpha-subunit defects. Identification of five novel mutations, one of them causing instability of the protein.

The inherited metabolic disease propionic acidemia (PA) can result from mutations in either of the genes PCCA or PCCB, which encode the alpha and beta subunits, respectively, of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl CoA-carboxylase. In this work we have analyzed the molecular basis of PCCA gene defects, studying mRNA levels and identifying putative disease causing mutations. A total of 10 different mutations, none predominant, are present in a sample of 24 mutant alleles studied. Five novel mutations are reported here for the first time. A neutral polymorphism and a variant allele present in the general population were also detected. To examine the effect of a point mutation (M348K) involving a highly conserved residue, we have carried out in vitro expression of normal and mutant PCCA cDNA and analyzed the mitochondrial import and stability of the resulting proteins. Both wild-type and mutant proteins were imported into mitochondria and processed into the mature form with similar efficiency, but the mature mutant M348K protein decayed more rapidly than did the wild-type, indicating a reduced stability, which is probably the disease-causing mechanism.  (+info)

(2/110) Effects of respiratory and metabolic pH changes and hypoxia on ropivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity in dogs.

We have studied the effects of acute changes in acid-base status and hypoxia on the cardiotoxic effects of intracoronary injection of ropivacaine in anaesthetized dogs. The effects of intracoronary ropivacaine were compared when ropivacaine was administered during eucapnia and during each of another nine states in random order: hypocapnia, hypercapnia, hypoxia, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, combined metabolic acidosis and hypocapnia, combined metabolic alkalosis and hypercapnia, combined hypoxia and hypercapnia, and combined metabolic acidosis and hypoxia. Hypocapnic alkalosis consistently reduced the cardiotoxic effects of intracoronary ropivacaine (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that induction of hypocapnic alkalosis may provide a useful adjunct to standard resuscitative measure after inadvertent administration of amide local anaesthetic agents.  (+info)

(3/110) Risk factors for peripartum and postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study goal was to identify potential risk factors for peripartum or postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis. METHODS: Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project were analyzed for the years 1993 and 1994. Observed values were weighted with poststratification discharge weights to project to the universe of all discharges from community hospitals located in the United States. Nationally representative estimates of risk were calculated on the basis of age, race, mode of delivery, income, third-party payer, hospital size, hospital ownership, hospital location (rural versus urban), hospital teaching status, census region, and presence of specific complications. Multivariate models were developed with the use of logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 1 408 015 sampled deliveries, there were 183 observed cases of peripartum stroke and 170 cases of peripartum intracranial venous thrombosis in 17 states in the United States in 1993 and 1994. There were an estimated 975 cases of stroke and 864 cases of intracranial venous thrombosis during pregnancy and the puerperium in the United States among 7 463 712 deliveries during 1993 and 1994, for estimated risks of 13.1 cases of peripartum stroke and 11.6 cases of peripartum intracranial venous thrombosis per 100 000 deliveries. Multivariate analysis showed that the following were strongly and significantly associated with both peripartum and postpartum stroke: cesarean delivery; fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders; and hypertension. Covariates that were strongly and significantly associated with both peripartum and postpartum intracranial venous thrombosis included cesarean delivery, hypertension, and infections other than pneumonia and influenza. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy-related hypertension and cesarean delivery are important risk factors for both stroke or intracranial venous thrombosis.  (+info)

(4/110) Maintaining acid-base balance in organ donors.

An abnormal blood pH may cause the loss of donor organs through harmful physiological consequences. The organ procurement coordinator must correctly analyze the acid-base abnormality and treat its cause while normalizing the blood pH. We recommend that treatment of acidemia or alkalemia be first directed toward changing parameters on the mechanical ventilator, using the Paco2 to modify blood pH. Thereafter, hydrochloric acid or sodium bicarbonate may be administered to correct the calculated metabolic acid-base deficit. The types of acidosis or alkalosis, dead space effect during mechanical ventilation, base excess, base deficit, and the appropriate evaluation of blood lactate are also discussed as related to the correction of the acid-base status throughout donor care.  (+info)

(5/110) Acid-base imbalance adapts without changes in cell polarity in cortical collecting ducts in premature rabbits.

