The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A situation where one member (allele) of a gene pair is lost (LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY) or amplified.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Dedication or commitment shown by employees to organizations or institutions where they work.
Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.

Genetic heterogeneity in propionic acidemia patients with alpha-subunit defects. Identification of five novel mutations, one of them causing instability of the protein. (1/110)

The inherited metabolic disease propionic acidemia (PA) can result from mutations in either of the genes PCCA or PCCB, which encode the alpha and beta subunits, respectively, of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl CoA-carboxylase. In this work we have analyzed the molecular basis of PCCA gene defects, studying mRNA levels and identifying putative disease causing mutations. A total of 10 different mutations, none predominant, are present in a sample of 24 mutant alleles studied. Five novel mutations are reported here for the first time. A neutral polymorphism and a variant allele present in the general population were also detected. To examine the effect of a point mutation (M348K) involving a highly conserved residue, we have carried out in vitro expression of normal and mutant PCCA cDNA and analyzed the mitochondrial import and stability of the resulting proteins. Both wild-type and mutant proteins were imported into mitochondria and processed into the mature form with similar efficiency, but the mature mutant M348K protein decayed more rapidly than did the wild-type, indicating a reduced stability, which is probably the disease-causing mechanism.  (+info)

Effects of respiratory and metabolic pH changes and hypoxia on ropivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity in dogs. (2/110)

We have studied the effects of acute changes in acid-base status and hypoxia on the cardiotoxic effects of intracoronary injection of ropivacaine in anaesthetized dogs. The effects of intracoronary ropivacaine were compared when ropivacaine was administered during eucapnia and during each of another nine states in random order: hypocapnia, hypercapnia, hypoxia, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, combined metabolic acidosis and hypocapnia, combined metabolic alkalosis and hypercapnia, combined hypoxia and hypercapnia, and combined metabolic acidosis and hypoxia. Hypocapnic alkalosis consistently reduced the cardiotoxic effects of intracoronary ropivacaine (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that induction of hypocapnic alkalosis may provide a useful adjunct to standard resuscitative measure after inadvertent administration of amide local anaesthetic agents.  (+info)

Risk factors for peripartum and postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis. (3/110)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study goal was to identify potential risk factors for peripartum or postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis. METHODS: Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project were analyzed for the years 1993 and 1994. Observed values were weighted with poststratification discharge weights to project to the universe of all discharges from community hospitals located in the United States. Nationally representative estimates of risk were calculated on the basis of age, race, mode of delivery, income, third-party payer, hospital size, hospital ownership, hospital location (rural versus urban), hospital teaching status, census region, and presence of specific complications. Multivariate models were developed with the use of logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 1 408 015 sampled deliveries, there were 183 observed cases of peripartum stroke and 170 cases of peripartum intracranial venous thrombosis in 17 states in the United States in 1993 and 1994. There were an estimated 975 cases of stroke and 864 cases of intracranial venous thrombosis during pregnancy and the puerperium in the United States among 7 463 712 deliveries during 1993 and 1994, for estimated risks of 13.1 cases of peripartum stroke and 11.6 cases of peripartum intracranial venous thrombosis per 100 000 deliveries. Multivariate analysis showed that the following were strongly and significantly associated with both peripartum and postpartum stroke: cesarean delivery; fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders; and hypertension. Covariates that were strongly and significantly associated with both peripartum and postpartum intracranial venous thrombosis included cesarean delivery, hypertension, and infections other than pneumonia and influenza. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy-related hypertension and cesarean delivery are important risk factors for both stroke or intracranial venous thrombosis.  (+info)

Maintaining acid-base balance in organ donors. (4/110)

An abnormal blood pH may cause the loss of donor organs through harmful physiological consequences. The organ procurement coordinator must correctly analyze the acid-base abnormality and treat its cause while normalizing the blood pH. We recommend that treatment of acidemia or alkalemia be first directed toward changing parameters on the mechanical ventilator, using the Paco2 to modify blood pH. Thereafter, hydrochloric acid or sodium bicarbonate may be administered to correct the calculated metabolic acid-base deficit. The types of acidosis or alkalosis, dead space effect during mechanical ventilation, base excess, base deficit, and the appropriate evaluation of blood lactate are also discussed as related to the correction of the acid-base status throughout donor care.  (+info)

Acid-base imbalance adapts without changes in cell polarity in cortical collecting ducts in premature rabbits. (5/110)

It has been demonstrated that intercalated cells (ICs) change their cellular composition in acid stimuli in adult rabbits but not fully explained in developing rabbits. To clarify the mechanisms of adaptation in acid-base imbalance in collecting ducts in developing rabbit kidneys, we examined the cellular composition of cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) in 4-week-old rabbits. In the control group, the ratio of ICs to total CCD cells and that of peanut agglutinin (PNA) non-binding ICs to total ICs were 37.2 +/- 7.2% and 40.3 +/- 3.1%, respectively. By contrast, inconsistent with adult reports, in the acidotic group, these ratios were 38.4 +/- 5.1% and 41.9 +/- 1.7%, respectively, similar to the control group. The urinary pH in the control group was 8.20 +/- 0.14, while that in acidemia was 4.98 +/- 0.33 (p < 0.01). These data indicated that cellular remodeling of ICs in the acidotic state is less important for adaptation in the 4-week-old rabbit. Another mechanism, employing an acid-base related protein, might be playing an important role during development for acid base imbalance.  (+info)

Venous pH can safely replace arterial pH in the initial evaluation of patients in the emergency department. (6/110)

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the extent of correlation of arterial and venous pH with a view to identifying whether venous samples can be used as an alternative to arterial values in the clinical management of selected patients in the emergency department. METHODS: This prospective study of patients who were deemed by their treating doctor to require an arterial blood gas analysis to determine their ventilatory or acid-base status, compared pH on an arterial and a venous sample taken as close to simultaneously as possible. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation and bias (Bland-Altman) methods. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty six patients were entered into the study; 196 with acute respiratory disease and 50 with suspected metabolic derangement. The values of pH on arterial and venous samples were highly correlated (r=0.92) with an average difference between the samples of -0.4 units. There was also a high level of agreement between the methods with the 95% limits of agreement being -0.11 to +0.04 units. CONCLUSION: Venous pH estimation shows a high degree of correlation and agreement with the arterial value, with acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement. Venous pH estimation is an acceptable substitute for arterial measurement and may reduce risks of complications both for patients and health care workers.  (+info)

Rat proximal NHE3 adapts to chronic acid-base disorders but not to chronic changes in dietary NaCl intake. (7/110)

In the proximal tubule, the apical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger identified as NHE3 mediates most NaCl and NaHCO(3) absorption. The purpose of this study was to analyze the long-term regulation of NHE3 during alkalosis induced by dietary NaHCO(3) loading and changes in NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a low-NaCl, high-NaCl, or NaHCO(3) diet for 6 days were studied. Renal cortical apical membrane vesicles (AMV) were prepared from treated and normal rats. Na(+)/H(+) exchange was assayed as the initial rate of (22)Na(+) uptake in the presence of an outward H(+) gradient. (22)Na(+) uptake measured in the presence of high-dose 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride was not different among models. Changes in NaCl intake did not affect NHE3 activity, whereas NaHCO(3) loading inhibited (22)Na(+) uptake by 30%. AMV NHE3 protein abundance assessed by Western blot analysis was unaffected during changes in NaCl intake. During NaHCO(3) loading, NHE3 protein abundance was decreased by 65%. We conclude that proximal NHE3 adapts to chronic metabolic acid-base disorders but not to changes in dietary NaCl intake.  (+info)

Cerebrospinal fluid and arterial lactate, pyruvate and acid-base balance in patients with intracranial hemorrhages. (8/110)

Lactate and pyruvate concentrations and acid-base balance in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and arterial blood were determined in patients with intracranial hemorrhages (28 subarachnoid hemorrhages and 15 intracerebral hemorrhages). A greater increase in CSF lactate and lactate-pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) was observed in patients with impairment of consciousness, focal neurological deficits, poor prognosis, or CSF pressures higher than 300 mm H2O. A combination of CSF lactate greater than 2.5 mM per liter, L/P ration above 20, bicarbonate less than 20.4 mEq per liter, pH below 7.276, or arterial PCO2 below 31.5 mm Hg seems to indicate poor prognosis from intracranial hemorrhage. The mechanism of hyperventilation in acute cerebrovascular diseases and of CSF pH regulation in acid-base disturbances was also discussed.  (+info)

Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) is a respiratory pathogen capable of inducing acute pulmonary zoonotic disease (psittacosis) or persistent infection. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this infection, a translational large animal model was recently introduced by our group. This study aims at quantifying and differentiating pulmonary dysfunction and acid-base imbalances induced by Cp. Forty-two calves were grouped in (i) animals inoculated with Cp (n = 21) and (ii) controls sham-inoculated with uninfected cell culture (n = 21). For pulmonary function testing, impulse oscillometry, capnography, and FRC (functional residual capacity) measurement were applied to spontaneously breathing animals. Variables of acid-base status were assessed in venous blood using both (i) traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch and (ii) strong ion approach. Both obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorders were induced in calves experimentally inoculated with Cp. Although disorders in respiratory mechanics lasted for 8-11 days, the pattern
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Blood and erythrocyte hydrogen ion concentrations in acid-base imbalance from respiratory disorders. by A. Rizzo et al.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Quick Reference on Anion Gap and Strong Ion Gap. AU - Torrente Artero, Carlos. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts are useful calculations to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base associated to the presence of unmeasured anions. This article presents their definition, normal values, indications, limitations, and guidelines for interpretation of changes in the clinical setting.. AB - © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts ...
Acetazolamide-mediated decrease in strong ion difference accounts for the correction of metabolic alkalosis in critically ill patients : Metabolic alkalosis is a commonly encountered acid-base derangement in the intensive care unit. Treatment with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide is indicated in selected cases. According to the quantitative approach described by Stewart, correction of serum pH due to carbonic anhydrase inhibition in the proximal tubule cannot be explained by excretion of bicarbonate. Using the
With a clear, comprehensive approach, this quick-reference handbook on the basic principles of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances, imbalances, and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. The chapter on increased intra-cranial pressure has been completely rewritten with a stronger focus on neurotrauma and common conditions that cause increased intra-cranial pressure. The book includes a new, comprehensive glossary for quick reference and provides a new appendix of The Joint Commissions (TJC) List of Accepted Abbreviations. Convenient handbook size and accessible information make this a handy, portable resource. Developmental approach provides examples across the life span that illustrate common health problems associated with imbalances. Nursing assessments, diagnoses, interventions, and rationales are presented in a tabular format for quick retrieval and ease of comprehension.--BOOK JACKET
With a clear, comprehensive approach, this quick-reference handbook on the basic principles of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances, imbalances, and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. ...
Again, look at the chart. Alkalosis is present (increased pH) with the HCO3 increased, reflecting a primary metabolic problem. Treatment of this patient might include the administration of I. V. fluids and measures to reduce the excess base. ? Copyright 2004 Orlando Regional Healthcare, Education & Development Page 11 Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation Compensation Thus far we have looked at simple arterial blood gas values without any evidence of compensation occurring. Now see what happens when an acid-base imbalance exists over a period of time.. When a patient develops an acid-base imbalance, the body attempts to compensate. Remember that the lungs and the kidneys are the primary buffer response systems in the body. The body tries to overcome either a respiratory or metabolic dysfunction in an attempt to return the pH into the normal range. A patient can be uncompensated, partially compensated, or fully compensated. When an acidbase disorder is either uncompensated or partially compensated, ...
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Pentec Health CEO Joe Cosgrove has addressed before the topic of dialysis in several occasions; however, and given the variety of health issues related to renal failure, it is also important to discuss and clarify the doubts people may have about other renal pathologies such as acid-base disorders. Since acid-base disorders entails the deep study…
1. Waugh A, Grant A. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness. 10th edition. Philadelphia, Pa, USA: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2007.2. University, Birmingham oAa. Oceans reveal further impacts of climate change. ScienceDaily, 2010.. 3. Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ, et al. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science. 2007;318(5857):1737-1742. [PubMed] 4. Dam-ampai SO J, Nilnond C. Effect of cattle manure and dolomite on soil properties and plant growth in acid upland soils. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technologh. 2005;27(supplement 3):727-737.. 5. Ströhle A, Hahn A, Sebastian A. Estimation of the diet-dependent net acid load in 229 worldwide historically studied hunter-gatherer societies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;91(2):406-412.[PubMed] 6. Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC., Jr. Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors. ...
1 WO 2 3 4 5 6 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 7 FOR THE DISTRICT OF ARIZONA 8 9 Thomas Stewart, Jr., No. CV 12-0719-PHX-RCB (LOA) 10 11 12 13 Plaintiff, ORDER vs. Charles L. Ryan, et al., 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Defendants. Plaintiff Thomas Stewart, Jr., brought this pro se civil rights action under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 against Dr. Karen Barcklay, an Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) physician (Doc. 1). Before the Court are the following motions: (1) Dr. Barcklays Motion for Summary Judgment (Doc. 65); (2) Stewarts Motion for Extension of Time to File Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment (Doc. 92); (3) Stewarts Motion for Counsel (Doc. 93); (4) Stewarts Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment (Doc. 96); and (5) Dr. Barcklays Motion to Strike Stewarts Cross-Motion (Doc. 97). The Court will grant Dr. Barcklays Motion for Summary Judgment and Motion to Strike, strike Stewarts Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment, and deny as moot Stewarts Motion for Extension of Time and ...
Stewart exceeds milestone with the completion of its first commercial transactions in Istanbul, Turkey. LONDON (March 8, 2006) - Stewart Title Ltd. has underwritten more than EUR 3 billion (€3,000,000,000) in title-insured transactions within Central Europe with the completion of title insuring and underwriting a cross-border, multi-site retail mall transaction with Bainbridge Retail Properties. This venture was launched and managed by Paris-based sponsor and fund manager, Groupe Leonard de Vinci.. The Bainbridge transaction consisted of 20 hypermarket-retail centers across the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Turkey. Stewart Title Ltd. issued both owner and lender policies, and used the existing Stewart International offices and underwriters in each of these markets to manage country-specific due diligence.. Stewart Title Ltd. and Stewart Information International are wholly owned subsidiaries of Stewart Information Services Corp. (Stewart) (NYSE-STC).. Stewarts commitment to develop ...
In January 1964,[nb 4] while Stewart was waiting at Twickenham railway station after having seen Long John Baldry and the All Stars at Eel Pie Island,[31][52][54] Baldry heard him playing Smokestack Lightnin on his harmonica, and invited him to sit in with the group; when Baldry discovered Stewart was a singer as well, he offered him a job for £35 a week, after securing the approval of Stewarts mother.[52] Quitting his day job at the age of nineteen, Stewart gradually overcame his shyness and nerves and became a visible enough part of the act that he was sometimes added to the billing as Rod the Mod Stewart,[40][52][53] the nickname coming from his dandyish style of grooming and dress.[36] Baldry touted Stewarts abilities to Melody Maker magazine and the group enjoyed a weekly residence at Londons fabled Marquee Club.[53] In June 1964, Stewart made his recording début (without label credit) on Up Above My Head, the B-side to a Baldry and Hoochie Coochie Men single.[55] While still ...
Acid-Base disorders require understanding of the underlying pathophysiology as well as familiarity with some formulas. Several Acid-Base scenarios that can be tested on USMLE Step 3 are A) Identifying the acid base disorder B) Identifying the etiology of acid-base imbalance in an Multiple choice question by elimination process of other choices based on the acid-base…
Objectives Discuss the mechanisms for maintaining normal acid-base balance Define respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis Identify the common causes of acid base imbalance Define and differentiate between respiratory distress and failure Discuss interventions on transport for a patient with acid-base imbalance
Joshua Dawson STEWART395,1040,1822,1826 was born on 16 Apr 1853 in MO.395,783,1826 He appeared in the census on 13 Aug 1860 in Age 7 Sinkin Twp Dent Co., MO Image 5 Of 5.395,1826 He appeared in the census on 22 Jun 1870 in Age 17 Franklin Twp Dent Co MO Image 19 Of 176.395 He appeared in the census on 9 Jun 1880 in Age 27 Franklin Twp Dent Co MO Image 15 Of 27.395 He appeared in the census on 23 Apr 1910 in Age 57 Fitzhugh Twp Ed254 Pontotoc Co OK Image 7 Of 25.395 He died on 25 Oct 1921 in Pontotoc Co., OK.395 He was buried in Lightning Ridge Cemetery, Ada, Pontotoc Co., OK.395 Parents: Campbell STEWART and Winifred BRICKEY.. Spouse: Margaret Elizabeth EDWARDS. Joshua Dawson STEWART and Margaret Elizabeth EDWARDS were married on 5 Jan 1871 in Nursery Hill, Dent Co., MO.395,2594 Children were: Charlie STEWART, Pearl STEWART, Bee STEWART, James Cleve STEWART, William L STEWART, Harriett Lulu STEWART, Annie E. STEWART, Walter J STEWART, Maudie B STEWART, Gertie STEWART, Bessie STEWART. ...
The Dodgers have signed third baseman Ian Stewart, tweets Jon Heyman of Since being jettisoned by the Cubs, Stewart was most recently rumored to be in discussions with the Yankees, who USA Todays Bob Nightengale says (Twitter link) were finalists for Stewart along with the Marlins and Rockies. While contract details have not yet been reported, all signs point to the deal being a minor league contract.. Stewart never made it to the bigs this season, as he was outrighted to Chicagos highest minor league affiliate after struggling during an early-season rehab stint. His cumulative line this season (all for Triple-A Iowa) is just .168/.286/.372. In 2012, Stewart managed just a .201/.292/.335 slash for the major league Cubs. The 28-year-old Stewart had a less-than-amicable end to his tenure in Chicago after being non-tendered but later re-signed by the Cubs this past offseason. He never regained the power stroke that he showed during his time with the Rockies. To add insult to injury ...
Elaine Stewart Pictures - Private Life and Times of Elaine Stewart. Elaine Stewart Photo Gallery. Elaine Stewart (Elsy H. Steinberg); Glamour Girls of the Silver Screen - The Private Lives and Times of Some of the Most Glamorous Actresses and Starlets of the Forties, Fifties and Sixties.
Advances in Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-base Disorders, An Issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, E-Book auf
VetVine is an accredited Continuing Education provider for veterinary professionals and resource of expert-driven pet health information for pet owners. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice (Fourth Edition), 2012; Chapter 11, pp 287-301. Authors: Rebecca A. Johnson, Helio Autran de Morais Member fee: $9.95 - Login to purchase
