The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.

Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage. (1/1073)

The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001). There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor which distinguishes babies dying with GLH and IVH from other groups of babies with HMD. Although the causal nature of this association remains unproved, it seems justifiable to lrge caution in alkali usage.  (+info)

Modeling the effects of proteins on pH in plasma. (2/1073)

Stewart's model of plasma acid-base balance (Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 61: 1444-1461, 1983) has three weaknesses in the treatment of weak acids: 1) the combination of all weak acids into one entity, 2) inappropriate chemistry for the protein combination with H+, and 3) undocumented values for the dissociation parameters. The present study models serum albumin acid-base properties by fixed negative charges and the association of H+ with the imidazole side chain of histidine. This model has three parameters: 1) the net negative fixed charge (21 eq/mol), 2) the number of histidine residues (16/mol), and 3) the association constant for the imidazole side chain (1.77 x 10(-7) eq/l), all determined from published values. The model was compared with that of Figge, Mydosh, and Fencl (J. Lab. Clin. Med. 120: 713-719, 1992) and with the pH data of Figge, Rossing, and Fencl (J. Lab. Clin. Med. 117: 453-467, 1991). The predictions of pH were excellent, comparable to those found by Figge, Mydosh, and Fencl. The model has the advantages that its structure and parameter values are supported by the literature and that the acid-base effects of factors modifying protein can be investigated.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and catecholamine responses during endovascular and conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. (3/1073)

OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in plasma catecholamines, acid-base status and cardiovascular dynamics in patients undergoing endovascular or conventional infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair under standard general anaesthesia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. MATERIALS: 30 patients scheduled for elective infrarenal AAA repair. METHODS: Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations, acid-base status and cardiovascular measurement were compared before surgery, and 5 min after aortic clamping and clamp release (conventional group) or occlusion and release (endovascular group) in patients undergoing endovascular (n = 15) or conventional AAA repair (n = 15). RESULTS: Arterial pH (p < 0.005) and base deficit (p < 0.05) increased, and plasma bicarbonate decreased (p < 0.005) during aortic cross-clamping in the conventional group. pH decreased further (p < 0.005), and base deficit and pCO2 increased (both p < 0.005) after clamp release. These changes were significantly greater than during endovascular repair, in whom within-group changes were not statistically significant. Values were similar in the two groups 30 min after reperfusion. Plasma epinephrine concentrations increased during conventional surgery (p < 0.05) and were greater than in the endovascular group (p < 0.05). Plasma norepinephrine concentrations increased during surgery in both groups but the changes were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma catecholamine concentrations, changes in cardiovascular variables and acid-base status were increased during conventional compared with endovascular AAA repair.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine localisation at the lipid-water interface: effect of membrane composition and drug chemical structure. (4/1073)

The effect of membrane chemical composition and drug chemical structure on the localisation of several benzodiazepines (BZDs) (DZ, diazepam; CZ, clonazepam; CX, chlordiazepoxide) within model membranes was investigated. We used a spectrophotometric method presented in a previous paper (B.A. Garcia, M.A. Perillo, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1324 (1997) 76-84) based on the study of BZD acid-base equilibrium. 'Intrinsic pK' values (pKi) were calculated according to the theory of M.S. Fernandez and P. Fromherz (J. Phys. Chem. 81 (1977) 1755-1761). Homogeneous media of known dielectric constant (dioxane 0-80% v/v in water) were used to construct a curve of DeltapKi (pKi-pKw) vs. dielectric constant (D) where DeltapKi values obtained in lipidic dispersions were interpolated. In heterogeneous media consisting of aqueous dispersions of Triton X-100 micelles we determined the relative localisation depth of BZDs according to their DTriton values (36, 37 and 62 for DZ, CX and CZ respectively) taking into account that lower D values correspond to deeper localisation. pKi determined in dispersions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (dpPC) and egg phosphatidylcholine (egg-PC) mixed multilamellar vesicles showed that, when cholesterol content increased from 0 to 20 mole%, D values decreased (from 59 to 40) in dpPC vesicles and increased (from 51 to 72) in egg-PC vesicles, indicating a tendency of BZDs to penetrate deeper into less ordered interfaces. These results should be considered to understand the non-specific pharmacological effects of BZDs as well as to evaluate the actual relevance of their pharmacological concentrations.  (+info)

Changes in ionized calcium concentrations and acid-base status during abdominal aortic vascular surgery. (5/1073)

Abdominal aortic surgery may produce significant haemodynamic instability (from a combination of factors: hypovolaemia, acid-base disturbances, vasoactive metabolite release from ischaemic tissues and hypocalcaemia). Calcium is often given after aortic unclamping to attenuate this instability. We studied 20 patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic surgery and observed a triphasic change in ionized calcium concentrations and acid-base status. Initially, during the cross-clamp period (when patients were cardiovascularly stable), ionized calcium concentrations decreased significantly (mean 1.06 (SD 0.08) to 0.91 (0.13) mmol litre-1; P < 0.01), while a significant metabolic acidosis developed (pH 7.38 (0.05) to 7.30 (0.05); P < 0.05). Second, release of the aortic cross-clamp resulted in further acidosis (pH 7.27 (0.05) (P < 0.05) mixed respiratory and metabolic) with a decrease in mean arterial pressure, with no change in ionized calcium concentrations. The third phase was associated with spontaneous restoration of acid-base status and ionized calcium concentrations to normal over 2 h. There was no correlation between units of blood given, volume of blood lost, fluid volume given or duration of aortic cross-clamping and degree of ionized hypocalcaemia. We conclude that ionized hypocalcaemia occurred during the cross-clamp period of aortic surgery, was unrelated to the volume of blood given and did not appear to be responsible for the changes in arterial pressure during surgery.  (+info)

Regulation of thick ascending limb ion transporter abundance in response to altered acid/base intake. (6/1073)

Changes in ammonium excretion with acid/base perturbations are dependent on changes in medullary ammonium accumulation mediated by active NH4+ absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb. To investigate whether alterations in the abundance of medullary thick ascending limb ion transporters, namely the apical Na+/K+(NH4+)/2Cl- -cotransporter (BSC-1), the apical Na+/H+ -exchanger (NHE3), and the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit, may be responsible in part for altered medullary ammonium accumulation, semiquantitative immunoblotting studies were performed using homogenates from the inner stripe of the rat renal outer medulla. After 7 d of NH4Cl (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) loading (associated with increased medullary ammonium accumulation), neither BSC-1 nor Na+/K+ -ATPase protein expression was altered, but NHE3 protein abundance was significantly increased. On the other hand, both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase protein abundance was increased significantly in rats fed NaHCO3 (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) for 7 d. Rats fed a high-NaCl diet (7.7 mEq Na+/220 g body wt per d) for 5 d also showed marked increases in both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase expression. The expression level of NHE3 protein did not change with either NaHCO3 or high NaCl intake. None of these three transporters showed a significant difference in abundance between the groups fed equimolar (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d for 7 d) NaHCO3 or NaCl. It is concluded that outer medullary BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit protein abundance is increased by chronic Na+ loading but not by acid/base perturbations and that outer medullary NHE3 protein abundance is increased by chronic NH4Cl loading.  (+info)

VCO2 and VE kinetics during moderate- and heavy-intensity exercise after acetazolamide administration. (7/1073)

The effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide (Acz) on CO2 output (VCO2) and ventilation (VE) kinetics was examined during moderate- and heavy-intensity exercise. Seven men [24 +/- 1 (SE) yr] performed cycling exercise during control (Con) and Acz (10 mg/kg body wt iv) sessions. Each subject performed step transitions (6 min) in work rate from 0 to 100 W [below ventilatory threshold (VET)]. VE and gas exchange were measured breath by breath. The time constant (tau) was determined for exercise VET by using a three-component model (fit from the start of exercise). VCO2 kinetics were slower in Acz (VET, MRT = 75 +/- 10 s) than Con (VET, MRT = 54 +/- 7 s). During VET kinetics were faster in Acz (MRT = 85 +/- 17 s) than Con (MRT = 106 +/- 16 s). Carbonic anhydrase inhibition slowed VCO2 kinetics during both moderate- and heavy-intensity exercise, demonstrating impaired CO2 elimination in the nonsteady state of exercise. The slowed VE kinetics in Acz during exercise +info)

Acid-base disturbance during hemorrhage in rats: significant role of strong inorganic ions. (8/1073)

The present study tests the hypothesis that changes in the strong inorganic ion concentrations contribute significantly to the acid-base disturbance that develops during hemorrhage in the arterial plasma of rats in addition to lactate concentration ([Lac-]) increase. The physicochemical origins for this acid-base disorder were studied during acute, graded hemorrhage (10, 20, and 30% loss of blood volume) in three groups of rats: conscious, anesthetized with ketamine, and anesthetized with urethan. The results support the hypothesis examined: strong-ion difference (SID) decreased in the arterial plasma of all groups studied because of an early imbalance in the main strong inorganic ions during initial hemorrhagic phase. Moreover, changes in plasma [Lac-] contributed to SID decrease in a later hemorrhagic phase (after 10% hemorrhage in urethan-anesthetized, after 20% hemorrhage in ketamine-anesthetized, and after 30% hemorrhage in conscious group). Inorganic ion changes were due to both dilution of the vascular compartment and ion exchange with extravascular space and red blood cells, as compensation for blood volume depletion and hypocapnia. Nevertheless, anesthetized rats were less able than conscious rats to preserve normal arterial pH during hemorrhage, mainly because of an impaired peripheral tissue condition and incomplete ventilatory compensation.  (+info)

