Gram-negative organisms including apparently free-living saphrophytes as well as mammalian and avian parasites, and possibly pathogens.

The phytoplasma associated with ash yellows and lilac witches'-broom: 'Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini'. (1/18)

Phytoplasmas associated with the plant diseases ash yellows (AshY, occurring in Fraxinus) and lilac witches'-broom (LWB, occurring in Syringa) represent a putative species-level taxon. Phytoplasmal DNA from 19 ash or lilac sources across the known geographic range of AshY (71-113 degrees W) was examined to determine if AshY and LWB phytoplasmas are a coherent group, if variability exists in both conserved and anonymous DNA, and if variability in 16S rDNA is related to host or geographic origin. The 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S spacer were amplified using primer pair P1/P7 and analysed using 15 restriction enzymes. RFLPs were detected in digests obtained with Alul, Hhal or Taql, for a total of four RFLP profile types. Sequencing of the amplimers from strains AshY1T, AshY3, AshY5 and LWB3 (which represent the four 16S rDNA RFLP profile types) revealed only three positions in the 16S rRNA gene and one position in the 16S-23S spacer at which differences occurred; these were single nucleotide substitutions. Sequence homology between any two strains was > 99.8%. A portion of a ribosomal protein operon, amplified with primer pair rpF1/R1 from each of the four strains noted above, was analysed with six restriction enzymes, resulting in the detection of two RFLP profiles with Msel. Southern analysis, utilizing two non-specific probes from other phytoplasma groups, revealed three RFLP profile types in anonymous chromosomal DNA of strains representing the four 16S rDNA genotypes. Two strains, AshY3 and LWB3, had unique combinations of characters in the various assays. On the basis of RFLP profiles, the strains from the other plants sampled comprised two groups. The grouping was not clearly related to host or geographic origin. The genome size of strain AshY3 was estimated from PFGE data to be 645 kbp. Phylogenetic analysis of a 1423 bp 16S rDNA sequence from strains AshY1T, AshY3, AshY5 and LWB3, together with sequences from 14 other mollicutes archived in GenBank, produced a tree on which the AshY and LWB strains clustered as a discrete group, consistent with previous analyses utilizing only type strain AshY1T. Thus, the AshY phytoplasma group is coherent but heterogeneous. The name 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini' is proposed for this group.  (+info)

Classification of aster yellows-group phytoplasmas based on combined analyses of rRNA and tuf gene sequences. (2/18)

Seventy phytoplasma isolates, including 10 previously characterized reference strains, of the aster yellows group were examined by RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rDNA and RFLP and sequence analysis of the tuf gene. On the basis of rDNA restriction profiles, seven previously proposed 16S rDNA subgroups (16SrI-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F and -K) were recognized in the material examined. In addition, three new subgroups that differ in the RFLP profiles were identified and designated 16SrI-L, 16SrI-M and 16SrI-N. Of the two types of rDNA sequences used, an 1800 bp fragment comprising the entire 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rDNA spacer region proved more suitable for AY-group phytoplasma differentiation than a 1240 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Many differences in the rDNA profiles between the subgroups could be explained by sequence heterogeneity of the two phytoplasmal rRNA operons. The subgroups delineated by RFLP analysis of a 940 bp tuf gene fragment are consistent with subgroups defined on the basis of rDNA sequences. However, subgroups 16SrI-D, -L and -M showed the same tuf gene restriction profiles as subgroup 16SrI-B. This result was confirmed by sequence analysis in which these subgroups differed slightly in their tuf gene sequence, when compared with members of subgroup 16SrI-B. On the basis of combined analyses of rDNA and tuf gene sequences and in view of pathological aspects, the taxonomic distinction of AY-subgroups 16SrI-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F, -K and -N appears to be substantial.  (+info)

The first phytoplasma RNase P RNA provides new insights into the sequence requirements of this ribozyme. (3/18)