Harrisons Nephrology and Acid-Base Disorders, 2e de J. Larry Jameson; Joseph Loscalzo en - ISBN 10: 0071814965 - ISBN 13: 9780071814966 - McGraw-Hill Education / Medical - 2013 - Tapa blanda
Fu, J., Teucher, M., Anastassiadis, K., Skarnes, W. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). A Recombineering Pipeline to Make Conditional Targeting Constructs. Methods Enzymol 477C: 125-144. Anastassiadis, K., Glaser, S., Kranz, A., Bernhardt, K. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). A Practical Summary of Site-Specific Recombination, Conditional Mutagenesis, and Tamoxifen Induction of CreERT2. Methods Enzymol 477C: 109-123. Kranz, A., Fu, J., Duerschke, K., Weidlich, S., Naumann, R., Stewart, A. F. and Anastassiadis, K. (2010). An improved Flp deleter mouse in C57Bl/6 based on Flpo recombinase. Genesis. Maresca, M., Erler, A., Fu, J., Friedrich, A., Zhang, Y. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). Single-stranded heteroduplex intermediates in lambda Red homologous recombination. BMC Mol Biol 11: 54. Anastassiadis, K., Rostovskaya, M., Lubitz, S., Weidlich, S. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). Precise conditional immortalization of mouse cells using tetracycline-regulated SV40 large T-antigen. Genesis. 2009 Buchanan, L., ...
This article is reprinted with permission from Jacobin. Two weeks ago Egypts public prosecutor ordered the arrest of comedian Bassem Youssef, host of the TV show Al-Bernameg, for insulting Islam and Egypts President Mohammad Morsi. Youssefs name is rarely mentioned without reference to his admitted role model, the American comedian Jon Stewart, who recently defended Youssef on The Daily Show.. Since Youssefs arrest, nearly every story about the incident labels the heart-surgeon-turned-TV-star as Egypts Jon Stewart. But Youssef - who continues to risk his freedom and career to ridicule Egypts political elite - has little in common with Stewart, a man whos built a comedy empire on an unwarranted reputation for prophetic humor and moral integrity. And even while Youssef himself cites Stewart as an influence, the Egyptian humorist far outshines his American counterpart in his willingness to challenge political and social taboos.. Youssefs arrest and his constant pairing with Stewart ...
Strong ions are cations and anions that exist as charged particles dissociated from their partner ions at physiologic pH. The SID (Strong Ion Difference) is the difference between the positively- and negatively-charged strong ions in plasma. This method of evaluating acid-base disorders was developed to help determine the mechanism of the disorder rather than simply categorizing them into metabolic vs. respiratory acidosis/alkalosis as with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Strong cations predominate in the plasma at physiologic pH leading to a net positive plasma charge of approximately +40: SID = [strong cations] - [strong anions] = [Na+ + K+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+] - [Cl- + lactate- + SO42-] Disturbances that increase the SID increase the blood pH while disorders that decrease the SID lower the plasma pH. According to the law of electroneutrality the sum of positive charges is equal to the sum of negative charges. Therefore the SID must be equal to the sum of weak anions in the body (such as ...
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Bicarbonate is an electrolyte that is used by the body to help maintain the bodys acid-base (pH) balance. The bicarbonate test measures the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood, which occurs mostly in the form of bicarbonate and is used to help detect conditions that cause electrolyte and acid-base imbalances.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of gestational age, the choice of fetal fluid compartment, and the algorithm for calculation on the estimation of the base deficit in umbilical cord arterial blood Lit birth. Study design: From 1995 to 2002, cord arterial blood gases and obstetric data were available for 43,551 newborn infants at 37 + weeks of gestation (cohort 1). The mean base deficit in blood and the base deficit in extracellular fluid were estimated from pH and P-CO2 values in 28,213 newborn infants with a 5-minute Apgar score of ,= 9 (cohort 11) with the use of 3 different calculation algorithms (base deficit in blood, base deficit in extracellular fluid [A], and base deficit in extracellular fluid [B]). Results: In cohort 11, the base deficit in blood, the base deficit in extracellular fluid (A), and the base deficit in extracellular fluid (B) increased with advancing gestational age (linear regression, P , .0001). The curves run almost parallel, with the ...
Deep Frozen (-70°C): ,14 days. Causes for Rejection: Specimens other than serum; improper labeling; samples not stored properly; samples older than stability limits. Methodology: Ion Specific Electrode (ISE) test, Photometric. Refer to individual test for methodology used.. Turn Around Time: 1 to 3 days. Intended Use: The Electrolyte Panel is used to identify an electrolyte or acid-base imbalance and to monitor the effect of treatment on a known imbalance that is affecting bodily organ function.. Limitations: Grossly hemolyzed or lipemic specimens may produce false results. Refer to individual tests for preanalytical issues that may contribute to false test results.. Additional Information: Some medications, injuries, or disease states may produce false results. Refer to individual tests for preanalytical issues that may contribute to false test results.. Refer to individual test for appropriate sample collection, handling and testing information.. The CPT codes provided are based on AMA ...
1 Kırıkkale Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi İç Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı, Kırıkkale Viewed : 128 - Downloaded : 73 One of the most important factors for reducing the diarrhea related calf deaths is the application of appropriate fluid therapy. Treatments with antibacterial, antiparasitic or motilitating agents used in neonatal calf diarrhea, where fluid treatment is inadequate, can often be ineffective and resulted in calf loss. However, the fluid therapy is not as innocent as you think. The incidence of overhydrating-related pulmonary edema due to clinical findings such as dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, as well as the incidence of complications due to false or excessive fluid, such as hypothermia, is higher than expected. In an ideal fluid therapy to be applied to diarrhea, the metabolic changes that have been occurred must be carefully interpreted to remove dehydration, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance, and meet daily requirements. For this purpose, determining which fluid to ...
Feeding is an innate behavior in the animal kingdom. Proper amount of food consumption is critical for survival and health, as well as for producing high-quality progenies. Although appetite signals for promoting eating have been widely investigated, the mechanisms underlying feeding termination are poorly understood. On Jan 19th, 2017, a research paper entitled Drosophila FIT Is a Protein-specific Satiety Hormone Essential for Feeding Control in the journal of Nature Communication addressed this important question. Animals consume food containing essential amino acids daily, and deficiency in protein consumption leads to severe developmental defects. On the other hand, a bunch of evidences have shown that excess protein intake results in stresses in organs, like kidney and liver, the acid-base imbalance, and even severe diseases, such as renal failure. Among the three macronutrients, protein exerts the greatest inhibitory effect in feeding control. Nevertheless, protein-specific nutrient ...
Overlooked metabolic acidosis/alkalosis in the medicine wards. If an acid-base disorder is treated in its early stages, such as at the onset of the symptoms, treatment is usually successful, and serious problems can be avoided.. Systematic screening for acid-base disturbances in the medicine wards normally does not happen unless requested specifically. However, it is not unusual that acid-base disturbances are overlooked and patients are not treated correctly. The patient may end up in the ICU for further diagnosis and treatment.. With application of v-TACTM as a systematic screening tool, acid-base disturbances may be identified early, the right treatment provided in time and additional complications avoided. This will save bed days in the ICU, as well as in the hospital in general, with significant cost-savings in return.. ...
Looking for alkalemia? Find out information about alkalemia. An increase in blood pH above normal levels Explanation of alkalemia
While many companies are facing financial hardships, Stewarts Shops is proud to announce that eligible Partners recently received an additional dividend in their ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan). This dividend is a true representation of Stewarts stability and success as a company.. In early July, all eligible Partners received a dividend which totaled 4.5% of their 2019 ending ESOP balance. This $50M dividend is given to Partners for their hard work and dedication. Partners had the option to roll their dividend into their existing ESOP account or take a cash distribution. There are now 90 Stewarts Partners with a balance exceeding $1,000,000.. This dividend was in addition to the contribution they received in April. Our employees are called Partners, and they really are, since they own over 40 percent of the company through their ESOP, which is 100 percent funded by the company for anyone working at least 1000 hours a year. After six years in the plan, a Partners balance is usually ...
BooBoo Stewart, 18, is an American singer, dancer, model, actor, and martial artist. In 2010 he portrayed Seth Clearwater in The Twilight Saga Here some new shirtless pics! Boo Stewart/3gsg0a5450u0nee45gciwg0ab4446181142012580.jpg Boo Stewart/31x2t4455fhsgy0jcygx2fe334146181142012533.jpg Boo Stewart/3pagtk055apn1rj20kq1bbfy13446181142012533.jpg
Roy, Helen, Rabitsch, Wolfgang, Scalera, Riccardo, Stewart, Alan and et al., (2018) Developing a framework of minimum standards for the risk assessment of alien species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 55 (2). pp. 526-538. ISSN 0021-8901 Reynolds, Donald R, Chapman, Jason W and Stewart, Alan (2017) Windborne migration of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera) over Britain. European Journal of Entomology, 114. pp. 554-564. ISSN 1210-5759 Peck, Mika Robert, Kaina, Graham S, Hazell, Richard John, Isua, Brus, Alok, Clant, Paul, Luda and Stewart, Alan J A (2017) Estimating carbon stock in lowland Papua New Guinean forest - low density of large trees results in lower than global average carbon stock. Austral Ecology, 42 (8). pp. 964-975. ISSN 1442-9985 Roy, Helen E, Hesketh, Helen, Purse, Bethan V, Eilenberg, Jørgen, Santini, Alberto, Scalera, Riccardo, Stentiford, Grant D, Adriaens, Tim, Bacela-Spychalska, Karolina, Stewart, Alan and et al, (2017) Alien pathogens on the horizon: opportunities for predicting their ...
Kristen Stewart Workouts and Diet SecretsWhat you need to knowKristen Stewart workouts routinesKristen Stewart fitness secretsKristen Stewart dietKristen
Student Solutions Manual for Stewarts Single Variable Calculus, 6th by James Stewart; Scott Stewart and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at
Allen Stewart is not afraid of big business. We take our mission statement seriously, passionate about defending the rights of people harmed by others. The attorneys at Allen Stewart, P.C. have taken on pharmaceutical cases to asbestos claims, government and even big tobacco. The firms victories span a wide range of issues. Listed here are some of his more significant client wins:. Virgil and Lorrie Hood v. E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., et al., Case No. DC-13-03619; In the District Court of Dallas County, Texas: Allen Stewart, P.C. represented an equipment painter and mechanic who developed myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia at age 57 as a result of his occupational exposure to benzene-containing paints and solvents. Allen Stewart, P.C. reached confidential settlements with many of the product manufacturers and tried the case against the non-setting defendant, DuPont.. Brett Lammers v. Energy Transportation Group, Inc. et al., Case No. BC532902; In the Superior Court of ...