Kienzle, E; Stürmer, K; Ranz, D; Clauss, Marcus (2006). A high roughage/concentrate ratio decreases the effect of ammonium chloride on acid-base balance in horses. Journal of Nutrition, 136(7 Supp):2048S-2049S. ...
The serum anion gap is a common tool used in clinical practice. Recent advances have led to a new mnemonic GOLD MARK to differentiate the various causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis. A recent article in AJKD by Vichot and Rastegar discusses the use of anion gap in metabolic acidosis. The following questions will test…
The consumption of fresh fruit & vegetable in concentrate form (FVC) have recently become an alternative approach to combating excessive renal acid loads often associated with Western Diets. Additionally, these FVCs have been purported to induce met
This study tests the hypothesis that the increase in blood PCO2 and associated respiratory acidosis after exhaustive exercise play an important role in stimulating ventilation during post-exercise recovery in fish. Injection of bovine carbonic anhydrase (10 mg kg-1) into the bloodstream of rainbow trout caused a persistent 40 % increase in the HCO3- dehydration capacity of the blood. The treatment was designed to increase CO2 excretion and therefore to reduce PCO2 build-up and acidosis after exercise. Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance were not affected by carbonic anhydrase, and there were only very minor effects on arterial blood acid­base status in resting fish. However, carbonic anhydrase attenuated post-exercise increases in PaCO2 and decreases in pHa by about 50 % without altering arterial O2 variables, red cell swelling or the intracellular pH of the brain or muscle tissues. The effects on arterial pH (pHa) resulted largely from alleviation of the increase in PaCO2. In ...
Inotropy falls in acidosis due to a direct myocardial depressant effect. May be offset by increased SNS tone in low-grade acidosis. Alkalosis may increase inotropy by increasing responsiveness to circulating catecholamines ...
National Digital Library of India (NDLI) is a virtual repository of learning resources which is not just a repository with search/browse facilities but provides a host of services for the learner community. It is sponsored and mentored by Ministry of Education, Government of India, through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT). Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDLI provides user group-specific services such as Examination Preparatory for School and College students and job aspirants. Services for Researchers and general learners are also provided. NDLI is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for 10 most widely used Indian languages. It is built to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular forms of access ...
Pörtner, H. O. , Hardewig, I. , Sartoris, F. J. and van Dijk, P. (1998): Energetic aspects of cold adaptation critical temperatures in metabolic, ionic and acid-base regulation? , Cold ocean physiology (H O Pörtner, R Playle, eds ) Cambridge University Press ...
Pörtner, H. O. , Hardewig, I. , Peck, L. S. and Sommer, A. (1998): Energetic aspects of cold adaptation: critical temperatures in metabolic, ionic and acid-base regulation. , Society for experimental Biology, York Conference ...
Recent epidemiological findings suggest that high levels of dietary acid load can affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Consumption of high protein diets results in the over-production of metabolic acids which has been associated with the development of chronic metabolic disturbances. Mild metabolic acidosis has been shown to impair peripheral insulin action and several epidemiological findings suggest that metabolic acid load markers are associated with insulin resistance and impaired glycemic control through an interference intracellular insulin signaling pathways and translocation. In addition, higher incidence of diabetes, insulin resistance, or impaired glucose control have been found in subjects with elevated metabolic acid load markers. Hence, lowering dietary acid load may be relevant for improving glucose homeostasis and prevention of type 2 diabetes development on a long-term basis. However, limitations related to patient acid load estimation, nutritional determinants, and
Learn - Unit III - Interprofessional Collaboration for Patients With Problems of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance - Ignatavicius MedSurg 9th Ed - 14 Concepts of Acid-Base Balance for Nursing RN faster and easier with Picmonics unforgettable videos, stories, and quizzes! Picmonic is research proven to increase your memory retention and test scores. Start learning today for free!
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in extracellular CO32−and lactate concentration produced by ischemia, especially in relation to the occurrence of anoxic depolarization, and how...
Join us for a discussion on the basic principles of blood gas analysis, with a focus on acid-base balance and respiratory/metabolic disorders and an understanding of the associated arterial blood gas (ABG) values. This webinar will help to simplify the assessment and identification of these disorders.. Continue to Registration ...
Disorders of Acid-Base Balance Horacio J. Adrogué Nicolaos E. Madias Maintenance of acid-base homeostasis is a vital function of the living organism. Deviations of systemic acidity in either direction
References. 1. Bendahan D, Mattei JP, Ghattas B, et al. Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. Br J Sports Med . 2002;36:282-9. 2. Callis A, Magnan de Bornier B, Serrano JJ, et al. Activity of citrulline malate on acid-base balance and blood ammonia and amino acid levels. Study in the animal and in man. Arzneimittelforschung . 1991;41:660-3. 3. Zurich Medical Labs. Abstracts and clinical studies-citrulline malate. Available at: . Accessed May 25, 2005. ...
Heartburn Medication and Kidney Disease or Failure. Recently certain types of heartburn medications, called Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been liked to people developing kidney disease or failure. Any sort of kidney disease can be devastating on the body. The body relies on the kidneys to not only remove wastes and toxins in the blood, but they help maintain blood pressure and blood acid-base balance, as well making sure certain nutrients are absorbed in the body. Some of the PPIs linked to kidney disease are:. ...
Rhcg has a complex subcellular localization. Studies in the human, rat, and mouse kidney demonstrate that Rhcg-expressing cells exhibit both apical and basolateral Rhcg immunoreactivity, with the exception of the non-A, non-B intercalated cell, which has only apical Rhcg (17, 41, 53, 90, 91). Immunogold electron microscopy in both the rat and mouse kidney demonstrated that apical Rhcg is present in both the apical plasma membrane and subapical vesicles and that basolateral Rhcg is present in the basolateral plasma membrane (53, 91). Basolateral expression can be substantial; in the rat OMCD in the inner stripe, basolateral Rhcg is ∼25% of total cellular expression in intercalated cells and ∼40% in principal cells (91). Although initial studies in both the rat and mouse kidney did not identify basolateral Rhcg expression, more recent studies using improved immunohistochemistry techniques and a panel of anti-Rhcg antibodies confirmed basolateral Rhcg expression and demonstrated substantial ...
Important concepts. -emia refers to a pH-osis refers to an abnormal condition or process. Normal ranges. pH7.36-7.44pCO238-42 mm HgHCO3-22-28 mEq/L. Fact or Fiction?. A pCO2 | 40 mm Hg always implies a respiratory alkalosisFICTION!. Fact or Fiction?. A patient cannot have a metabolic acidosis and a metabolic alkalosis simultaneouslyFICTION!. Slideshow 142404 by Albert_Lan
Definition of acid-base management in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is acid-base management? Meaning of acid-base management as a legal term. What does acid-base management mean in law?
Electrolyte & PH Complex provides an adequate supply of essential minerals safely and thus supports a balanced acid-base balance.
The effect of blood injected into either subarachnoid space or subcortical brain tissue upon lactate and pyruvate concentrations as well as acid-base balance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied in the anesthetized dog. CSF lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) increased more ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance and imbalance. AU - Felver, Linda. PY - 2011/11/23. Y1 - 2011/11/23. UR - UR - M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:84976598519. SN - 9780781792806. SP - 153. EP - 176. BT - Cardiac Nursing: Sixth Edition. PB - Wolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP). ER - ...
Study Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance, Chapter 26 P Besaw flashcards taken from chapter 26 of the book Human Anatomy and Physiology Plus a Brief Atlas of the Human Body Plus MasteringA&P with Pearson EText.
Study Session 1: Acid-Base Balance flashcards from Georgina Yan's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Kamel S. Kamel MD, FRCPC, Mitchell L. Halperin MD, FRCPC, in Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Physiology (Fifth Edition), 2017 Introduction Although ketoacidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis because of the addition of acids, it is discussed separately in this chapter to emphasize the metabolic and biochemical issues
This report also researches and evaluates the impact of Covid-19 outbreak on the Acid-Base Concentration Meter industry, involving potential opportunity and challenges, drivers and risks. We present the impact assessment of Covid-19 effects on Acid-Base Concentration Meter and market growth forecast based on different scenario (optimistic, pessimistic, very optimistic, most likely etc.). Global Acid-Base Concentration Meter Market Overview: The global Acid-Base Concentration […]. ...
Do you suffer from stress, fatigue or take prescription medication? If on top of this you have an unbalanced diet you probably need support to regulate your acid-base balance. For your body to function optimally as it should, the acid-base balance must be in equilibrium…unfortunately our modern lives makes this very difficult.So what does acid-base balance actually mean? Your body maintains a very tight range of blood pH in order to keep you alive, if your blood goes out of this range it can lead to metabolic acidosis or alkalosis which can be deadly. Since survival is always the main objective of your body, it will intelligently do whatever it takes to maintain this balance, even if it means compromising other aspects of your health. Consistent external and internal stressors such as metabolic waste (think of lactic acid that is released by your body during exercise), high stress hormones, inflammation, processed foods, environmental toxins, unfiltered water and medications all contribute to ...
Metabolic acidosis(Dec HCO3-)- For every 1meq fall in HCO3-,PCO2 falls by 1mmHg. Metabolic Alkalosis- For every 1meq rise of HCO3-,PCO2 rises by 0.6mmHg. Respiratory Acidosis- For every 10mmHg rise of PCO2. ...
A large body of work in animals and human beings supports the hypothesis that metabolic acidosis has a deleterious effect on the progression of kidney disease. Alkali therapy, whether pharmacologically or through dietary intervention, appears to slow CKD progression, but an appropriately powered ran …
in the cardiac muscle cells in response to the abnormal stretching f the heart walls from elevated blood pressure or increased blood volume. Reduces thirst and block release of ADH and aldosterone. ...
The biological and chemical processes occurring in our bodies depend on a ... Considered the chemical sponge (too much H use a sponge to clean it up. ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 756f3-NGUyZ
Despite a daily load of protons, derived mainly from metabolism, the hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood in health is tightly maintained within a slightly alkaline range (pH 7.36-7.42); concentrations of intracellular hydrogen ions are also controlled. Failure adequately to excrete or neutralize protons causes acidic conditions to prevail (decreased pH): undue intake of base, uncompensated loss of protons-or the substrates from which they are derived-induces an alkaline milieu (raised pH)....
Arterial Blood Gases. Interpretation of arterial blood gases. Check Machine Clinical History Oxygenation Ventilation Acid base status. Is the Machine correct ?. H x HCO3 = 24 PCO2 pH 7.4 H+ = 80 - 40 = 40 pH 7.3 H+ = 80 - 30 = 50 pH 7.5 H+ = 80 - 50 = 30. Clinical...
As David pointed out, in neither case were the electrolytes, acid base status, dig level, or infusion rate of calcium noted. In both cases there were clear other reasons for death. Plus, what the heck is toxic irritation of the accelerator mechanism and why would it be treated with IV calcium? This was followed up be a small experiment where dogs were given dig+calcium and some died. Again, many details were omitted. So a body of literature developed over the following decades, but it wasnt good literature ...
What a wonderful premise for a comic about Evil Acid and the Mighty Alkaline Diet!. According to some people, our bodies are full of acid and constantly fight to preserve the acid-base balance, which wear us out and make us sick. It is said to cause illness, such as osteoporosis, eczema and even cancer.. Acid-base balance and blood pH do matter a great deal in medicine. There is also available research on how diet can impact those.. Unfortunately, we only hear half-truths on the matter. As an example, you can read online about a so-called alkaline diet, made out mostly of fruits and vegetables, which allegedly prevents multiple illnesses. Websites and books supporting that diet are full of claims like:. ...
1. How are carbonic and lactic acid produced? 2. Are fruits and vegetables acid-forming or base-forming foods? 3. Identify several acid-forming elements. 4. What is a physiological buffer? 5. What is the normal range of blood Ph?.
Hi all: My objective question asks that I interpret a patients acid-base status, given normal values. My text states normal value being 20/1 (HCO3/CO2) (based on Henderson-hasselbalch
The simple clinician cannot approach a text on electrolytes with anything but trepidation. At best the subject is poorly understood, confused and technical; and too often one finds that the author of an abstruse subject is indulging in an academic and polysyllabic exercise for his own satisfaction. Not so Dr. Weisberg. It is a joy to find in these early pages that the author of a complex treatise appreciates the virtue of simplicity and sets out to be the readers ally. The result is that this book is surprisingly easy to read.. The first section is devoted to Normal Physiology ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Electrolytes & Acid-Base Balances. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
The bodys maintenance of a healthy pH range for blood and tissues that is slightly basic (pH between 7.35 - 7.45). This balance is achieved through the use of systems in the blood (which help to minimize pH changes) and by the lungs and kidneys, which eliminate excess amounts of acids or bases from the body ...
Body fluids Extracellular fluids (ECF) Interstitial fluid - fills the spaces between most cells of the body Intravascular fluid - plasma (WBC, RBC and platelets in this fluid) Interstitial fluid is 15% of body weight Intravascular fluid is 5% of body weight
This is the official approximate match mapping between ICD9 and ICD10, as provided by the General Equivalency mapping crosswalk. This means that while there is no exact mapping between this ICD10 code O68 and a single ICD9 code, 656.81 is an approximate match for comparison and conversion purposes. ...
Course concepts include: thermochemical changes; electrochemical changes; chemical equilibrium focusing on acid-base systems; and chemical reactions of select classes of organic compounds. Energy changes and safety are emphasized ...
According to Esquivel, liver detoxification has been associated with a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, anxiety, confusion and diarrhea. Liver detoxification takes on different forms and usually involves drinking a variety of organic juices, eating highly restrictive diets, taking laxatives or taking various detoxifying herbal supplements. These may trigger a variety of bodily disturbances, such as dehydration, depletion of electrolytes or disruption of the bodys acid base balance. In some cases, overdosage of fluids may occur, Esquivel explains. People also may develop allergic reactions to components of a liver cleanse, especially if herbal supplements are involved. There are liver cleanses that are aimed at washing out gallstones. The most serious risk of this is washing out the gallstone, which then becomes lodged in the gallbladder ducts, leading to an infection that often necessitates an emergency medical surgery or procedure, Esquivel adds. Instead, Esquivel advises ...
Potassium Functions Helps in the regulation of fluid balance in the body. Helps in maintaining the acid base balance in the body. It stabilizes the
