The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A situation where one member (allele) of a gene pair is lost (LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY) or amplified.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Dedication or commitment shown by employees to organizations or institutions where they work.
Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.

Genetic heterogeneity in propionic acidemia patients with alpha-subunit defects. Identification of five novel mutations, one of them causing instability of the protein. (1/110)

The inherited metabolic disease propionic acidemia (PA) can result from mutations in either of the genes PCCA or PCCB, which encode the alpha and beta subunits, respectively, of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl CoA-carboxylase. In this work we have analyzed the molecular basis of PCCA gene defects, studying mRNA levels and identifying putative disease causing mutations. A total of 10 different mutations, none predominant, are present in a sample of 24 mutant alleles studied. Five novel mutations are reported here for the first time. A neutral polymorphism and a variant allele present in the general population were also detected. To examine the effect of a point mutation (M348K) involving a highly conserved residue, we have carried out in vitro expression of normal and mutant PCCA cDNA and analyzed the mitochondrial import and stability of the resulting proteins. Both wild-type and mutant proteins were imported into mitochondria and processed into the mature form with similar efficiency, but the mature mutant M348K protein decayed more rapidly than did the wild-type, indicating a reduced stability, which is probably the disease-causing mechanism.  (+info)

Effects of respiratory and metabolic pH changes and hypoxia on ropivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity in dogs. (2/110)

We have studied the effects of acute changes in acid-base status and hypoxia on the cardiotoxic effects of intracoronary injection of ropivacaine in anaesthetized dogs. The effects of intracoronary ropivacaine were compared when ropivacaine was administered during eucapnia and during each of another nine states in random order: hypocapnia, hypercapnia, hypoxia, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, combined metabolic acidosis and hypocapnia, combined metabolic alkalosis and hypercapnia, combined hypoxia and hypercapnia, and combined metabolic acidosis and hypoxia. Hypocapnic alkalosis consistently reduced the cardiotoxic effects of intracoronary ropivacaine (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that induction of hypocapnic alkalosis may provide a useful adjunct to standard resuscitative measure after inadvertent administration of amide local anaesthetic agents.  (+info)

Risk factors for peripartum and postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis. (3/110)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study goal was to identify potential risk factors for peripartum or postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis. METHODS: Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project were analyzed for the years 1993 and 1994. Observed values were weighted with poststratification discharge weights to project to the universe of all discharges from community hospitals located in the United States. Nationally representative estimates of risk were calculated on the basis of age, race, mode of delivery, income, third-party payer, hospital size, hospital ownership, hospital location (rural versus urban), hospital teaching status, census region, and presence of specific complications. Multivariate models were developed with the use of logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 1 408 015 sampled deliveries, there were 183 observed cases of peripartum stroke and 170 cases of peripartum intracranial venous thrombosis in 17 states in the United States in 1993 and 1994. There were an estimated 975 cases of stroke and 864 cases of intracranial venous thrombosis during pregnancy and the puerperium in the United States among 7 463 712 deliveries during 1993 and 1994, for estimated risks of 13.1 cases of peripartum stroke and 11.6 cases of peripartum intracranial venous thrombosis per 100 000 deliveries. Multivariate analysis showed that the following were strongly and significantly associated with both peripartum and postpartum stroke: cesarean delivery; fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders; and hypertension. Covariates that were strongly and significantly associated with both peripartum and postpartum intracranial venous thrombosis included cesarean delivery, hypertension, and infections other than pneumonia and influenza. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy-related hypertension and cesarean delivery are important risk factors for both stroke or intracranial venous thrombosis.  (+info)

Maintaining acid-base balance in organ donors. (4/110)

An abnormal blood pH may cause the loss of donor organs through harmful physiological consequences. The organ procurement coordinator must correctly analyze the acid-base abnormality and treat its cause while normalizing the blood pH. We recommend that treatment of acidemia or alkalemia be first directed toward changing parameters on the mechanical ventilator, using the Paco2 to modify blood pH. Thereafter, hydrochloric acid or sodium bicarbonate may be administered to correct the calculated metabolic acid-base deficit. The types of acidosis or alkalosis, dead space effect during mechanical ventilation, base excess, base deficit, and the appropriate evaluation of blood lactate are also discussed as related to the correction of the acid-base status throughout donor care.  (+info)

Acid-base imbalance adapts without changes in cell polarity in cortical collecting ducts in premature rabbits. (5/110)

It has been demonstrated that intercalated cells (ICs) change their cellular composition in acid stimuli in adult rabbits but not fully explained in developing rabbits. To clarify the mechanisms of adaptation in acid-base imbalance in collecting ducts in developing rabbit kidneys, we examined the cellular composition of cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) in 4-week-old rabbits. In the control group, the ratio of ICs to total CCD cells and that of peanut agglutinin (PNA) non-binding ICs to total ICs were 37.2 +/- 7.2% and 40.3 +/- 3.1%, respectively. By contrast, inconsistent with adult reports, in the acidotic group, these ratios were 38.4 +/- 5.1% and 41.9 +/- 1.7%, respectively, similar to the control group. The urinary pH in the control group was 8.20 +/- 0.14, while that in acidemia was 4.98 +/- 0.33 (p < 0.01). These data indicated that cellular remodeling of ICs in the acidotic state is less important for adaptation in the 4-week-old rabbit. Another mechanism, employing an acid-base related protein, might be playing an important role during development for acid base imbalance.  (+info)

Venous pH can safely replace arterial pH in the initial evaluation of patients in the emergency department. (6/110)

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the extent of correlation of arterial and venous pH with a view to identifying whether venous samples can be used as an alternative to arterial values in the clinical management of selected patients in the emergency department. METHODS: This prospective study of patients who were deemed by their treating doctor to require an arterial blood gas analysis to determine their ventilatory or acid-base status, compared pH on an arterial and a venous sample taken as close to simultaneously as possible. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation and bias (Bland-Altman) methods. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty six patients were entered into the study; 196 with acute respiratory disease and 50 with suspected metabolic derangement. The values of pH on arterial and venous samples were highly correlated (r=0.92) with an average difference between the samples of -0.4 units. There was also a high level of agreement between the methods with the 95% limits of agreement being -0.11 to +0.04 units. CONCLUSION: Venous pH estimation shows a high degree of correlation and agreement with the arterial value, with acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement. Venous pH estimation is an acceptable substitute for arterial measurement and may reduce risks of complications both for patients and health care workers.  (+info)

Rat proximal NHE3 adapts to chronic acid-base disorders but not to chronic changes in dietary NaCl intake. (7/110)

In the proximal tubule, the apical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger identified as NHE3 mediates most NaCl and NaHCO(3) absorption. The purpose of this study was to analyze the long-term regulation of NHE3 during alkalosis induced by dietary NaHCO(3) loading and changes in NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a low-NaCl, high-NaCl, or NaHCO(3) diet for 6 days were studied. Renal cortical apical membrane vesicles (AMV) were prepared from treated and normal rats. Na(+)/H(+) exchange was assayed as the initial rate of (22)Na(+) uptake in the presence of an outward H(+) gradient. (22)Na(+) uptake measured in the presence of high-dose 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride was not different among models. Changes in NaCl intake did not affect NHE3 activity, whereas NaHCO(3) loading inhibited (22)Na(+) uptake by 30%. AMV NHE3 protein abundance assessed by Western blot analysis was unaffected during changes in NaCl intake. During NaHCO(3) loading, NHE3 protein abundance was decreased by 65%. We conclude that proximal NHE3 adapts to chronic metabolic acid-base disorders but not to changes in dietary NaCl intake.  (+info)

Cerebrospinal fluid and arterial lactate, pyruvate and acid-base balance in patients with intracranial hemorrhages. (8/110)

Lactate and pyruvate concentrations and acid-base balance in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and arterial blood were determined in patients with intracranial hemorrhages (28 subarachnoid hemorrhages and 15 intracerebral hemorrhages). A greater increase in CSF lactate and lactate-pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) was observed in patients with impairment of consciousness, focal neurological deficits, poor prognosis, or CSF pressures higher than 300 mm H2O. A combination of CSF lactate greater than 2.5 mM per liter, L/P ration above 20, bicarbonate less than 20.4 mEq per liter, pH below 7.276, or arterial PCO2 below 31.5 mm Hg seems to indicate poor prognosis from intracranial hemorrhage. The mechanism of hyperventilation in acute cerebrovascular diseases and of CSF pH regulation in acid-base disturbances was also discussed.  (+info)

Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) is a respiratory pathogen capable of inducing acute pulmonary zoonotic disease (psittacosis) or persistent infection. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this infection, a translational large animal model was recently introduced by our group. This study aims at quantifying and differentiating pulmonary dysfunction and acid-base imbalances induced by Cp. Forty-two calves were grouped in (i) animals inoculated with Cp (n = 21) and (ii) controls sham-inoculated with uninfected cell culture (n = 21). For pulmonary function testing, impulse oscillometry, capnography, and FRC (functional residual capacity) measurement were applied to spontaneously breathing animals. Variables of acid-base status were assessed in venous blood using both (i) traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch and (ii) strong ion approach. Both obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorders were induced in calves experimentally inoculated with Cp. Although disorders in respiratory mechanics lasted for 8-11 days, the pattern
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders. by A. Rizzo et al.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Quick Reference on Anion Gap and Strong Ion Gap. AU - Torrente Artero, Carlos. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts are useful calculations to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base associated to the presence of unmeasured anions. This article presents their definition, normal values, indications, limitations, and guidelines for interpretation of changes in the clinical setting.. AB - © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts ...
Acetazolamide-mediated decrease in strong ion difference accounts for the correction of metabolic alkalosis in critically ill patients : Metabolic alkalosis is a commonly encountered acid-base derangement in the intensive care unit. Treatment with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide is indicated in selected cases. According to the quantitative approach described by Stewart, correction of serum pH due to carbonic anhydrase inhibition in the proximal tubule cannot be explained by excretion of bicarbonate. Using the
With a clear, comprehensive approach, this quick-reference handbook on the basic principles of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances, imbalances, and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. The chapter on increased intra-cranial pressure has been completely rewritten with a stronger focus on neurotrauma and common conditions that cause increased intra-cranial pressure. The book includes a new, comprehensive glossary for quick reference and provides a new appendix of The Joint Commissions (TJC) List of Accepted Abbreviations. Convenient handbook size and accessible information make this a handy, portable resource. Developmental approach provides examples across the life span that illustrate common health problems associated with imbalances. Nursing assessments, diagnoses, interventions, and rationales are presented in a tabular format for quick retrieval and ease of comprehension.--BOOK JACKET
With a clear, comprehensive approach, this quick-reference handbook on the basic principles of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances, imbalances, and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. ...
Again, look at the chart. Alkalosis is present (increased pH) with the HCO3 increased, reflecting a primary metabolic problem. Treatment of this patient might include the administration of I. V. fluids and measures to reduce the excess base. ? Copyright 2004 Orlando Regional Healthcare, Education & Development Page 11 Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation Compensation Thus far we have looked at simple arterial blood gas values without any evidence of compensation occurring. Now see what happens when an acid-base imbalance exists over a period of time.. When a patient develops an acid-base imbalance, the body attempts to compensate. Remember that the lungs and the kidneys are the primary buffer response systems in the body. The body tries to overcome either a respiratory or metabolic dysfunction in an attempt to return the pH into the normal range. A patient can be uncompensated, partially compensated, or fully compensated. When an acidbase disorder is either uncompensated or partially compensated, ...
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Pentec Health CEO Joe Cosgrove has addressed before the topic of dialysis in several occasions; however, and given the variety of health issues related to renal failure, it is also important to discuss and clarify the doubts people may have about other renal pathologies such as acid-base disorders. Since acid-base disorders entails the deep study…
1. Waugh A, Grant A. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness. 10th edition. Philadelphia, Pa, USA: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2007.2. University, Birmingham oAa. Oceans reveal further impacts of climate change. ScienceDaily, 2010.. 3. Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ, et al. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science. 2007;318(5857):1737-1742. [PubMed] 4. Dam-ampai SO J, Nilnond C. Effect of cattle manure and dolomite on soil properties and plant growth in acid upland soils. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technologh. 2005;27(supplement 3):727-737.. 5. Ströhle A, Hahn A, Sebastian A. Estimation of the diet-dependent net acid load in 229 worldwide historically studied hunter-gatherer societies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;91(2):406-412.[PubMed] 6. Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC., Jr. Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors. ...
1 WO 2 3 4 5 6 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 7 FOR THE DISTRICT OF ARIZONA 8 9 Thomas Stewart, Jr., No. CV 12-0719-PHX-RCB (LOA) 10 11 12 13 Plaintiff, ORDER vs. Charles L. Ryan, et al., 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Defendants. Plaintiff Thomas Stewart, Jr., brought this pro se civil rights action under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 against Dr. Karen Barcklay, an Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) physician (Doc. 1). Before the Court are the following motions: (1) Dr. Barcklays Motion for Summary Judgment (Doc. 65); (2) Stewarts Motion for Extension of Time to File Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment (Doc. 92); (3) Stewarts Motion for Counsel (Doc. 93); (4) Stewarts Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment (Doc. 96); and (5) Dr. Barcklays Motion to Strike Stewarts Cross-Motion (Doc. 97). The Court will grant Dr. Barcklays Motion for Summary Judgment and Motion to Strike, strike Stewarts Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment, and deny as moot Stewarts Motion for Extension of Time and ...
In January 1964,[nb 4] while Stewart was waiting at Twickenham railway station after having seen Long John Baldry and the All Stars at Eel Pie Island,[31][52][54] Baldry heard him playing Smokestack Lightnin on his harmonica, and invited him to sit in with the group; when Baldry discovered Stewart was a singer as well, he offered him a job for £35 a week, after securing the approval of Stewarts mother.[52] Quitting his day job at the age of nineteen, Stewart gradually overcame his shyness and nerves and became a visible enough part of the act that he was sometimes added to the billing as Rod the Mod Stewart,[40][52][53] the nickname coming from his dandyish style of grooming and dress.[36] Baldry touted Stewarts abilities to Melody Maker magazine and the group enjoyed a weekly residence at Londons fabled Marquee Club.[53] In June 1964, Stewart made his recording début (without label credit) on Up Above My Head, the B-side to a Baldry and Hoochie Coochie Men single.[55] While still ...
Acid-Base disorders require understanding of the underlying pathophysiology as well as familiarity with some formulas. Several Acid-Base scenarios that can be tested on USMLE Step 3 are A) Identifying the acid base disorder B) Identifying the etiology of acid-base imbalance in an Multiple choice question by elimination process of other choices based on the acid-base…
Objectives Discuss the mechanisms for maintaining normal acid-base balance Define respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis Identify the common causes of acid base imbalance Define and differentiate between respiratory distress and failure Discuss interventions on transport for a patient with acid-base imbalance
Elaine Stewart Pictures - Private Life and Times of Elaine Stewart. Elaine Stewart Photo Gallery. Elaine Stewart (Elsy H. Steinberg); Glamour Girls of the Silver Screen - The Private Lives and Times of Some of the Most Glamorous Actresses and Starlets of the Forties, Fifties and Sixties.
Advances in Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-base Disorders, An Issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, E-Book auf frohberg.de
VetVine is an accredited Continuing Education provider for veterinary professionals and resource of expert-driven pet health information for pet owners. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice (Fourth Edition), 2012; Chapter 11, pp 287-301. Authors: Rebecca A. Johnson, Helio Autran de Morais Member fee: $9.95 - Login to purchase
Harrisons Nephrology and Acid-Base Disorders, 2e de J. Larry Jameson; Joseph Loscalzo en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 0071814965 - ISBN 13: 9780071814966 - McGraw-Hill Education / Medical - 2013 - Tapa blanda
Fu, J., Teucher, M., Anastassiadis, K., Skarnes, W. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). A Recombineering Pipeline to Make Conditional Targeting Constructs. Methods Enzymol 477C: 125-144. Anastassiadis, K., Glaser, S., Kranz, A., Bernhardt, K. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). A Practical Summary of Site-Specific Recombination, Conditional Mutagenesis, and Tamoxifen Induction of CreERT2. Methods Enzymol 477C: 109-123. Kranz, A., Fu, J., Duerschke, K., Weidlich, S., Naumann, R., Stewart, A. F. and Anastassiadis, K. (2010). An improved Flp deleter mouse in C57Bl/6 based on Flpo recombinase. Genesis. Maresca, M., Erler, A., Fu, J., Friedrich, A., Zhang, Y. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). Single-stranded heteroduplex intermediates in lambda Red homologous recombination. BMC Mol Biol 11: 54. Anastassiadis, K., Rostovskaya, M., Lubitz, S., Weidlich, S. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). Precise conditional immortalization of mouse cells using tetracycline-regulated SV40 large T-antigen. Genesis. 2009 Buchanan, L., ...
This article is reprinted with permission from Jacobin. Two weeks ago Egypts public prosecutor ordered the arrest of comedian Bassem Youssef, host of the TV show Al-Bernameg, for insulting Islam and Egypts President Mohammad Morsi. Youssefs name is rarely mentioned without reference to his admitted role model, the American comedian Jon Stewart, who recently defended Youssef on The Daily Show.. Since Youssefs arrest, nearly every story about the incident labels the heart-surgeon-turned-TV-star as Egypts Jon Stewart. But Youssef - who continues to risk his freedom and career to ridicule Egypts political elite - has little in common with Stewart, a man whos built a comedy empire on an unwarranted reputation for prophetic humor and moral integrity. And even while Youssef himself cites Stewart as an influence, the Egyptian humorist far outshines his American counterpart in his willingness to challenge political and social taboos.. Youssefs arrest and his constant pairing with Stewart ...
Strong ions are cations and anions that exist as charged particles dissociated from their partner ions at physiologic pH. The SID (Strong Ion Difference) is the difference between the positively- and negatively-charged strong ions in plasma. This method of evaluating acid-base disorders was developed to help determine the mechanism of the disorder rather than simply categorizing them into metabolic vs. respiratory acidosis/alkalosis as with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Strong cations predominate in the plasma at physiologic pH leading to a net positive plasma charge of approximately +40: SID = [strong cations] - [strong anions] = [Na+ + K+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+] - [Cl- + lactate- + SO42-] Disturbances that increase the SID increase the blood pH while disorders that decrease the SID lower the plasma pH. According to the law of electroneutrality the sum of positive charges is equal to the sum of negative charges. Therefore the SID must be equal to the sum of weak anions in the body (such as ...
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Bicarbonate is an electrolyte that is used by the body to help maintain the bodys acid-base (pH) balance. The bicarbonate test measures the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood, which occurs mostly in the form of bicarbonate and is used to help detect conditions that cause electrolyte and acid-base imbalances.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of gestational age, the choice of fetal fluid compartment, and the algorithm for calculation on the estimation of the base deficit in umbilical cord arterial blood Lit birth. Study design: From 1995 to 2002, cord arterial blood gases and obstetric data were available for 43,551 newborn infants at 37 + weeks of gestation (cohort 1). The mean base deficit in blood and the base deficit in extracellular fluid were estimated from pH and P-CO2 values in 28,213 newborn infants with a 5-minute Apgar score of ,= 9 (cohort 11) with the use of 3 different calculation algorithms (base deficit in blood, base deficit in extracellular fluid [A], and base deficit in extracellular fluid [B]). Results: In cohort 11, the base deficit in blood, the base deficit in extracellular fluid (A), and the base deficit in extracellular fluid (B) increased with advancing gestational age (linear regression, P , .0001). The curves run almost parallel, with the ...