This is a document from the Charles B. Moore Collection. It is written by George Stewart and is addressed to John Stewart. In this postcard, Stewart discusses the goings-on in Johnson County in Texas. The news includes: updates on his and the familys well-being, a discussion about the planting of cottonseed, details about the grasshoppers eating all the wheat and mostly all of the corn, a message to Bill Evans about renting land, and updates about correspondences received. He closes the letter by noting that should John write soon with all the news.
LONDON (AP) _ Rocker Rod Stewart has become a father for the eighth time.The 66-year-old Stewarts wife, Penny Lancaster, gave birth to a baby boy Wednesday. British singer Rod Stewart, right, and his wife Penny Lancaster (AP)A statement released Thursday on the couples behalf said they were ``proud and thrilled.Aiden is Stewart and Lancasters second child. They have another son, Alastair, who
MSP Investigate Possible Colon Area Kidnapping Tuesday, April 27, 2010 (COLON TOWNSHIP) - Michigan State Police are investigating the possible abduction of a woman from the Colon area on Monday. 32-year-old Venus Rose Stewart was abducted from her parents home on Driftwood Drive between 7:10am and 8:30am. Stewart may be in the company of 29-year-old Douglas Stewart in a 1998 silver Mercury 4-door or a 2005 silver Dodge
Prohibition Agent George Stewart, working undercover, entered a soft-drink cafe in Buffalo, NY, to purchase illicit liquor. A female patron apparently recognized Agent Stewart and tipped off the owner. As Agent Stewart departed the store, he was shot nine times by two suspects. Although badly wounded, he managed to draw his own weapon and fire once. Agent Stewart died at the scene. Brothers Sam and Ralph Pannavaia were later identified as being responsible for the killing and arrested.. ...
We are delighted to announce that Lorne Stewart Facilities have been awarded a new contract with BUPA responsible for the FM services at Cromwell Hospital. This is an internationally renowned private hospital, based in central London, offering treatment for both adults and children. We will be responsible for maintaining a range of mechanical, electrical and building related assets, soft services such as waste management and grounds maintenance. Our service delivery includes compliance, reactive, small works and projects.. Working through shift patterns Lorne Stewart will provide BUPA with resident engineers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year, all managed through our site based office and helpdesk. We are currently in a 3 month mobilisation period with our new contract going live on the 1st August 2018.. < Back to all news articles. ...
J.C. Penney Co. is buying a minority stake in Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia for $38.5 million, the latest move by the department store to attract new customers and perk up lackluster sales. To partner with J.C. Penney, Ron and his extraordinary team is a big and important step in realizing my dream of putting our Martha Stewart designed products within easy reach of an even broader consumer audience, Stewart, who is the founder and a board member of the company that bears her name, said in a statement.
Celtic Crush Sunday- Donegal Rain- Andy M. Stewart Andy M. Stewart was a Scottish singer, songwriter and instrumentalist. Before his solo career he was the front man for the group Silly Wizard. His final solo album Donegal Rain- featured this -the title track. Stewart underwent a failed spinal surgery in 2012 which resulted in his…
8/12. 7/12. No problem, just leave me the keys to the liquor cabinet! Alf Qisa wa Qisa - Alf Quotes; Alf R - Alf R Jacobsen; Alf R Jakobsen - Alf R. Jacobsen; Krysseren Blucher - 9. ALF The horrifying ordeal occurs while Alf is out at sea on a boat. Settled, lets hit the bricks with this scum! 5/12. Uyrfe Dserfa. - Henry Ford. Saved by Geraldine Thornton Alf Stewart Home And Away Sheet Music Brother Kid Sayings Child Music Score Word Of Wisdom Translation: Youre an idiot, so shut your mouth. High quality Alf Stewart gifts and merchandise. Trevor Mrs. Bird ALF We could soon be saying goodbye to Alf Stewart if one of the shows stars is to be believed. Alf is commonly known for his use of declining Australian slang with sayings such as strewth, stone the flamin crows, flamin mongrels, flamin gallah, flamin heck, give me strength, only bar in Riga strike me pink Hogans ghost, fair crack of the whip, tucker and yarn Characters Ric Dalby (who now lives interstate), ...
Teen sensation Booboo Stewart (Seth Clearwater in The Twilight Saga: Eclipse) and his sister singer/actress Fivel Stewart are donating their time and celebrity to help Invisalign
ICE HOCKEY: LATVIAN forward Edgars Bebris has departed Coventry Blaze with immediate effect, leaving Danny Stewart with a hole to fill ahead of a busy Christmas schedule.. Stewart, who will also miss the services of Patrick Moisio over Christmas due to a suspension, will face another week with a bench short of players.. Bebris joined Blaze on a trial basis in August, which subsequently earned him a contract following a string of strong performances during pre-season.. He appeared 27 times for the club.. Head coach Danny Stewart said: The timing of this decision is not ideal, but we carry on as normal.. It is expected that Gustav Ahnelov and Brett Robinson will return to the Blaze bench this weekend for the clubs home clash against Milton Keynes.. ...
Will this be the last time Patrick Stewart says Engage or, in his peculiarly Shakespearean way of giving orders, Make it so ? Stewart, who has played Captain Jean-Luc Picard of the starship Enterprise off and on for the past 16 years, says, If it is, I feel very content with that decision. Nemesis, and also to the frankly mercenary truth that his crews continuing adventures will depend on the opening weekend box office -- which is calculated long before the weekend is over (the film opens this Friday). Stewart, of all the Trekkers -- including Jonathan Frakes as William Riker, Brent Spiner as Data, Levar Burton as Geordi La Forge, Michael Dorn as Worf, Gates McFadden as Beverly Crusher, Marina Sirtis as Deanna Troi -- has probably the least to lose if, after seven years on television (1987 to 1994) and three feature films 1996s Star Trek: First Contact, 1998s Star Trek: In the best Star Trek tradition, Nemesis, written by John Logan (Gladiator) and directed by Stuart Baird (
Martha Stewarts Cupcakes: 175 Inspired Ideas for Everyones Favorite Treat: Martha Stewart Living Magazine: 9780307460448: Books -
Metabolic alkalosis is the most common acid-base imbalance observed. Other significant adverse effects include rhabdomyolysis, ... laxative abuse can lead to potentially fatal acid-base and electrolyte imbalances. For example, severe hypokalaemia has been ... "Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities with diarrhea". Retrieved 2017-12-12. Joo JS, Ehrenpreis ED, Gonzalez ... Castor oil is a glyceride that is hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase to ricinoleic acid, which produces laxative action by an ...
A change in the plasma pH gives an acid-base imbalance. In acid-base homeostasis there are two mechanisms that can help ... The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are lipid derivatives of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid ... An important function is the production and control of bile acids. Too much bile acid can be toxic to cells and its synthesis ... It is only the lactate and the waste products of the citric acid cycle that are returned to the blood. The liver can take up ...
Acidosis Acid-base imbalance Acid-base homeostasis Milk-alkali syndrome Arterial blood gas Chemical equilibrium pCO2 pH pKa ... "Neurologic presentations of acid-base imbalance, electrolyte abnormalities, and endocrine emergencies". Neurol Clin. 28 (1): 1- ... Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid in the stomach contents. ...
ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Yee AH, Rabinstein AA (February 2010). "Neurologic presentations of acid-base imbalance, electrolyte ... A significant alteration in ventilation that affects elimination of CO2 can cause a respiratory acid-base disorder. The PaCO2 ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Acid-base disturbances). ... Metabolism rapidly generates a large quantity of volatile acid (H2CO3) and nonvolatile acid. The metabolism of fats and ...
... acid-base imbalance, or kidney dysfunction. Sodium Potassium Chloride Carbon dioxide (CO2) Tests of protein levels in the blood ... The tests are performed on machines based on the AutoAnalyzer invented in 1957. Typically, the patient fasts for ten or twelve ...
... is a serious electrolyte disorder characterized by an imbalance in the body's acid-base balance. Metabolic ... pH and hydrogen ion concentrations also depend on the coexistence of other acid-base disorders; therefore, pH levels in people ... Thus demonstrating the importance of maintaining balance between acids and bases in the body for maintaining optimal ... which can happen with increased generation of acids (such as ketoacids or lactic acid), excess loss of HCO− 3 by the kidneys or ...
... avoid electrolyte and acid/base imbalances that might lead to hepatic encephalopathy. Kidney failure: combined triamterene and ... The triamterene ring system is found in many naturally occurring compounds, such as folic acid and riboflavin. The observation ... Common side effects may include a depletion of sodium, folic acid, and calcium, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness ... which had hired private investigators based on its beliefs that competitors were getting unfair advantages in getting their ...
He continued to study electrolyte imbalances and the physiological mechanisms of acid-base homeostasis. In 1930, he served as a ... His research focused on the biochemical underpinnings of physiology and included characterizing acid-base homeostasis in blood ...
PCAS patients, both as a cause and a consequence of the arrest, present with acid-base and electrolyte imbalances. Accumulation ... In this state, metabolic waste products, such as lactic acid and carbon dioxide, begin to accumulate as there is no circulation ...
... respiratory and metabolic acid-base imbalances. "Physiology, Acid Base Balance". StatPearls. StatPearls. 2021. "Case 1: Acid ... In metabolic acidosis, chemoreceptors sense a deranged acid-base balance with a plasma pH of lesser than normal (. 7.4). The ... The respiratory brainstem centers can only compensate for metabolic acid-base disturbances (metabolic acidosis and metabolic ... DiBartola, Stephen P. (2012-01-01), Willard, Michael D.; Tvedten, Harold (eds.), "6 - Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders", ...
... to acid-base imbalance, including obesity, arthritis, and diabetes. Because the body produces more acids than bases, concluded ... He is best known for his theories on the importance of acid-base balance and inorganic minerals like calcium in the diet; later ... Berg and Carl Röse developed a theory of acid-base balance in the body that is affected by diet. They relied on the work of ... If the acids remained in the body, they would accumulate in areas of low blood flow (like joints), thereby obstructing normal ...
Symptoms of hypovolemic shock can be related to volume depletion, electrolyte imbalances, or acid-base disorders that accompany ... In the latter process, pyruvate is produced and converted to lactic acid to regenerate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ... Damage control resuscitation is based on three principles: permissive hypotension: tries to balance temporary suboptimal ... this also leads to other tissues being further deprived of oxygen causing more lactic acid production and worsening acidosis. ...
A doctor would request this test if there are signs their patient is experiencing an imbalance in acid-base levels for a ... As with most types of electrolyte imbalance, the treatment of high blood chloride levels is based on correcting the underlying ... If the electrolyte imbalance is due to influx of sodium chloride in the body, then it has been suggested to make dietary ... In the 1st phase, organic solutes (such as phosphates, amino acids, glucose and anions), sodium ions, and hydronium ions are ...
s naturally more robust than other theories, particularly in cases where there is a great imbalance between the acid and base ... The van Oss theory is most suitable for cases in which acid/base interaction is an important consideration. Examples include ... There are however some liquids that are generally agreed to have known dispersive/acid/base components to their surface ... acid/base interactions, etc.). It is often useful for the sessile drop technique to use liquids that are known to be incapable ...