It has been demonstrated that intercalated cells (ICs) change their cellular composition in acid stimuli in adult rabbits but not fully explained in developing rabbits. To clarify the mechanisms of adaptation in acid-base imbalance in collecting ducts in developing rabbit kidneys, we examined the cellular composition of cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) in 4-week-old rabbits. In the control group, the ratio of ICs to total CCD cells and that of peanut agglutinin (PNA) non-binding ICs to total ICs were 37.2 +/- 7.2% and 40.3 +/- 3.1%, respectively. By contrast, inconsistent with adult reports, in the acidotic group, these ratios were 38.4 +/- 5.1% and 41.9 +/- 1.7%, respectively, similar to the control group. The urinary pH in the control group was 8.20 +/- 0.14, while that in acidemia was 4.98 +/- 0.33 (p < 0.01). These data indicated that cellular remodeling of ICs in the acidotic state is less important for adaptation in the 4-week-old rabbit. Another mechanism, employing an acid-base related protein, might be playing an important role during development for acid base imbalance.  (+info)

(6/110) Venous pH can safely replace arterial pH in the initial evaluation of patients in the emergency department.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the extent of correlation of arterial and venous pH with a view to identifying whether venous samples can be used as an alternative to arterial values in the clinical management of selected patients in the emergency department. METHODS: This prospective study of patients who were deemed by their treating doctor to require an arterial blood gas analysis to determine their ventilatory or acid-base status, compared pH on an arterial and a venous sample taken as close to simultaneously as possible. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation and bias (Bland-Altman) methods. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty six patients were entered into the study; 196 with acute respiratory disease and 50 with suspected metabolic derangement. The values of pH on arterial and venous samples were highly correlated (r=0.92) with an average difference between the samples of -0.4 units. There was also a high level of agreement between the methods with the 95% limits of agreement being -0.11 to +0.04 units. CONCLUSION: Venous pH estimation shows a high degree of correlation and agreement with the arterial value, with acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement. Venous pH estimation is an acceptable substitute for arterial measurement and may reduce risks of complications both for patients and health care workers.  (+info)

(7/110) Rat proximal NHE3 adapts to chronic acid-base disorders but not to chronic changes in dietary NaCl intake.

In the proximal tubule, the apical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger identified as NHE3 mediates most NaCl and NaHCO(3) absorption. The purpose of this study was to analyze the long-term regulation of NHE3 during alkalosis induced by dietary NaHCO(3) loading and changes in NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a low-NaCl, high-NaCl, or NaHCO(3) diet for 6 days were studied. Renal cortical apical membrane vesicles (AMV) were prepared from treated and normal rats. Na(+)/H(+) exchange was assayed as the initial rate of (22)Na(+) uptake in the presence of an outward H(+) gradient. (22)Na(+) uptake measured in the presence of high-dose 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride was not different among models. Changes in NaCl intake did not affect NHE3 activity, whereas NaHCO(3) loading inhibited (22)Na(+) uptake by 30%. AMV NHE3 protein abundance assessed by Western blot analysis was unaffected during changes in NaCl intake. During NaHCO(3) loading, NHE3 protein abundance was decreased by 65%. We conclude that proximal NHE3 adapts to chronic metabolic acid-base disorders but not to changes in dietary NaCl intake.  (+info)

(8/110) Cerebrospinal fluid and arterial lactate, pyruvate and acid-base balance in patients with intracranial hemorrhages.

Lactate and pyruvate concentrations and acid-base balance in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and arterial blood were determined in patients with intracranial hemorrhages (28 subarachnoid hemorrhages and 15 intracerebral hemorrhages). A greater increase in CSF lactate and lactate-pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) was observed in patients with impairment of consciousness, focal neurological deficits, poor prognosis, or CSF pressures higher than 300 mm H2O. A combination of CSF lactate greater than 2.5 mM per liter, L/P ration above 20, bicarbonate less than 20.4 mEq per liter, pH below 7.276, or arterial PCO2 below 31.5 mm Hg seems to indicate poor prognosis from intracranial hemorrhage. The mechanism of hyperventilation in acute cerebrovascular diseases and of CSF pH regulation in acid-base disturbances was also discussed.  (+info)

*  Acid-base imbalance
... is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to ... at acid-base.com Online acid-base physiology text Diagnoses at lakesidepress.com Interpretation at nda.ox.ac.uk Acid Base ... "Mixed Acid Base Disorders: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center". Archived from the original on 26 April ... Acid-base imbalances that overcome the buffer system can be compensated in the short term by changing the rate of ventilation. ...
