A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat. They are sometimes isolated from a hospital environment and humans.
The type species of gram negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus ACHROMOBACTER. Previously in the genus ALCALIGENES, the classification and nomenclature of this species has been frequently emended. The two subspecies, Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans are associated with infections.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A species of gram negative, aerobic, denitrifying bacteria in the genus ACHROMOBACTER.
The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.
A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family COMAMONADACEAE.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacteria formerly classified as part of the genus XANTHOMONAS.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming rods or cocci. Well known genera include ACHROMOBACTER; ALCALIGENES; and BORDETELLA.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.

Four cases of human infection with Achromobacter anitratus. (1/41)

Four cases of human infection with Achromobacter anitratus, one of which was fatal, are described. They all occurred at one hospital within a period of two months. The bacteriology, antibiotic sensitivity, and pathogenicity of the organisms are discussed. One of the strains was found to differ from the other three.  (+info)

Repression of Staphylococcus aureus by food bacteria. I. Effect of environmental factors on inhibition. (2/41)

The effects of environmental factors on the inhibition of an enterotoxin-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus by food bacteria were investigated. Type of medium and temperature of incubation were important factors in determining the amount of inhibition. The pH range of maximal inhibition was found to be 7.4 to 6.2. Availability of oxygen was not a factor. As the ratios of inhibitor to staphylococcus were increased from 1:1 to 10:1 and 100:1, the amount of inhibition was markedly increased. Inhibition occurred in custard, where it increased with increasing ratios of effector to staphylococcus. The repression of the staphylococcus in all media usually was sufficient to be of practical significance.  (+info)

Repression of Staphylococcus aureus by food bacteria. II. Causes of inhibition. (3/41)

Two food bacteria, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas sp. CS-1, inhibited an enterotoxigenic strain of Staphylococcus aureus, apparently by out-competing it for nutrients. Five others, Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli H-52, Aerobacter aerogenes, and Achromobacter sp., inhibited by means of antibiotic substances which were Seitz-filterable, dialyzable, and stable at 90 C for 10 min. Inhibition was not caused by changes in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or production of peroxide or fatty acids. The concentrated antibiotic material from E. coli H-52 contained amino acids but not peptides and was especially effective against staphylococci and micrococci.  (+info)

Bacterial oxidation of dipicolinic acid. II. Identification of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid and some properties of cell-free extracts. (4/41)

Kobayashi, Yasuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan) and Kei Arima. Bacterial oxidation of dipicolinic acid. II. Identification of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid and some properties of cell-free extracts. J. Bacteriol. 84:765-771. 1962-When a dipicolinic acid (DPA)-decomposing bacterium, Achromobacter strain 1-2, was incubated at 30 C with shaking in a DPA solution containing 10(-3)m arsenite, a keto acid was accumulated. The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of this acid was synthesized and identified as alpha-ketoglutaric acid by paper chromatography, visible absorption spectrum, infrared analysis, elemental analysis, and mixed melting point. During this incubation, oxalic acid equivalent to the consumed dipicolinic acid was produced. A fluorescent material was also isolated from culture fluid and identified as 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid by paper chromatography and the ultraviolet absorption spectrum. Further, cell-free extracts were prepared by sonic oscillation. Ferrous ion and a reduced di- or triphosphopyridine nucleotide-generating system were proven to be required for enzymic oxidation of DPA. And 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid was also oxidized by this preparation. From the results obtained, a possible metabolic pathway of dipicolinic acid was proposed.  (+info)

CORRELATION OF SPECIATION WITH LYTIC RESPONSES OF THE ACHROMOBACTER. (5/41)

Surdy, Theodore E. (Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.) and S. E. Hartsell. Correlation of speciation with lytic responses of the Achromobacter. J. Bacteriol. 85:1011-1016. 1963.-Lysozymic lysis of six species of Achromobacter was investigated. Three of the six species were lysed with 33, 50, or 100 mug/ml of lysozyme; if higher concentrations of lysozyme were used, precipitation of cells occurred. "Insensitive" cells could be sensitized by the addition of potassium hydroxide, n-butanol, steapsin, or urea, as demonstrated by the subsequent addition of lysozyme. Not all species were sensitive to these agents in the same degree; hence, a spectrum was obtained after the use of the pretreating agents and lysozyme. Optimal clearing of suspensions was observed when cells were suspended in pH 6.6 physiological saline or 0.15 m phosphate buffer and incubated at 45 C. Heat treatment (75 C for 10 min) or freezing (-32 C) and thawing (room temp, 25 C) for one cycle did not increase the sensitivity of the cells to lysozyme. Injury to the cells was evident by the increased amount of lysis noted after pretreatment with potassium hydroxide. When cells were frozen and thawed for three cycles, four of the six species were sensitive to the action of lysozyme. Isolated cell walls elicited a similar lytic pattern to that of whole cells. Individuality of the lytic response of the species (from most sensitive to least sensitive-A. aquamarinus, A. butyri, A. viscosus, A. parvulus, A. guttatus, A. hartlebii) produced a separation scheme. Exhaustive tests proved it to be stable and reliable for these species. The organisms were identified, with the use of the separation scheme, by a person initially unfamiliar with the scheme or the culture.  (+info)