... and eventually die after longer exposure times because of the imbalance of the organisms' acid-base equilibrium. The red king ... The carapace is a covering of sheets of exoskeleton that overhang the thorax vertically to fit over the base of the thoracic ... an opening in the carapace near the base of the chelipeds, dorsally over the gills, and anteriorly to exit beside the head. Due ...
... followed by four years researching acid-base imbalance in psychiatric patients at the Boston Psychopathic Hospital. She began ... Albert Claude found a pool of particles containing nucleic acids and proteins he termed "microsomes." Petermann found that ... she used a technique called analytical ultracentrifugation to separate components of mouse spleen and liver homogenates based ...
The principal classes of metabolic disorders are: Acid-base imbalance Metabolic brain diseases Disorders of calcium metabolism ... metabolism disorders Porphyrias Proteostasis deficiencies Metabolic skin diseases Wasting syndrome Water-electrolyte imbalance ...
Acid-base imbalance, most commonly respiratory alkalosis Dupuytren's contracture (alcohol) Parotid enlargement (alcohol) ... Specific conditions may be treated with medications including corticosteroids, interferon, antivirals, bile acids or other ...
Indication for dialysis: Salicylate level higher than 90 mg/dL Severe acid base imbalance Severe cardiac toxicity Acute ... The acid-base, fluid, and electrolyte abnormalities observed in salicylate toxicity can be grouped into three broad phases: ... Hemodialysis also has the advantage of restoring electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities while removing salicylate. Salicylic ... Diagnosis is generally based on repeated blood tests measuring aspirin levels and blood gases. While a type of graph has been ...
Failure of this system to function properly results in acid-base imbalance, such as acidemia (pH < 7.35) and alkalemia (pH > ... The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate ... base 10) of the acid dissociation constant of carbonic acid. It is equal to 6.1. [HCO− 3] is the concentration of bicarbonate ... and its conjugate base (for example, HCO− 3) so that any excess acid or base introduced to the system is neutralized. ...
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances and Acid-Base Disturbances: Case Examples Chapter S2: Microbial Bioterrorism Chapter S3: ... and Gender-Based Medicine Chapter 383: Disorders of Sex Development Chapter 384: Disorders of the Testes and Male Reproductive ... Gene and Cell Based Therapy in Clinical Medicine Chapter 459: The Human Microbiome Part 17: Global Medicine Chapter 460: Global ... Imbalance, and Falls Chapter 24: Confusion and Delirium Chapter 25: Dementia Chapter 26: Aphasia, Memory Loss, Hemispatial ...
Foals are supported with fluids, which are used to maintain hydration, correct electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, and help ...
An acid-base imbalance is known as acidemia when the pH is acidic, or alkalemia when the pH is alkaline. In humans and many ... original text at On-line text at Overview at Acid-Base Tutorial Online acid-base ... a weak acid and its conjugate base. It is the ratio concentration of the weak acid to its conjugate base that determines the pH ... replacing the strong acids and bases with weak acids and weak bases. This has the effect of damping the effect of pH changes, ...
Acid-base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to ... at Online acid-base physiology text Diagnoses at Interpretation at Acid Base ... "Mixed Acid Base Disorders: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center". Archived from the original on 2009-04- ... Acid-base physiology, Acid-base disturbances, Equilibrium chemistry, Respiratory therapy). ...
Renal functions and electrolyte imbalances, due to decreased venous return metabolism of certain drugs are altered and acid- ... base balance is impeded. John Scott Inkster, an English anaesthetist and physician, is credited with discovering PEEP. When his ...
... acid-base balance and much more. Electrolyte imbalances can develop by consuming too little or too much electrolyte as well as ... an electrolyte that indicates acid-base status. Overall, treatment of chloride imbalances involve addressing the underlying ... Electrolyte imbalance, or water-electrolyte imbalance, is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body. ... Hyponatremia, or low sodium, is the most commonly seen type of electrolyte imbalance. Treatment of electrolyte imbalance ...
Enteral feeding with a protein hydrolysate or amino acid based formulas worsen the diarrhoea and the children rapidly fail to ... This leads rapidly to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance and metabolic decompensation. ...
... "imbalances or deficiencies based on individual biochemistry" by use of substances such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, ... Reiki: Fraudulent Misrepresentation « Science-Based Medicine: Reiki: Fraudulent Misrepresentation « Science-Based Medicine, ... based on the results. Proponents suggest that BTA allows for a correction of biological imbalances before they become ... which is based upon the assumption that homosexuality per se is a mental disorder or based upon the a priori assumption that a ...
... "imbalances or deficiencies based on individual biochemistry" by use of substances such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, ... amino acids, ω-3 fatty acids, ω-6 fatty acids, medium-chain triglycerides, dietary fiber, short and long chain fatty acids, ... It has been described as food faddism and quackery, with critics arguing that it is based upon an "exaggerated belief in the ... Ohno, S; Ohno, Y; Suzuki, N; Soma, G; Inoue, M (2009). "High-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy in the treatment of ...
... amino acid MeSH G13.810.550 - sequence homology, nucleic acid MeSH G13.810.550.830 - synteny MeSH G13.920.036 - antibody ... base pair mismatch MeSH G13.920.590.120 - codon, nonsense MeSH G13.920.590.175 - chromosome aberrations MeSH G13.920.590.175. ... allelic imbalance MeSH G13.920.590.029.530 - loss of heterozygosity MeSH G13.920.590.029.530.175 - chromosome deletion MeSH ...
... s were also classified based on the amino acid sequences, as that would be more helpful in understanding the ... may the slow disappearance of helminths be responsible for the imbalances in immune control mechanisms?". Journal of ... "A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities". The Biochemical Journal. 280 ( Pt 2) (2): ... However, one example of a Class V chitinase showed two chitin binding domains in tandem, and based on the gene sequence, the ...
When surveying populations based on gender in those ages 12 and older, it was observed that males had a higher substance ... Chemical and hormonal imbalances may arise if the substance is not re-introduced. Psychological stress may also result if the ... "The role of the locus coeruleus and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and AMPA receptors in opiate withdrawal" ... Behavioral psychologists can use the techniques of "aversion therapy", based on the findings of Pavlov's classical conditioning ...
Once spores are ingested, their acid-resistance allows them to pass through the stomach unscathed. Upon exposure to bile acids ... Rifaximin,[132] is a clinical-stage semisynthetic, rifamycin-based, nonsystemic antibiotic for CDI. It is FDA-approved for the ... It involves infusion of the microbiota acquired from the feces of a healthy donor to reverse the bacterial imbalance ... Acid suppression medication[edit]. Increasing rates of community-acquired CDI are associated with the use of medication to ...
One model proposed to account for this suggests a push towards an imbalance of cellular immunity(Th1) and humoral immunity(Th2 ... There was also renewed laboratory research into the neuroendocrine, molecular, and immunological bases of stress, conceived as ... Glucocorticoids can increase the concentration of glucose, fat, and amino acid in blood. In high doses, one glucocorticoid, ... Chronic stress also shifts learning, forming a preference for habit based learning, and decreased task flexibility and spatial ...
Evidence-based handbook of neonatology. Oh, William. New Jersey: World Scientific. 2011. pp. 267-290. ISBN 978-981-4313-46-9. ... VLBW newborns have increased need for amino acids to mirror in utero nutrition. Daily protein intake above 3.0 g/kg is ... VLBW newborns are at risk for electrolyte imbalances due to the relative immaturity of the nephrons in their kidneys. The ... Evidence-based handbook of neonatology. Oh, William. New Jersey: World Scientific. 2011. pp. 291-315. ISBN 978-981-4313-46-9. ...
These acids eventually dissociate the hydroxyapatite in teeth once the acidity falls below the critical pH (pH 5.5). The ... Fluoride overload is suggested to be linked to pH and electrolyte imbalances, creating an environment unfavourable for cell ... Crystal, Yasmi O.; Niederman, Richard (2019-01-01). "Evidence-Based Dentistry Update on Silver Diamine Fluoride". Dental ... These polysaccharides are necessary for adherence to enamel, while these acids are essential for the synthesis of bacterial ...
Sugars such as glucose and fructose can react with certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine and certain DNA bases such ... Aging is characterized by the declining ability to respond to stress, increased homeostatic imbalance, and increased risk of ... One of the earliest aging theories was the Rate of Living Hypothesis described by Raymond Pearl in 1928 (based on earlier work ... There is interest in an epigenetic clock as a biomarker of aging, based on its ability to predict human chronological age. ...
... from insufficient nicotinic acid. Nutrient imbalances can affect a person, especially a developing child, in a multitude of ... Based on the 2013 County Health Ratings data, residents who live in rural U.S. food deserts are more likely to have poorer ... Based on the European or American understanding of food deserts, the fact that there is access to supermarkets by definition ... Distance-based measurements measure food accessibility to identify food deserts. The United States Department of Agriculture ( ...
The film is based on the novel I Am Legend by Richard Matheson. The Spideroid Aliens appeared in the 2007 movie AVH: Alien vs. ... The Acid-Spewing Plants appeared in the 2008 movie 100 Million BC. These plants resemble plant buds on long stalks. They can ... This caused Bigfoot to attack in order to correct its biological imbalance of sense of time. Bigfoot is noted to have a short ... They stand upon four legs, from which they can secrete a corrosive acid. Upon death they are seen to stand erect and paralyzed ...
Saint-Malo then was known for its corsairs, Brest was a major base for the French Navy and Nantes flourished with the Atlantic ... Because of the absence of limestone, soils in Brittany are usually acid. The Armorican massif straightened and flattened ... having Nantes in Brittany could harm the position of Rennes and create an economic imbalance between Lower and Upper Brittany. ... The Catholic University of the West, based in Angers, also opened classes in several Breton towns. In 1969, the University of ...
For example, the ion Ag+ reacts as a Lewis acid with two molecules of the Lewis base NH3 to form the complex ion Ag(NH3)2+, ... This means that the two shared electrons are closer to one of the atoms than the other, creating an imbalance of charge. Such ... As the negative charge of the electron is not uniform around the whole atom, there is always a charge imbalance. This small ... These are often classified based on their symmetry with respect to a molecular plane as sigma bonds and pi bonds. In the ...
Viral vector based gene delivery uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material to the host cell. This is done by using a ... The heat-pulse is thought to create a thermal imbalance across the cell membrane, which forces the DNA to enter the cells ... Magnetofection uses magnetic particles complexed with DNA and an external magnetic field concentrate nucleic acid particles ... Viral based vectors emerged in the 1980s as a tool for transgene expression. In 1983, Albert Siegel described the use of viral ...