*  Laxative
Metabolic alkalosis is the most common acid-base imbalance observed. Other significant adverse effects include rhabdomyolysis, ... laxative abuse can lead to potentially fatal acid-base and electrolyte imbalances. For example, severe hypokalaemia has been ... "Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities with diarrhea". www.uptodate.com. Retrieved 2017-12-12. Joo JS, Ehrenpreis ED, Gonzalez ... Castor oil is a glyceride that is hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase to ricinoleic acid, which produces laxative action by an ...
*  Alkalosis
Acidosis Acid-base imbalance Acid-base homeostasis Milk-alkali syndrome Arterial blood gas Chemical equilibrium pCO2 pH pKa ... "Neurologic presentations of acid-base imbalance, electrolyte abnormalities, and endocrine emergencies". Neurol Clin. 28 (1): 1- ... Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid in the stomach contents. ... Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ...
*  Respiratory acidosis
"Neurologic presentations of acid-base imbalance, electrolyte abnormalities, and endocrine emergencies". Neurol Clin. 28 (1): 1- ... A significant alteration in ventilation that affects elimination of CO2 can cause a respiratory acid-base disorder. The PaCO2 ... Metabolism rapidly generates a large quantity of volatile acid (H2CO3) and nonvolatile acid. The metabolism of fats and ... The CO2 combines with H2O to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). The lungs normally excrete the volatile fraction through ventilation, ...
*  Comprehensive metabolic panel
... acid-base imbalance, or kidney dysfunction. Sodium Potassium Chloride Carbon dioxide (CO2) Tests of protein levels in the blood ... The tests are performed on machines based on the AutoAnalyzer invented in 1957. Typically, the patient fasts for ten or twelve ...
*  Ragnar Berg
... to acid-base imbalance, including obesity, arthritis, and diabetes. Because the body produces more acids than bases, concluded ... Berg and Röse developed a theory of acid-base balance in the body that is affected by diet. They relied on the work of Ernst ... He is best known for promoting the importance of acid-base balance and inorganic minerals like calcium in the diet; later in ... If the acids remained in the body, they would accumulate in areas of low blood flow (like joints), thereby obstructing normal ...
*  Bicarbonate buffer system
Failure of this system to function properly results in acid-base imbalance, such as acidemia (pH. 7.45) in the blood. In tissue ... The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate ... base 10) of the acid dissociation constant of carbonic acid. It is equal to 6.1. [HCO− 3] is the concentration of bicarbonate ... and its conjugate base (for example, HCO− 3) so that any excess acid or base introduced to the system is neutralized. ...
*  Triamterene
... avoid electrolyte and acid/base imbalances that might lead to hepatic encephalopathy. Kidney stones: Use with caution in ... Common side effects may include a depletion of sodium, folic acid and calcium, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness ... such as folic acid and riboflavin. The observation that the naturally occurring compound xanthopterin had renal affects led ... which had hired private investigators based on its beliefs that competitors were getting unfair advantages in getting their ...
*  Metabolic disorder
The principal classes of metabolic disorders are: Acid-base imbalance Metabolic brain diseases Calcium metabolism disorders DNA ...
*  Chronic liver disease
Acid-base imbalance, most commonly respiratory alkalosis Dupuytren's contracture (alcohol) Parotid enlargement (alcohol) ... Specific conditions may be treated with medications including corticosteroids, interferon, antivirals, bile acids or other ...
*  Neonatal isoerythrolysis
Foals are supported with fluids, which are used to maintain hydration, correct electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, and help ...
*  Acid-base homeostasis
An acid-base imbalance is known as acidaemia when the acidity is high, or alkalaemia when the acidity is low. The pH of the ... at acid-base.com Online acid-base physiology text Diagnoses at lakesidepress.com Interpretation at nda.ox.ac.uk Acids and Bases ... replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases. This has the effect of damping the effect of pH changes, ... Acid-base imbalance occurs when a significant insult causes the blood pH to shift out of the normal range (7.32 to 7.42). An ...