Hi Dilshad,. Thanks for your comments. The BSPED DKA guidelines are very prescriptive regarding prescription of fluids and I think this is a good think, like you mention you will need more potassium than is contained in Hartmanns to keep the serum potassium in the normal range while on insulin infusion and adding potassium to a bag of Hartmanns isnt worth the risk of error when you can use a ready made bag of saline or dextrose/saline with this amount of potassium in it. Also importantly the hyperchloraemic acidosis doesnt do the patient any harm you just need to track how much of the acidosis is coming from ketones and how much from chloride and as long as the part coming from the ketones is improving then dont worry about it. What people who dont understand the quantitative approach to acid-base interpretation will do is turn up the insulin infusion or give more acidic fluids in an attempt to treat the problem (which will have no effect or make things worse). Other thing the guidelines ...
Along with Sodium it is Involved in Maintaining the Bodys Acid/Base Balance and Promoting Physiological and Metabolic Processes.
Functional care of the geriatric dog involves the microbiome, digestion, hormone supplementation, mitochondrial support, high quality food, reducing inflammation,and maintaining acid base balance.
Disclaimer: is for informational purposes only and does not provide medical advice. The contents of this website are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding any medical condition including a suspected disturbance of Acid-Base Balance. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in this website.. ...
1st year teaching : Biology 1B (DNA, RNA and protein) 2nd Year Teaching: Medicine Year 2 Lab practical on Acid/Base Balance 3rd Year Teaching: Teaching on the Neuroscience 3A course, Biochemistry 3A course, Molecular and Cell Biology 3B, Biochemistry 3B tutorials 4th Year Teaching : Course coordinator for the Cell Signalling and disease option, Deputy coordinator for the Core Skills in Pharmacology Option, teaching on the Biotechnology option. ...
Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. Vol. 19 ACID-BASE BALANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF EWES TO HYPOCALCAEMIA I. McL. GRANT A. M. BINGHAM, and I. W. CAPLE University of Melbourne, Dept of Veterinary Science, Werribee, 3030. SUMMARY The effect of acid-base balance on the susceptibility of ewes to hypocalcaemia was determined in groups of ewes fed 3 diets where the fixed cation-anion balance [Na + K - Cl] was -4.1, 29.1 and 82.3 meq/lOO g DM, respectively. Ewes fed the diet with a fixed cation excess (82.3 meq/lOO g DM) had higher urine pH and lower urine Ca concentrations. They also had lower blood ionised Ca concentrations after an overnight fast, and tended to develop hypocalcaemia more rapidly during EDTA infusion than ewes fed a diet with a fixed anion excess (-4.1 meq/lOO g DM). It was concluded that dietary fixed cation-anion balance may be a factor which predisposes pregnant ewes to hypocalcaemia. Keywords: hypocalcaemia, calcium, acid-base, pH. INTRODUCTION Hypocalcaemia in pregnant ewes is a common ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Roles of renal proximal tubule transport in acid/base balance and blood pressure regulation. AU - Nakamura, Motonobu. AU - Shirai, Ayumi. AU - Yamazaki, Osamu. AU - Satoh, Nobuhiko. AU - Suzuki, Masashi. AU - Horita, Shoko. AU - Yamada, Hideomi. AU - Seki, George. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules (PTs) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of systemic acid/base balance. Indeed, mutations in the Na+-HCO3- cotransporter NBCe1, which mediates a majority of bicarbonate exit from PTs, cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis associated with ocular and other extrarenal abnormalities. Sodium transport in PTs also plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. For example, PT transport stimulation by insulin may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with insulin resistance. Type 1 angiotensin (Ang) II receptors in PT are critical for blood pressure homeostasis. Paradoxically, the effects ...
Dental plaque is a natural biofilm which has been a focus of attention for many years because of its known roles in caries and periodontal diseases. Acid production by plaque bacteria leads to the...
substrates. This ebook seeks to reinforce our figuring out of acids and bases through reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is expounded the place attainable to that during water, yet correlations and contrasts among solvents also are presented.. Fundamental historical past fabric is supplied within the preliminary chapters: quantitative features of acid-base equilibria, together with definitions and relationships among resolution pH and species distribution; the impact of molecular constitution on acid strengths; and acidity in aqueous answer. Solvent houses are reviewed, in addition to the significance of the interplay energies of solvent molecules with (especially) ions; the power of solvents to take part in hydrogen bonding and to just accept ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Sanner, Martha Depecol; Hooper, Christine - Interactive Physiology: Fluid, Electrolyte, & Acid/Base Balance (CD-ROM for Windows and Macintosh). Bei der Büchersuchmaschine können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9780805360936
Pentec Health CEO Joe Cosgrove has addressed before the topic of dialysis in several occasions; however, and given the variety of health issues related to renal failure, it is also important to discuss and clarify the doubts people may have about other renal pathologies such as acid-base disorders. Since acid-base disorders entails the deep study…
ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic carbon dioxide-induced ocean acidification is predicted to have major implications for marine organisms. As the oceans becomes increasingly hypercapnic (elevated CO2) and seawater pH decreases, the ability of organisms to maintain extracellular pH homeostasis (acid-base balance) may be compromised. Acid-base regulation occurs by ionic transport, where hydrogen and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) are exchanged for sodium and chloride, respectively (H+/Na+; HCO3-/Cl-), as exemplified by decapod crustaceans. Palaemonid prawns, in particular, are efficient hypo-ionic/osmotic regulators in seawater. We demonstrate that hypercapnic exposure (0.3 kPa) results in short-term (5 to 14 d) extracellular acidosis in 2 efficient ionic/osmo-regulators (thus, acid-base regulators), i.e. Palaemon elegans and P. serratus. Complete hypercapnic compensation was observed in both species after 30 d exposure with no effect on osmotic capacity, but at the expense of extracellular acid-base alteration ...
Objectives Discuss the mechanisms for maintaining normal acid-base balance Define respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis Identify the common causes of acid base imbalance Define and differentiate between respiratory distress and failure Discuss interventions on transport for a patient with acid-base imbalance
Looking for online definition of Acid-base reaction in the Medical Dictionary? Acid-base reaction explanation free. What is Acid-base reaction? Meaning of Acid-base reaction medical term. What does Acid-base reaction mean?
A mathematical model for blood gas and acid-base status under extracorporeal circulation was developed. This model consists of a multiple compartment model for the oxygenator, and models for arterial and venous PCO2, PO2, (including temperature- and pH-dependent shift in oxygen-binding capacity of haemoglobin), SO2, bicarbonate, base excess and pH. It was implemented in a Matlab/Simulink environment. Input parameters were oxygenator type, gas flow, FiO2, arterial pump flow, temperature, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit. As output parameters, venous and arterial SO2, PO2, PCO2 and pH were analyzed. The model was tested by using clinical monitoring data during extracorporeal circulation of patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass grafting as input data, and comparing the model output with the results of conventional blood gas analyses (Rapidlab 288®) retrospectively. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acid-base status of adults with sickle-cell anaemia.. AU - Kong, H. H.. AU - Alleyne, G. A.. PY - 1969/8/2. Y1 - 1969/8/2. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 5800366. AN - SCOPUS:0014661475. VL - 3. SP - 271. EP - 273. JO - British Medical Journal. JF - British Medical Journal. SN - 0959-8146. IS - 665. ER - ...
The Dodgers have signed third baseman Ian Stewart, tweets Jon Heyman of Since being jettisoned by the Cubs, Stewart was most recently rumored to be in discussions with the Yankees, who USA Todays Bob Nightengale says (Twitter link) were finalists for Stewart along with the Marlins and Rockies. While contract details have not yet been reported, all signs point to the deal being a minor league contract.. Stewart never made it to the bigs this season, as he was outrighted to Chicagos highest minor league affiliate after struggling during an early-season rehab stint. His cumulative line this season (all for Triple-A Iowa) is just .168/.286/.372. In 2012, Stewart managed just a .201/.292/.335 slash for the major league Cubs. The 28-year-old Stewart had a less-than-amicable end to his tenure in Chicago after being non-tendered but later re-signed by the Cubs this past offseason. He never regained the power stroke that he showed during his time with the Rockies. To add insult to injury ...
Elaine Stewart Pictures - Private Life and Times of Elaine Stewart. Elaine Stewart Photo Gallery. Elaine Stewart (Elsy H. Steinberg); Glamour Girls of the Silver Screen - The Private Lives and Times of Some of the Most Glamorous Actresses and Starlets of the Forties, Fifties and Sixties.
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Acid-Base Regulation and Disorders from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Acid-Base Regulation and Disorders from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Metabolic acidosis is an acid-base disorder characterized by a decrease in serum pH that results from either a primary decrease in plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3 -]) or an increase in hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]). It is not a disease but rather a biochemical abnormality.
ABEL - Acid-Base and Electrolyte. Looking for abbreviations of ABEL? It is Acid-Base and Electrolyte. Acid-Base and Electrolyte listed as ABEL
A total of 51 patients were included in the study. The time of rising serum sodium and hypernatremia was accompanied by metabolic alkalosis. A transient increase in total base excess (standard base excess from 0.1 to 5.5 mmol/L) paralleled by a transient increase in the base excess due to sodium (base excess sodium from 0.7 to 4.1 mmol/L) could be observed. The other determinants of metabolic acid-base state remained stable. The increase in base excess was accompanied by a slight increase in overall pH (from 7.392 to 7.429, standard base excess from 0.1 to 5.5 mmol/L).. ...
The high potassium/low sodium diet that they were consuming resulted in appropriate hyperaldosteronism in the absence of hypertension. It is likely that this diet is similar to the one our ancestors in Africa were accustomed to. Perhaps the low level of aldosterone that we regard as normal in the west is actually an adaptation to the extremely high level of salt in the western diet - certainly, these Indians prove that we can survive comfortably on less than 1% of our usual salt consumption. It is interesting to note the extremely high urinary anion gap in the Indians - mean 130. What was the anion excreted with the potassium? In all likelihood this was bicarbonate. The potassium in bananas exists in the form of potassium citrate and this would need to be excreted along with the potassium to maintain normal acid-base balance. Unfortunately we do not have any record of the acid base status of the subjects so that is a subject for conjecture. Other studies of isolated tribes who were contacted in ...
Fu, J., Teucher, M., Anastassiadis, K., Skarnes, W. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). A Recombineering Pipeline to Make Conditional Targeting Constructs. Methods Enzymol 477C: 125-144. Anastassiadis, K., Glaser, S., Kranz, A., Bernhardt, K. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). A Practical Summary of Site-Specific Recombination, Conditional Mutagenesis, and Tamoxifen Induction of CreERT2. Methods Enzymol 477C: 109-123. Kranz, A., Fu, J., Duerschke, K., Weidlich, S., Naumann, R., Stewart, A. F. and Anastassiadis, K. (2010). An improved Flp deleter mouse in C57Bl/6 based on Flpo recombinase. Genesis. Maresca, M., Erler, A., Fu, J., Friedrich, A., Zhang, Y. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). Single-stranded heteroduplex intermediates in lambda Red homologous recombination. BMC Mol Biol 11: 54. Anastassiadis, K., Rostovskaya, M., Lubitz, S., Weidlich, S. and Stewart, A. F. (2010). Precise conditional immortalization of mouse cells using tetracycline-regulated SV40 large T-antigen. Genesis. 2009 Buchanan, L., ...
As mentioned above, we hypothesize that preferential pHi regulation may represent the basal pattern of acid-base regulation in vertebrates as a strategy during development, with adults either retaining or losing this trait. The mechanisms responsible for preferential pHi regulation are unknown, but allow embryos to compensate for acid-base challenges to pHi, despite the incomplete formation in embryos of the extracellular compartment and associated structures that are required for coupled pH regulation. These challenges apply to all embryos, and acid-base challenges may arise from hypoxia and hypercarbia or increased metabolic activity throughout development (Tazawa et al., 1983). In the specific examples described above, additional acid-base challenges may be experienced in the form of hypoxia or hypercarbia, conditions associated with nests or egg masses (Booth, 1998; Grigg et al., 2010; Lutz and Dunbar-Cooper, 1984). Furthermore, embryos encapsulated within extra-embryonic structures (e.g. ...
Definition of anion gap in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is anion gap? Meaning of anion gap as a finance term. What does anion gap mean in finance?
Adjustments of acid-base balance - in each patient, protein turnover will be measured twice, at a standard bicarbonate concentration of ,19 mmol/l and ,25 mmol/l respectively, with an interval between the two measurements (random order) of 3-4 weeks. The acid-base status will be altered by adjusting the dose of bicarbonate (oral and/or via dialysis) and protein turnover will be measured when the predialysis bicarbonate level have been low or normal for at least one week. ...
We have demonstrated for the first time in a large prospective study that dietary acid load was positively associated with type 2 diabetes risk, independently of other known risk factors for diabetes. Our results need to be validated in other populations, and may lead to promotion of diets with a lo …
As the first step in the oxygen‐transport chain,the lung has a critical task: optimizing the exchange of respiratory gases to maintain delivery of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide
The cost-effectiveness of venous-converted acid-base and blood gas status in pulmonary medical departments Lars Oddershede1, Sabrina Storgaard Petersen1, Asgerd Krogh Kristensen2, Jan Freddy Pedersen3, Stephen Edward Rees1, Lars Ehlers41Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Aalborg Hospital Section South, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital Section South, Aalborg, Denmark; 4Health Economics and Management, Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: The current use of arterial punctures, when obtaining arterial blood gas and acid-base status of patients, are associated with a risk of side effects such as pain and hematoma, and a small risk of more severe complications. This analysis investigated the cost-effectiveness of a new method, where less painful venous-converted tests are used as an alternative to arterial punctures.Methods: A cost–utility analysis was conducted from
While many companies are facing financial hardships, Stewarts Shops is proud to announce that eligible Partners recently received an additional dividend in their ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan). This dividend is a true representation of Stewarts stability and success as a company.. In early July, all eligible Partners received a dividend which totaled 4.5% of their 2019 ending ESOP balance. This $50M dividend is given to Partners for their hard work and dedication. Partners had the option to roll their dividend into their existing ESOP account or take a cash distribution. There are now 90 Stewarts Partners with a balance exceeding $1,000,000.. This dividend was in addition to the contribution they received in April. Our employees are called Partners, and they really are, since they own over 40 percent of the company through their ESOP, which is 100 percent funded by the company for anyone working at least 1000 hours a year. After six years in the plan, a Partners balance is usually ...
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Student Solutions Manual for Stewarts Single Variable Calculus, 6th by James Stewart; Scott Stewart and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at