The novel Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Fallout (2007) features a species of chytrid that feeds on petroleum and oil-based ... 2007). "Electrolyte depletion and osmotic imbalance in amphibians with chytridiomycosis". Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 77 (2 ... and synthesis of lysine by the α-amino adipic acid (AAA) pathway. Chytrids are saprobic, degrading refractory materials such as ... Currently, taxonomy in Chytridiomycota is based on molecular data, zoöspore ultrastructure and some aspects of thallus ...
Ground-based studies have shown that it does produce a positive training effect similar to equivalent free weights when used in ... Urinary amino acid and nitrogen excretion, both indirect measures of catabolism of lean body mass, are elevated during both ... However, if there is an imbalance such that the protein synthetic pathway is decreased relative to that of the rate of ... This rodent data base in space life sciences research includes 14 flight experiments with 8 sponsored by the Russian Cosmos ...
2015, 18 genera The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) ... Vreeland RH, Rosenzweig WD, Lowenstein T, Satterfield C, Ventosa A (February 2006). "Fatty acid and DNA analyses of Permian ... unfolding of proteins and inactivation of enzymes when there is a large enough imbalance. Haloarchaea combat this by retaining ... which it uses to transform light energy into chemical energy by a process unrelated to chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. ...
Cows select mates based on antler size. Bull moose use dominant displays of antlers to discourage competition and will spar or ... This is usually attributed to a hormone imbalance. The moose proboscis is distinctive among the living cervids due to its large ... "Cadmium levels in Ontario moose and deer in relation to soil sensitivity to acid precipitation". Science of the Total ... In the common moose (A. a. alces) this branch usually expands into a broad palmation, with one large tine at the base and a ...
Fatty acids are normally stored in adipocytes as triglycerides. However, as triglycerides accumulate in adipocytes, fatty acids ... It is diagnosed based on having at least three of the following criteria: high fasting blood glucose levels, high triglyceride ... Testosterone therapy may improve hormone imbalances and treat erectile dysfunction. While nearly two-thirds of urologists ... These fatty acids can create oxidative stress, disrupting the functions of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula, leading to ...
In its composition, deoxythymidine is a nucleoside composed of deoxyribose (a pentose sugar) joined to the pyrimidine base ... Deoxythymidine can be phosphorylated with one, two or three phosphoric acid groups, creating dTMP (deoxythymidine monophosphate ... Stimulation of mutation in phage T 4 by lesions in gene 32 and by thymidine imbalance. Mutat Res. 1972 Oct;16(2):113-9. doi: ...
Current efforts are based on available data, but both classification and spatial resolution have sometimes proven to be ... Wetlands with low pH and saline conductivity may reflect the presence of acid sulfates and wetlands with average salinity ... Water scarcity Impacts to endangered species Disruption of wildlife breeding grounds Imbalance in sediment load and nutrient ... There is no one way to restore a wetland and the level of restoration required will be based on the level of disturbance ...
... "gender based violence"; paragraph 18 of its General recommendation No. 35 on gender based violence against women, updating ... This disruption can result in an imbalance of estrogen and progesterone, and lead to changes in menstrual cycle length and ... 4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid (2,4-D) Exposure to occupational hazards can impact: Number of Sperm. Some reproductive hazards ... Religious objections are based on the view that premarital sex should not happen, while married couples should have as many ...
Drugs such as ketamine, PCP (angel dust), and LSD ("acid"), have been used to mimic schizophrenia for research purposes. Using ... One study was able to differentiate 90% of cases of schizophrenia from controls based on hypoxia and metabolism. Hypoxia has ... While some of these explanations may stretch credulity, others (such as heavy metal poisoning and nutritional imbalances) have ... Various possible explanations for the effect have been judged unlikely based on the nature of the findings, including ...
Acid erosion and dental caries have been the main health concerns to sugar sweetened beverages. Acid erosion is defined as the ... Based on the impact of free sugars intake and its effects on weight gain and dental issues the WHO has taken action on such ... but more so from the imbalance of energy intake-use that high-sugar diets can contribute to. The increase in consumption of ... It occurs when bacteria within the plaque metabolize the sugar, releasing various acids as waste compounds. As the acids are ...
Glutamate and GABA imbalances contribute to different neurological pathologies.. Imbalance in the GABAergic neurotransmission ... GABA can also be used to form succinate, which is involved in the citric acid cycle. Vesicle uptake has been shown to ... January 2009). "Twenty-one-base-pair insertion polymorphism creates an enhancer element and potentiates SLC6A1 GABA transporter ... GAT1 is a 599 amino acid protein that consists of 12 transmembrane domains with an intracellular N-terminus and C-terminus. ...
Replicas filled with citric acid or grape juice have been shown to produce a voltage. However, it is far from certain that this ... this imbalance in charge would stop the reaction. The solutions of the half-cells are connected by a salt bridge or a porous ... These calculations are based on the assumption that all chemical reactions are in equilibrium. When a current flows in the ... For instance, a typical 12V lead-acid battery has six galvanic cells connected in series with the anodes composed of lead and ...
Lipoic acid (which can cross the blood brain barrier), has recently been trialed in preclinical studies, where it has been ... Spongy Degeneration of the CNS is classified into three types: infantile, juvenile and congenital; based on the age of onset ... inducing an osmolyte imbalance and accumulation of water in the interstitial space. This increases hydrostatic pressure between ... NAA-derived acetates are involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, which are subsequently incorporated into myelin lipids. It ...
In 1988, Manchin founded Enersystems, a waste coal brokerage company based in Fairmont, West Virginia. Manchin was president of ... Manchin initially welcomed Trump's presidency, saying, "He'll correct the trading policies, the imbalance in our trade policies ... and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as part of a national strategy to manage those chemicals, Manchin was one of 20 senators to ... Together they have three children: Heather Manchin Bresch (who was chief executive officer (CEO) of Netherlands-based ...
Both are based on the theory of the presence of the elements (in Unani, they are considered to be fire, water, earth, and air) ... An excess or shortage of any one of the four humors is theorized to cause an imbalance that results in sickness; the ... In 1860, Pasteur's report on bacterial fermentation of butyric acid motivated fellow Frenchman Casimir Davaine to identify a ... Evidence-based medicine is a modern concept, not introduced to literature until the 1990s. The sexual revolution included taboo ...
The resulting imbalance between primary and secondary bile acids may lead to PSC via the gut-liver axis. The primary bile acids ... CT or MRI-based cholangiography may also be useful, particularly in cases where additional interventions are not anticipated. ... a bile acid analogue), simtuzumab (a monoclonal antibody), and 24-norursodeoxycholic acid (a synthetic bile acid). Although the ... In the treatment of ICP, current evidence suggests ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a minor secondary bile acid in humans, is the ...
Acid Base Imbalances - Electrolyte Lab Values for Nursing RN faster and easier with Picmonics unforgettable videos, stories, ... Ace Your Fluid, Electrolyte & Acid Base Imbalances Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for ...
... This question bank verified by Studydeets ... What is the slowest but most effective control for acid-base balance?. ... The ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate ion must be 1:20. ... Carbonic acid and bicarbonate ion must be present in equal ...
Synonyms include hydrogen fluoride, fluoric acid, hydrofluoride, hydrofluoric acid, and fluorine monohydride.> ,meta name= ... Although hydrofluoric acid is weak compared with most other mineral acids, it can produce serious health effects by any route ... hydrofluoric acid, fluorine monohydride, fluoride, hydrogen, skin, exposure, calcium, patients, water, effects, pain, cause, ... hydrofluoric acid, children vulnerable, effects hydrogen, exposed hydrogen, fluoride vapor, health effects, sensitizing agents ...
Moreover, oxygenation after abdominal surgery might further aggravate the acid-base imbalance.[18] Overall, several factors ... Previous studies have shown that hyperlactic acid is a risk factor for SCM.[14] An elevated lactic acid level is a ... The proportion of patients with high initial lactic acid value, maximum lactic acid value, maximum PCT value, and maximum body ... Primary lactic acid number M [Q1,Q3] (mmol/L). 1.95[1.1, 3.68]. 4.1[2.1, 6.6]. 1.8[1.0, 2.9]. 0.000. ...
Inborn Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Acidosis. Acid-Base Imbalance. Metabolic Diseases. Organic Acidemias. Moderna. ... Acid-Base Imbalance. Metabolic Diseases. Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Metabolism, Inborn Errors. Genetic Diseases, ... Based on this review, the Sponsor will recommend a revised dose and/or dosing interval. The Sponsor will abide by predefined ... Change from Baseline in Plasma 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid (3-HP) Levels at Week 40 [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week -3), Week 40 ]. ...
Categories: Acid-Base Imbalance Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ... delivery of web content that based on self-identified area of interests. ...
Acid-base and electrolyte imbalances, especially hyperkalemia, acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia * Uremia, leading ... Acid-base disturbances in intensive care patients: etiology, pathophysiology and treatment. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015 Jul. ... Based on what is currently known, making a strong, evidence-based recommendation for the use of NAC in the prevention of CIN is ... Its use is based on the idea that contrast media cause local release of adenosine, a known vasoconstrictor considered by some ...
While respiratory alkalosis is the most common acid-base disorder in chronic liver disease, various complex metabolic acid-base ... the liver has been recognised as an important regulator of acid-base homeostasis. ... Acid-Base Imbalance* / diagnosis * Acid-Base Imbalance* / etiology * Critical Illness* * Disease Progression ... While respiratory alkalosis is the most common acid-base disorder in chronic liver disease, various complex metabolic acid-base ...
A change in the plasma pH gives an acid-base imbalance . ... bicarbonate buffer system regulates the ratio of carbonic acid ...
... acid calls to mind vivid sensory images-of tartness, for instance, if the acid in question is meant for human consumption, as ... Acid-base metabolism imbalances are often characterized in terms of the HCO3−/CO2 buffer system. Acid-base imbalances result ... Acid-base Chemistry , Skip to main content Acid-base chemistry Acid-Base Chemistry Acids and bases have been known by their ... An acid formed when a base accepts a proton (H+).. CONJUGATE ACID-BASE PAIR:. The acid and base produced when an acid donates a ...
Electrolyte Disorders or Acid-Base Imbalance. *Autoimmune Diseases. *Polycystic Kidney Disease. In addition, NuHealths ...
Acid base imbalances. *Electrolyte imbalances. *Ultrasound evaluation of the kidneys. *Ultrasound guided biopsy of the renal ...