*  Hyperchloremia
A doctor would request this test it there are signs their patient is experiencing an imbalance in acid-base levels for a ... As with most types of electrolyte imbalance, the treatment of high blood chloride levels is based on correcting the underlying ... If the electrolyte imbalance is due to influx of sodium chloride in the body, then it has been suggested to make dietary ... In the 1st phase, organic solutes (such as phosphates, amino acids, glucose and anions), sodium ions, and hydronium ions are ...
*  Albert Baird Hastings
He continued to study electrolyte imbalances and the physiological mechanisms of acid-base homeostasis. In 1930, he served as a ... His research focused on the biochemical underpinnings of physiology and included characterizing acid-base homeostasis in blood ...
*  Red king crab
... and eventually die after longer exposure times because of the imbalance of the organisms' acid base equilibrium. The red king ... The carapace is a covering that consists of sheets of exoskeleton that overhang the thorax vertically to fit over the base of ... an opening in the carapace near the base of the chelipeds, dorsally over the gills, and anteriorly to exit beside the head. Due ...
*  Sessile drop technique
... particularly in cases where there is a great imbalance between the acid and base components of the polar surface energy. The ... The van Oss theory is most suitable for cases in which acid/base interaction is an important consideration. Examples include ... There are however some liquids that are generally agreed to have known dispersive/acid/base components to their surface ... acid/base interactions, etc. It is often useful for the sessile drop technique to use liquids that are known to be incapable of ...
*  Acid dissociation constant
... and is key to understanding disorders such as acid-base imbalance. The isoelectric point of a given molecule is a function of ... This is because acetic acid is a much weaker base than water. HCl + CH3CO2H ⇌ Cl− + CH 3C(OH)+ 2 acid + base ⇌ conjugate base ... a well known base, is here acting as the conjugate base of the acid water. Acids and bases are thus regarded simply as donors ... base ⇌ conjugate base + conjugate acid. The acid loses a proton, leaving a conjugate base; the proton is transferred to the ...
*  Electrolyte imbalance
... acid-base balance and much more. Electrolyte imbalances can develop by the following mechanisms: excessive ingestion; ... Other electrolyte imbalances are less common, and often occur in conjunction with major electrolyte changes. Chronic laxative ... People suffering from bulimia or anorexia nervosa are at especially high risk for an electrolyte imbalance. Electrolytes are ...
*  Positive end-expiratory pressure
Renal functions and electrolyte imbalances, due to decreased venous return metabolism of certain drugs are altered and acid- ... base balance is impeded. John Scott Inkster an English anaesthetist and physician is credited with discovering PEEP. When his ...
*  Congenital tufting enteropathy
Enteral feeding with a protein hydrolysate or amino acid based formulas worsen the diarrhoea and the children rapidly fail to ... This leads rapidly to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance and metabolic decompensation. ...
*  Orthomolecular medicine
... "imbalances or deficiencies based on individual biochemistry" by use of substances such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, ... amino acids, ω-3 fatty acids, ω-6 fatty acids, medium-chain triglycerides, dietary fiber, short and long chain fatty acids, ... It has been described as food faddism and quackery, with critics arguing that it is based upon an "exaggerated belief in the ... Ohno, S; Ohno, Y; Suzuki, N; Soma, G; Inoue, M (2009). "High-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy in the treatment of ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G13)
... amino acid MeSH G13.810.550 --- sequence homology, nucleic acid MeSH G13.810.550.830 --- synteny MeSH G13.920.036 --- antibody ... allelic imbalance MeSH G13.920.590.029.530 --- loss of heterozygosity MeSH G13.920.590.029.530.175 --- chromosome deletion MeSH ... G13.920.590.060 --- base pair mismatch MeSH G13.920.590.120 --- codon, nonsense MeSH G13.920.590.175 --- chromosome aberrations ...
*  ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
Mixed disorder of acid-base balance (E87.5) Hyperkalaemia (E87.6) Hypokalaemia (E87.7) Fluid overload (E87.8) Other disorders ... of electrolyte and fluid balance, not elsewhere classified Electrolyte imbalance NOS Hyperchloraemia Hypochloraemia (E88) Other ... Disorder of aromatic amino-acid metabolism, unspecified (E71) Disorders of branched-chain amino-acid metabolism and fatty-acid ... electrolyte and acid-base balance (E87.0) Hyperosmolality and hypernatraemia (E87.1) Hypo-osmolality and hyponatraemia (E87.2) ...