BACTERIOLOGY OF SPOILAGE OF FISH MUSCLE. I. STERILE PRESS JUICE AS A SUITABLE EXPERIMENTAL MEDIUM. (6/41)

A sterile raw fish muscle press juice, diluted 1:4 with saline, has been prepared. This dilution greatly facilitated Seitz filtration and affected the spoilage properties of the medium only negligibly. At 5.5 C, the spoilage pattern of naturally contaminated diluted juice was almost identical to that of naturally contaminated fillets. This was shown by comparing the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the bacterial flora on the two substrates and by measuring the production of volatile reducing substances (VRS) and of trimethylamine (TMA). With the sterile raw muscle press juice, some preliminary data showed that individual members of the genera Achromobacter and Pseudomonas differ markedly in their spoilage capabilities: some grew but did not produce spoilage detectable either organoleptically or chemically; others gave rise to strong off odors and to high levels of VRS and TMA.  (+info)

PATTERNS OF OXIDATIVE ASSIMILATION IN STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AND ACHROMOBACTER. (7/41)

Tomlinson, Geraldine A. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada) and J. J. R. Campbell. Patterns of oxidative assimilation in strains of Pseudomonas and Achromobacter. J. Bacteriol. 86:434-444. 1963.-Oxidative assimilation of glucose-U-C(14) in the absence of added nitrogen was studied by use of washed-cell suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Achromobacter strain B81, and Achromobacter viscosus (Alcaligenes viscolactis). The suggestion that oxidative assimilation in these organisms is the reincorporation of endogenously produced ammonia by way of alpha-ketoglutarate is tenable. Each of the four organisms accumulated intermediate compounds which acted as pacemakers for the oxidation of glucose. This phenomenon, partly because it ensured the availability of additional ammonia, undoubtedly increased the degree of oxidative assimilation. Products accumulating in the supernatant fluids during glucose oxidation were alpha-ketoglutarate, pyruvate, gluconate, a low molecular weight carbohydrate, and dicarboxylic acids. No two bacteria formed the same products. Assimilation of radioactivity into the cells, which accounted for 12 to 26% of the available C(14), continued as long as an oxidizable substrate was present, and was paralleled by uptake of endogenously produced ammonia. During the early stages of glucose oxidation, compounds of the cold trichloroacetic acid-soluble pool constituted a major portion of the total radioactivity of the cells. The lipid fractions of P. aeruginosa and Achromobacter B81 were also of high relative activity during this time. The labeling of the nucleic acid fractions of all four bacteria increased with time, more radioactivity being found in fractions from the two Achromobacter species than in those from the pseudomonads. At the completion of the experiment, the largest percentage of incorporated radioactivity was present in the protein fractions. One of the organisms, Achromobacter B81, synthesized a high molecular weight carbohydrate material.  (+info)

FOOD MICROORGANISMS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. (8/41)