The test may also be used to find out if your body has a fluid imbalance or an imbalance in acid and base levels. ... Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that help control the amount of fluids and the balance of acids and bases in ... Bicarbonate, which helps maintain the bodys acid and base balance. It also plays an important role in moving carbon dioxide ... Alkalosis, a condition in which you have too much base in your blood. It can cause irritability, muscle twitching, and tingling ...
Carnitine makes it possible for your body to digest fatty acids. ... This looks for an acid-base imbalance in your blood.. * Urine ... Your cells normally use the fats (fatty acids) in your body for energy. Without carnitine, your body has trouble using fatty ... This looks for an imbalance of sodium, potassium, or other electrolytes in your blood. ... acids for energy. It uses the sugar in your blood for energy instead. ...
Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis and Imbalances. 25. Acid-Base Homeostasis and Imbalances ... Unit VII: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis. 24. ...
Correct hypotension and any acid-base and electrolyte imbalances. Create two or three teams: surgery/anesthesia and ... Correct hypotension and any acid-base and electrolyte imbalances.. * Create two or three teams: surgery/anesthesia and "baby ...
... it can present as an acid-base and electrolyte imbalance, such as hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia and metabolic alkalosis. ... Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base physiology: a problem-based approach, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1999. ... It may also cause electrolyte and acid base disturbances, rarely the mode of presentation. This can result in difficulty in ... Blood gas results were: pH 7.51, pCO2 48.4 mmHg, pO2 65 mmHg, base excess 6.1 mmol/L, bicarbonate 31.6 mmol/L. Urinary ...
Testing for bicarbonate helps to identify or monitor an electrolyte imbalance or acid-base (pH) imbalance. ... The test can be used to evaluate kidney function as well as your blood sugar, acid-base balance, and fluid and electrolyte ... and acid-base status in the body.. *Blood urea nitrogen: (BUN) is a measurement of how much urea nitrogen, a protein breakdown ... or acid-base balance.. Since it involves eight different measurements, the BMP can be helpful when you have general symptoms ...
... s drug summaries are available free of charge and serve as a great resource for US based MDs, DOs, NPs and PAs in patient ... Acid/base imbalance, acidemia, adrenal insufficiency, anuria, dialysis, electrolyte imbalance, hyperchloremia, hypokalemia, ... Monitor growth in neonates, infants, and children who present with acid-base imbalance on chronic maintenance therapy. ... acid/base imbalance (metabolic acidosis, acidemia), or adrenal insufficiency. Acetazolamide is contraindicated in patients with ...
Sample Decks: intro to fluids, Electrolyte imbalances, Acid Base Balance Show Class ...
Delayed recovery due to exaggerated acid, base and electrolyte imbalance in prolonged laparoscopic repair of diaphragmatic ... Evidence based practice of chronic pain-review article. Indian Journal of Palliative Care 2012;September -December18(3):155-61. ... Kakar PN Nishkarsh Gupta, Govil P, Shah V. Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in control of bleeding following TKR.: A ... Evidence based Practice of chronic pain. Indian Journal of Palliative Care 18(3); 155-161; 2012. ...
Doctors look for electrolyte and/or acid-base imbalances when checking this value. ... Uric Acid. Uric Acid is a constituent in the blood that transports nitrogen in the body. It is normally excreted in the urine ... Carbon Dioxide, also referred to as bicarbonate level, this is a reflection of the bodys acid-base status which reflects a ... It is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of lactic acid. Anything which causes cellular damage, including heart attacks, liver ...
Patients who use baking soda to induce vomiting are at risk for developing life-threatening acid-base imbalance. Patients with ... In addition to hypokalemia, blood tests may show hypomagnesemia, disturbances in acid-base balance, and elevated serum amylase ... Its easy to make a financial decision based on what you need right now, but making an informed choice will benefit you in the ... serious medical complications of bulimia nervosa are caused by the cardiovascular effects of fluid and electrolyte imbalance. ...
Supportive care with intravenous fluids is necessary to correct dehydration, acid-base and electrolyte imbalance. The initial ... Systemic antibiotic therapy should be initiated immediately, and then adjusted based on culture and sensitivity results if ...
Substance or group of substances that can absorb or release hydrogen ions to correct an acid-base imbalance.. ... measured by various methods to assess the adequacy of ventilation and oxygenation and the acid-base status of the body.. ... Decimal system of measurement based on the meter as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of weight or mass, and the liter ... One of the most common electrolyte imbalances, in which an inadequate amount of potassium circulates in extracellular fluid.. ...
... acid-base and fluid imbalance. On completion of this unit students will demonstrate: knowledge and understanding of the ... Approvals of extensions based on extenuating circumstances will be dependent on the production of supporting documentation and ...
Acid-base. disorders, management of 198. imbalance 194. Acidosis, correction of 24 ... PREVENTION OF IVH: EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTIONS THAT REDUCE THE RISK OF IVH ...
  • Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that help control the amount of fluids and the balance of acids and bases in your body. (
  • This looks for an imbalance of sodium, potassium, or other electrolytes in your blood. (
  • Electrolytes are minerals that play an integral role in maintaining proper fluid levels, muscle and nerve function, and acid-base balance. (
  • The first priority of treatment is to stabilize the consequences of peritonitis (for example, changes in electrolytes, acid-base imbalance, fluid loss, and blood clotting abnormalities), In addition, your veterinarian will want to identify the source of inflammation or infection and correct or remove it. (
  • style, it offers step-by-step direction on balancing fluids and electrolytes, understanding fluid imbalances and the disorders that cause them, treating imbalances and more. (
  • It can be related to sterile inflammation, which leads to acute impairment of renal function and the accumulation of electrolytes and acid-base imbalance. (
  • Comprehensive KNOWLEDGE, clear CONCEPTION & data INTERPRETATION on Electrolytes including Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Phosphorus (P) and Acid-Base balance disorders including Metabolic Acidosis/Alkalosis, Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis & ultimately confidently ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) analysis and reporting correctly is must to learn for any post-graduate examinations including the MRCP-Part-1 & 2, FCPS-Part-1 & 2, MD-Residency etc. (
  • This course is designed with Lecture notes discussion, video lectures & hundreds of Questions & Explanations on all electrolytes and their different disorders, acid-base imbalances and ABG-analysis. (
  • And this course on Electrolytes, Acid-Balance disorders & ABG-analysis & reporting will train you the best possible way and definitely after that, you will be MASTERED on this particular topics and that will contribute you to PASS your any post-graduate exams in first ATTEMPT & ultimately to be a GOOD PHYSICIAN as well. (
  • Hypoalbuminaemic alkalosis is counteracted by hyperchloraemic and dilutional acidosis, resulting in a normal overall base excess. (
  • Acidosis, a condition in which you have too much acid in your blood. (
  • Laboratory testing typically reveals mixed metabolic and respiratory acidosis with a marked base deficit, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia, and reduced mixed-venous oxygen saturation. (
  • Is acidosis or alkalosis present (based on pH)? (
  • The two disorders of acid-base balance are acidosis and alkalosis. (
  • In acidosis, the blood has too much acid (or too little base). (
  • Exposée à l'air humide, le carbonate de sodium anhydre se dégrade en bicarbonate de sodium . (
  • In an aqueous solution, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react to form sodium chloride - which, though it is suspended in an aqueous solution, is still common table salt - along with water. (
  • In other words, the sodium (Na) ion in sodium hydroxide switches places with the hydrogen ion in hydrochloric acid, resulting in the creation of NaCl (salt) along with water. (
  • is an electrolyte that works with potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate to facilitate the proper water, electrolyte, and acid-base status in the body. (
  • combining uncoated omeprazole powder with sodium bicarbonate allows for rapid delivery to the site of drug absorption, while decreasing gastric acid degradation following administration. (
  • While respiratory alkalosis is the most common acid-base disorder in chronic liver disease, various complex metabolic acid-base disorders may occur with liver dysfunction. (
  • While the standard variables of acid-base equilibrium, such as pH and overall base excess, often fail to unmask the underlying cause of acid-base disorders, the physical-chemical acid-base model provides a more in-depth pathophysiological assessment for clinical judgement of acid-base disorders, in patients with liver diseases. (
  • Patients with stable chronic liver disease have several offsetting acidifying and alkalinising metabolic acid-base disorders. (
  • The cause of these acid-base disorders is either respiratory or metabolic. (
  • Population-based Study of Risk Polymorphisms Associated with Vascular Disorders and Dementia. (
  • Therefore, under such adverse circumstances, the harmful bacteria may become predominant (a condition referred to as bacterial overgrowth) and create an imbalance, which may in turn impair normal gut function and lead to various problems, ranging from inefficient digestion, diarrhoea, constipation and flatulence to severe gastro-intestinal disorders. (
  • When you experience a hormonal imbalance , your body will warn you with physiological symptoms like fatigue, depression, insomnia, weight gain, and more. (
  • Well, vitamins for hormonal imbalance may be one of the easiest solutions to alleviating these symptoms. (
  • Repetitive disturbances that are inflicted on the human body tend to pile up for a certain period of time, and when these disturbances prove to be too much to take, hormonal imbalance can occur which ultimately leads to damaged cells. (
  • It may also cause electrolyte and acid base disturbances, rarely the mode of presentation. (
  • vomiting during pregnancy that is so severe it leads to dehydration, electrolyte and acid base imbalance and starvation ketosis. (
  • Management depends on the severity of the calcium imbalance . (
  • An imbalance in the magnesium/calcium ratio with magnesium deficiency can lead to a thickening or "stickiness" of the blood via abnormal platelet cell aggregation. (
  • Thus, knowledge of the pathophysiological and diagnostic concepts of acid-base disturbances in patients with liver disease is critical for therapeutic decision making. (
  • In addition to hypokalemia, blood tests may show hypomagnesemia, disturbances in acid-base balance, and elevated serum amylase. (
  • Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body. (
  • Alongside the kidneys and lungs, the liver has been recognised as an important regulator of acid-base homeostasis. (
  • It can be used for diagnosis when the doctor suspects you may have a problem affecting your kidneys, electrolyte balance, or acid-base balance. (
  • To regain acid-base balance, the lungs may respond to a metabolic disorder, and the kidneys may respond to a respiratory disorder. (
  • Hyperglycaemia caused by diabetes can to it being a source of beneficial components such as lead to dysfunction and failure of various organs, specif- polyphenols and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ically nerves, kidneys, eyes, heart and blood vessels ( 3 ). (
  • Your cells normally use the fats (fatty acids) in your body for energy. (
  • Without carnitine, your body has trouble using fatty acids for energy. (
  • Alongside that, this protein source is stacked with omega-3 fatty acids that contribute to the creation and preservation of collagen, a major building block of skin. (