This is a document from the Charles B. Moore Collection. It is written by George Stewart and is addressed to John Stewart. In this postcard, Stewart discusses the goings-on in Johnson County in Texas. The news includes: updates on his and the familys well-being, a discussion about the planting of cottonseed, details about the grasshoppers eating all the wheat and mostly all of the corn, a message to Bill Evans about renting land, and updates about correspondences received. He closes the letter by noting that should John write soon with all the news.
MSP Investigate Possible Colon Area Kidnapping Tuesday, April 27, 2010 (COLON TOWNSHIP) - Michigan State Police are investigating the possible abduction of a woman from the Colon area on Monday. 32-year-old Venus Rose Stewart was abducted from her parents home on Driftwood Drive between 7:10am and 8:30am. Stewart may be in the company of 29-year-old Douglas Stewart in a 1998 silver Mercury 4-door or a 2005 silver Dodge
LONDON (AP) _ Rocker Rod Stewart has become a father for the eighth time.The 66-year-old Stewarts wife, Penny Lancaster, gave birth to a baby boy Wednesday. British singer Rod Stewart, right, and his wife Penny Lancaster (AP)A statement released Thursday on the couples behalf said they were ``proud and thrilled.Aiden is Stewart and Lancasters second child. They have another son, Alastair, who
The ion transport systems used to regulate acid-base balance are not equally effective in all marine animal groups. Marine organisms are apparently highly tolerant of CO2 when they can accumulate large amounts of bicarbonate ions, which stabilize the pH value. These organisms are usually also able to very effectively excrete protons. Mobile and active species such as fish, certain crustaceans, and cephalopods - cuttlefish, for instance - are therefore especially CO2-tolerant. The metabolic rates of these animals can strongly fluctuate and reach very high levels during exercise (hunting & escape behaviour). The oxygen-consumption rate (a measure of metabolic rate) of these active animal groups can reach levels that are orders of magnitude above those of sea urchins, starfish or mussels. Because large amounts of CO2 and protons accumulate during excessive muscle activity, active animals often possess an efficient system for proton excretion and acid-base regulation. Consequently, these animals can ...
In view of the plethora of published material available on this area, the author justifies yet another contribution by alluding to the excessive complexities and uneven literary quality of existing texts. Unfortunately, Dr. Tullers approach is excessively simplified, in this reviewers opinion.. He suggests that plasma [HCO3-] is never directly altered by changes in ventilation because the bicarbonate ion is not volatile. If this were indeed correct, then the PCO2 would inform us about alveolar ventilation, whereas the [HCO3-] would be a purely metabolic index. Unfortunately, in the presence of protein buffers in the blood, [HCO3-] is acutely altered by ...
However, failure to apply the entirety of physicochemical principles leads to the incorrect and misleading conclusion that lactate- is unrelated to the metabolic acidosis of exercise. We do contend, therefore, that the accumulation of lactate-within skeletal muscle directly contributes to intracellular acidosis, by virtue of the fact that it is a strong acid anion that fundamentally alters the behavior of water. With respect to acid-base balance, it is inappropriate to consider each biochemical reaction independently, and it is similarly inappropriate to try to link them temporally or in biochemical sequence. Acid-base balance changes instantaneously; therefore, a more complete understanding of the acidosis of exercise considers the simultaneous biochemical, transport, and proton buffering reactions, as well as their instantaneous and simultaneous physicochemical interactions with water, at any point in time. As stated by Norman Jones in 1980 (16): The simple biochemical relationships above ...
However, failure to apply the entirety of physicochemical principles leads to the incorrect and misleading conclusion that lactate- is unrelated to the metabolic acidosis of exercise. We do contend, therefore, that the accumulation of lactate-within skeletal muscle directly contributes to intracellular acidosis, by virtue of the fact that it is a strong acid anion that fundamentally alters the behavior of water. With respect to acid-base balance, it is inappropriate to consider each biochemical reaction independently, and it is similarly inappropriate to try to link them temporally or in biochemical sequence. Acid-base balance changes instantaneously; therefore, a more complete understanding of the acidosis of exercise considers the simultaneous biochemical, transport, and proton buffering reactions, as well as their instantaneous and simultaneous physicochemical interactions with water, at any point in time. As stated by Norman Jones in 1980 (16): The simple biochemical relationships above ...
Kristen Stewart Starts Filming Anesthesia! Kristen Stewart rocks a black beanie on the set of her upcoming indie film Anesthesia on Monday night (November 4) in New York City. The 23-year-old actress,…
This event is now in the past - Stewart Lee + Oxide Ghosts: The Brass Eye Tapes at EartH (Theatre) on Monday, 16 Sep 2019 at 7:30 PM.. Find more Stewart Lee + Oxide Ghosts: The Brass Eye Tapes performances ...
J.C. Penney Co. is buying a minority stake in Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia for $38.5 million, the latest move by the department store to attract new customers and perk up lackluster sales. To partner with J.C. Penney, Ron and his extraordinary team is a big and important step in realizing my dream of putting our Martha Stewart designed products within easy reach of an even broader consumer audience, Stewart, who is the founder and a board member of the company that bears her name, said in a statement.
They refused to discuss their relationship, and in interviews there was typically a way of a wall going up, of shutters closing. Most of the time, Stewart seemed like she wished to run away. After being catapulted into world stardom as a young person in The Twilight Saga, Kristen Stewart moved on to more difficult roles, successful acclaim for her performances in thought-provoking impartial movies. Now, as she returns to the mainstream with Charlies Angels, she opens up about her fluid sexuality, directorial debut and finding the freedom to be herself. Of course, the easiest way Marvel can prove that this isnt the prevailing sentiment inside their own headquarters is to supply Kristen Stewart a job ...
Jon Stewart is considered one of Americas top social and comedic voices. From his anchor chair on COMEDY CENTRALs The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, Stewart has breathed new life into a show that hadnt even seemed to need it, said The New York Times. Since taking over as the host of The Daily Show in January, 1999, Stewarts presence has seen higher ratings and awareness for himself, as well as the network.
Brandon Stewart turned on the afterburners to claim his maiden victory in the Kia Walkerville Mountain Bike Classic, presented by ASG, in sub-zero conditions in Johannesburg on Sunday.. The FedGroup-Itec Connect pro, from Hilton in KwaZulu-Natal, made an early break in the 60km main event and was later joined by RE:CMs Waylon Woolcock.. They matched each other all the way to the Walkerville Showgrounds, where the 15th edition of Gautengs largest and coldest winter race finished on the slippery speedway circuit.. Stewart duly outdragged his breakaway companion to take line honours in a fast 1:55:55. Woolcock, a former Old Mutual joBerg2c champion, finished three seconds back.. The latters team-mate, Neil MacDonald, completed the podium in 2:02:02.. Stewart said the shale surface, which is designed for motorbikes to slide on, had made the final stretch particularly challenging and exciting. It was almost like a mini Paris-Roubaix finish.. The win rounded off a successful weekend for the ...
The following DeMause quotes are playing on my mind (taken from War as Righteous Rape). From them, I am alert to think of non-pejorative forms of our desires that people like Stewart and Colbert are blasting in their call for sanity. Along with genuine lack of reasoning (as we see every time Stewart showcases any of the genuinely always-unreasoning FOX News types), we will see grouped its actual opposite: the impassioned fight to resist obfuscation, curtailment of truth, flight from sanity toward group disassociation, we consistently find with the likes of Joan Walsh and Chris Matthews (two liberals who have showcased as insane -- or at least as talking insanely -- by Stewart). As I have suggested elsewhere, I have no doubt that Krugman will be targeted by liberal reasonables as amongst the clearly unreasonable. They have to (go after him), for he has too strong a claim on being reasonable right now himself -- on defining what it is to be reasonable in our current era -- and yet so strongly ...
Kristen Stewart Didnt Think Audiences Would Believe Her in Camp X-Ray Kristen Stewart hangs out with a pal as they leave Ebisu Japanese Tavern after dinner on Wednesday evening (January 22) in Los Angeles. The 23-year-old actress…
Stewart Bevan, Actor: Doctor Who. Stewart Bevan was born on March 10, 1948 in London, England as Stewart John Llewellyn Bevan. He is an actor, known for Doctor Who (1963), The Brief (1984) and To Sir, with Love (1967).
The chemical reactions that regulate the levels of CO2 and carbonic acid occur in the lungs when blood travels through the lungs pulmonary capillaries. Minor adjustments in breathing are usually sufficient to adjust the pH of the blood by changing how much CO2 is exhaled. In fact, doubling the respiratory rate for less than 1 minute, removing extra CO2, would increase the blood pH by 0.2. This situation is common if you are exercising strenuously over a period of time. To keep up the necessary energy production, you would produce excess CO2 (and lactic acid if exercising beyond your aerobic threshold). In order to balance the increased acid production, the respiration rate goes up to remove the CO2. This helps to keep you from developing acidosis.. The body regulates the respiratory rate by the use of chemoreceptors, which primarily use CO2 as a signal. Peripheral blood sensors are found in the walls of the aorta and carotid arteries. These sensors signal the brain to provide immediate ...
SvO2 is measured in the pulmonary artery. ScvO2 is measured in the SVC. There is an erroneous belief that arterial gases are always superior to venous gases. This may be true when assessing for pulmonary status because arterial blood comes from pulmonary vascular bed. But the above meta suggests that there is good correlation at near normal levels.. In states of shock, venous gases from ScvO2 or SvO2 are likely more accurate. They originate from systemic tissue beds and more accurately reflects systemic processes during impaired tissue perfusion. An older study addressed this difference in cardiac arrest and found the arterial blood pH averaged 7.41, whereas the average mixed venous blood pH was 7.15; mean arterial PCO2 was 32, whereas the mixed venous PCO2 was 74 (Weil MH, Rackow EC, Trevino R, Grundler W, Falk JL, Griffel MI. Difference in acid-base state between venous and arterial blood during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med. 1986;315(3):153-6).. To me, this means that shock and ...
Oxtoby, David W.; Gillis, Pat (2015). "Acid-base equilibria". Principles of Modern Chemistry (8 ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage ... The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate ... and its conjugate base (for example, HCO− 3) so that any excess acid or base introduced to the system is neutralized. Failure ... base 10) of the acid dissociation constant of carbonic acid. It is equal to 6.1. [HCO− 3] is the concentration of bicarbonate ...
They participate in an acid-base equilibrium. In the case of methanol the potassium methoxide (methylate) forms: KOH + CH3OH ... Because aggressive bases like KOH damage the cuticle of the hair shaft, potassium hydroxide is used to chemically assist the ... Along with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), KOH is a prototypical strong base. It has many industrial and niche applications, most of ... Complementary to its reactivity toward acids, KOH attacks oxides. Thus, SiO2 is attacked by KOH to give soluble potassium ...
Albert MS, Dell RB, Winters RW (February 1967). "Quantitative displacement of acid-base equilibrium in metabolic acidosis". ... "Case 1: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center". Retrieved 2009-05-09. "Acid-Base Disorders: Acid-Base ... If the measured PCO2 is higher than the calculated value, there is also a secondary respiratory acidosis or mixed acid base ... If the measured PCO2 is lower than the calculated value, there is also a secondary respiratory alkalosis or mixed acid base ...
With T. R. Parsons.) The acid-base equilibrium in the cerebro-spinal fluid. J.Physiol. 54, 62. 1921. Amount of heat liberated ...
Rodima, Toomas; Leito, I. (2002). "Acid-Base Equilibria in Nonpolar Media. 2. Self-Consistent Basicity Scale in THF Solution ... TMG is mainly used as a strong, non-nucleophilic base for alkylations, often as a substitute for the more expensive DBU and DBN ... Tetramethylguanidine is an organic compound with the formula HNC(N(CH3)2)2. This colourless liquid is a strong base, as judged ... It is also used as a base-catalyst in the production of polyurethane. Kaupmees, K.; Trummal, A.; Leito, I. (2014). "Basicities ...
The Stewart approach models the complex chemical equilibrium system known as acid-base balance. Stewart introduced the term " ... "Base excess or buffer base (strong ion difference) as measure of a non-respiratory acid-base disturbance". Acta ... He outlined his model in a paper in 1978, and explained it his 1981 book, How to Understand Acid-Base. The book was unavailable ... Stewart, Peter A. (1981). How to Understand Acid-Base. New York: Elsevier North Holland, Inc. ISBN 0-7131-4390-8. Kellum, John ...
The ionization equilibrium of an acid or a base is affected by a solvent change. The effect of the solvent is not only because ... Consider the following acid dissociation equilibrium: HA ⇌ A− + H+ Water, being the most polar-solvent listed above, stabilizes ... of its dielectric constant and its ability to preferentially solvate and thus stabilize certain species in acid-base equilibria ... Protic solvents react with strong nucleophiles with good basic character in an acid/base fashion, thus decreasing or removing ...
... osmotic equilibrium, and acid-base balance. In addition to calcium, it is important in the regulation of neuromuscular activity ... Fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid, catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid, in addition to providing energy ... Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by ... The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha- ...
When an acid or a base is added, the equilibrium between the two forms will be displaced. A widely studied class are ... In 1991 Stoddart devices a molecular shuttle based on a rotaxane on which a molecular bead is able to shuttle between two ... Many early examples of such systems are based on crown ether chemistry. The first switchable host is described in 1978 by ... However, on addition of trifluoroacetic acid, the benzidine nitrogen atoms are protonated and the bead is fixed permanently on ...
The first problem in Part A concerned equilibrium related to solubility, acids and bases, or pressure/concentration. The first ... The new exam has a focus on longer, more in depth, lab-based questions. The penalty for incorrect answers on the multiple ... Reactions Chemical equilibrium Chemical kinetics Stoichiometry Thermodynamics Electrochemistry Reaction types States of matter ... chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics, electrochemistry, and thermodynamics. The College Board recommends successful ...
"Acid-base equilibrium" redirects here. For acid-base balance in physiology, see Acid-base homeostasis. ... acid + base ⇌ conjugate base + conjugate acid.. The acid loses a proton, leaving a conjugate base; the proton is transferred to ... 3 in (the reverse of) the equilibrium HCO−. 3 + OH− ⇌ CO2−. 3 + H2O.. Carbonic acid equilibria are important for acid-base ... which is the reverse of the equilibrium H2O (acid) + B (base) ⇌ OH− (conjugate base) + BH+ (conjugate acid).. The hydroxide ion ...
... the acid dissociation constant (that is, the equilibrium constant for acid-base dissociation) must be specified. K a = [ H ... When the acid dissociates, its concentration changes by an amount − x {\displaystyle -x} , and the concentrations of A− and H+ ... Note that in this example, we are assuming that the acid is not very weak, and that the concentration is not very dilute, so ... To illustrate the processes, consider the case of dissolving a weak acid, HA, in water. The pH can be calculated using an ICE ...
Stepanek J (September 1972). "[Alteration of the acid-base equilibrium by the anorectic diphemethoxidine in comparison with the ...
The same study also found marked disturbances in gas exchange and acid-base equilibrium after injection with the toxin. Acute ... SRTXs complete cDNA sequence comprises 1948 base pairs (bp) coding for a pre-pro-polypeptide of 543 amino acids which starts ... The amino acid sequence comprises one sequence of 39 amino acidic residues followed by 11 sequences of 40 residues, each of it ... Each contains twenty-one amino acid residues that spontaneously fold into a defined tertiary structure with two interchain- ...