*  Magnesium aspartate
Based on US data, estimates of the mean exposure to aspartic acid arising from the diet are 4.1 g/day (children 1-3 year old) ... Taken individually these levels of exposure are lower than those reported to induce amino acid imbalance in intervention trials ... considers that the use of L-amino acids in food supplements should not give rise to a nutritional imbalance of the amino acids ... These values are all below those reported to induce amino acid imbalance in intervention trials (6.3 g aspartate/day) and they ...
*  Proteobiotics
... lowering bacterial imbalance and improving gut function, however, any of the statements based on research have not been ... "Lactic Acid Bacteria and Culture Media for the Production of Potential Antivirulence Peptides against Salmonella Typhimurium." ... Unlike other molecules produced by probiotic bacteria, such as organic acids and bacteriocins, proteobiotics are natural ...
*  Senescence
Sugars such as glucose and fructose can react with certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine and certain DNA bases such ... In general, aging is characterized by the declining ability to respond to stress, increased homeostatic imbalance, and ... One of the earliest aging theories was the Rate of Living Hypothesis described by Raymond Pearl in 1928 (based on earlier work ... Discovery of senolytic drugs was based on a hypothesis-driven approach: the investigators leveraged the observation that ...
Acid-base imbalance, Abnormal blood pH  Acid-base imbalance, Abnormal blood pH
... and strong acids and bases (including both organic and inorganic acids). Acid-base disorders can be recognized by any of the ... Acid-base homeostasis is defined by the pH of blood plasma and by the conditions of the acid-base pairs that determine it. ... Respiratory acid-base disorders are disorders of carbon dioxide (CO2) tension, and metabolic acid-base disorders comprise all ... Metabolic acid-base derangements are associated with a greater number of underlying conditions than are respiratory acid-base ...
more infohttp://www.pulmonologyadvisor.com/critical-care-medicine/acid-base-imbalance-abnormal-blood-ph/article/657271/
Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders. - Semantic Scholar  Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders. - Semantic Scholar
Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders.' by A. Rizzo et al. ... Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders.. *. A. Rizzo, Giuseppe ... article{Rizzo1981BloodAE, title={Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Blood-and-erythrocyte-hydrogen-ion-concentrations-Rizzo-Bonsignore/527201a8a452af96e8eda1a4fea1164c86b90451
Arterial Blood Gas Essay Example for Free  Arterial Blood Gas Essay Example for Free
In both cases, the pH was outside of the normal range, the primary source of the acid-base imbalance was readily identified, ... When a patient develops an acid-base imbalance, the body attempts to compensate. Remember that the lungs and the kidneys are ... Now see what happens when an acid-base imbalance exists over a period of time. ... Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Introduction to Body Fluids *Affects of Physical Activity on the Heart Rate And ...
more infohttps://studymoose.com/arterial-blood-gas-2-essay
Respiratory Alkalosis | Pathway Medicine  Respiratory Alkalosis | Pathway Medicine
As described in Renal Response to Acid-Base Imbalance, the kidneys respond to alkalosis by excreting bicarbonate, thus reducing ... of gaseous CO2 which represents the weak acid form of the bicarbonate buffer. The deficiency of acid results in an increase in ...