A high variability of RNase P RNA structures is seen among members of the Mycoplasma group. To gain further insight into the structure-function relations of this ribozyme, we have searched for the RNase P RNA gene from more distant relatives, the phytoplasmas. These mycoplasma-like organisms are the aetiological agents of many severe plant diseases. We report the sequence and catalytic properties of RNase P RNA from the phytoplasma causing apple proliferation disease. The primary and postulated secondary structure of this 443 nt long RNA are most similar to those of Acholeplasma, supporting the phylogenetic position of this pathogen. Remarkably, the extremely AT-rich (73.6%) phytoplasma RNA differs from the known bacterial consensus sequence by a single base pair, which is positioned close to the substrate cleavage site in current three-dimensional models. Phytoplasma RNase P RNA functions as an efficient ribozyme in vitro. Conversion of its sequence to the full consensus and kinetic analysis of the resulting mutant RNAs suggests that neither the sequence alone, nor the type of pairing at this position is crucial for substrate binding or catalysis by the RNase P ribozyme. These results refine the bacterial consensus structure close to the catalytic core and thus improve our understanding of RNase P RNA function.  (+info)

'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense', a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches' broom disease. (4/18)

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a valuable ornamental species widely planted in Brazil. Many plants are affected by witches' broom disease, which is characterized by excessive axillary branching, abnormally small leaves, and deformed flowers, symptoms that are characteristic of diseases attributed to phytoplasmas. A phytoplasma was detected in diseased Hibiscus by amplification of rRNA operon sequences by PCRs, and was characterized by RFLP and nucleotide sequence analyses of 16S rDNA. The collective RFLP patterns of amplified 16S rDNA differed from the patterns described previously for other phytoplasmas. On the basis of the RFLP patterns, the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma was classified in a new 16S rRNA RFLP group, designated group 16SrXV. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from this and other phytoplasmas identified the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma as a member of a distinct subclade (designated subclade xiv) of the class Mollicutes. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was consistent with the hypothesis that there was divergent evolution of hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma and its closest relatives (members of 16S rRNA RFLP group 16SrII) from a common ancestor. On the basis of unique properties of the DNA from hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma, it is proposed that it represents a new taxon, namely 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense'.  (+info)

Cloning and expression analysis of Phytoplasma protein translocation genes. (5/18)

Genes encoding SecA and SecY proteins, essential components of the Sec protein translocation system, were cloned from onion yellows phytoplasma, an unculturable plant pathogenic bacterium. The secA gene consists of 2,505 nucleotides encoding an 835 amino acid protein (95.7 kDa) and shows the highest similarity with SecA of Bacillus subtilis. Anti-SecA rabbit antibody was prepared from a purified partial SecA protein, with a histidine tag expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis confirmed that SecA protein (approximately 96 kDa) is produced in phytoplasma-infected plants. Immunohistochemical thin sections observed by optical microscopy showed that SecA is characteristically present in plant phloem tissues infected with phytoplasma. The secY gene consists of 1,239 nucleotides encoding a 413 amino acid protein (45.9 kDa) and shows the highest similarity with SecY of B. subtilis. These results suggest the presence of a functional Sec system in phytoplasmas. Because phytoplasmas are endocellular bacteria lacking cell walls, this system might secrete bacterial proteins directly into the host cytoplasm. This study is what we believe to be the first report of the sequence and expression analysis of phytoplasma genes encoding membrane proteins with a predicted function.  (+info)

'Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae', a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with chestnut witches' broom disease. (6/18)

In Korea, Japanese chestnut trees (Castanea crenata Sieb. and Zucc.) showing symptoms indicative of witches' broom disease, including abnormally small leaves and yellowing of young leaves, were examined. Since the symptoms were suggestive of a phytoplasma infection, tissues were assayed for phytoplasmas by PCR analysis using a pair of universal primers that amplify a 1.4-kbp phytoplasma 16S rDNA fragment. The phytoplasma-specific fragment was amplified from diseased plants, but not from healthy plants, indicating that a phytoplasma was the causal agent of the chestnut witches' broom (CnWB) disease. The phylogenetic relationship of the CnWB phytoplasma to other phytoplasmas was examined by sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences of the phytoplasmas placed the CnWB phytoplasma within a distinct subgroup in the phytoplasma clade of the class Mollicutes. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the CnWB phytoplasma is related most closely to coconut phytoplasmas and suggested that they share a common ancestor. The unique properties of the CnWB phytoplasma sequences clearly establish that it represents a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae'.  (+info)

Identification of aster yellows phytoplasma in garlic and green onion by PCR-based methods. (7/18)