Deep Frozen (-70°C): ,14 days. Causes for Rejection: Specimens other than serum; improper labeling; samples not stored properly; samples older than stability limits. Methodology: Ion Specific Electrode (ISE) test, Photometric. Refer to individual test for methodology used.. Turn Around Time: 1 to 3 days. Intended Use: The Electrolyte Panel is used to identify an electrolyte or acid-base imbalance and to monitor the effect of treatment on a known imbalance that is affecting bodily organ function.. Limitations: Grossly hemolyzed or lipemic specimens may produce false results. Refer to individual tests for preanalytical issues that may contribute to false test results.. Additional Information: Some medications, injuries, or disease states may produce false results. Refer to individual tests for preanalytical issues that may contribute to false test results.. Refer to individual test for appropriate sample collection, handling and testing information.. The CPT codes provided are based on AMA ...
1 Kırıkkale Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi İç Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı, Kırıkkale Viewed : 128 - Downloaded : 73 One of the most important factors for reducing the diarrhea related calf deaths is the application of appropriate fluid therapy. Treatments with antibacterial, antiparasitic or motilitating agents used in neonatal calf diarrhea, where fluid treatment is inadequate, can often be ineffective and resulted in calf loss. However, the fluid therapy is not as innocent as you think. The incidence of overhydrating-related pulmonary edema due to clinical findings such as dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, as well as the incidence of complications due to false or excessive fluid, such as hypothermia, is higher than expected. In an ideal fluid therapy to be applied to diarrhea, the metabolic changes that have been occurred must be carefully interpreted to remove dehydration, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance, and meet daily requirements. For this purpose, determining which fluid to ...
Feeding is an innate behavior in the animal kingdom. Proper amount of food consumption is critical for survival and health, as well as for producing high-quality progenies. Although appetite signals for promoting eating have been widely investigated, the mechanisms underlying feeding termination are poorly understood. On Jan 19th, 2017, a research paper entitled Drosophila FIT Is a Protein-specific Satiety Hormone Essential for Feeding Control in the journal of Nature Communication addressed this important question. Animals consume food containing essential amino acids daily, and deficiency in protein consumption leads to severe developmental defects. On the other hand, a bunch of evidences have shown that excess protein intake results in stresses in organs, like kidney and liver, the acid-base imbalance, and even severe diseases, such as renal failure. Among the three macronutrients, protein exerts the greatest inhibitory effect in feeding control. Nevertheless, protein-specific nutrient ...
Overlooked metabolic acidosis/alkalosis in the medicine wards. If an acid-base disorder is treated in its early stages, such as at the onset of the symptoms, treatment is usually successful, and serious problems can be avoided.. Systematic screening for acid-base disturbances in the medicine wards normally does not happen unless requested specifically. However, it is not unusual that acid-base disturbances are overlooked and patients are not treated correctly. The patient may end up in the ICU for further diagnosis and treatment.. With application of v-TACTM as a systematic screening tool, acid-base disturbances may be identified early, the right treatment provided in time and additional complications avoided. This will save bed days in the ICU, as well as in the hospital in general, with significant cost-savings in return.. ...
Looking for alkalemia? Find out information about alkalemia. An increase in blood pH above normal levels Explanation of alkalemia
BooBoo Stewart, 18, is an American singer, dancer, model, actor, and martial artist. In 2010 he portrayed Seth Clearwater in The Twilight Saga Here some new shirtless pics! http://www.thecelebarchive.net/public/ca/Boo Boo Stewart/3gsg0a5450u0nee45gciwg0ab4446181142012580.jpg http://www.thecelebarchive.net/public/ca/Boo Boo Stewart/31x2t4455fhsgy0jcygx2fe334146181142012533.jpg http://www.thecelebarchive.net/public/ca/Boo Boo Stewart/3pagtk055apn1rj20kq1bbfy13446181142012533.jpg
Roy, Helen, Rabitsch, Wolfgang, Scalera, Riccardo, Stewart, Alan and et al., (2018) Developing a framework of minimum standards for the risk assessment of alien species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 55 (2). pp. 526-538. ISSN 0021-8901 Reynolds, Donald R, Chapman, Jason W and Stewart, Alan (2017) Windborne migration of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera) over Britain. European Journal of Entomology, 114. pp. 554-564. ISSN 1210-5759 Peck, Mika Robert, Kaina, Graham S, Hazell, Richard John, Isua, Brus, Alok, Clant, Paul, Luda and Stewart, Alan J A (2017) Estimating carbon stock in lowland Papua New Guinean forest - low density of large trees results in lower than global average carbon stock. Austral Ecology, 42 (8). pp. 964-975. ISSN 1442-9985 Roy, Helen E, Hesketh, Helen, Purse, Bethan V, Eilenberg, Jørgen, Santini, Alberto, Scalera, Riccardo, Stentiford, Grant D, Adriaens, Tim, Bacela-Spychalska, Karolina, Stewart, Alan and et al, (2017) Alien pathogens on the horizon: opportunities for predicting their ...
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Student Solutions Manual for Stewarts Single Variable Calculus, 6th by James Stewart; Scott Stewart and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at AbeBooks.com.
Allen Stewart is not afraid of big business. We take our mission statement seriously, passionate about defending the rights of people harmed by others. The attorneys at Allen Stewart, P.C. have taken on pharmaceutical cases to asbestos claims, government and even big tobacco. The firms victories span a wide range of issues. Listed here are some of his more significant client wins:. Virgil and Lorrie Hood v. E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., et al., Case No. DC-13-03619; In the District Court of Dallas County, Texas: Allen Stewart, P.C. represented an equipment painter and mechanic who developed myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia at age 57 as a result of his occupational exposure to benzene-containing paints and solvents. Allen Stewart, P.C. reached confidential settlements with many of the product manufacturers and tried the case against the non-setting defendant, DuPont.. Brett Lammers v. Energy Transportation Group, Inc. et al., Case No. BC532902; In the Superior Court of ...
This is a document from the Charles B. Moore Collection. It is written by George Stewart and is addressed to John Stewart. In this postcard, Stewart discusses the goings-on in Johnson County in Texas. The news includes: updates on his and the familys well-being, a discussion about the planting of cottonseed, details about the grasshoppers eating all the wheat and mostly all of the corn, a message to Bill Evans about renting land, and updates about correspondences received. He closes the letter by noting that should John write soon with all the news.
LONDON (AP) _ Rocker Rod Stewart has become a father for the eighth time.The 66-year-old Stewarts wife, Penny Lancaster, gave birth to a baby boy Wednesday. British singer Rod Stewart, right, and his wife Penny Lancaster (AP)A statement released Thursday on the couples behalf said they were ``proud and thrilled.Aiden is Stewart and Lancasters second child. They have another son, Alastair, who
MSP Investigate Possible Colon Area Kidnapping Tuesday, April 27, 2010 (COLON TOWNSHIP) - Michigan State Police are investigating the possible abduction of a woman from the Colon area on Monday. 32-year-old Venus Rose Stewart was abducted from her parents home on Driftwood Drive between 7:10am and 8:30am. Stewart may be in the company of 29-year-old Douglas Stewart in a 1998 silver Mercury 4-door or a 2005 silver Dodge
Prohibition Agent George Stewart, working undercover, entered a soft-drink cafe in Buffalo, NY, to purchase illicit liquor. A female patron apparently recognized Agent Stewart and tipped off the owner. As Agent Stewart departed the store, he was shot nine times by two suspects. Although badly wounded, he managed to draw his own weapon and fire once. Agent Stewart died at the scene. Brothers Sam and Ralph Pannavaia were later identified as being responsible for the killing and arrested.. ...
J.C. Penney Co. is buying a minority stake in Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia for $38.5 million, the latest move by the department store to attract new customers and perk up lackluster sales. To partner with J.C. Penney, Ron and his extraordinary team is a big and important step in realizing my dream of putting our Martha Stewart designed products within easy reach of an even broader consumer audience, Stewart, who is the founder and a board member of the company that bears her name, said in a statement.
Celtic Crush Sunday- Donegal Rain- Andy M. Stewart Andy M. Stewart was a Scottish singer, songwriter and instrumentalist. Before his solo career he was the front man for the group Silly Wizard. His final solo album Donegal Rain- featured this -the title track. Stewart underwent a failed spinal surgery in 2012 which resulted in his…
Teen sensation Booboo Stewart (Seth Clearwater in The Twilight Saga: Eclipse) and his sister singer/actress Fivel Stewart are donating their time and celebrity to help Invisalign
ICE HOCKEY: LATVIAN forward Edgars Bebris has departed Coventry Blaze with immediate effect, leaving Danny Stewart with a hole to fill ahead of a busy Christmas schedule.. Stewart, who will also miss the services of Patrick Moisio over Christmas due to a suspension, will face another week with a bench short of players.. Bebris joined Blaze on a trial basis in August, which subsequently earned him a contract following a string of strong performances during pre-season.. He appeared 27 times for the club.. Head coach Danny Stewart said: The timing of this decision is not ideal, but we carry on as normal.. It is expected that Gustav Ahnelov and Brett Robinson will return to the Blaze bench this weekend for the clubs home clash against Milton Keynes.. ...
Will this be the last time Patrick Stewart says Engage or, in his peculiarly Shakespearean way of giving orders, Make it so ? Stewart, who has played Captain Jean-Luc Picard of the starship Enterprise off and on for the past 16 years, says, If it is, I feel very content with that decision. Nemesis, and also to the frankly mercenary truth that his crews continuing adventures will depend on the opening weekend box office -- which is calculated long before the weekend is over (the film opens this Friday). Stewart, of all the Trekkers -- including Jonathan Frakes as William Riker, Brent Spiner as Data, Levar Burton as Geordi La Forge, Michael Dorn as Worf, Gates McFadden as Beverly Crusher, Marina Sirtis as Deanna Troi -- has probably the least to lose if, after seven years on television (1987 to 1994) and three feature films 1996s Star Trek: First Contact, 1998s Star Trek: In the best Star Trek tradition, Nemesis, written by John Logan (Gladiator) and directed by Stuart Baird (
Martha Stewarts Cupcakes: 175 Inspired Ideas for Everyones Favorite Treat: Martha Stewart Living Magazine: 9780307460448: Books - Amazon.ca
Kristen Stewart Starts Filming Anesthesia! Kristen Stewart rocks a black beanie on the set of her upcoming indie film Anesthesia on Monday night (November 4) in New York City. The 23-year-old actress,…
What is the Stewart Procedure? (Columbia 3f Bioroot). The Stewart Procedure [Columbia (3f) Bioroot for Replacement of the Aortic Valve and Root] Patients who need aortic root and valve replacement have...
Kristen Stewart Didnt Think Audiences Would Believe Her in Camp X-Ray Kristen Stewart hangs out with a pal as they leave Ebisu Japanese Tavern after dinner on Wednesday evening (January 22) in Los Angeles. The 23-year-old actress…
CHARLOTTE, N.C. - Cam Newton delivered the body blow and Jonathan Stewart provided the knockout punch for Carolina.. Newtons 62-yard run set up Stewarts 1-yard touchdown leap - his third TD run of the day - with 1:47 remaining to lift the Panthers to a 31-24 victory Sunday, snapping the Minnesota Vikings eight-game win streak.. Stewart accounted for 103 of Carolinas 216 yards rushing - including a 60-yard touchdown burst in the first quarter - against the leagues second-ranked defence, as the Panthers prevented the Vikings (10-3) from clinching the NFC North division title.. But it was Newtons run that turned out to be the play of the game.. After Carolina squandered an 11-point fourth-quarter lead, Newton rolled out to his left, saw an opening and the 6-foot-5, 245-pound quarterback was off to the races before being pulled down from behind at the Vikings 8-yard line .. Newton joked after the game that he got tackled on purpose.. It was very strategic, when I think back, the 2015 league ...