... study of the mechanism of haemolysis in relation to acid-base equilibrium". N Engl J Med. 217 (23): 915-918. doi:10.1056/ ... Based on the levels of these cell proteins, erythrocytes may be classified as type I, II, or III PNH cells. Type I cells have ... If this was positive, the Ham's acid hemolysis test (after Dr Thomas Ham, who described the test in 1937) was performed for ... The Ham test involves placing red blood cells in mild acid; a positive result (increased RBC fragility) indicates PNH or ...
"Kinetics and mechanism of the acid-base equilibrium of mexazolam and comparison with those of other commercial ... HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors including simvastatin, simvastatin acid, lovastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin and cerivastatin ...
Later he worked on acid-base equilibria of organic nitrogen compounds, as well as reaction kinetics. Thomas Dale Stewart, ...
Most of them can handle much more complicated equilibria than acid-base equilibria in solution. For details concerning general ... Any acid with a pKa less than about −2 is said to be a strong acid. Strong acids are said to be fully dissociated. There is no ... A weak acid may be defined as an acid with pKa greater than about −2. An acid with pKa = −2 would be 99 % dissociated at pH 0, ... Outside the transition range the concentration of acid or conjugate base is less than 10 % and the colour of the major species ...
"Role of Acid-Base Equilibria in the Size, Shape, and Phase Control of Cesium Lead Bromide Nanocrystals". ACS Nano. 12 (2): 1704 ... It is an unsaturated fatty amine related to the fatty acid oleic acid. The pure compound is a clear and colorless liquid. ... Oleylamine reacts with carboxylic acid to form its carboxylate salt through an exothermic reaction. Its carboxylate salt can ...
2009). "Identification of valence electronic states of aqueous acetic acid in acid-base equilibrium using site-selective X-ray ... Intracellular metal speciation, Mott insulators high-temperature superconductors (e.g., cuprates), Iron-based superconductors, ... aqueous acetic acid, aqueous glycine High pressure. X-ray scattering techniques X-ray Raman scattering (XRS) W. Schuelke, ... "Theoretical approach to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in iron-based superconductors at the energy scale of the ...
The competition between the acid-base equilibria of these groups leads to additional complications in their physical behavior. ... Acids are classified as either weak or strong (and bases similarly may be either weak or strong). Similarly, polyelectrolytes ... Nucleic acids, proteins, teichoic acids, some polypeptides, and some polysaccharides are examples of natural polyelectrolytes. ... "Metal Complexes of Amphoteric Cryogels Based on Allylamine and Methacrylic Acid". Macromolecular Symposia. 317-318: 18-27. doi: ...
Water portal Acid-base reaction Chemical equilibrium Molecular autoionization (of various solvents) Standard hydrogen electrode ... Because most acid-base solutions are typically very dilute, the activity of water is generally approximated as being equal to ... If an impurity is an acid or base, this will affect the concentrations of hydronium ion and hydroxide ion. Water samples that ... When the equilibrium constant is written as a product of concentrations (as opposed to activities) it is necessary to make ...
"Confusing Quantitative Descriptions of Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Equilibria in Chemistry Textbooks - A Critical Review and ... Hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid in aqueous solution (pKa = 3.15) but a very weak acid in the gas phase (Epa (F−) = 1554 kJ/mol ... The term "proton acid" is used to distinguish these acids from Lewis acids. It is the gas-phase equivalent of the term Brønsted ... the stronger the base and the weaker the conjugate acid in the gas phase. The (reportedly) strongest known base is the ortho- ...
"Confusing Quantitative Descriptions of Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Equilibria in Chemistry Textbooks - A Critical Review and ... In the solvent system definition of acids and bases, autoionization of solvents affords the equivalent to acids and bases. ... An acid which has more of a tendency to donate a hydrogen ion than the limiting acid will be a strong acid in the solvent ... For example, the limiting acid in liquid ammonia is the ammonium ion, which has a pKa value in water of 9.25. The limiting base ...
"Confusing Quantitative Descriptions of Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Equilibria in Chemistry Textbooks - A Critical Review and ... Acids whose ionization constants are below 109 generally cannot form stable H 3O+ salts. For example, nitric acid has an ... However, perchloric acid has an ionization constant of 1010, and if liquid anhydrous perchloric acid and water are combined in ... It is the positive ion present when an Arrhenius acid is dissolved in water, as Arrhenius acid molecules in solution give up a ...
Moreover, the pH value also directly influences the acid-base dissociation equilibrium involving the hydroperoxyl and the ... The hydroperoxyl radical is a weak acid and gives rise to the superoxide radical (O2•-) when it loses a proton: HO2 → H+ + O2- ... This pKa value is close to that of acetic acid. Below a pH of 4.7, the protonated hydroperoxyl radical will dominate in ... Nature 163, 692-694 (1949) Behar, David; Czapski, Gideon; Rabani, Joseph; Dorfman, Leon M.; Schwarz, Harold A. (1970). "Acid ...
Systems where chemical interactions occur at equilibrium concentrations. Theory of acids and bases. Alma-Ata, 1953 Research in ... He is famous for his generalized acid-base theory. Michail Usanovich was born to a Jewish doctor's family in Zhytomyr. After ... There are no acids or bases! On a half-forgotten theory and its creator] (PDF). Khimiya i zhizn (in Russian) (6): 41-44.. ... Generalized theory of acids and bases; The so-called anomalous electrical conductivity Is a rule rather than an exception; The ...
... against the acid-based (-C(O)OH) and alcohol-based (-OH) monomers is described by the equilibrium constant KC. K C = [ . . . − ... Equilibrium constants of magnitude KC ≥ 104 are achieved when using reactive reactants (acid chlorides or acid anhydrides) or ... In acylation, the acid begins as an acid chloride, and thus the polycondensation proceeds with emission of hydrochloric acid ( ... The equilibrium constant of the acid-alcohol based polyesterification is typically KC ≤ 10, what is not high enough to obtain ...
... but much less acidic than the acid in the stomach. A normal, healthy human body maintains pH equilibrium via acid-base ... "AERIAL ACID: a short history of artificial mineral waters" (PDF). Retrieved May 8, 2017. "XI. Experiments on ... Soda water may be used to dilute drinks based on cordials such as orange squash. Soda water is a necessary ingredient in many ... The popular belief that carbonated water is a good remover of clothing stains, particularly those of red wine, is based on ...
... acid-base equilibrium. The red king crab has five sets of gills used for respiration, which are in the branchial chamber within ... The carapace is a covering of sheets of exoskeleton that overhang the thorax vertically to fit over the base of the thoracic ... an opening in the carapace near the base of the chelipeds, dorsally over the gills, and anteriorly to exit beside the head. Due ...
Tautomerization is catalyzed by both acids and bases. Usually, the keto form is more stable than the enol. This equilibrium ... Acid/base properties of ketonesEdit. Ketones are far more acidic (pKa ≈ 20) than a regular alkane (pKa ≈ 50). This difference ... Using very strong bases like lithium diisopropylamide (LDA, pKa of conjugate acid ~36) under non-equilibrating conditions (-78 ... Ketones are also weak bases, undergoing protonation on the carbonyl oxygen in the presence of Brønsted acids. Ketonium ions (i. ...
By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Through a series of experiments utilizing the sedimentation equilibrium technique, two important observations were made: ... has particles in order of density based on height. The object or particle of interest will reside in the position within the ... Molecular properties can be modeled through sedimentation velocity analysis or sedimentation equilibrium analysis. During the ...
Indeed, transferring of protons between chemicals is the basis of acid-base chemistry.[10]:43 Also unique is hydrogen's ability ... Okamoto, H. (2009). "Cs-O (Cesium-Oxygen)". Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion. 31: 86-87. doi:10.1007/s11669-009-9636-5 ... Because alkali metal sulphides are essentially salts of a weak acid and a strong base, they form basic solutions. ... being the foundation of acid-base chemistry.[161] As an example of hydrogen's unorthodox properties stemming from its unusual ...
Its Lewis acid strength, as quantified by experimental equilibrium constants, is by 7 orders of magnitude higher than the one ... Otherwise (C6F5)3B binds to a wide range of Lewis bases, even weak ones.[8] The compound is hygroscopic, forming the trihydrate ... which was shown to be a strong Brønsted acid having an acidity comparable to hydrochloric acid (in acetonitrile).[5] In ... It has been described as the "ideal Lewis acid" because of its high thermal stability and the relative inertness of the B-C ...
In diapsids, uric acid is the main nitrogenous waste product; turtles, like mammals, excrete mainly urea. Unlike the kidneys of ... This stem-based definition is equivalent to the more common definition of Sauropsida, which Modesto and Anderson synonymized ... Henderson, Donald M (1 August 2003). "Effects of stomach stones on the buoyancy and equilibrium of a floating crocodilian: a ... All reproductive activity occurs through the cloaca, the single exit/entrance at the base of the tail where waste is also ...
Ecosystem-based mechanismsEdit. In ecosystems, the amount of available resources and the extent to which those resources are ... For example, some species in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia are smaller than 10 microns in width and contain domoic acid, a ... In stable ecosystems, equilibrium exists in the use of available resources. These mechanisms describe a situation in which the ... Species based mechanismsEdit. While all species compete to survive, invasive species appear to have specific traits or specific ...
He was Chairman of the OSTP Acid Rain Peer Review Panel, whose report "Acid Rain" was published in 1984. The report encouraged ... Warming at equilibrium would be 2-3 times as great over the polar regions as over the tropics; and probably greater over the ... Careful review of dissenting inferences suggesting negligible CO2-induced climate change shows these to be based on misleading ... the administration to curb acid rain emissions. Climate[edit]. Nierenberg took a strong interest in the problem of global ...
... while NOESY is again used to correlate the sugar to the base and each base to its neighboring base. For duplex DNA ... Dynamic properties such as duplex-single strand equilibria and binding rates of other molecules to duplexes can also be ... Nucleic acid NMR uses techniques similar to those of protein NMR, but has several differences. Nucleic acids have a smaller ... Because nucleic acids have a relatively large number of protons which are solvent-exchangeable, nucleic acid NMR is generally ...
They can be functionalized to act as acids, bases, or ligands, and are precursors salts in the preparation of stable carbenes. ... Mota-Martinez M. T.; Althuluth M.; Berrouk A.; Kroon M.C.; Peters Cor J. (2014). "High pressure phase equilibria of binary ... Ultrasound can degrade solutions of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid to relatively ... alkaloid-based venom. The Tawny crazy ant then exudes its own venom, formic acid, and self-grooms with it, an action which de- ...
A second method to prepare fluorescein uses methanesulfonic acid as a Brønsted acid catalyst. This route has a high yield under ... Fluorescein has a pKa of 6.4, and its ionization equilibrium leads to pH-dependent absorption and emission over the range of 5 ... In 1966, environmentalists forced a change to a vegetable-based dye to protect local wildlife.[7] ... The extent to which fluorescein dilaurate is broken down to yield lauric acid can be detected as a measure of pancreatic ...
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[۲۹] ... "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[۲۷] ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[۲۹] ... "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[۸۳] ...
Analysis of nucleic acids structures[edit]. Psoralens can reversibly crosslink nucleic acids double helices, and therefore have ... When appropriately intercalated adjacent to a pyrimidine base, a four-center photocycloaddition reaction can lead to the ... affinity of the psoralen for DNA is directly related to the concentration of the psoralen in the DNA chamber after equilibrium ... such as ring opening by alkali to give a coumarinic acid or coumaric acid derivative. Potassium permanganate causes oxidation ...
Pauling based this classification scheme on the partial ionic character of a bond, which is an approximate function of the ... Acid dissociation constant. *Protic solvent. *Inorganic nonaqueous solvent. *Solvation. *List of boiling and freezing ... Contrary to popular misconception, the electrical deflection of a stream of water from a charged object is not based on ... Bond polarity is typically divided into three groups that are loosely based on the difference in electronegativity between the ...
... a glass electrode for acid-base reactions and a platinum electrode for redox titrations), and should reach equilibrium rapidly ... the base B will combine with a proton to yield the conjugate acid HB of the base B, for every base has its conjugate acid and, ... Here the acetic acid is functioning as an acid. If a very strong acid such as perchloric acid is dissolved in acetic acid, the ... It is possible, therefore, to titrate a solution of a weak base in acetic acid with perchloric acid in acetic acid, and obtain ...
Main article: Acid-base reaction. A substance can often be classified as an acid or a base. There are several different ... Equilibrium. Main article: Chemical equilibrium. Although the concept of equilibrium is widely used across sciences, in the ... and a base is one that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. According to Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory, acids are ... A third common theory is Lewis acid-base theory, which is based on the formation of new chemical bonds. Lewis theory explains ...
Chromium trioxide is the anhydride of molecular chromic acid. It is a Lewis acid and can react with a Lewis base, such as ... "Equilibria of chromate(VI) species in acid medium and ab initio studies of these species". Polyhedron. 16 (21): 3835-3846. doi: ... Molecular chromic acid, H2CrO4, has much in common with sulfuric acid, H2SO4. Both are classified as strong acids, though only ... Because a solution of chromic acid in sulfuric acid (also known as a sulfochromic mixture or chromosulfuric acid) is a powerful ...
in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water (. p. H. 2. O. ∗. ). {\displaystyle (p_{H_{2}O}^{*})}. over a flat ... Part I: A Temperature-Humidity Index Based on Human Physiology and Clothing Science". Journal of Applied Meteorology. 18 (7): ... wet sulfuric acid processes). For example, because humidity reduces ambient oxygen concentrations (dry air is typically 20.9% ... It raises the surface temperature substantially above its theoretical radiative equilibrium temperature with the sun, and water ...
Nucleic acid contamination can also interfere. This method requires a spectrophotometer capable of measuring in the UV region ... At some point, this chemical reaction will reach a point of balance called an equilibrium point. In order to determine the ... Traditional visible region spectrophotometers cannot detect if a colorant or the base material has fluorescence. This can make ... This method is not very accurate since the composition of proteins varies greatly and proteins with none of these amino acids ...
Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which use complementary base pairs of nucleotides as a common language.. translation. The ... chemical equilibrium. The state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further ... ribonucleic acid (RNA). A nucleic acid polymer composed of a series of ribonucleotides which incorporate a set of four ... nucleic acid. The biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life .. nucleic acid sequence. A ...
juli 2007). Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design: Volume 28 - Lactic Acid to Magnesium Supply-Demand Relationships. M ... Nitrogen, N2, Physical properties, safety, MSDS, enthalpy, material compatibility, gas liquid equilibrium, density, viscosity, ... Lithiumhydroxid er en stærk base og producerer, når det opvarmes med et fedtstof, en sæbe af lithiumstearat. Lithiumsæbe kan ... Disse er ekstremt kraftfulde baser og nukleofiler. I mange af disse lithiumorganiske forbindelser har lithiumionerne en tendens ...