In the summer of 1999, typical yellows-type symptoms were observed on garlic and green onion plants in a number of gardens and plots around Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. DNA was extracted from leaf tissues of evidently healthy and infected plants. DNA amplifications were conducted on these samples, using two primer pairs, R16F2n/R2 and R16(1)F1/R1, derived from phytoplasma rDNA sequences. DNA samples of aster yellows (AY), lime witches'-broom (LWB) and potato witches'-broom (PWB) phytoplasmas served as controls and were used to determine group relatedness. In a direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, DNA amplification with universal primer pair R16F2n/R2 gave the expected amplified products of 1.2 kb. Dilution (1/40) of each of the latter products were used as template and nested with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1. An expected PCR product of 1.1 kb was obtained from each phytoplasma-infected garlic and green onion samples, LWB and AY phytoplasmas but not from PWB phytoplasma. An aliquot from each amplification product (1.2 kb) with universal primers was subjected to PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify phytoplasma isolates, using four restriction endonucleases (AluI, KpnI, MseI and RsaI). DNA amplification with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1 and RFLP analysis indicated the presence of AY phytoplasma in the infected garlic and green onion samples. These results suggest that AY phytoplasma in garlic and green onion samples belong to the subgroup 16Sr1-A.  (+info)

'Candidatus phytoplasma phoenicium' sp. nov., a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging lethal disease of almond trees in Lebanon and Iran. (8/18)

Almonds (Prunus amygdalus) represent an important crop in most Mediterranean countries. A new and devastating disease of almond trees in Lebanon was recently reported, characterized by the development of severe witches'-brooms on which no flowers or fruits developed, and leading to tree death within a few years. A phytoplasma was detected in diseased trees by PCR amplification of rRNA operon sequences, and RFLP patterns of amplified DNA indicated that the phytoplasma belonged to the pigeon pea witches'-broom (PPWB) group. In the present work, the presence of a phytoplasma in symptomatic plants was confirmed by electron microscopy; this phytoplasma was graft-transmissible to almond, plum and peach seedlings. The phytoplasma was characterized by sequence analysis of rRNA genes and was shown to be different from the phytoplasmas previously described in the PPWB group. A 16S rDNA phylogenetic tree identified the almond tree phytoplasma as a member of a distinct subclade of the class Mollicutes. Oligonucleotides have been defined for specific detection of the new phytoplasma. The almond phytoplasma from Lebanon was shown to be identical to a phytoplasma that induces a disease called 'almond brooming' in Iran, but different from another PPWB-group phytoplasma that infects herbaceous annual plants in Lebanon. Based on its unique properties, the name 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' is proposed for the phytoplasma associated with almond witches'-broom in Lebanon and Iran.  (+info)

Acholeplasmataceae is a family of bacteria that are characterized by their lack of a cell wall and their ability to grow without the need for sterols, which are required by many other related bacterial groups. These organisms are typically found in various environments such as soil, water, and the mouths of animals. They are gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, and have a unique morphology with a distinct polar tuft of flagella that allows them to move. Some members of this family can cause diseases in animals, but their role in human health is not well understood.