Brandon Stewart turned on the afterburners to claim his maiden victory in the Kia Walkerville Mountain Bike Classic, presented by ASG, in sub-zero conditions in Johannesburg on Sunday.. The FedGroup-Itec Connect pro, from Hilton in KwaZulu-Natal, made an early break in the 60km main event and was later joined by RE:CMs Waylon Woolcock.. They matched each other all the way to the Walkerville Showgrounds, where the 15th edition of Gautengs largest and coldest winter race finished on the slippery speedway circuit.. Stewart duly outdragged his breakaway companion to take line honours in a fast 1:55:55. Woolcock, a former Old Mutual joBerg2c champion, finished three seconds back.. The latters team-mate, Neil MacDonald, completed the podium in 2:02:02.. Stewart said the shale surface, which is designed for motorbikes to slide on, had made the final stretch particularly challenging and exciting. It was almost like a mini Paris-Roubaix finish.. The win rounded off a successful weekend for the ...
The following DeMause quotes are playing on my mind (taken from War as Righteous Rape). From them, I am alert to think of non-pejorative forms of our desires that people like Stewart and Colbert are blasting in their call for sanity. Along with genuine lack of reasoning (as we see every time Stewart showcases any of the genuinely always-unreasoning FOX News types), we will see grouped its actual opposite: the impassioned fight to resist obfuscation, curtailment of truth, flight from sanity toward group disassociation, we consistently find with the likes of Joan Walsh and Chris Matthews (two liberals who have showcased as insane -- or at least as talking insanely -- by Stewart). As I have suggested elsewhere, I have no doubt that Krugman will be targeted by liberal reasonables as amongst the clearly unreasonable. They have to (go after him), for he has too strong a claim on being reasonable right now himself -- on defining what it is to be reasonable in our current era -- and yet so strongly ...
Water-electrolyte imbalance and acid-base imbalance}}. Medicine. Water-electrolyte imbalance and acid-base imbalance (E86-E87, ... Amino acid metabolic pathology}}. Medicine. Inborn error of amino acid metabolism (E70-E72, 270). Metabolic disorder templates ... Fatty-acid metabolism disorders}}. Medicine. Inborn error of lipid metabolism: fatty-acid metabolism disorders (E71.3, 277.81- ...
Electrolyte imbalance and acid-base imbalance (E86-E87, 276). Volume status. *Volume contraction (dehydration/hypovolemia) ... A corrected calcium level based on the albumin level is: Corrected calcium (mg/dL) = measured total Ca (mg/dL) + 0.8 * (4.0 - ... Exposure to hydrofluoric acid which can be fatal if 2.5% of skin is exposed[9] ... neuromuscular and autonomic nervous form of magnesium imbalance". Magnesium research. International Society for the Development ...
see Template:Water-electrolyte imbalance and acid-base imbalance. PO43−. ... Increased affinity for oxygen in the blood caused by decreased production of 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid. ... It is diagnosed based on a blood phosphate concentration of less than 0.81 mmol/L (2.5 mg/dL).[1] When levels are below 0.32 ...
Calcium metabolism disorders, Acid-base imbalance, Metabolic brain diseases[1]. Diagnostic method. DNA test[2]. ...
Metabolic alkalosis is the most common acid-base imbalance observed. Other significant adverse effects include rhabdomyolysis, ... laxative abuse can lead to potentially fatal acid-base and electrolyte imbalances. For example, severe hypokalaemia has been ... "Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities with diarrhea". www.uptodate.com. Retrieved 2017-12-12. Joo JS, Ehrenpreis ED, Gonzalez ... Castor oil is a glyceride that is hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase to ricinoleic acid, which produces laxative action by an ...
A change in the plasma pH gives an acid-base imbalance. In acid-base homeostasis there are two mechanisms that can help ... The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are lipid derivatives of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid ... An important function is the production and control of bile acids. Too much bile acid can be toxic to cells and its synthesis ... It is only the lactate and the waste products of the citric acid cycle that are returned to the blood. The liver can take up ...
Acidosis Acid-base imbalance Acid-base homeostasis Milk-alkali syndrome Arterial blood gas Chemical equilibrium pCO2 pH pKa ... "Neurologic presentations of acid-base imbalance, electrolyte abnormalities, and endocrine emergencies". Neurol Clin. 28 (1): 1- ... Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid in the stomach contents. ... Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ...
ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Yee AH, Rabinstein AA (February 2010). "Neurologic presentations of acid-base imbalance, electrolyte ... A significant alteration in ventilation that affects elimination of CO2 can cause a respiratory acid-base disorder. The PaCO2 ... Metabolism rapidly generates a large quantity of volatile acid (H2CO3) and nonvolatile acid. The metabolism of fats and ... The CO2 combines with H2O to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). The lungs normally excrete the volatile fraction through ventilation, ...
... respiratory and metabolic acid-base imbalances. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507807/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ ... In metabolic acidosis, chemoreceptors sense a deranged acid-base balance with a plasma pH of lesser than normal (. 7.4). The ... The respiratory brainstem centers can only compensate for metabolic acid-base disturbances (metabolic acidosis and metabolic ... in order to keep the acid-base balance in the body. It usually occurs within minutes to hours and is much faster than renal ...
... acid-base imbalance, or kidney dysfunction. Sodium Potassium Chloride Carbon dioxide (CO2) Tests of protein levels in the blood ... The tests are performed on machines based on the AutoAnalyzer invented in 1957. Typically, the patient fasts for ten or twelve ...
... is a serious electrolyte disorder characterized by an imbalance in the body's acid-base balance. Metabolic ... pH and hydrogen ion concentrations also depend on the coexistence of other acid-base disorders; therefore, pH levels in people ... Thus demonstrating the importance of maintaining balance between acids and bases in the body for maintaining optimal ... which can happen with increased generation of acids (such as ketoacids or lactic acid), excess loss of HCO− 3 by the kidneys or ...
... avoid electrolyte and acid/base imbalances that might lead to hepatic encephalopathy. Kidney failure: combined triamterene and ... The triamterene ring system is found in many naturally occurring compounds, such as folic acid and riboflavin. The observation ... Common side effects may include a depletion of sodium, folic acid and calcium, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness ... which had hired private investigators based on its beliefs that competitors were getting unfair advantages in getting their ...
He continued to study electrolyte imbalances and the physiological mechanisms of acid-base homeostasis. In 1930, he served as a ... His research focused on the biochemical underpinnings of physiology and included characterizing acid-base homeostasis in blood ...
... to acid-base imbalance, including obesity, arthritis, and diabetes. Because the body produces more acids than bases, concluded ... Berg and Röse developed a theory of acid-base balance in the body that is affected by diet. They relied on the work of Ernst ... He is best known for promoting the importance of acid-base balance and inorganic minerals like calcium in the diet; later in ... If the acids remained in the body, they would accumulate in areas of low blood flow (like joints), thereby obstructing normal ...
Symptoms of hypovolemic shock can be related to volume depletion, electrolyte imbalances, or acid-base disorders that accompany ... In the latter process, pyruvate is produced and converted to lactic acid to regenerate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ... Damage control resuscitation is based on three principles: permissive hypotension: tries to balance temporary suboptimal ... this also leads to other tissues being further deprived of oxygen causing more lactic acid production and worsening acidosis. ...
A doctor would request this test if there are signs their patient is experiencing an imbalance in acid-base levels for a ... As with most types of electrolyte imbalance, the treatment of high blood chloride levels is based on correcting the underlying ... If the electrolyte imbalance is due to influx of sodium chloride in the body, then it has been suggested to make dietary ... In the 1st phase, organic solutes (such as phosphates, amino acids, glucose and anions), sodium ions, and hydronium ions are ...
Failure of this system to function properly results in acid-base imbalance, such as acidemia (pH. 7.45) in the blood. In tissue ... The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate ... base 10) of the acid dissociation constant of carbonic acid. It is equal to 6.1. [HCO− 3] is the concentration of bicarbonate ... and its conjugate base (for example, HCO− 3) so that any excess acid or base introduced to the system is neutralized. ...
s naturally more robust than other theories, particularly in cases where there is a great imbalance between the acid and base ... The van Oss theory is most suitable for cases in which acid/base interaction is an important consideration. Examples include ... There are however some liquids that are generally agreed to have known dispersive/acid/base components to their surface ... acid/base interactions, etc.). It is often useful for the sessile drop technique to use liquids that are known to be incapable ...
... and eventually die after longer exposure times because of the imbalance of the organisms' acid-base equilibrium. The red king ... The carapace is a covering of sheets of exoskeleton that overhang the thorax vertically to fit over the base of the thoracic ... an opening in the carapace near the base of the chelipeds, dorsally over the gills, and anteriorly to exit beside the head. Due ...
Acid-base imbalance, most commonly respiratory alkalosis Dupuytren's contracture (alcohol) Parotid enlargement (alcohol) ... Specific conditions may be treated with medications including corticosteroids, interferon, antivirals, bile acids or other ...
Main articles: Acid-base homeostasis and Acid-base imbalance. The plasma pH can be altered by respiratory changes in the ... A change in the plasma pH gives an acid-base imbalance. In acid-base homeostasis there are two mechanisms that can help ... An important function is the production and control of bile acids. Too much bile acid can be toxic to cells and its synthesis ... It is only the lactate and the waste products of the citric acid cycle that are returned to the blood. The liver can take up ...
... followed by four years researching acid-base imbalance in psychiatric patients at the Boston Psychopathic Hospital. She began ... Albert Claude found a pool of particles containing nucleic acids and proteins he termed "microsomes." Petermann found that ... she used a technique called analytical ultracentrifugation to separate components of mouse spleen and liver homogenates based ...
The principal classes of metabolic disorders are: Acid-base imbalance Metabolic brain diseases Disorders of calcium metabolism ... metabolism disorders Porphyrias Proteostasis deficiencies Metabolic skin diseases Wasting syndrome Water-electrolyte imbalance ...
Indication for dialysis: Salicylate level higher than 90 mg/dL Severe acid base imbalance Severe cardiac toxicity Acute ... The acid-base, fluid, and electrolyte abnormalities observed in salicylate toxicity can be grouped into three broad phases: ... Hemodialysis also has the advantage of restoring electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities while removing salicylate. Salicylic ... Diagnosis is generally based on repeated blood tests measuring aspirin levels and blood gases. While a type of graph has been ...
Acid-base imbalance occurs when a significant insult causes the blood pH to shift out of the normal range (7.32 to 7.42[14]). ... ions, replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases.[11] This has the effect of damping the effect of pH ... Acid ash hypothesis. References[edit]. *^ a b Hamm, LL; Nakhoul, N; Hering-Smith, KS (7 December 2015). "Acid-Base Homeostasis" ... a weak acid and its conjugate base.[5][11] It is the ratio concentration of the weak acid to its conjugate base that determines ...
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances and Acid-Base Disturbances: Case Examples Chapter S2: Microbial Bioterrorism Chapter S3: ... and Gender-Based Medicine Chapter 383: Disorders of Sex Development Chapter 384: Disorders of the Testes and Male Reproductive ... Gene and Cell Based Therapy in Clinical Medicine Chapter 459: The Human Microbiome Part 17: Global Medicine Chapter 460: Global ... Imbalance, and Falls Chapter 24: Confusion and Delirium Chapter 25: Dementia Chapter 26: Aphasia, Memory Loss, Hemispatial ...