more infohttp://pathwaymedicine.org/Respiratory-Alkalosis
Acid-base management: metabolic alkalosis synonyms, acid-base management: metabolic alkalosis antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com  Acid-base management: metabolic alkalosis synonyms, acid-base management: metabolic alkalosis antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Antonyms for acid-base management: metabolic alkalosis. 38 synonyms for management: administration, control, rule, government, ... running, charge, care, operation, handling, direction, conduct, command, guidance.... What are synonyms for acid-base ... Synonyms for acid-base management: metabolic alkalosis in Free Thesaurus. ... Acid-base homeostasis. *Acid-base homeostasis. *Acid-base homeostasis. *Acid-Base Imbalances: Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/acid-base+management%3A+metabolic+alkalosis
Symptoms of Acid-Base Imbalance - RightDiagnosis.com  Symptoms of Acid-Base Imbalance - RightDiagnosis.com
... and correct diagnosis for Acid-Base Imbalance signs or Acid-Base Imbalance symptoms. ... Symptoms of Acid-Base Imbalance including 83 medical symptoms and signs of Acid-Base Imbalance, alternative diagnoses, ... Research More About Acid-Base Imbalance. Do I have Acid-Base Imbalance? *Acid-Base Imbalance: Introduction *Acid-Base Imbalance ... Treatments for Acid-Base Imbalance *More about Acid-Base Imbalance Acid-Base Imbalance: Medical Mistakes. *GERD -- Health ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/a/acid_base_imbalance/symptoms.htm
Acid-base imbalance - Wikipedia  Acid-base imbalance - Wikipedia
Acid-base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to ... at acid-base.com Online acid-base physiology text Diagnoses at lakesidepress.com Interpretation at nda.ox.ac.uk Acid Base ... "Mixed Acid Base Disorders: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center". Archived from the original on 26 April ... Acid-base imbalances that overcome the buffer system can be compensated in the short term by changing the rate of ventilation. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid%E2%80%93base_imbalance
Acid-base imbalance, Abnormal blood pH - The Clinical Advisor  Acid-base imbalance, Abnormal blood pH - The Clinical Advisor
... and strong acids and bases (including both organic and inorganic acids). Acid-base disorders can be recognized by any of the ... Acid-base homeostasis is defined by the pH of blood plasma and by the conditions of the acid-base pairs that determine it. ... Respiratory acid-base disorders are disorders of carbon dioxide (CO2) tension, and metabolic acid-base disorders comprise all ... Metabolic acid-base derangements are associated with a greater number of underlying conditions than are respiratory acid-base ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaladvisor.com/critical-care-medicine/acid-base-imbalance-abnormal-blood-ph/article/585899/
The role of acid-base imbalance in statin-induced myotoxicity  - Nottingham ePrints  The role of acid-base imbalance in statin-induced myotoxicity - Nottingham ePrints
These patients are at risk of developing acid-base imbalance. In the present study, the effect of disturbances in acid-base ... Consequently, our results suggest that co-morbidities associated with acid-base imbalance can play a substantial role in the ... The role of acid-base imbalance in statin-induced myotoxicity. Translational Research, The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical ... Disturbances in acid-base balance, such as acidosis and alkalosis, have potential to alter the pharmacological and ...
more infohttp://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/32864/
Respiratory Acid-Base Imbalances ⋆ Your Nursing Tutor  Respiratory Acid-Base Imbalances ⋆ Your Nursing Tutor
Respiratory Acid-Base Imbalances. July 11, 2012. by Nicole Whitworth 5 Comments ... Have you ever felt confused or even intimidated by Acid-Base Imbalances? If so, you're not alone…the topic of Fluids and ... And being able to understand Acid-Base Imbalances are a big part of that. Let's jump into how we can better understand ... Nicole Acid and Base Imbalances fall into two primary category types: Respiratory and Metabolic. Understanding the underlying ...
more infohttps://www.yournursingtutor.com/respiratory-acid-base-imbalances/
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances -  ppt video online download  Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances - ppt video online download
Acid-Base Imbalances Fig Kinds of acid-base imbalances. A, Respiratory imbalances caused by carbonic acid (CA) excess and ... Acid-Base Imbalances Acid-Base Regulation Buffer system Respiratory system Renal system Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., ... Acid-Base Imbalances Table Terminology Related to Acid-Base Physiology. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of ... Acid-Base Imbalances Alterations in Acid-Base Balance Respiratory acidosis Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate ...
more infohttp://slideplayer.com/slide/2446280/
Acid-base imbalance | Open Access articles | Open Access journals | Conference Proceedings | Editors | Authors | Reviewers |...  Acid-base imbalance | Open Access articles | Open Access journals | Conference Proceedings | Editors | Authors | Reviewers |...
Acid-base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to ... This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article Acid-base imbalance; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution- ... "Mixed Acid Base Disorders: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center". Archived from the original on 26 April ... Acid-base imbalance. 50x40px. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by ...
more infohttp://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Acid%E2%80%93base_imbalance
ACID - BASE IMBALANCES - What you need to know? - Nurses Circle  ACID - BASE IMBALANCES - What you need to know? - Nurses Circle
ACID - BASE IMBALANCES - What you need to know?. August 31, 2013. admin Study Corner ... Excessive loss of Acid or Excessive gain of Bicarbonate. - Causes - vomiting, gastric suction, increased alkali intake. - Signs ... Excessive absorption or retention fo acid or excessive excretion of HCO3. - causes - Ketoacidosis, Lactic acidosis, Prolonged ...