  • Influence of IL1B, IL6 and IL10 gene variants and plasma fatty acid interaction on metabolic syndrome risk in a cross-sectional population-based study. (
  • It induces a remarkable microbiota shift and increased short-chain fatty acids production, with proven effects on immune health and glycemic control. (
  • However saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes decreased in higher MDS categories. (
  • Currently, major activities include measurements of hormones, inflammatory factors, fatty acids, and endogenous metabolites , analysed by a variety of assays, such as immunoassays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), in samples from large-scale epidemiological studies. (
  • Adequate magnesium is required to metabolize fatty acids via the magnesium dependent delta desaturase enzyme pathways. (
  • Unhealthy foods Foods high in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, free sugars or salt (i.e. energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods). (
  • Besides, free fatty acids work to support cellular function and maca has about 20 of these high-fliers including, vitamins , minerals, sterols, and glucosinolates. (
  • you can tailor this to your specification or dietary need e.g. if your vegetarian nuts and seeds for a full range of amino acids. (
  • 7 More than 100 "active" compounds, including flavonoids, saponins, polysaccharides, and amino acids, have been identified in Astragalus thus far. (
  • Essential amino acids drive many cellular functions in the body. (
  • Bonking, often referred to as "hitting the wall" is an unfortunate but common race-day phenomenon that occurs when carbohydrates and amino acids are completely depleted. (
  • You can also experience what is called central nervous system fatigue, from a lack of amino acids, feeling as if you want to curl up in a little ball and take a nap on the side of the road. (
  • The renal system maintains acid-base balance by absorbing or excreting acids and bases. (
  • Interestingly, even though patients with acute liver failure show significantly elevated lactate levels, often, no overt acid-base disorder can be found because of the offsetting hypoalbuminaemic alkalosis. (
  • In conclusion, patients with liver diseases may have multiple co-existing metabolic acid-base abnormalities. (
  • Sushma Bhatnagar, Seema Mishra, Roshni S., Vikas Gogia, Sandeep S. Neuropathic Pain in Cancer Patients-Prevalence and Management in a Tertiary Care Anaesthesia-Run Referral Clinic Based in Urban India. (
  • Patients who use baking soda to induce vomiting are at risk for developing life-threatening acid-base imbalance. (
  • Patients who have an imbalance acid base balance in your body, then in this condition let your doctor know about your medical condition to avoid any harmful effect. (
  • SOE dee um bye KAR bon ate) treats heartburn, stomach ulcers, reflux disease, or other conditions caused by too much stomach acid. (
  • When insufficient pre-digestion occurs, the body produces an excess amount of stomach acid trying to offset the imbalance. (
  • I talked a little about the importance of minerals and vitamin D in your diet and how it can help balance normal stomach acid levels. (
  • Bicarbonate , which helps maintain the body's acid and base balance. (
  • Hydrofluoric acid is a serious systemic poison. (
  • Most hydrogen fluoride exposures occur by inhalation of the gas and dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid. (
  • Although hydrofluoric acid is weak compared with most other mineral acids, it can produce serious health effects by any route of exposure. (
  • Ingestion of even a small amount of hydrofluoric acid is likely to produce systemic effects and may be fatal. (
  • On the other hand, the thought of laboratory-and industrial-strength substances with scary-sounding names, such as sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid, carries with it other ideas - of acids that are capable of destroying materials, including human flesh. (
  • Bodies In Your System, You Re Build Up Acid The Word Keto Will Get Tossed Around Very Loosely Today Foods Corresponding To Oats And Beans Are Too High In Carbs To Permit Most People To Achieve And Maintain Ketosis. (
  • Beavis et have access to population-based with acetic acid, fol owed by immedi- al. (
  • The bicarbonate buffer system regulates the ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate to be equal to 1:20, at which ratio the blood pH is 7.4 (as explained in the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation). (
  • Testing for bicarbonate helps to identify or monitor an electrolyte imbalance or acid-base (pH) imbalance. (
  • Moreover, oxygenation after abdominal surgery might further aggravate the acid-base imbalance. (
  • On the other hand, elective cesarean section resulted in higher maternal stress contrary to the neonatal hormonal profile and delayed the removal of the pulmonary fluid, resulting in more severe hypoxemia, besides a less efficient compensatory response to acid-base imbalance and thermoregulation. (
  • Here is a simple overview covering normal ABGs, acid-base alterations, compensatory mechanisms, client complications and symptoms, simple nursing interventions, examples from experience, and tips for novices! (
  • It is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of lactic acid. (
  • Lactic acid producing bacteria are by far the largest inhabitant group amongst all. (
  • Our lactic acid-forming probiotics create a favourable pH level for probiotic prosperity. (
  • This looks for an acid-base imbalance in your blood. (
  • The test can be used to evaluate kidney function as well as your blood sugar, acid-base balance, and fluid and electrolyte levels. (
  • Higher levels of microalbumin may also be caused by blood in your urine, a urinary tract infection, and an acid-base imbalance in your blood. (
  • If a rower was displaying symptoms of an acid/base imbalance, difficulty breathing, or shortness of breath, a blood gas test would determine respiratory difficulties and ensure that rowers are at their peak training level. (
  • When an imbalance develops, you can detect it quickly by knowing how to assess your patient and interpret arterial blood gas (ABG) values. (
  • Coagulopathy, the impaired ability of the body to clot and coagulate [6], is due by the imbalance of the plasma proteins regulating coagulation and blood clotting, after the decrease of blood plasma. (
  • Fetal complications can arise due to tangling of the umbilical cords or an imbalance in nutrients, blood or other vital life supporting systems. (
  • Chemical buffers, substances that combine with excess acids or bases, act immediately to maintain pH and are the body's most efficient pH-balancing force. (
  • The estimated mean DWA beryllium exposure associated with 10 −3 excess lifetime risk based on the piecewise log-linear model is 0.033 μg/m 3 . (
  • OBJECTIVE: Monitoring the inflammatory processes of obstructive feline lower urinary tract disease through the determination of plasma fibrinogen concentrations and serum concentrations of the acute-phase proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and albumin. (
  • Broad as this range of substances is, it fails to encompass the wide array of materials known today as bases - compounds which react with acids to form salts and water. (
  • The reaction to form salts and water is, in fact, one of the ways that acids and bases can be defined. (
  • Useful as this definition regarding the formation of salts and water is, it is still not structural - in other words, it does not delve into the molecular structure and behavior of acids and bases. (
  • The first, most soluble fraction, being fruit acids(light weight acids) and organic salts, closely followed by Maillard derived light aromatics. (
  • You want your body to utilise everything possible, whilst keeping your food based on the this sorta composition 40% protein, 30% fats and 30% carbs in these meals surrounding your work out. (
  • The body's acid-base balance depends on some delicately balanced chemical reactions. (
  • Also, elderly often develop imbalances in their gut microbiota and often experience discomfort. (
  • descritores Decs/Mesh de interesse, em português e inglês, nas bases de dados PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS) e Scielo. (
  • The test may also be used to find out if your body has a fluid imbalance or an imbalance in acid and base levels. (
  • It controls the volume of fluid in the body and helps maintain the acid-base level. (
  • Instead, they're based on your body mass index at the time you became pregnant. (
  • Also, the possibility of developing diarrhea due to bacterial flora imbalance. (
  • The most serious medical complications of bulimia nervosa are caused by the cardiovascular effects of fluid and electrolyte imbalance. (
  • MMWR week may be based on any of several dates (e.g., onset, diagnosis, laboratory result, when reported to public health, or data transmission date), and that assignment may vary by state or condition. (
  • When it comes to acids and bases, the difference between life and death is balance. (
  • And you can restore the balance by targeting your interventions to the specific acid-base disorder you find. (
  • Before assessing a patient's acid-base balance, you need to understand how the H+ affects acids, bases, and pH. (
  • See Fast facts on acid-base balance by clicking the PDF icon above. (
  • Understanding acid-base balance and imbalance can be difficult. (
  • When it comes to this vitamin for hormone imbalance in women , however, it's your thyroid that benefits the most. (
  • Femina Flora Oral is ideal for acute or chronic gastrointestinal and urogenital dysbiosis (microbial imbalance) or your choice for great health in general. (
  • Migraines are rated under 38 CFR 4.124a , diagnostic code 8100, from 0 to 50 percent based on their severity and frequency. (
  • The dose was increased up to 20 mg/kg/day PO based on clinical response and adverse reactions. (
  • Evidence-based clinical research poses special barriers in the field of nutrition. (
  • In the present paper, we assess the specific barriers towards clinical research on nutrition and examine how they can be broken down in order to improve the future evidence base. (
  • It is focused on evidence-based benefits, health claims proven in scientific experiments and clinical trials. (
  • You may recognize the "side-effects" of hormone imbalance as persistent acne, weight gain, fatigue, and more. (
  • The specific hormone imbalance signs depend on the imbalanced hormones - for example, high estrogen in women potentially results in premenstrual syndrome (PMS), adult acne, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), mood swings, and more. (
  • Many factors can contribute to hormone imbalances, starting from environmental toxins to contaminated beauty products, major stressors, and even autoimmune conditions. (
  • Exposure to CNC also induced damage to testicular structure and imbalance in levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone. (
  • These ratings are based on the level of social and occupational impairment that a veteran experiences and the severity of the symptoms VA uses characterize that impairment. (
  • The name "acid" calls to mind vivid sensory images - of tartness, for instance, if the acid in question is meant for human consumption, as with the citric acid in lemons. (
  • The word "acid" comes from the Latin term acidus, or "sour," and from an early period, scientists understood that substances such as vinegar and lemon juice shared a common acidic quality. (
  • Most of scientific studies and research papers declaring usage of Nitrofur-C safe in breastfeeding are based on normal dosage and may not hold true for higher dosage. (
  • And as such, VA will write this condition based on the severity of the condition and assign a rating that can go anywhere from 0% to 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, or a maximum rating of 100% for the condition. (
  • This contributes to acid reflux, heartburn, gas, bloating, and malnutrition (even in overweight individuals) due to incomplete digestion. (
  • A major contributing fac- tor is overweight due to energy imbalance and poor quality diet. (
  • The present study is based on a combination of systematic academic literature searches as well as internal ECRIN-IA communications from 2013 to 2017. (
  • It is produced commercially by action of sulfuric acid on the mineral fluorspar. (