Foals are supported with fluids, which are used to maintain hydration, correct electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, and help ...
... and it is also the buffer whose acid to base ratio can be changed very easily and rapidly. An acid-base imbalance is known as ... Stewart's original text at acidbase.org On-line text at AnaesthesiaMCQ.com Overview at kumc.edu Acid-Base Tutorial Online acid- ... a weak acid and its conjugate base. It is the ratio concentration of the weak acid to its conjugate base that determines the pH ... replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases. This has the effect of damping the effect of pH changes, ...
Acid-base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to ... at acid-base.com Online acid-base physiology text Diagnoses at lakesidepress.com Interpretation at nda.ox.ac.uk Acid Base ... "Mixed Acid Base Disorders: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center". Archived from the original on 2009-04- ... The traditional approach to the study of acid-base physiology has been the empirical approach. The main variants are the base ...
... acid-base balance and much more. Electrolyte imbalances can develop by consuming too little or too much electrolyte as well as ... an electrolyte that indicates acid-base status. Overall, treatment of chloride imbalances involve addressing the underlying ... Powers, F. (September 1999). "The role of chloride in acid-base balance". Journal of Intravenous Nursing. 22 (5): 286-291. ISSN ... Electrolyte imbalance, or water-electrolyte imbalance, is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body. ...
Science Based Medicine *^ a b c d e f Barrett, Stephen; London, William M.; Kroger, Manfred; Hall, Harriet; Baratz, Robert S. ( ... while imbalance results in disease. Such disease-inducing imbalances can be adjusted and balanced using traditional herbs, ... Omega-3 fatty acid, glucosamine, echinacea, flaxseed oil, and ginseng.[76] Herbal medicine, or phytotherapy, includes not just ... "Science-Based Medicine. Archived from the original on 2013-09-28.. *^ a b Elsevier Science (2002). "Author interview (Edzard ...
"The glycemic index (GI) factor is a ranking of foods based on their overall effect on blood sugar levels. The diet based around ... In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be ... and electrolyte imbalances. People attempting these diets must be monitored closely by a physician to prevent complications.[1] ... It described the benefits of a meat diet for those suffering from diabetes, basing this recommendation on Matthew Dobson's ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 43 (Database issue): D789-98. doi:10.1093/nar/gku1205. PMC 4383985 . PMID 25428349.. ... The content of MIM/OMIM is based on selection and review of the published peer-reviewed biomedical literature. Updating of ... DECIPHER, a database of chromosomal imbalance and associated phenotype in humans, using Ensembl resources. ...
Acid-base imbalance. *Water-electrolyte imbalance. Organisations. *Society of Critical Care Medicine ... A bundle is a selected set of elements of care distilled from evidence-based practice guidelines that, when implemented as a ...
bumetanide,[17] ethacrynic acid,[17] furosemide,[17] torsemide Inhibits the Na-K-2Cl symporter 3. medullary thick ascending ... The short-term anti-hypertensive action is based on the fact that thiazides decrease preload, decreasing blood pressure. On the ... "Caffeine and Electrolyte Imbalance" by Dana George August 23, 2011. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ... Other examples of high ceiling loop diuretics include ethacrynic acid and torasemide. ...
Richeson, Jennifer A.; Trawalter, Sophie (2008). "The threat of appearing prejudiced and race-based attentional biases". ... Anxiety disorder appears to be a genetically inherited neurochemical dysfunction that may involve autonomic imbalance; ... folic acid),[7] gastrointestinal diseases (celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease),[73][74][ ... and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Other neurotransmitters and peptides, such as corticotropin-releasing factor, may be ...
Some cases of anemia, possibly related to folic acid deficiency, have been described.[18] ... Eye discomfort, conjunctivitis, throat irritation, splenomegaly, Herxheimer reaction, electrolyte imbalances (e.g. hypocalcemia ... forming a cross-link between two adenines four to five base pairs apart. The drug also inhibits topoisomerase enzymes in the ...
... which creates a charge imbalance that must be accounted for by the addition of cations. The base structure becomes either [AlSi ... Dropping dilute acid (often 10% HCl) onto a mineral aids in distinguishing carbonates from other mineral classes. The acid ... Zeolite minerals will not effervesce in acid; instead, they become frosted after 5-10 minutes, and if left in acid for a day, ... Calcite immediately effervesces in acid, whereas acid must be applied to powdered dolomite (often to a scratched surface in a ...
It is essential to correct these imbalances if they occur, as they can lead to the clinical symptoms of electrolyte imbalance, ... A blood product (or blood-based product) is any component of blood which is collected from a donor for use in a blood ... The person receives nutritional formulas containing salts, glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins. ... Electrolyte imbalance[edit]. Administering a too-diluted or too-concentrated solution can disrupt the patient's balance of ...
... who lived largely on milk fermented by lactic-acid bacteria, were exceptionally long-lived. Based on these observations, ... results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy.[78] These microbial community alterations ... This treatment is based on the observation that 70% of healthy females have a group of bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus that ... Some fermented products that contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) include: vegetables such as pickled vegetables,[19] kimchi,[19] ...
Based on child's development[1]. Treatment. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, external braces, orthopedic ... This damage impairs the ability of some nerve receptors in the spine to receive gamma-Aminobutyric acid properly, leading to ... Due to more than normal joint compression caused by muscular imbalances, articular cartilage may atrophy,[21]:46 leading to ... Kaine, a member of the popular Atlanta, Georgia-based hip-hop duo The Ying Yang Twins, has a mild form of cerebral palsy that ...
Acid-base imbalance. *Water-electrolyte imbalance. Organisations. *Society of Critical Care Medicine ...
These compounds are normally produced during bodily metabolism of amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids, but accumulate in ... Enzyme testing is performed for a wide range of metabolic disorders to confirm a diagnosis suspected based on screening tests. ... Biochemical studies are performed to screen for imbalances of metabolites in the bodily fluid, usually the blood (plasma/serum ... The acylcarnitine combination profile detects compounds such as organic acids and fatty acids conjugated to carnitine. The test ...
酸鹼平衡失調(英语:Acid-base imbalance). *電解質不平衡 ...
Rice-based solutions are preferred to glucose-based ones due to greater efficiency.[33] In severe cases with significant ... Muscle cramping and weakness, altered consciousness, seizures, or even coma due to electrolyte imbalances are common, ... the researchers found the bacterium creates a hyperinfected state where genes that control biosynthesis of amino acids, iron ... Ten months after the 2010 earthquake, an outbreak swept over Haiti, traced to a United Nations base of peacekeepers from Nepal. ...
However, unlike a battery-based UPS, flywheel-based UPS systems typically provide 10 to 20 seconds of protection before the ... In lead acid batteries this is known as sulfation but also affects other types such as nickel cadmium batteries and lithium ... For example, stronger strings can discharge through weaker strings until voltage imbalances are equalized, and this must be ... UPS units are divided into categories based on which of the above problems they address,[dubious - discuss] and some ...
The risks associated with random allocation (such as having a serious imbalance in a key characteristic between a treatment ... Twenty five gutts (drops) of vitriol (sulphuric acid) three times a day upon an empty stomach. ... two publications that emphasized the importance of randomization-based inference in statistics. ...
... and acid-base disturbances.[71][72] These first symptoms resolve two to three days after the ingestion. A more serious ... electrolyte imbalances, and impaired coagulation.[78] ... base).[19] As the volva, which may be hidden by leaf litter, is ... β-Amanitin, where an amide of the α-amanitin has been replaced by a carboxylic acid (lower left corner) ... Amatoxins consist of at least eight compounds with a similar structure, that of eight amino-acid rings; they were isolated in ...
This may be due to the fact that an imbalance in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which have opposing effects, is instrumental ... based on a loss of B cell tolerance which makes use of normal T cell responses to foreign antigens in a variety of aberrant ... Omega-3 Fatty Acids *Studies have shown that adequate consumption of omega-3 fatty acids counteracts the effects of arachidonic ... Simopoulos, Artemis (2002). "Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases". Journal of the American College of ...
This theory is based on the fact that, during galloping, the absence of any bone attachment of the forelegs to the spine in the ... Omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA reduce EIPH, presumably via increasing the functionality of the white blood cells (WBCs) in ... However, over time, it causes electrolyte imbalances and has reduced effectiveness. Furosemide is prohibited in competing ... Epp, TS; Edwards, KL; Poole, DC; Erickson, HH (17 December 2008). "Effects of conjugated oestrogens and aminocaproic acid upon ...
... occurring to compensate for the pH imbalance from oxidation of sulfur amino acids. This may lead to a higher risk of kidney ... "When data on amino acids analyses are not available, determination of protein based on total N content by Kjeldahl (AOAC, 2000 ... These five are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids, Institute of ...
Acid-base imbalance. *Water-electrolyte imbalance. Organisations. *Society of Critical Care Medicine ... Predicted body weight is calculated based on sex and height, and tools for this are available.[72] Recruitment maneuvers may be ... However, omega-3 fatty acids are not recommended as immune supplements for a person with sepsis or septic shock. The usage of ... The Campaign has published an evidence-based review of management strategies for severe sepsis, with the aim to publish a ...
The primary fuels for the cells of our body are glucose (a simple sugar) and fatty acids (compounds produced by the breakdown ... Likewise, hyperphagia (excessive eating) may be a result of hormonal imbalances, mental disorders (e.g., depression) and others ... Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM. 2014: 519035. doi:10.1155/2014/519035. ISSN 1741-427X.. ...
For most reactions, however, the acids and bases are not present in equal amounts, and this imbalance is what allows a chemical ... A base is an acid's "chemical opposite." A base is a substance that will accept the acid's hydrogen atom. Bases are molecules ... Every acid has a conjugate base formed by removing the acid's proton. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), for example, is an acid and its ... An acid and its conjugate base are opposite in strength. Since HCl is a strong acid, Cl- is a weak base. ...
... increased amino acid catabolism, inhibition of the citric acid cycle, lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, hyperuricemia, disturbance ... By causing an imbalance of the NAD+/NADH redox system, alcoholic beverages make normal bodily functions more difficult. ... Hair of the dog: The belief is that consumption of further alcohol after the onset of a hangover will relieve symptoms, based ... Tolfenamic acid, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, in a 1983 study reduced headache, nausea, vomiting, irritation but ...
This is based on the fact that the compound is bicyclic and therefore does not adhere to the equation given above. It is ... The original monoamine hypothesis postulates that depression is caused by a deficiency or imbalances in the monoamine ... tropane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester isomers". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 47 (25): 6401-9. doi:10.1021/jm0401311. PMID ... This finding is based on the premise that desipramine is not self-administered, and also the fact that the NRI atomoxetine was ...
The first stage of bokashi preserves the ingredients in a lactic acid fermentation. The acid is a natural disinfectant, used as ... The aerated base is just visible through the food scraps and bokashi bran. ... addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for soil. In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion ... Imbalances. *Boron deficiency. *Calcium deficiency. *Iron deficiency. *Magnesium deficiency. *Manganese deficiency. *Molybdenum ...