more infohttp://nursescircle.com/acid-base-imbalances-what-you-need-to-know/
Medical-Surgical Nursing  Medical-Surgical Nursing
Chapter 28: Acid-Base Imbalance. *Discuss the role of acid-base balance in the body. ... Formulate a nursing care plan for a patient with an acid-base imbalance. ... Formulate a plan of care based of the nursing diagnoses.. Chapter 4: Chest Trauma. *Identify the pathophysiology of two types ... Formulate a plan of care based on the nursing diagnoses.. Chapter 6: Pneumonia. *Differentiate among the causes and signs and ...
more infohttp://www.homesteadschools.com/BENHA/Descriptions/Medical.htm
Caries Prevention by Arginine Metabolism in Oral Biofilms: Translating Science into Clinical Success | Springer for Research &...  Caries Prevention by Arginine Metabolism in Oral Biofilms: Translating Science into Clinical Success | Springer for Research &...
The Acid-Base Imbalance In Caries Development. Markedly less is known about the production of alkali than is known about sugar ... Oxygen metabolism, oxidative stress and acid-base physiology of dental plaque biofilms. J Ind Microbiol. 1995;15:198-207.PubMed ... Kleinberg foretold [44] that plaque pH would be determined by the acid-base metabolism of plaque organisms, which in turn could ... Wijeyeweera RL, Kleinberg I. Acid-base pH curves in vitro with mixtures of pure cultures of human oral microorganisms. Arch ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40496-013-0007-2
exam 8 L. 9: DKA Flashcards by N-dog W-dog | Brainscape  exam 8 L. 9: DKA Flashcards by N-dog W-dog | Brainscape
4) correct acid-base imbalance. 5) reduced blood glucose concentration. 6) eliminate ketones. 7) address underlying diseases. ... insulin recommendations based on blood glucose curve alone differed in 50% of cases!!. 2) effect of stress hyperglycemia. 3) ... Canine and porcine insulin have identical amino acid sequences!. Also, it is uncommon for antibody to develop versus insulin ... 1) ketone bodies derived from fatty acid oxidation. 2) in states of cellular glucose deficiency, ketone bodies can be used as ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/exam-8-l-9-dka-5606765/packs/8247505
Two resistors, A and B, are connected in a series | bartleby  Two resistors, A and B, are connected in a series | bartleby
Hyperventilation is a symptom of what type of acid-base imbalance in the body?. Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and ... The common ion effect for weak acids is to significantly decrease the dissociation of the acid in water. Explai.... Chemistry ... How many esters exist that are isomeric with 2-methylbutanoic acid?. Organic And Biological Chemistry ...
more infohttps://www.bartleby.com/solution-answer/chapter-176-problem-179qq-college-physics-11th-edition/9781305952300/two-resistors-a-and-b-are-connected-in-a-series-circuit-with-a-battery-the-resistance-of-a-is/42b6ec05-98d5-11e8-ada4-0ee91056875a
Does Omeprazole Decrease Intestinal Calcium Absorption? - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Does Omeprazole Decrease Intestinal Calcium Absorption? - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Acid-Base Imbalance. Calcium, Dietary. Omeprazole. Bone Density Conservation Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Ulcer ... Intestinal conditions associated with malabsorption or low gastric acid levels including Crohn's Disease, ulcerative colitis, ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00582972
Alkali Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Alkali Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Acid-Base Imbalance. Metabolic Diseases. To Top. *For Patients and Families. *For Researchers ... Individuals with kidney disease develop a build-up of acid in their blood. This acid can affect their muscles, bones, glucose ... The investigators will test alkali treatment, to treat acid build-up, in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01452412
  • Canine and porcine insulin have identical amino acid sequences! (brainscape.com)
  • Frequent laboratory and clinical monitoring is strongly recommended, especially in very young patients, to avoid clinically significant elevations of serum ammonia and plasma amino acid levels. (drugs.com)
  • consider amino acid formulations developed specifically for infants and children. (drugs.com)
  • Amino acid injection does not replace dialysis and conventional supportive therapy in patients with renal failure. (drugs.com)
  • May result in plasma amino acid imbalances, hyperammonemia, or CNS deterioration. (drugs.com)