... is a family of bacteria. It is the only family in the order Acholeplasmatales, placed in the class ... Etymology: The names Acholeplasmataceae and Acholetoplasmatales are derived from the Greek a = not, cholè = bile and plasma = ... Freundt EA, Whitcomb RF, Barile MF, Razin S, Tully JG (1984). "Proposal for elevation of the family Acholeplasmataceae to ... proposed in 1984 to elevate the family Acholeplasmataceae to the ordinal rank Acholeplasmatales, thus separating it from ...
... acholeplasmataceae MeSH B03.440.560.074.150 - Acholeplasma MeSH B03.440.560.074.150.500 - Acholeplasma laidlawii MeSH B03.440. ...
Acholeplasmataceae is a family of bacteria. It is the only family in the order Acholeplasmatales, placed in the class ... Etymology: The names Acholeplasmataceae and Acholetoplasmatales are derived from the Greek a = not, cholè = bile and plasma = ... Freundt EA, Whitcomb RF, Barile MF, Razin S, Tully JG (1984). "Proposal for elevation of the family Acholeplasmataceae to ... proposed in 1984 to elevate the family Acholeplasmataceae to the ordinal rank Acholeplasmatales, thus separating it from ...
Acholeplasmataceae RSV_family458 Bacteria;Tenericutes;Mollicutes;Anaeroplasmatales;Anaeroplasmataceae RSV_family459 Bacteria; ... Acholeplasmataceae;Acholeplasma RSV_genus1315 Bacteria;Tenericutes;Mollicutes;Anaeroplasmatales;Anaeroplasmataceae;Anaeroplasma ...
General information about Chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (PHYP06)
Acholeplasmataceae Acholeplasma Acholeplasma hippikon (UP000290909) Acholeplasma laidlawii (strain PG-8A) (UP000008558) ...
Acholeplasmataceae * Acholeplasmatales * Achorion → Trichophyton * Achorion asteroides → Trichophyton mentagrophytes * Achorion ...
dbpedia-hu:Acholeplasmataceae. *dbpedia-hu:Achondrostoma. *dbpedia-hu:Achtheinus. *dbpedia-hu:Achtheinus_oblongus ...
Acholeplasmataceae [B03.440.860.074] Acholeplasmataceae * Entomoplasmatales [B03.440.860.300] Entomoplasmatales * ...
Ang Acholeplasmataceae ay isang uri ng pamilya sa bakterya kahariang Protista. Ito ay Gram-negative bacteria. ... Acholeplasmatales es un orden con una sola familia, Acholeplasmataceae, de Mollicutes (bacterias sin paredes celulares) que ... Acholeplasmatales es un orden con una sola familia, Acholeplasmataceae, de Mollicutes (bacterias sin paredes celulares) que ...
A new candidatus genus is found within the Acholeplasmataceae family A. Phylogenetic tree… ... A new candidatusgenusis found within the Acholeplasmataceaefamily A. Phylogenetic tree drawn from all MAGs in the new ... Also, it enables the discovery of new taxa such as a genus Candidatus Bgiplasma within the family Acholeplasmataceae. Large- ... candidatus genus Candidatus Bgiplasma and public genomes in the Acholeplasmataceae family. B. ANI among all uSGBs in the ...
Acholeplasmataceae B03.440.860.074.150 Acholeplasma B03.440.860.074.150.500 Acholeplasma laidlawii B03.440.860.074.575 ...
Acholeplasmataceae - Preferred Concept UI. M0000204. Scope note. Gram-negative organisms including apparently free-living ... Acholeplasmataceae. Scope note:. Organismos gramnegativos que comprenden saprófitos aparentemente de vida libre así como ...
... and the Acholeplasmataceae (Lim and Sears, 1992) and there seems to be only a single tRNA-CCA for tryptophan in Acholeplasma ...
Acholeplasmataceae Preferred Term Term UI T000386. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1976). ... Acholeplasmataceae Preferred Concept UI. M0000204. Registry Number. txid2146. Scope Note. Gram-negative organisms including ... Acholeplasmataceae. Tree Number(s). B03.440.860.074. Unique ID. D000129. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/ ...
Acholeplasmataceae Preferred Term Term UI T000386. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1976). ... Acholeplasmataceae Preferred Concept UI. M0000204. Registry Number. txid2146. Scope Note. Gram-negative organisms including ... Acholeplasmataceae. Tree Number(s). B03.440.860.074. Unique ID. D000129. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/ ...
Family Acholeplasmataceae (organism) {115110000 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Genus Acholeplasma (organism) { ...
Creatures » … » Bacteria » Tenericutes » Mollicutes » Acholeplasmatales » Acholeplasmataceae » …. Thlaspi arvense phytoplasma ...
Also, it enables the discovery of new taxa such as a genus Candidatus Bgiplasma within the family Acholeplasmataceae. Large- ...
A phylum of gram-negative bacteria consisting of cells bounded by a plasma membrane. Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls. This phylum was formerly the class Mollicutes. Mollicutes is now the sole class in the phylum Tenericutes ...
A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause ...
... and the Acholeplasmataceae (Lim and Sears, 1992) and there seems to be only a single tRNA-CCA for tryptophan in Acholeplasma ...
Acholeplasmataceae Achondroplasia Achromobacter Achromobacter cycloclastes Achromobacter denitrificans Achyranthes Achyrocline ...
  • proposed in 1984 to elevate the family Acholeplasmataceae to the ordinal rank Acholeplasmatales, thus separating it from Mycoplasmatales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proposal for elevation of the family Acholeplasmataceae to ordinal rank: Acholeplasmatales" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)