Supplements based on amino acid chelates (such as glycinate, lysinate etc.) are much better-tolerated by the digestive system ... this imbalance has detrimental effects on other cellular processes. ... Nucleic acidsEdit. Nucleic acids have an important range of interactions with Mg2+. The binding of Mg2+ to DNA and RNA ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 11 (9): 2665-2679. doi:10.1093/nar/11.9.2665. PMC 325916 . PMID 6856472.. ...
Measles is the fifth-largest cause of childhood mortality.[10][33] Folic acid for mothers is one way to combat iron deficiency ... Home-based technology to chlorinate, filter, and solar disinfection for organic water pollution could reduce cases of diarrhea ... Fuse K, Crenshaw EM (January 2006). "Gender imbalance in infant mortality: a cross-national study of social structure and ... However, the method of calculating IMR often varies widely between countries, and is based on how they define a live birth and ...
... and correct diagnosis for Acid-Base Imbalance signs or Acid-Base Imbalance symptoms. ... Symptoms of Acid-Base Imbalance including 83 medical symptoms and signs of Acid-Base Imbalance, alternative diagnoses, ... Research More About Acid-Base Imbalance. Do I have Acid-Base Imbalance? *Acid-Base Imbalance: Introduction *Acid-Base Imbalance ... Treatments for Acid-Base Imbalance *More about Acid-Base Imbalance Acid-Base Imbalance: Medical Mistakes. *GERD -- Health ...
Start studying acid base imbalance:respiratory disorders. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other ... Ingestion of bicarbonate-based antacids. -characterized by high pH ,7.45 and a high bicarbonate ,28 mEq/L. -may be caused a ... may caused by excess acid in the body or loss of bicarbonate from the body. -when this occur,respiratory system attempts to ... management focuses on correcting the imbalance and treating the underlying cause.. -it is important to provide a calm quiet low ...
... and strong acids and bases (including both organic and inorganic acids). Acid-base disorders can be recognized by any of the ... Acid-base homeostasis is defined by the pH of blood plasma and by the conditions of the acid-base pairs that determine it. ... Respiratory acid-base disorders are disorders of carbon dioxide (CO2) tension, and metabolic acid-base disorders comprise all ... Metabolic acid-base derangements are associated with a greater number of underlying conditions than are respiratory acid-base ...
HANDBOOK OF FLUID, ELECTROLYTE, AND ACID-BASE IMBALANCES This title has been archived. ... and acid-base balances, imbalances, and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. ...
The bicarbonate-carbonic acid system is the most important buffer system used to clinically evaluate acid-base status. ... Clinical aspects of acid base balance. This article is available in full to registered subscribers. Sign up now to obtain ten ... Primary acid-base disturbances. This article is available in full to registered subscribers. Sign up now to obtain ten tokens ... Acid-base balance is crucial to optimal function of body systems. *pH is a way of expressing [H+] which is regulated by ...
... cardiac disease and long-term antibiotic treatment owing to a toe infection was admitted to hospital with a severe acid-base ... A man in his seventies with a long-term infection and severe acid-base imbalance. Educational case report Educational case ... An assessment to determine the cause of the acid-base imbalance was initiated concurrently with life-saving treatment. ... disease and long-term antibiotic treatment owing to a toe infection was admitted to hospital with a severe acid-base imbalance ...
These patients are at risk of developing acid-base imbalance. In the present study, the effect of disturbances in acid-base ... Consequently, our results suggest that co-morbidities associated with acid-base imbalance can play a substantial role in the ... The role of acid-base imbalance in statin-induced myotoxicity. Translational Research, The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical ... Disturbances in acid-base balance, such as acidosis and alkalosis, have potential to alter the pharmacological and ...
Electrolyte and Acid Base Imbalances (Nursing Reference), Joyce LeFever Kee - 9781435453685. Find the lowest prices on ... Handbook of Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid Base Imbalances (Nursing Reference). by Joyce LeFever Kee *List Price: $99.95 ... and acid-base balances, imbalances,... Read more ...
Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders. by A. Rizzo et al. ... Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders.. *. A. Rizzo, Giuseppe ... article{Rizzo1981BloodAE, title={Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory ...
Respiratory Acid-Base Imbalances. July 11, 2012. by Nicole Whitworth 5 Comments ... Have you ever felt confused or even intimidated by Acid-Base Imbalances? If so, youre not alone…the topic of Fluids and ... And being able to understand Acid-Base Imbalances are a big part of that. Lets jump into how we can better understand ... Nicole Acid and Base Imbalances fall into two primary category types: Respiratory and Metabolic. Understanding the underlying ...
Acid-base imbalance is an abnormality of the human bodys normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to ... This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article Acid-base imbalance; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution- ... "Mixed Acid Base Disorders: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center". Archived from the original on 26 April ... Acid-base imbalance. 50x40px. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by ...
Well explain how your body maintains its pH balance, what causes a pH imbalance, and how imbalances are treated. ... Your bodys pH balance, also referred to as its acid-base balance, is the level of acids and bases in your blood at which your ... The kidneys help the lungs maintain acid-base balance by excreting acids or bases into the blood. The kidneys effect on ... Treating pH imbalance. Treatments for pH imbalances will vary greatly based on whether youre experiencing acidosis or ...
Acid-Base Imbalances: Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis; Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis answers are found in the Diseases ... Imbalances:_Metabolic_Acidosis_and_Alkalosis. Sommers MS. Acid-Base Imbalances: Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis; Respiratory ... Imbalances:_Metabolic_Acidosis_and_Alkalosis. Accessed January 24, 2020.. Sommers, M. S. (2019). Acid-Base Imbalances: ... Imbalances:_Metabolic_Acidosis_and_Alkalosis. Sommers MS. Acid-Base Imbalances: Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis; Respiratory ...
Acid-base imbalance occurs when a significant insult causes the blood pH to shift out of the normal range (7.32 to 7.42[14]). ... ions, replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases.[11] This has the effect of damping the effect of pH ... Acid ash hypothesis. References[edit]. *^ a b Hamm, LL; Nakhoul, N; Hering-Smith, KS (7 December 2015). "Acid-Base Homeostasis" ... a weak acid and its conjugate base.[5][11] It is the ratio concentration of the weak acid to its conjugate base that determines ...
... and acid-base balances, imbalances, and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. ... electrolyte and acid-base balances, imbalances and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. ... Evidence-Based Approach to the Treatment and Care of the Older Adult With Cancer, An (2006) ... Developmental approach provides examples across the life span that illustrate common health problems associated with imbalances ...
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Felver, L. (2011). Fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance and imbalance. In Cardiac Nursing: Sixth Edition (pp. 153-176). ... Felver, L 2011, Fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance and imbalance. in Cardiac Nursing: Sixth Edition. Wolters Kluwer ... Fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance and imbalance. / Felver, Linda.. Cardiac Nursing: Sixth Edition. Wolters Kluwer ... Fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance and imbalance. In Cardiac Nursing: Sixth Edition. Wolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP ...
ACID - BASE IMBALANCES - What you need to know?. August 31, 2013. admin Study Corner ... Excessive loss of Acid or Excessive gain of Bicarbonate. - Causes - vomiting, gastric suction, increased alkali intake. - Signs ... Excessive absorption or retention fo acid or excessive excretion of HCO3. - causes - Ketoacidosis, Lactic acidosis, Prolonged ...
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Acid-Base Imbalances Fig Kinds of acid-base imbalances. A, Respiratory imbalances caused by carbonic acid (CA) excess and ... Acid-Base Imbalances Acid-Base Regulation Buffer system Respiratory system Renal system Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., ... Acid-Base Imbalances Table Terminology Related to Acid-Base Physiology. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of ... Acid-Base Imbalances Alterations in Acid-Base Balance Respiratory acidosis Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate ...
This study aims at quantifying and differentiating pulmonary dysfunction and acid-base imbalances induced by Cp. Forty-two ... Variables of acid-base status were assessed in venous blood using both (i) traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch and (ii) strong ... However, the acid-base equilibrium was additionally influenced by metabolic components, i.e. the systemic inflammatory response ... resulted in a decrease in the sum of non-volatile weak acids (Atot), revealing an alkalotic effect. This was counterbalanced by ...
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Correction of electrolyte imbalance • Correction of acid base imbalance • Adequate urine output( 0.5 to 1 ml/kg/hr) ... Acid/Base Balance Potassium Abnormalities Calcium Abnormalities Magnesium Abnormalities * 24. Potassium Abnormalities • Normal ... Volume Changes : • Concentration Changes : • Composition Changes : Acid/Base Balance Potassium Abnormalities Calcium ... K+ has an important role in the regulation of acid-base balance. ... 6. Organic Inorganic Glucose Amino acids Proteins Fatty acid ...
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Acid-base imbalance might promote the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether nutrient-derived dietary acid ... Association of estimated dietary acid load with albuminuria in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.. Kabasawa K1, Hosojima ... We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of the association between net endogenous acid production (NEAP), estimated as ... Association of estimated dietary acid load with albuminuria in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study ...
Electrolyte & acid-base imbalances:. -potasium → hyperkalemia. -sodium → normal or low; sodium along w/ water is retained ... BUN, creatinine, acid-base & electrolytes begin to normalize. -nephrons are still not functional. Recovery phase:. -GFR ↑ which ... uremic toxins & fluids are removed while acid-base status & electrolytes are adjusted slowly & continuously. -dialyze patients ... also heparin & hyaluronic acid. -Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) a form of myconacterium bovis is a common treatment. -surgical ...
Hyperventilation is a symptom of what type of acid-base imbalance in the body?. Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and ... The common ion effect for weak acids is to significantly decrease the dissociation of the acid in water. Explai.... Chemistry ... How many esters exist that are isomeric with 2-methylbutanoic acid?. Organic And Biological Chemistry ...
... exogenous acids poisoning (aspirin, methanol, ), PaCO2 , 45 mmHg and spontaneous breathing, sodium bicarbonate infusion or ... Acid-Base Imbalance. Metabolic Diseases. To Top. *For Patients and Families. *For Researchers ...
Effects of Normal Saline Versus Balanced Infusates on the Incidence of Electrolyte and Acid-base Disturbances. ... Patients receiving isotonic saline showed significant decreases in pH, base excess and a significant rises in serum chloride. ... no studies using acetate based balanced salt type fluids have been performed so far in cadaveric renal transplantation. We ...
Acid-Base Imbalance. Calcium, Dietary. Omeprazole. Bone Density Conservation Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Ulcer ... Intestinal conditions associated with malabsorption or low gastric acid levels including Crohns Disease, ulcerative colitis, ...
  • Alterations in acid-base balance produce characteristic patterns in arterial blood gases and plasma electrolytes. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • They may be ordered along with other tests, such as electrolytes to determine if an electrolyte imbalance is present, glucose to evaluate blood sugar concentrations, and BUN and creatinine tests to evaluate kidney function. (labcorp.com)
  • Immediate treatment requires correction of fluid loss, electrolytes, and acid-base imbalance. (medscape.com)