Some 870 cultures of predominating micro-organisms were isolated from market samples of hamburger, fresh pork sausage, fresh fish fillets, stewing beef, frozen chicken pot pie, frozen corn, frozen peas, and pasteurized and raw milk, before and after storage at different temperatures. The isolates were screened for their ability to influence the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strain 196E by means of spot-plate tests on APT and nutrient agars at 25 C. The 438 cultures that influenced the growth of S. aureus were retested on spot plates at 15, 30, and 42 C. After elimination of replicates, the 143 remaining cultures were classified into species, genera, or groups, and 14 different cultures were tested for their influence on the growth of S. aureus in APT broth at 25 C. Over half of the effective cultures inhibited S. aureus and less than half were stimulatory. Pork sausage had the highest proportion of inhibitory cultures, and stewing beef had the lowest. APT agar was better than nutrient agar for screening, and incubation at 15 C gave more effector organisms than at 30 and 42 C. Most of the lactic acid bacteria were inhibitory, but other groups of bacteria contained more stimulatory cultures than inhibitory ones. The three Escherichia coli cultures were stimulatory, but most other Escherichia cultures were inhibitory. Aerobacter and Paracolobactrum isolates were mostly stimulatory. Cultures of other kinds of bacteria were more or less evenly distributed between inhibitory ones and stimulatory ones. Genera containing mostly inhibitory bacteria were Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus. Inhibitory species were E. freundii and E. intermedia. Tests with S. aureus in broth indicated that all cultures inhibitory according to spot plates were inhibitory in broth, but stimulation on spot plates did not always indicate the same phenomenon in broth.  (+info)

Achromobacter is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical settings. The cells of Achromobacter are typically rod-shaped and motile, with polar flagella. Some species of Achromobacter have been known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can include pneumonia, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections. It is important to note that Achromobacter is generally resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treatment of infections caused by these bacteria challenging.

*Achromobacter denitrificans* is a gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical samples. It is known for its ability to denitrify, which means it can convert nitrates to nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. This bacterium is generally considered to be non-pathogenic, but there have been rare cases of infections associated with *Achromobacter denitrificans* in immunocompromised individuals.

The medical definition of *Achromobacter denitrificans* would refer to its identification and classification as a bacterium, along with its potential role in certain types of infections. However, it is important to note that this organism is not typically associated with specific diseases or medical conditions, and its presence in clinical samples may simply reflect environmental contamination or colonization rather than active infection.

'Alcaligenes' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the respiratory and intestinal tracts of animals. These bacteria are capable of using a variety of organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Some species of Alcaligenes have been known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. However, they are not considered major human pathogens.

The name 'Alcaligenes' comes from the Latin word "alcali," meaning "alkali," and the Greek word "genos," meaning "kind" or "race." This is because many species of Alcaligenes can grow in alkaline environments with a pH above 7.

It's worth noting that while Alcaligenes species are not typically harmful to healthy individuals, they may be resistant to certain antibiotics and can cause serious infections in people with compromised immune systems. Therefore, it is important for healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of Alcaligenes infection in patients who are at risk and to choose appropriate antibiotic therapy based on laboratory testing.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

*Achromobacter cycloclastes* is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical settings. It is an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it can cause infections in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The name *Achromobacter cycloclastes* comes from its ability to decolorize (achromobacter) the dye used in gram staining and its production of enzymes that break down cellulose (cycloclastes). This bacterium is resistant to many antibiotics, making it challenging to treat infections caused by this organism.

Infections caused by *Achromobacter cycloclastes* are relatively rare but can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. These infections typically occur in hospitalized patients or those with indwelling medical devices such as catheters.

It is important to note that while *Achromobacter cycloclastes* can cause infections, it is not considered a highly virulent organism, and most healthy individuals are unlikely to develop infections from exposure to this bacterium.

*Alcaligenes faecalis* is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions.

The bacteria are generally not harmful to healthy individuals, but they have been associated with various types of infections in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can include urinary tract infections, wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections).

*Alcaligenes faecalis* is resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treating infections caused by this bacteria challenging. It is important to identify the specific species of bacteria causing an infection so that appropriate antibiotic therapy can be administered.

"Moraxella" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the mucous membranes of humans and animals. They are non-motile and catalase-positive. Some species of Moraxella can cause infections in humans, such as M. catarrhalis, which is a common cause of respiratory tract infections like bronchitis and otitis media (middle ear infection) in children. Another species, M. nonliquefaciens, can be found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals, but it's not considered to be pathogenic.

It is worth noting that Moraxella genus was previously classified under the name Neisseria, but based on genetic and biochemical evidence, they are now considered separate genera.

'Delftia' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical samples. The name 'Delftia' comes from the city of Delft in the Netherlands, where the bacterium was first isolated and studied.

Some species of Delftia have been known to cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). However, such infections are relatively rare, and the majority of Delftia species are not considered to be harmful to humans.

In addition to their potential role in human health, Delftia species have also been studied for their ability to break down various pollutants and contaminants in the environment, making them potentially useful in bioremediation efforts.

Carbofuran is a highly toxic systemic pesticide that belongs to the carbamate family. It is used primarily to control insects in soil before planting and on crops after emergence. Carbofuran works by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine and results in overstimulation of the nervous system in insects, ultimately causing their death.