The exception is if the meat has been prepared in a sous-vide process, as it will already be at temperature equilibrium. The ... Doneness is a gauge of how thoroughly cooked a cut of meat is based on the colour, juiciness and internal temperature when ... and the Maillard reaction of amino acids. Raised to a high enough temperature, meat blackens from burning. ...
Conjugate acid Hydrocyanonium Conjugate base Cyanide Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... As HNC is higher in energy than HCN by 3920 cm−1 (46.9 kJ/mol), one might assume that the two would have an equilibrium ratio. ... and the two tend to exist in a specific ratio based on the environment.[12] This is because the reactions that form HNC can ... were used to determine the stage of evolution of the protostellar core Cha-MMS1 based on the relative magnitudes of the ...
Deep-cycle lead-acid systems often use a low-charge warning light or a low-charge power cut-off switch to prevent the type of ... Most nickel-based batteries are partially discharged when purchased, and must be charged before first use.[41] Newer NiMH ... Lead-acid. 2.1. 140. Moderately expensive. Moderate energy density. Moderate rate of self-discharge. Higher discharge rates ... "Deep-cycle" lead-acid batteries such as those used in electric golf carts have much thicker plates to extend longevity.[48] The ...
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[72] ... "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[72] ... "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the پولیمرز زنجیری تعامل ...
Lovelock, James (1947). The properties and use of aliphatic and hydroxy carboxylic acids in aerial disinfection (PhD thesis). ... He has written several environmental science books based upon the Gaia hypothesis since the late 1970s. ... the atmosphere was found to be in a stable condition close to its chemical equilibrium, with very little oxygen, methane, or ... The properties and use of aliphatic and hydroxy carboxylic acids in aerial disinfection (1947). ...
Earlier on, as "heavy metal" emerged partially from the heavy psychedelic rock scene, also known as acid rock, "acid rock" was ... Based on the clubs of L.A.'s Sunset Strip, bands such as Quiet Riot, Ratt, Mötley Crüe, and W.A.S.P. were influenced by ... The 1991 release of Forest of Equilibrium, the debut album by UK band Cathedral, helped spark a new wave of doom metal. During ... "acid rock" was particularly influential on heavy metal; acid rock is often defined as a heavier, louder, or harder variant of ...
Histone proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids. If the amino acids that are in the chain are changed, the shape of ... One of the best-understood systems that orchestrates chromatin-based silencing is the SIR protein based silencing of the yeast ... the attractor can be an equilibrium point, limit cycle or strange attractor) or oscillatory.[17] ... "Science-Based Medicine.. *^ Chandler VL (February 2007). "Paramutation: from maize to mice". Cell. 128 (4): 641-5. PMID ...
... used distance matrix-based methods to construct trees based on overall similarity in morphology or similar observable traits (i ... Bremer, Kåre (1988). "The Limits of Amino Acid Sequence Data in Angiosperm Phylogenetic Reconstruction". Evolution. 42 (4): 795 ... Wilson, Edward O (1965). "A Consistency Test for Phylogenies Based on Contemporaneous Species". Systematic Zoology. 14 (3): 214 ... Classifications are now usually based on phylogenetic data, and many systematists contend that only monophyletic taxa should be ...
This expands the genetic code, beyond the twenty canonical amino acids found in nature, to include an unnatural amino acid as ... Eriani G, Delarue M, Poch O, Gangloff J, Moras D (September 1990). "Partition of tRNA synthetases into two classes based on ... Increasing the Mg2+ concentration leads to an increase in the equilibrium constants for the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases' ... the cavity that holds the amino acid can be mutated and modified to carry unnatural amino acids synthesized in the lab, and to ...
... is the anion [OSCN]− and the conjugate base of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN). It is an organic compound part of ... At the pH optimum of 5.3, the OSCN− is in equilibrium with HOSCN. The uncharged HOSCN is considered to be the greater ... Hypothiocyanous acid is a fairly weak acid; its dissociation constant is 5.3. Hypothiocyanite is formed by peroxidase catalysis ... Eastvold JS (2005). "Hypothiocyanous Acid: An Overview" (PDF). Free Radical Biology and Medicine. Minarowski Ł, Sands D, ...
0.298 M at equilibrium. 2NOBr ,---,2NO + Br2 Answer: 8.4 x 10^-4 2. If a container is filled with SO2CL2 to an initial pressure ... of 3.58 atm, what will the equilibrium pressure of SO2, Cl2, and SO2Cl2 be given the reaction SO2 + Cl2 ,----, SO2Cl2. Answer: ... General chemistry equilibrium and acids/bases problems?. These are for a study guide, I have the answers but cant figure out ... At a given temperature, K = 0.026 for the equilibrium: PCl5(g) ↔ PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) What is K for: Cl2(g) + PCl3(g) ↔ PCl5(g)? ...
Theories of acids and bases . . .. Describes the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis theories of acids and bases, and explains ... acid-base indicators . . .. Explains how simple indicators work, and what determines the choice of indicator for a particular ... Describes the way that pH changes during various acid-base titrations.. ... Includes the meaning of the term conjugate as applied to acid-base pairs. ...
Weak acid and base ionization reactions and the related equilibrium constants, Ka and Kb. Relating Ka and Kb to pH, and ... Weak acid and base ionization reactions and the related equilibrium constants, Ka and Kb. Relating Ka and Kb to pH, and ... Science·Chemistry library·Acids and bases·Acid-base equilibria. Weak acid-base equilibria. ...
The concept of equilibrium is applied to acid and base solutions. To begin, the idea of weak acids and bases is explored along ... Acid-Base Equilibria. The concept of equilibrium is applied to acid and base solutions. To begin, the idea of weak acids and ... for both strong and weak acids and bases. Aqueous salt solutions are classified as acids and bases and the multi-step ... However because the week acid process is in equilibrium process. and weve got our equilibrium arrow there. It is an ...
Help - Confusion acid-base equilibrium in water Jan 24, 2014. Acid-base equilibrium question titration Jun 18, 2011. ... Titration of amino acid with strong base Sep 5, 2015. ... Similar Threads - Acid Base Equilibrium. Date. Question on Ksp ... Why equilibrium favours weak acid or weak base Oct 10, 2015. ...
The concept of equilibrium is applied to acid and base solutions. To begin, the idea of weak acids and bases is explored along ... Acid-Base Equilibria. The concept of equilibrium is applied to acid and base solutions. To begin, the idea of weak acids and ... Making it a Louis acid. Now we completed our unit on acid-base equilibria. There are other issues surrounding this which we ... So much in the same way that we talked about conjugate acids and bases with Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases, we see a similar ...
Acid Dissociation Constant[edit]. Helpful Hint! Strong acids/bases dissociate completely, so their equilibrium constants are ... Like all equilibria, an acid/base dissociation will have a particular equilibrium constant which will determine the extent of ... The conjugate bases of weak acids have a relationship with their parent acids. Consider the equilibrium expression of the ... Base Dissociation Constant[edit]. A similar equilibrium exists when a weak base is dissolved in water. The base will accept a ...
Acid base equilibrium for Windows 1.7 , Screenshot. ABEW - Acid base equilibrium for Windows 1.7. Similar software:. ... Acid base equilibrium for Windows 1.7. Home , Software , Education , Teaching Tools , ABEW - Acid base equilibrium for Windows ... Built-in database of common weak acids and bases.*CurTiPot Acid-Base pH and Titration 3.5.4 All-in-one freeware for pH and ... Find all software similar on ABEW - Acid base equilibrium for Windows 1.7. ...
Acetic acid is not a strong acid and acetate can act as a base under certain conditions. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid and ... the conjugate base is going to react with water based on the relation of the base equilibrium constant to the acid equilibrium ... So, which acid/base reaction you use depends on the exact identity of the acid youre examining. For something like acetic acid ... The reason you have two equilibria expressions is because when you deprotonate an acid, you get a proton and the conjugate base ...
... covers acid-base, complex, precipitation and redox equilibria, and includes questions and answers to facilitate the ... This book provides a modern and easy-to-understand introduction to the chemical equilibria in solutions, focuses on aqueous ... Chemical Equilibria in Analytical Chemistry. The Theory of Acid-Base, Complex, Precipitation and Redox Equilibria. Authors: ... The Theory of Acid-Base, Complex, Precipitation and Redox Equilibria. Authors. * Fritz Scholz ...
General properties of acids and bases - Common acids and bases - Uses of common acids and bases - Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, ... Common acids and bases - Uses of common acids and bases - Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base definitions, ... and Lewis acid and base definitions, examples, and reactions of each - Conjugate acid-base pairs - How water ... examples, and reactions of each - Conjugate acid-base pairs - How water ...
A mathematic model that described the acid-base behavior of blood plasma has been revised to incorporate pK values of ... Serum proteins and acid-base equilibria: a follow-up J Lab Clin Med. 1992 Nov;120(5):713-9. ... A mathematic model that described the acid-base behavior of blood plasma has been revised to incorporate pK values of ... "acid-base balance" in plasma, can be quantified. New ways to evaluate "unidentified anions" in metabolic acidosis can be ...
The model was tested on 2 acids and 2 bases. After a review of the properties of crude oil acids and bases, the equilibrium ... two bases, two acids and all four components over a pH interval to identify any interfacial acid-base interactions. No ... Equilibrium partitioning of naphthenic acids and bases and their consequences on interfacial properties. Bertheussen, Are; ... The partitioning of the two acids and the low molecular weight base was successfully modelled by considering the acid ...
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water - Problems - Page 838 51 including work step by step written ... Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water - Problems * Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in ... Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water - Problems * Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in ... Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water - Problems * Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in ...
Acids and Bases - Exercises - Salts of Strong Bases and Strong Acids - Page 745 70 including work step by step written by ... Ionic Equilibria I: Acids and Bases - Exercises - Polyprotic Acids * Ionic Equilibria I: Acids and Bases - Exercises - ... Acids and Bases - Exercises - Salts of Strong Bases and Weak Acids * Ionic Equilibria I: Acids and Bases - Exercises - Salts of ... Acids and Bases - Exercises - Salts of Weak Bases and Strong Acids * Ionic Equilibria I: Acids and Bases - Exercises - Salts of ...
Acid-Base Equilibrium During Cyclopropane Anesthesia and Operation in Infants You will receive an email whenever this article ... Acid-Base Equilibrium During Cyclopropane Anesthesia and Operation in Infants. Anesthesiology 3 1966, Vol.27, 127-131. doi: ... Robert N. Reynolds; Acid-Base Equilibrium During Cyclopropane Anesthesia and Operation in Infants. Anesthesiology 1966;27(2): ...
Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria & Solubility Equilibria * CHAPTER 16 TEST ANNOUNCEMENT!!!!! * Quick Chapter 16 notes ...
July 2002 Equilibrium and Spontaneity Introduction In lecture, youve discussed thermodynamics, solubility, acids and bases and ... July 2002 Equilibrium and Spontaneity Introduction In lecture, youve discussed thermodynamics, solubility, acids and bases and ... we will use an acid/base indicator that will change color just when the OH - ions are gone. If we immediately stop adding acid ... It reacts with water (hydrolyses) to form the hydroxide ion (OH - ), a strong base (and boric acid, H 3 BO 3 , an extremely ...
The slide rule: a new method for the assessment of acid-base equilibrium disorders. Di Iorio C. 1, Rufolo L. 2, Melillo E. M. 3 ... Maps and nomograms are routinely used to evaluate acid-base equilibrium (ABE), but often require previous skilled practice and ...
Application of Acid/Base Equilibria - Buffers and Titrations Excel Template 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A B C Chem1310 Name: Partners ... 11/6/2008 Applications of Acid/Base Equilibria - Buffers and Titrations A. Buffers B. Acid/Base Analysis - Standardization- ... H C H O O C 3 Strength of Vinegar by Acid-Base Titration Acid-Base 100 points The goa ... Exp10 - Application of Acid/Base Equilibria Buffers and.... This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full ...
V. Advanced Weak Acid and Weak Base Equilibria. V-1. Introduction to Acidic. and Basic Salts. V-2. Sample Problem. V-3. List of ... Equilibrium Practice Problems. CHP Home. Table of Contents. Jump to the top of this page.. Copyright © 1997-2000 by Brian M. ... The following problems are straight-forward equilibria problems. When you are done with each problem close the window to return ...
Acid-base equilibrium[edit]. Main article: Acid dissociation constant. The reaction of a strong acid with a strong base is ... base) + CO. 2. (acid) → MgCO. 3. CaO. (base) + SiO. 2. (acid) → CaSiO. 3. NO−. 3. (base) + S. 2O2−. 7. (acid) → NO+. 2 + 2 SO2− ... base) + SO. 3. (acid) → 2 Na+. + SO2−. 4 (species exchanged: O2−. anion). 3 (NH. 4). 2S. (base) + Sb. 2S. 5. (acid) → 6 NH+. 4 ... acid) + Zn(NH. 2). 2. (amphiphilic amide) → [Zn(NH. 3). 4]I. 2. Nitric acid can be a base in liquid sulfuric acid: HNO. 3. ( ...
Weak acid-weak base equilibrium. Main article: Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. In order for a protonated acid to lose a proton ... Common acids. Mineral acids (inorganic acids). *Hydrogen halides and their solutions: hydrofluoric acid (HF), hydrochloric acid ... See also: Acid dissociation constant § Monoprotic acids. Polyprotic acids. Polyprotic acids, also known as polybasic acids, are ... Examples of strong acids are hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydroiodic acid (HI), hydrobromic acid (HBr), perchloric acid (HClO4), ...
... acid-base equilibria, formation of complexes, redox equilibria and the problems of precipitation. ... 8.3.3. Step 3: study by degrees of oxidation of acid-base reactions; construction of the situation diagram 257 ... 5.6.3. Solubility in oxo-acids and oxo-bases (see section 3.12.2) 157 ... Chapter 3. Acid/Base Equilibria 61. 3.1. Definition of acids and bases and acid-base reactions 62 ...
15.14: Lewis Acids and Bases. Chapter 16: Acid-base and Solubility Equilibria ... So, the new equilibrium constant would be y × z.. For a heterogeneous equilibrium, the equilibrium constant expression excludes ... Coupled Equilibria. Many equilibrium systems involve two or more coupled equilibrium reactions, those which have in common one ... Equilibrium Constant expression for heterogeneous equilibria. For heterogeneous equilibria, involving reactants and products in ...
... is the conjugate base of the acid acetic acid, HC2H3O2. Since HC2H3O2 is a weak acid, its conjugate base has enough strength to ... Acid / Base Equilibria. This document explains how the concepts of chemical equilibrium can be applied to the ionization of ... or base) will have ionized at equilibrium, so the actual concentration of molecular acid (or base) may not be that which is ... where the molecular acid or base is) and the less ionization there is. It also works better when the acid or base is more ...
5 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA AND ACTIVITY 179. 5.1 Acids and Bases / 179 ... Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is clearly written and easy to follow, with plenty of examples to help ... Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is written for undergraduate students who have completed a basic course ... II REACTIONS THAT DO NOT GO TO COMPLETION. EQUILIBRIA IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS 177 ...
Video explaining Acid Base Equilibrium for Organic Chemistry. This is one of many videos provided by Clutch Prep to prepare you ... The holy grail of acid-base chemistry is to be able to draw the mechanism and predict the equilibrium for an acid-base reaction ... So now weve got into its pretty much the Holy Grail of acid base chemistry and that is predicting acid-base equilibrium. So ... Or just label them based on which one is the acid, that one is the conjugate base, the base becomes the conjugate acid.. So ...
  • Weak acid and base ionization reactions and the related equilibrium constants, Ka and Kb. (