  • If significant dehydration has occurred, immediate treatment requires correction of fluid loss, electrolytes, and acid-base imbalance, starting with an initial fluid bolus (20ml/kg) of isotonic crystalloid. (medscape.com)
  • Addison's disease, for example, can cause an imbalance in electrolytes. (brighthub.com)
  • Fluid balance, serum electrolytes and acid-base balance should be monitored before and during administration, with particular attention to serum sodium in patients with increased non-osmotic vasopressin release (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, SIADH) and in patients co-medicated with vasopressin agonist drugs, due to the risk of hospital acquired hyponatraemia (see sections 4.4, 4.5 and 4.8). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Disturbances in acid-base balance, such as acidosis and alkalosis, have potential to alter the pharmacological and toxicological outcomes of statin therapy. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Disruption in your acid-base balance can lead to medical conditions known as acidosis and alkalosis. (healthline.com)
  • There are different types of acidosis and alkalosis based on the underlying cause. (healthline.com)
  • Metabolic alkalosis occurs when bicarbonate levels in your blood get too high or your body loses too much acid. (healthline.com)
  • An excess of acid is called acidosis or acidaemia and an excess in bases is called alkalosis or alkalemia. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The process that causes the imbalance is classified based on the etiology of the disturbance (respiratory or metabolic) and the direction of change in pH (acidosis or alkalosis). (omicsgroup.org)
  • Nursing Central , nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Diseases-and-Disorders/73505/2/Acid_Base_Imbalances:_Metabolic_Acidosis_and_Alkalosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The imbalances characterized by both approaches were 42 (69%) animals without imbalance, 17 (28%) with metabolic alkalosis and 2 (3%) with metabolic acidosis by the traditional approach and 17 (28%) dogs without imbalance, 26 (43%) with metabolic alkalosis and 18 (29%) with metabolic acidosis by the quantitative approach. (bvsalud.org)
  • The most found imbalances were metabolic alkalosis , hypokalemia , and mild dehydration . (bvsalud.org)
  • Each dialysis modality can also trigger significant electrolyte and acid-base disorders, such as hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia and metabolic alkalosis, which may direct changes in fluid delivery and composition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • there is a lot of information on acid-base balance here and includes information on respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. (allnurses.com)
  • The clinical features of acid-base disorders vary by the type of disorder and according to the underlying disease process. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • 4. Specific therapy for acid-base disorders (e.g., buffer therapy) should be reserved for severe and/or persistent disorders. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • With a clear, comprehensive approach, this quick-reference handbook on the basic principles of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances, imbalances, and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. (r2library.com)
  • When acid-base balance is disturbed, the signs may be referable to the respiratory system or manifest as metabolic disorders. (vetstream.com)
  • Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The scientific literature has many reports concerning acid-base balance and endothelium function, but these concepts are not clear about acid -base disorders and their relations with the three known mechanisms of endothelium -dependent vascular reactivity nitric oxide (NO/cGMP-dependent), prostacyclin (PGI2/cAMP-dependent) and hyperpolarization. (bvsalud.org)
  • Together with pH determination, bicarbonate measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems. (cdc.gov)
  • The purposes of this study were to characterize hydric, electrolytic and acid-base disorders presented by puppies with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and to compare the traditional and quantitative approaches to acid-base status interpretation. (bvsalud.org)
  • For assessing the frequency of occurrence and lethality of acid-base disorders diagnosed in the intensive care unit, a prospective study was performed with 100 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU as of November 1st, 1999. (sld.cu)
  • The bicarbonate buffering system is especially key, as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) can be shifted through carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) to hydrogen ions and bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) as shown below. (omicsgroup.org)
  • This is achieved by changes in the rate and depth of breathing (i.e. by hyperventilation or hypoventilation ), which blows off or retains carbon dioxide (and thus carbonic acid) in the blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] The bicarbonate is derived from metabolic carbon dioxide which is enzymatically converted to carbonic acid in the renal tubular cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • If there is an imbalance in the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your blood, it can mean your lungs aren't working well . (medlineplus.gov)
  • A blood gas analysis is ordered when someone has symptoms of an oxygen/carbon dioxide or pH imbalance, such as difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, nausea, or vomiting. (labcorp.com)
  • Doctors check the carbon dioxide level in the blood to see if there is an acid-base imbalance. (brighthub.com)
  • Carbon dioxide is found in three forms in the blood - dissolved carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, and bicarbonate. (brighthub.com)
  • If an acid-base imbalance is suspected, the doctor may also order a blood gas test to determine how well the lungs are exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. (brighthub.com)
  • Johnson P J (1995) Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances in the horse . (vetstream.com)
  • In the present study, the effect of disturbances in acid-base balance on the inter-conversion of simvastatin and pravastatin between lactone and hydroxy acid forms have been investigated in physiological buffers, human plasma and cell culture medium over pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.8. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Most of acid-base disturbances were not identified by the traditional approach, whereas by the quantitative approach, they were easily determined. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite it is a common disorder and with high mortality, the patterns of the acid-base disturbances in dogs with DKA were not evaluated objectively. (usp.br)
  • The objective of the present study was to describe the acid-base and electrolytic disturbances in dogs with DKA and diabetic ketosis (DK) according to their frequency, adequacy of the compensatory mechanisms e occurrence of mixed disturbances. (usp.br)
  • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with electrolyte and acid-base disturbances such as hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This review provides an overview of the electrolyte and acid-base disturbances occurring in AKI and after the initiation of dialysis and discusses therapeutic options in this setting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Large doses cause acid-base imbalance and respiratory disturbances and can be fatal, especially in children. (infoplease.com)
  • However, because of significant disturbances in the acid-base balance, which are usually progressive, arterial blood gas evaluation is required, rather than only monitoring pulse oximetry. (medscape.com)
  • The sodium chloride component helps correct salt imbalance, to help prevent dehydration (the loss of too much water from the body). (nps.org.au)
  • Metabolic acidosis is a buildup of acid in the body that originates in the kidneys. (healthline.com)
  • In CKD, with declining kidney function, acid retention and metabolic acidosis occur, but the extent of acid retention depends not only on the degree of kidney impairment but also on the dietary acid load. (nih.gov)
  • In individuals with acidosis from CKD, an inappropriately low degree of ammonia excretion points to the pathogenic role of impaired urinary acid excretion. (nih.gov)
  • Simultaneously determined acid-base status and serum electrolyte concentrations allowed assessment of the relative importance of formate accumulation for the acidosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Postoperative acid-base imbalances, usually acidosis, frequently occur after cardiac surgery. (hindawi.com)
  • This is the bicarbonate-carbonic acid system. (vetstream.com)
  • The bicarbonate-carbonic acid system is the most important buffer system used to clinically evaluate acid-base status. (vetstream.com)
  • By the way, here's a less simplified explanation of what I wrote above for those of you that want more info: When there's too much CO2 in the body, the body tries to get rid of it by combining with H2O to become Carbonic Acid (H2CO3). (yournursingtutor.com)
  • Some of the Carbonic Acid separates to become Bicarbonate (HCO3-, which is a base) and H+. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • The Bicarb and H+ neutralize each other, but there's still extra Carbonic Acid which makes the body's pH turn acidic. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • The H+ and the bicarbonate recombine to become Carbonic Acid again, and then the Carbonic Acid breaks up into CO2 and H2O again. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • The second line of defence of the pH of the ECF consists of controlling of the carbonic acid concentration in the ECF. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] [13] Similarly an excess of H + ions is partially neutralized by the bicarbonate component of the buffer solution to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), which, because it is a weak acid, remains largely in the undissociated form, releasing far fewer H + ions into the solution than the original strong acid would have done. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of essential amino acids to uremic patients results in the utilization of retained urea in protein synthesis. (drugs.com)
  • hypersensitivity to 1 or more amino acids in the solution ( NephrAmine only). (drugs.com)
  • IV 0.5 to 1 g of essential amino acids/kg per day will meet the requirements of the majority of children. (drugs.com)
  • Each 500 mL represents three Rose Units of essential amino acids plus arginine and histidine. (rxlist.com)
  • A dosage of 2.4 to 4.7 grams of nitrogen per day (from essential amino acids ) with adequate calories will maintain nitrogen equilibrium in patients with uremia . (rxlist.com)
  • The rate of rise in BUN generally diminishes with infusion of essential amino acids. (rxlist.com)
  • The usual daily dose ranges from 300 to 600 mL of Aminosyn-RF 5.2%, Sulfite-Free, (an amino acid injection - renal formula) equivalent to 2.4 to 4.7 grams of nitrogen in 15.7 to 31 grams of essential amino acids. (rxlist.com)
  • Given iv, it has spasmogenic activity, antitussive effect, and may precipitate hepatic coma in the synthesis of amino acids. (dsaj.org)
  • The main variants are the base excess approach and the bicarbonate approach. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The kidneys play a major role in the regulation of acid-base balance by reabsorbing bicarbonate filtered by the glomeruli and excreting titratable acids and ammonia into the urine. (nih.gov)
  • Acid retention can occur even when the serum bicarbonate level is apparently normal. (nih.gov)
  • With reduced kidney function, acid transport processes in the surviving nephrons are augmented but as disease progresses ammonia excretion and, in some individuals, the ability to reabsorb bicarbonate falls, whereas titratable acid excretion is preserved until kidney function is severely impaired. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of a normal bicarbonate level in CKD complicates the interpretation of the urinary ammonia excretion as such individuals could be in acid-base balance or could be retaining acid without manifesting a low bicarbonate level. (nih.gov)
  • The plasma formate concentration was highly correlated to both the calculated anion gap (r = 0.833), the bicarbonate concentration (r = 0.852) and the negative base excess (r = 0.865). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The accumulation of formate fully accounted for the increase in the anion gap and the fall in plasma bicarbonate, whereas the negative base excess values were about 22% higher than the plasma formate concentration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A caries lesion occurs when acids produced by bacterial glycolysis of dietary carbohydrates cause demineralization of the tooth enamel. (springer.com)