  • At physiological and alkaline pH, substantial proportions of simvastatin lactone (~ 87% and 99%, respectively) and pravastatin lactone (~ 98% and 99%, respectively) were converted to the active hydroxy acid forms after 24 hours of incubation at 37 °C. At acidic pH, conversion occurs to a lower extent, resulting in greater proportion of statin remaining in the more lipophilic lactone form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Enhanced cytotoxicity of statins was observed under acidic conditions and is attributed to increased cellular uptake of the more lipophilic lactone or unionized hydroxy acid form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • So that means that as CO2 increases, H+ will increase, which means that there will be more acid in the body…which means that pH will decrease to become more acidic. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • The Bicarb and H+ neutralize each other, but there's still extra Carbonic Acid which makes the body's pH turn acidic. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) group published the RIFLE classification of ARF, based on changes from the patient's baseline either in serum creatinine level, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or urine output (UO). (medscape.com)
  • In the present study, the effect of disturbances in acid-base balance on the inter-conversion of simvastatin and pravastatin between lactone and hydroxy acid forms have been investigated in physiological buffers, human plasma and cell culture medium over pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.8. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Despite it is a common disorder and with high mortality, the patterns of the acid-base disturbances in dogs with DKA were not evaluated objectively. (usp.br)
  • The objective of the present study was to describe the acid-base and electrolytic disturbances in dogs with DKA and diabetic ketosis (DK) according to their frequency, adequacy of the compensatory mechanisms e occurrence of mixed disturbances. (usp.br)
  • A caries lesion occurs when acids produced by bacterial glycolysis of dietary carbohydrates cause demineralization of the tooth enamel. (springer.com)
  • Properties Site of action: colon Onset of Action: 12-72 hours (oral) 0.25 - 1 hour (rectal) Examples: glycerin suppositories (Hallens), sorbitol, lactulose, and PEG (Colyte, MiraLax) Lactulose works by the osmotic effect, which retains water in the colon, lowering the pH through bacterial fermentation to lactic, formic and acetic acid, and increasing colonic peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the way, here's a less simplified explanation of what I wrote above for those of you that want more info: When there's too much CO2 in the body, the body tries to get rid of it by combining with H2O to become Carbonic Acid (H2CO3). (yournursingtutor.com)
  • This First-in-Human (FIH) Phase 1/2 study will evaluate mRNA-3704 in patients with methylmalonic acidemia/aciduria (MMA) due to methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase (MUT) deficiency between 1 to 18 years of age with elevated plasma methylmalonic acid. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In oral biofilms, arginine metabolism via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) produces ammonia, which inhibits tooth demineralization by neutralizing glycolytic acids and by suppressing the emergence of a cariogenic microflora. (springer.com)
  • 4 ] have suggested that alkali production in the form of ammonia inhibits tooth demineralization by neutralizing glycolytic acids and by creating an environment in oral biofilms more favorable to the persistence of an alkalinogenic microflora that is compatible with dental health. (springer.com)
  • Consequently, a major focus of caries research has been on identifying and characterizing acid-generating bacteria and the mechanisms of acid resistance of cariogenic bacteria. (springer.com)
  • This acid can affect their muscles, bones, glucose metabolism and kidneys. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigators will test alkali treatment, to treat acid build-up, in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate effects on muscles, bones, glucose metabolism and kidney. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This yields the following four basic processes: The presence of only one of the above derangements is called a simple acid-base disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also can be due to efforts of the body to compensate for the primary acid-base disorder. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Since baseline serum creatinine level and GFRs may not be readily available, the consensus committee recommended the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation to estimate the patient's GFR/1.73 mm based on serum creatinine level, age, gender, and race. (medscape.com)
  • H C O 3 − + H + ↔ H 2 C O 3 ↔ C O 2 + H 2 O {\displaystyle {\rm {HCO_{3}^{-}+H^{+}\leftrightarrow H_{2}CO_{3}\leftrightarrow CO_{2}+H_{2}O}}} Acid-base imbalances that overcome the buffer system can be compensated in the short term by changing the rate of ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common ion effect for weak acids is to significantly decrease the dissociation of the acid in water. (bartleby.com)
  • I use an easy, over-simplified way to help me remember how the lungs can effect the acid-base balance in the body. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • Continuous acidification of oral biofilms results in increases in the proportions of acid-producing and acid-tolerant organisms, a selective process that alters dental plaque pH homeostasis and shifts the demineralization-remineralization balance toward loss of tooth minerals. (springer.com)