  • To begin, the idea of weak acids and bases is explored along with the equilibrium constants associated with their ionization in water and how the value of the equilibrium constant is associated with the strength of the acid or base. (
  • Strong acids/bases dissociate completely, so their equilibrium constants are overwhelmingly large. (
  • You have the correct equations describing the relation of the two equilibrium constants. (
  • When two or more individual reactions are added together, the equilibrium constant for the overall reaction is the product of the individual equilibrium constants. (
  • The dissociation constants of acids and bases, respectively called acidity constants (KA) and major (KB). (
  • There is repeated emphasis on the use of corrected, conditional equilibrium constants and on the checking of numerical results by substitution in complete equations and/or against graphs of species distributions. (
  • In addition, the acid dissociation constants (pKa values) of atmospherically-relevant acids and bases vary with water content. (
  • The speciation of weak acids and bases in tobacco smoke PM cannot be determined from this data alone, because the equilibrium constants of acid-base reactions are not understood in complex organic media. (
  • base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions. (
  • Equilibrium constants are determined in order to quantify chemical equilibria. (
  • For this assumption to be valid, equilibrium constants must be determined in a medium of relatively high ionic strength. (
  • The equilibrium constants may be derived by best-fitting of the experimental data with a chemical model of the equilibrium system. (
  • When a glass electrode is used to obtain the measurements on which the calculated equilibrium constants depend, the precision of the calculated parameters is limited by secondary effects such as variation of liquid junction potentials in the electrode. (
  • Acid dissociation constants are also essential in aquatic chemistry and chemical oceanography , where the acidity of water plays a fundamental role. (
  • General chemistry equilibrium and acids/bases problems? (
  • [8] [9] A hydrogen theory of acids, it followed from his 1884 work with Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald in establishing the presence of ions in aqueous solution and led to Arrhenius receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903. (
  • This article is about acids in chemistry. (
  • The holy grail of acid-base chemistry is to be able to draw the mechanism and predict the equilibrium for an acid-base reaction. (
  • So now we've got into its pretty much the Holy Grail of acid base chemistry and that is predicting acid-base equilibrium. (
  • Designed to be completed in one semester, this text enables students to fully grasp and apply the core concepts of analytical chemistry and aqueous chemical equilibria. (
  • Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is clearly written and easy to follow, with plenty of examples to help readers better understand both concepts and applications. (
  • Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is written for undergraduate students who have completed a basic course in general chemistry. (
  • The present work is designed to provide a practical introduction to aqueous equilibrium phenomena for both students and research workers in chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, and interdisciplin- ary environmental fields. (
  • These are my comprehensive notes for CIE Pre U Chemistry on the topic of acid-base equilibria, with my own illustrations using graphic tablet! (
  • Browse other questions tagged physical-chemistry acid-base equilibrium or ask your own question . (
  • To develop information-based chemistry as a technology for programming matter to function in ways not seen in biological systems, it is necessary to understand how molecular interactions can encode and execute algorithms. (
  • It is a basic introduction to DNA, genes and genomes, the chemistry of nucleic acid structure and its various conformations. (
  • Introduction to chemistry, with emphasis on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. (
  • Topics reactions using examples from inorganic and organic chemistry include energetics, equilibria (e.g. acidity and basicity, quantitative and qualitative) and redox reactions. (
  • An introduction to university chemistry from theoretical and practical perspectives that focuses on an exploration of the fundamental links between kinetics, equilibria and thermodynamics and explores acidity/basicity and redox behaviour using inorganic and organic examples. (
  • Prepare for the NYSTCE Chemistry exam using the video lessons in the Chemical Equilibrium chapter of this test prep study guide. (
  • Understanding the variations in acids and bases is an important part of understanding chemistry. (
  • In chemistry, a knowledge of p K a values is necessary for the preparation of buffer solutions and is also a prerequisite for a quantitative understanding of the interaction between acids or bases and metal ions to form complexes . (
  • Only after the study of matter and the atom will students have sufficient background to fully engage in topics such as stoichiometry, kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics. (
  • CurTiPot Acid-Base pH and Titration 3.5.4 All-in-one freeware for pH and equilibrium calculations, real data analysis and simulation of titration curves of acids, bases, salts and buffers (from simple solutions to complex mixtures) with interpolation, smoothing and nonlinear regression. (
  • Exp10 - Application of Acid/Base Equilibria Buffers and. (
  • This section covers problems specifically about: Acid-base titrations, in the area of: Buffers, Solubility and Complex Ion Equilibria. (
  • Their importance becomes apparent in analyzing acid-base reactions for gaseous or liquid species, or when acid or base character may be somewhat less apparent. (
  • Modern definitions are concerned with the fundamental chemical reactions common to all acids. (
  • unless otherwise specified, acid-base reactions are assumed to involve the transfer of a proton (H + ) from an acid to a base. (
  • You will examine some very important reactions those involving acids and bases in solution at a higher conceptual level. (
  • Our objective is to be able to write reactions associated with the dissociation of both strong and weak bases as well as to calculate the pH and pOH values of the week and strong base solutions. (
  • First, acid-base reactions in organic particulate matter affect the gas/particle partitioning of organic compounds in the atmosphere, and these processes are not currently represented in atmospheric and climate change models. (
  • It is demonstrated that neutralization reactions between acids and bases that create ions are likely to have non-negligible effects on gas/particle partitioning under certain atmospheric conditions. (
  • Thus, including acid-base reactions in organic gas/particle partitioning models could result in a greater proportion of acidic and basic compounds partitioning to the particulate phase. (
  • Acid-base reactions are quite fast. (
  • It is of interest to investigate the properties of these radicals as a function of pH because of their abilities to undergo proton-coupled electron transfer reactions with other nucleic acid bases. (
  • Acid catalysed addition of water, oxymercuration/reduction and hydroboration/oxidation reactions. (
  • It is the equilibrium constant for a chemical reaction known as dissociation in the context of acid-base reactions . (
  • The chemical species HA, A − , and H + are said to be in equilibrium when their concentrations (written above in square brackets) do not change with the passing of time, because both forward and backward reactions are occurring at the same very fast rate. (
  • Describes the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis theories of acids and bases, and explains the relationship between them. (
  • [2] For example, the current Lewis model has the broadest definition of what an acid and base are, with the Bronsted-Lowry theory being a subset of what acids and bases are, and the Arrhenius theory being the most restrictive. (
  • Bronsted lowry acids are those acids which donate H + . In the reaction, A and D are giving H + . So, these both are bronsted lowry acid. (
  • 1. Calculate K for the following reaction if a container initially filled only with 0.351 M NOBr has a [NOBr] = 0.298 M at equilibrium. (
  • Like all equilibria, an acid/base dissociation will have a particular equilibrium constant which will determine the extent of the reaction (whether it lies to the left or right of the equation). (
  • As the equilibrium constant approaches zero, the reaction tends to form 100% reactants. (
  • The concentration of water during the reaction is, therefore, a constant, and can be excluded from the expression for K. This gives rise to a special equilibrium constant, K a , known as the acid dissociation constant . (
  • The equilibrium expression for this reaction is given a special name, K w . (
  • You have the reaction of a (conjugate) base with water, and its corresponding equilibrium constant. (
  • So, which acid/base reaction you use depends on the exact identity of the acid you're examining. (
  • When the system is in equilibrium, the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. (
  • So in summary, the Ka expression is describing the acidity of HA (aka the forward reaction, as written) while the Kb is describing the basicity of the conjugate base A - or the reverse reaction, as written. (
  • As you have seen in lecture, the free energy ( ∆ G) of a reaction and the equilibrium constant (like K sp ) depend on temperature. (
  • An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base , which can be used to determine pH . (
  • Acid Base Reaction Theories as superset and subset models. (
  • It is important to think of the acid-base reaction models as theories that complement each other. (
  • That is, the equation is not represented as a reversible equilibrium reaction. (
  • Because the reaction is reversible, only a fraction of the acid will be ionized at any one point in time. (
  • This indicates that equilibrium lies towards the products and favors the forward reaction. (
  • This signifies that the equilibrium lies towards the reactants and favors the reverse reaction. (
  • If a chemical reaction with an equilibrium constant x is reversed, the equilibrium constant expression for the reverse reaction is the reciprocal of the forward reaction. (
  • As the reaction proceeds toward equilibrium in the forward direction, the reactant concentrations decrease and the product concentration increases. (
  • If the reaction begins with only the products present, the reaction proceeds toward equilibrium in the reverse direction. (
  • We recognize equilibrium in a chemical reaction system, oddly enough, by noticing nothing we see no change in any property of the system. (
  • Chemical reaction equilibrium is always a dynamic balance between two opposing changes, which are balanced because they are occurring at equal rates, within a closed system. (
  • 4 Unit 8 Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid Base Systems Prerequisites Concepts collision reaction theory dissociation and ionization amount concentration ion concentration percent reaction stoichiometric calculation net ionic equations acids and bases indicators Skills laboratory safety scientific problem solving You can review prerequisite concepts and skills in the appendices and on the Nelson Web site. (
  • 6. Use integrated rate laws to predict the amount of substrate remaining based on the reaction order and the amount of time elapsed. (
  • Can equilibrium be calculated at any time of an acid base reaction and still be the same? (
  • you will get the reaction quotient(Q), which will be numerically smaller than K till equilibrium is established. (
  • begingroup$ You just have to measure one concentration (or the pH) if you know the composition of the solution (which you should for a titration) and the net reaction and $K_\mathrm{W}$. Then, you can calculate all the other concentrations and the equilibrium constant. (
  • However, for a general chemical reaction, you have to wait for the chemical kinetics to adjust the concentrations until equilibrium is reached, where the composition given by $K$ -values are valid. (
  • By Le Chatelier's principle, the release of CO2 from the lungs pushes the reaction above to the left, causing carbonic anhydrase to form CO2 until all excess acid is removed. (
  • It focuses on aqueous solutions, but also addresses non-aqueous solutions, covering acid-base, complex, precipitation and redox equilibria. (
  • The following are then discussed in succession: the dissociation of electrolytes, solvents and solvation, acid-base equilibria, formation of complexes, redox equilibria and the problems of precipitation. (
  • Rather, I have chosen to offer funda- mental and rigorous examinations of homogeneous step-equilibria and their interactions with solubility and redox equilibria. (
  • Review your knowledge of LeChatelier's Principle, acid-base equilibrium calculations and more by working through the lessons in this chapter. (
  • Describes the way that pH changes during various acid-base titrations. (
  • Laboratory exercises include experiments complementing the lectures, such as investigations of the freezing point of solutions, kinetics, acid-base titrations, and electrochemistry. (
  • Aqueous salt solutions are classified as acids and bases and the multi-step ionization of polyprotic acids is discussed. (
  • For example, Pauling proposed two rules: one for successive p K a of polyprotic acids (see Polyprotic acids below), and one to estimate the p K a of oxyacids based on the number of =O and −OH groups (see Factors that affect p K a values below). (
  • Just like Just like we talked about strong acids and weak acids being strong and weak electrolytes we can talk about bases in the same way. (
  • Strong bases are strong electrolytes, they dissociate completely in water such as what we see here with KOH. (
  • Weak bases are weak electrolytes. (
  • [2] Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium ) to form salts . (
  • The latter include acids, bases and salts. (
  • Medium salts dissociate to form metal cations and anion of acid radical. (
  • In presence of calcium the partitioning of acids is successfully modelled by accounting for the precipitation of naphthenate soap with a solubility constant Ks. (
  • Solubility and Precipitation Equilibria.17. (
  • We have to figure out what fraction for acid dissociate into the ions. (
  • Titration of OH - simply means we will add H + ions in the form of a strong acid (HCL), until we've added one H + for each OH - present. (
  • It is usually not obvious to the naked eye, so to find the endpoint, we will use an acid/base indicator that will change color just when the OH - ions are gone. (
  • If we immediately stop adding acid (H + ) at the endpoint, the number of OH - ions originally present is precisely the number of H + (acid) ions that we added. (
  • We can calculate the number of H + ions added from the volume and concentration of the acid used. (
  • [10] that is, an acid increases the concentration of H + ions in an aqueous solution. (
  • that is, a base increases the concentration of OH − ions in an aqueous solution. (
  • Hydronium ions are acids according to all three definitions. (
  • An Arrhenius acid is a substance that, when added to water, increases the concentration of H + ions in the water. (
  • An acid is a substance that produces H + ions (or equivalently, H 3 O + ions) when dissolved in water, and a base is a substance that produces OH - ions when dissolved in water. (
  • That is, when molecular HCl dissolves in water, it begins to split into ions, and the process continues until all the acid is ionized. (
  • We don t think of the ions as combining to form the molecular acid again. (
  • The acetic acid ionizes in solution, but the ions can recombine to form the molecular acid again. (
  • By this theory, acids and bases may be both neutral molecules and ions (cations and anions). (
  • One of these sophisticated control systems is the acid-base balance, which continuously regulates ions in the body. (
  • In such mixtures, the preferential solvation of ions and neutral molecules (by the aqueous portion or the organic portion, respectively) affects the acid-base equilibria of the solutes. (
  • Finding the H+ concentration of a weak acid is a little bit different. (
  • we see that is not equal to the final H+ concentration as it was for the indicates that it is in fact a week acid. (
  • Like the acid dissociation constant, it is defined as the equilibrium constant multiplied by the concentration of water. (
  • By the Le Chatelier Principle, we can see that if the hydronium ion concentration is increased (by adding an acid), the equilibrium will move to the left and there will be a lower concentration of hydroxide. (
  • With repect to the first equation, the concentration of the acid and conjugate base is already fixed. (
  • The equilibrium constant is often expressed with the symbol K or K c , where the subscript c indicates the equilibrium constant with respect to molar concentration. (