In humans, exposure to carbofuran can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, and muscle twitching. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and even death. Carbofuran is classified as a Category I toxic pesticide by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States, indicating that it is highly hazardous.

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental harm, carbofuran has been banned or restricted in many countries around the world. In the United States, the use of carbofuran on food crops was phased out in 2009, and its registration for most uses was canceled in 2010. However, it is still used in some parts of the world for non-food crop applications.

Stenotrophomonas is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as water, soil, and healthcare settings. The most well-known species within this genus is Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, which is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause serious infections in humans, particularly in those who are immunocompromised or have underlying medical conditions.

S. maltophilia infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the lungs, bloodstream, urinary tract, and skin. This bacterium is resistant to many antibiotics, making it difficult to treat infections caused by this organism. Proper identification and targeted antimicrobial therapy are essential for managing S. maltophilia infections.

Nitrite reductases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of nitrite (NO2-) to nitric oxide (NO). This reaction is an important part of the nitrogen cycle, particularly in denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) processes. Nitrite reductases can be classified into two main types based on their metal co-factors: copper-containing nitrite reductases (CuNiRs) and cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases. CuNiRs are typically found in bacteria and fungi, while cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases are primarily found in bacteria. These enzymes play a crucial role in the global nitrogen cycle and have potential implications for environmental and medical research.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Azurin is a small protein with a blue copper center, which is involved in electron transfer reactions. It is produced by the bacterium *Pseudomonas aeruginosa*, and has been studied for its potential role in wound healing and as an anticancer agent. The name "azurin" comes from the fact that this protein has a bright blue color due to its copper ion content.

Alcaligenaceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Members of this family are typically oxidase-positive and catalase-positive, and they can use a variety of organic compounds as carbon sources. Some species of Alcaligenaceae have been associated with human disease, including respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. However, these infections are relatively rare, and the majority of Alcaligenaceae species are not considered to be significant pathogens.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the lungs and digestive system. It is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which regulates the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. When this gene is not functioning properly, thick, sticky mucus builds up in various organs, leading to a range of symptoms.

In the lungs, this mucus can clog the airways, making it difficult to breathe and increasing the risk of lung infections. Over time, lung damage can occur, which may lead to respiratory failure. In the digestive system, the thick mucus can prevent the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, impairing nutrient absorption and leading to malnutrition. CF can also affect the reproductive system, liver, and other organs.

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis may include persistent coughing, wheezing, lung infections, difficulty gaining weight, greasy stools, and frequent greasy diarrhea. The severity of the disease can vary significantly among individuals, depending on the specific genetic mutations they have inherited.

Currently, there is no cure for cystic fibrosis, but treatments are available to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include airway clearance techniques, medications to thin mucus, antibiotics to treat infections, enzyme replacement therapy, and a high-calorie, high-fat diet. Lung transplantation is an option for some individuals with advanced lung disease.

Flavobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments such as water, soil, and associated with plants and animals. They are facultative anaerobes, which means they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Some species of Flavobacterium are known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems. These infections can include respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). However, Flavobacterium infections are relatively rare in healthy individuals.

It's worth noting that while some species of Flavobacterium have been associated with human disease, many others are important members of the microbial community in various environments and play beneficial roles in biogeochemical cycles and food webs.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Serine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins (endopeptidases) and utilize serine as the nucleophilic amino acid in their active site for catalysis. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Examples of serine endopeptidases include trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, and elastase.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Gram-negative aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, which is a technique used to differentiate bacterial species based on their cell wall composition. These bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS), making them resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants. They are called aerobic because they require oxygen for their growth and metabolism. Examples of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These bacteria can cause various infections in humans, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis.

Extended-wear contact lenses are a type of contact lens that is designed to be worn continuously, including during sleep, for an extended period of time. These lenses are typically made from materials that allow more oxygen to reach the eye, reducing the risk of eye irritation and infection compared to traditional overnight wear of non-extended wear lenses.

Extended-wear contact lenses can be worn for up to 30 days or longer, depending on the specific lens material and the individual's tolerance. However, it is important to note that even extended-wear contacts come with some risks, including a higher risk of eye infections and corneal ulcers compared to daily wear lenses. Therefore, it is essential to follow the recommended wearing schedule and replacement schedule provided by an eye care professional, as well as to have regular eye exams to monitor the health of the eyes.

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