  • At physiological and alkaline pH, substantial proportions of simvastatin lactone (~ 87% and 99%, respectively) and pravastatin lactone (~ 98% and 99%, respectively) were converted to the active hydroxy acid forms after 24 hours of incubation at 37 °C. At acidic pH, conversion occurs to a lower extent, resulting in greater proportion of statin remaining in the more lipophilic lactone form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Enhanced cytotoxicity of statins was observed under acidic conditions and is attributed to increased cellular uptake of the more lipophilic lactone or unionized hydroxy acid form. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • So that means that as CO2 increases, H+ will increase, which means that there will be more acid in the body…which means that pH will decrease to become more acidic. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • Fat emulsion coadministration should be considered when prolonged (more than 5 days) parenteral nutrition is required in order to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). (rxlist.com)
  • If the patient is receiving lipids, check phospholipid fatty acid profiles daily for 2 days, then weekly. (hyperemesis.org)
  • Positive correlation was found between light exposure duration and white adipose tissue, average adipocyte size, as well as plasma free fatty acid levels. (nature.com)
  • We can't metabolize fatty acids into carbohydrates for energy, since we lack the glyoxylate cycle right? (physicsforums.com)
  • What drug is an amino acid derivative and is a cofactor needed for the transformation of long-chain fatty acids? (studystack.com)
  • The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are lipid derivatives of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) or of omega-6 (arachidonic acid, ARA) are synthesized from membrane phospholipids and used as a precursor for endocannabinoids (ECs) mediate significant effects in the fine-tune adjustment of body homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • a Includes acetate from acetic acid used in processing and from Lysine acetate. (rxlist.com)
  • b Adjusted with acetic acid. (rxlist.com)
  • Properties Site of action: colon Onset of action: 12-72 hours (oral) 0.25-1 hour (rectal) Examples: glycerin suppositories (Hallens), sorbitol, lactulose, and PEG (Colyte, MiraLax) Lactulose works by the osmotic effect, which retains water in the colon, lowering the pH through bacterial fermentation to lactic, formic and acetic acid, and increasing colonic peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is worth differentiating if primary, what type of avoidance conditioning the organism or goads it into acetic acid, while almost 90% of patients complaining of discharge associated with increased infiltration of the acid, gastric contents into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the. (dsaj.org)
  • Acid-base imbalance might promote the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether nutrient-derived dietary acid load increases the risk of albuminuria or even high normoalbuminuria is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • That's the physiology underneath Respiratory Imbalances. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • Once you understand of the physiology of Respiratory Imbalances, it's easier to start thinking like a nurse. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • The traditional approach to the study of acid-base physiology has been the empiric approach. (omicsgroup.org)
  • [1] The proper balance between the acids and bases (i.e. the pH) in the ECF is crucial for the normal physiology of the body, and cellular metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.qldanaesthesia.com/acidbasebook/abindex.htm - the online edition of 'acid-base physiology' by kerry brandis. (allnurses.com)
  • Chlorine was formally discovered in 1774 when a Swedish scientist Carl Wilhelm Scheele accidentally produced it by releasing a few drops of hydrochloric acid onto a piece of manganese dioxide. (manufacturing.net)
  • In oral biofilms, arginine metabolism via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) produces ammonia, which inhibits tooth demineralization by neutralizing glycolytic acids and by suppressing the emergence of a cariogenic microflora. (springer.com)
  • 4 ] have suggested that alkali production in the form of ammonia inhibits tooth demineralization by neutralizing glycolytic acids and by creating an environment in oral biofilms more favorable to the persistence of an alkalinogenic microflora that is compatible with dental health. (springer.com)
  • Urinary ammonia levels are used to gauge the renal response to acid loads and are best assessed by direct measurement of urinary ammonia levels rather than by indirect assessments. (nih.gov)
  • Frequent laboratory and clinical monitoring is strongly recommended, especially in very young patients, to avoid clinically significant elevations of serum ammonia and plasma amino acid levels. (drugs.com)
  • Processed foods and sugars are almost a guaranteed way to worsen acid reflux and create a bacterial imbalance in the stomach and intestinal. (captcenter.org)
  • A blood oxygen level test also checks the balance of acids and bases, known as pH balance, in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A blood oxygen level test is used to check how well your lungs are working and measure the acid-base balance in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apart from its obvious use, it also acts as a barrier to moisture and oxygen and is resistant to alkali and acids. (yahoo.com)
  • Acid-base balance is crucial to optimal function of body systems. (vetstream.com)
  • I use an easy, over-simplified way to help me remember how the lungs can effect the acid-base balance in the body. (yournursingtutor.com)
  • Your body's pH balance, also referred to as its acid-base balance , is the level of acids and bases in your blood at which your body functions best. (healthline.com)
  • The kidneys help the lungs maintain acid-base balance by excreting acids or bases into the blood. (healthline.com)
  • Acid-base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to deviate out of the normal range (7.35 to 7.45). (omicsgroup.org)
  • The body's acid-base balance is tightly regulated. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Felver, L 2011, Fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance and imbalance . (elsevier.com)
  • Magnesium Imbalances Fig Effects of stress on fluid and electrolyte balance. (slideplayer.com)
  • Continuous acidification of oral biofilms results in increases in the proportions of acid-producing and acid-tolerant organisms, a selective process that alters dental plaque pH homeostasis and shifts the demineralization-remineralization balance toward loss of tooth minerals. (springer.com)
  • This measures the balance of acids and bases in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Blood gas measurements are used to evaluate a person's lung function and acid/base balance. (labcorp.com)
  • Discuss the relationship between acid-base balance & potassium movement into the cell or into interstitial fluid. (allnurses.com)
  • Acid-base imbalances affect electrolyte balance. (allnurses.com)
  • http://maagnursing.com/abg/ - this is an abg and acid/base balance tutorial. (allnurses.com)
  • When the obstruction is below the proximal colon, acid-base balance usually is maintained because GI fluids are absorbed before reaching the intestinal obstruction (Kenner & Lott, 2003). (nann.org)
  • This accessible guide explains, clearly and concisely, the key elements underlying fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and imbalances. (aacc.org)
  • When you cross the anearobic threshold, not all glucose that is needed can be oxadized by the Krebs cycle and the less efficient breakdown of glucose into lactic acid through glycolysis kicks in to regenerat the depleted GTP and ATP stores. (physicsforums.com)
  • Derangements in blood pH result from increased intake, altered production or impaired/excessive excretion of acid or base. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The presence of only one of the above derangements is called a simple acid-base disorder. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Laboratory monitoring is essential to prevent acid-base imbalance and electrolyte derangements. (nann.org)
  • Despite the knowledge that lactated ringer's can at least potentially lead to a rise in lactate levels, no studies using acetate based balanced salt type fluids have been performed so far in cadaveric renal transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since baseline serum creatinine level and GFRs may not be readily available, the consensus committee recommended the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation to estimate the patient's GFR/1.73 mm based on serum creatinine level, age, gender, and race. (medscape.com)
  • Amino acid injection does not replace dialysis and conventional supportive therapy in patients with renal failure. (drugs.com)
  • Aminosyn®- RF 5.2%, Sulfite-Free, (an amino acid injection - renal formula) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution for intravenous infusion. (rxlist.com)
  • Aminosyn-RF 5.2%, Sulfite-Free, (an amino acid injection - renal formula) is indicated only as an adjunct to management of patients with potentially reversible acute renal failure who are unable to eat. (rxlist.com)
  • The objective of nutritional management of renal decompensation is to provide sufficient amino acid and caloric support for protein synthesis without exceeding the renal capacity to excrete metabolic wastes. (rxlist.com)
  • Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities during renal support for acute kidney injury: recognition and management. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Arterial blood gas is a common test used for measuring blood acid and oxygenation levels along with diagnosing respiratory or renal conditions. (yahoo.com)
  • Aqueous buffer solutions will react with strong acids or strong bases by absorbing excess hydrogen H + ions, or hydroxide OH − ions, replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases . (wikipedia.org)
  • The common ion effect for weak acids is to significantly decrease the dissociation of the acid in water. (bartleby.com)
  • Aniline reacts with strong oxidizers, strong acids, alkalis and toluene diisocyanate. (cdc.gov)
  • Acid-base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acid -base homeostasis maintains systemic arterial pH within a narrow range. (bvsalud.org)
  • It can cause extreme fluid loss, acid-base imbalance, and electrolyte disturbance. (petplace.com)
  • Arterial blood gas analyzers offer measurement related to acid-base status and blood oxygenation along with gas exchange efficiency of the lungs. (yahoo.com)
  • Like pulse oximetry, arterial blood gas evaluation is valuable for identifying acid-base imbalances. (medscape.com)
  • These results indicated the need for early prevention and treatment of acid-base imbalances in intensive care units. (sld.cu)
  • We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of the association between net endogenous acid production (NEAP), estimated as dietary protein to potassium content ratio, and the presence of high normoalbuminuria (ACR: 1.13-3.38 mg/mmol) or microalbuminuria. (nih.gov)
  • Most hydrogen fluoride exposures occur by inhalation of the gas and dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood gases are used to detect an acid-base imbalance, such as can occur with kidney failure, heart failure, uncontrolled diabetes, severe infections, and drug overdose. (labcorp.com)
  • The higher your activity level, the larger the share of oxidation of glucose (citric acid cycle / Krebs cycle) becomes (glucose, in turn, is regenerated through glycogen breakdown). (physicsforums.com)
  • What enzyme in the arachidonic acid pathway is blocked by NSAIDs? (brainscape.com)
  • Acid-base imbalance in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. (sld.cu)
  • Too much or too little acid in the blood can mean there is a problem with your lungs or kidneys . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Checking blood gases from the umbilical cord of a newborn may uncover respiratory problems as well as determine acid/base status. (labcorp.com)
  • aspirin, acetyl derivative of salicylic acid (see salicylate ) that is used to lower fever, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and thin the blood. (infoplease.com)
  • Looking for medication to treat acid base imbalance of the blood toward the basic side? (captcenter.org)
  • An acid-base imbalance is known as acidaemia when the acidity is high, or alkalaemia when the acidity is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acidity is usually characterized as the heart burn and gas formation in stomach and acid reflux. (captcenter.org)
  • The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) group published the RIFLE classification of ARF, based on changes from the patient's baseline either in serum creatinine level, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or urine output (UO). (medscape.com)
  • Hypochlorhydria, or low stomach acid, may be a sign of an underlying condition, including H. pylori infection or vitamin deficiency. (captcenter.org)
  • An assessment to determine the cause of the acid-base imbalance was initiated concurrently with life-saving treatment. (tidsskriftet.no)
  • Measurement of acid-base imbalance. (dsaj.org)
  • Ammonium excretion correlated with the increase in base excess. (hindawi.com)
  • There's two primary mechanisms you'll see with respiratory imbalances: breathing too fast (hyperventilation) and breathing too slow (hypoventilation). (yournursingtutor.com)