  • A large equilibrium constant much greater than 1 means that the numerator, that is the concentration of the products, is greater than the denominator, the concentration of the reactants. (
  • The product concentration decreases with time and the reactant concentrations increase until the concentrations become constant at equilibrium. (
  • In option c, concentration of strong acid is less than base. (
  • When the electrode is calibrated with solutions of known concentration, by means of a strong acid-strong base titration, for example, a modified Nernst equation is assumed. (
  • A solution of known hydrogen ion concentration may be prepared by standardization of a strong acid against borax. (
  • Constant-boiling hydrochloric acid may also be used as a primary standard for hydrogen ion concentration. (
  • HCO− 3] is the concentration of bicarbonate in the blood [H2CO3] is the concentration of carbonic acid in the blood When describing arterial blood gas, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is usually quoted in terms of pCO2, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, rather than H2CO3. (
  • the dissociation of a strong acid is effectively complete such that concentration of the undissociated acid is too small to be measured. (
  • conversely, it is possible to calculate the equilibrium concentration of the acids and bases in solution when the pH is known. (
  • The K a of a weak acid determines how acidic it is, i.e., how far its equilibrium lies to the right. (
  • Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic . (
  • Because both acidic and basic substances are produced through nutrition and metabolism, the body's various buffer systems are constantly neutralising excess acids and bases in order to maintain the ideal acid-base balance. (
  • For example, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs have high positive values and thus shift the acid-base balance into the acidic range. (
  • is a weak acid, some of it will remain in the acidic form. (
  • We know that methanol is slightly more acidic than water , because water's ability to donate a proton as an acid is reduced due to extensive hydrogen bonding. (
  • Once we move from considering properties in abstract to an actual system in which an acid-base equilibrium is present, the competing factors are superimposed, with a non-contradictory result: either methanol will be more acidic (and hydroxide more basic) or water will be more acidic (and methoxide more basic), depending on which factors dominate. (
  • A variety of problem types are covered including calculations of pH, pOH, [OH-], and [H+] for both strong and weak acids and bases. (
  • Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid and its conjugate base (chloride) will pretty much never act as a base. (
  • Common aqueous acids include hydrochloric acid (a solution of hydrogen chloride which is found in gastric acid in the stomach and activates digestive enzymes ), acetic acid (vinegar is a dilute aqueous solution of this liquid), sulfuric acid (used in car batteries ), and citric acid (found in citrus fruits). (
  • Let s begin our look at acids using hydrochloric acid as an example. (
  • The active ingredient in hydrochloric acid is hydrogen chloride, which when pure, is a gas at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure. (
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of PTH on the acute buffering process by examining the influence of thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) on acid-base parameters in nephrectomized rats following infusion of hydrochloric acid at two differing doses. (
  • [4] Conversely, many Lewis acids are not Arrhenius or Brønsted-Lowry acids. (
  • Conversely, a small equilibrium constant much less than 1 means that the denominator is greater than the numerator. (
  • Conversely, negative values indicate base formers. (
  • These powerpoint slides provide an introduction to the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) in relation to organisms, genes, gene expression and protein synthesis. (
  • The acid-base equilibria of the nucleic acid analogue 2-aminopurine (2AP) and 2-aminopurine riboside (2-APr) radicals generated by two-photon photoionization of the 2AP residues with intense 308 nm XeCl excimer laser pulses (fwhm = 12 ns, ca. 70 mJ cm -2 pulse -1 ) have been investigated using transient absorption spectroscopy techniques. (
  • The first modern definition of acids and bases in molecular terms was devised by Svante Arrhenius . (
  • In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H 3 O + and are known as Arrhenius acids . (
  • Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid. (
  • Most acids encountered in everyday life are aqueous solutions , or can be dissolved in water, so the Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry definitions are the most relevant. (
  • our ionization constant for the acid. (
  • And remember this is just an equilibrium constant for the acid. (
  • This equilibrium has its own special constant, K b , known as the base dissociation constant . (
  • You have the dissociation of a weak acid, and its corresponding equilibrium constant. (
  • You know how much the conjugate base is going to react with water based on the relation of the base equilibrium constant to the acid equilibrium constant with respect to K W . (
  • The partitioning of the two acids and the low molecular weight base was successfully modelled by considering the acid dissociation constant pKa in aqueous phase and the partition ratio Pwo of the non-ionized species between oil and aqueous phase. (
  • The law of mass action introduces the equilibrium constant to relate the equilibrium concentrations of the reactants and products. (
  • For a balanced chemical equation where A and B are reactants, C and D are products, and lowercase a, b, c, and d, are their respective stoichiometric coefficients, the equilibrium constant expression is given by the molar concentrations of the products divided by the molar concentrations of the reactants, all raised to their stoichiometric coefficients. (
  • Being a ratio of molar concentrations, the equilibrium constant is unitless. (
  • For an equilibrium constant of magnitude equal to or close to 1, the relative concentrations of the reactants and products are nearly the same. (
  • Modifications to the chemical equation also change the equilibrium constant. (
  • So, the new equilibrium constant would be 1 over x . (
  • If the coefficients are multiplied by another factor, n , the equilibrium constant is raised to the same factor. (
  • The new equilibrium constant would now be x n . (
  • So, the new equilibrium constant would be y × z . (
  • For a heterogeneous equilibrium, the equilibrium constant expression excludes pure solid or pure liquid entities. (
  • For example, the equilibrium constant expression for the decomposition of solid ammonium nitrate to gaseous nitrous oxide and water vapor, excludes ammonium nitrate-a pure solid. (
  • When equilibrium is achieved, the concentrations of reactants and products remain constant. (
  • calculate the value of the rate constant based on activation energy and termperature. (
  • Should the equilibrium constant $K$ be calculated at the end of an acid-base titration or can we calculate it in the middle of the titration for example? (
  • If so, will the calculated equilibrium constant be equal to the equilibrium constant calculated from the final state of the titration? (
  • The fourth component is the bilirubin-albumin equilibrium dissociation constant, K D , which is calculated from B Total , BBC, and B Free . (
  • The equilibrium constant value can be determined if any one of these concentrations can be measured. (
  • An acid dissociation constant , K a , (also known as acidity constant , or acid-ionization constant ) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution . (
  • Other structural factors that influence the magnitude of the acid dissociation constant include inductive effects , mesomeric effects , and hydrogen bonding . (
  • This unit explores the nature of dynamic equilibrium in chemical systems. (
  • likewise, any bases (e.g. urea from the catabolism of proteins) are neutralized by carbonic acid (H2CO3). (
  • Basic analytical techniques for the characterization of biologically important compounds such as amino acids, proteins, enzymes, and lipids. (
  • For something like acetic acid, acetic acid will react with water and the top equation will apply. (
  • Therefore you have these conjugate pairs (acetic acid/acetate for instance). (
  • Acetic acid is not a strong acid and acetate can act as a base under certain conditions. (
  • However, hydrogen chloride, acetic acid, and most other Brønsted-Lowry acids cannot form a covalent bond with an electron pair and are therefore not Lewis acids. (
  • Acetic acid is an example. (
  • It dissolves in water to form an aqueous acetic acid solution. (
  • For this reason, we say that acetic acid is a weak acid. (
  • understand how to relate changes in concentrations of reactants/products with other reactants/products based on a balanced equation. (
  • Once you mix the reactants, you can generally assume equilibrium. (
  • Label the conjugate acid and base. (
  • Compare the acidity/pKa of the acid to the conjugate acid . (
  • A buffer is an aqueous solution containing a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. (
  • Remember that I said the Lewis is the most general definition of acids and bases. (
  • This equilibrium can be used to calculate the concentrations of species in the solution. (
  • Because the equilibrium is used for calculating the concentrations of weak acids, very little water actually reacts. (
  • Thus if pH, PCO2, and the concentrations of serum albumin and phosphate are measured, all independent variables, which physically determine "acid-base balance" in plasma, can be quantified. (
  • The procedure starts with mathematically complete equations that will provide valid solutions of equilibrium problems, instead of the traditional approach through approximate concentrations and idealized, infinite-dilution assumptions. (
  • The equilibrium expression above is a function of the concentrations [A], [B] etc. of the chemical species in equilibrium. (
  • This document explains how the concepts of chemical equilibrium can be applied to the ionization of acids and bases in aqueous solution. (
  • We say that HCl is a strong acid, and represent the ionization as a one-way process. (
  • As these examples show, acids (in the colloquial sense) can be solutions or pure substances, and can be derived from acids (in the strict [1] sense) that are solids, liquids, or gases. (
  • In this module we're going to look at strong and weak bases in many of the same ways that we look at strong and weak acids in the previous modules. (
  • when I look at the K_b values have those weak bases. (
  • Weak bases were also determined by acid-base titration, and the majority of weak base is expected to be accounted for by total nicotine (to be measured in a separate analysis). (
  • [3] An aqueous solution of an acid has a pH less than 7 and is colloquially also referred to as 'acid' (as in 'dissolved in acid'), while the strict definition refers only to the solute . (
  • A weak acid is only partially ionized in aqueous solution. (
  • A weak base is only partially ionized in aqueous solution. (
  • What is the difference between the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and that of the titration of a weak acid with a strong base? (
  • The concept of equilibrium is applied to acid and base solutions. (
  • acid solutions. (
  • BATE pH calculator BATE calculates pH of solutions containing mixtures of acid and base with up to 4 dissociation steps and titration curves for these acids and bases. (
  • This book provides a modern and easy-to-understand introduction to the chemical equilibria in solutions. (
  • This contains 12 Multiple Choice Questions for JEE Test: Acid And Base(Ionic Equilibrium) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. (
  • The text also highlights the types of chemical bonds, hydrocarbons and their derivatives, intermolecular forces, solutions, and chemical equilibrium. (
  • The book focuses as well on ionic solutions, galvanic cells, and acids and bases. (
  • Potentiometric titration acid solutions 125 ml of NaOH was obtaining in a beaker and 50 ml of NaOH transfer to buret the tip and the meniscus is at below 0 ml. one magnetic stirring bar placed in a beaker contain one of the known solution on a stir. (
  • To learn more about acids and bases, review the accompany lesson on How to Calculate the Ka or Kb of a Solution. (
  • The kinetic interfacial tension between heptane and 3.5% NaCl aqueous buffer was also analyzed with oils that contained single compounds, two bases, two acids and all four components over a pH interval to identify any interfacial acid-base interactions. (
  • We can look at this list to look at some examples and make some generalizations about the type of compounds that are strong bases and those that are week bases. (
  • These are our strong bases When I put those compounds in water they completely dissociate. (
  • and amean base compounds such as ammonia NH_3 or pyridine. (
  • The gas/particle partitioning behavior of organic acids and bases is highly dependent on acid-base equilibria and speciation between neutral and ionic forms, because ionic compounds do not volatilize. (
  • Ammonia and organic acids were also re-measured after the acidification of the sample in order to determine whether "bound" forms of these compounds exist in cigarette PM. Weak acids were determined by acid-base titration to determine whether or not all of the weak acids (including organic acids) had been accounted for by the ion chromatography. (
  • Classification of organic compounds: based on their structure and functional groups. (
  • For example, many compounds used for medication are weak acids or bases, and a knowledge of the p K a values, together with the water-octanol partition coefficient , can be used for estimating the extent to which the compound enters the blood stream. (
  • Finally, the concept of Lewis acids and bases is discussed and demonstrated through examples. (
  • An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H + ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid). (
  • The second category of acids are Lewis acids , which form a covalent bond with an electron pair. (
  • Lewis considered this as a generalization of the Brønsted definition, so that an acid is a chemical species that accepts electron pairs either directly or by releasing protons (H + ) into the solution, which then accept electron pairs. (
  • In modern terminology, an acid is implicitly a Brønsted acid and not a Lewis acid, since chemists almost always refer to a Lewis acid explicitly as a Lewis acid . (
  • Interestingly, although alcohols and amines can be Brønsted-Lowry acids, they can also function as Lewis bases due to the lone pairs of electrons on their oxygen and nitrogen atoms. (
  • The very first thing you always want to start off with is identifying the Lewis acid and the Lewis base. (
  • Q. Which of the following is least likely to behave as Lewis base? (
  • Electron rich species are called lewis base. (
  • Among the given, BF 3 is an electron deficient species, so have a capacity of electrons accepting instead of donating that's why it is least likely to act as a lewis base. (
  • It is a lewis acid. (
  • Which one of the following molecular hydrides acts as a Lewis acid? (
  • Soit will act as Lewis acid. (
  • After a review of the properties of crude oil acids and bases, the equilibrium partitioning of acids and bases with different molecular weight was analyzed over a pH interval using heptane as the oil phase and 3.5 wt. (
  • Phenylacetic acid would represent the low molecular weight acid while 4-heptylbenzoic acid was chosen to represent the high molecular weight one. (
  • The high molecular weight base did not significantly partition into the aqueous phase at the pH range studied. (
  • The results show that acid species are more water soluble than basic species of similar molecular weight. (
  • The value of p K a also depends on molecular structure of the acid in many ways. (
  • Write the equilibrium expression for heterogeneous equilibrium and solve for K eq . (
  • Explains the terms strong and weak as applied to acids. (
  • strong acid is fairly easy. (
  • strong acid. (
  • So HF is a weak acid, HCl, HBr ,and HI are all considered strong acids but have those three HI is considered to be the strongest. (
  • Strong acids and some concentrated weak acids are corrosive , but there are exceptions such as carboranes and boric acid . (
  • Strong acids are 100% ionized in water. (
  • Like acids, bases can be characterized as either strong or weak. (
  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is an example of a strong base. (
  • A strong base is 100% ionized in water. (
  • So let's look at an example of how we can figure out what the pH is of a solution of a strong base. (
  • For a strong base we can assume complete dissociation. (
  • It is a well known fact that a strong acid has a weak conjugate base, and a weak acid has a strong conjugate base. (
  • When Ka values equal Kb values, the acid is strong. (
  • p K a values for strong acids can, however, be estimated by theoretical means. (