Acholeplasmataceae: Gram-negative organisms including apparently free-living saphrophytes as well as mammalian and avian parasites, and possibly pathogens.Martinique: An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)ParisAtlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Shared Paranoid Disorder: A condition in which closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Western Australia: A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Santalaceae: A plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are parasites that form connections (haustoria) to their hosts to obtain water and nutrients. The one-seeded fruit may be surrounded by a brightly colored nut-like structure.MiningCommitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Acholeplasma: A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.Mycoplasmatales: An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.Acholeplasma laidlawii: An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.Biohazard Release: Uncontrolled release of biological material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a biological hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Tenericutes: A phylum of gram-negative bacteria consisting of cells bounded by a plasma membrane. Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls. This phylum was formerly the class Mollicutes. Mollicutes is now the sole class in the phylum Tenericutes.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Sulfolobales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.Thermoproteales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA comprised of rod, disc, or spherical shaped, nonseptate, anaerobic, extreme thermophiles and found in solfataric hot waters, mud holes, and superheated submarine environments.Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Thermococcales: An order of strictly anaerobic, thermophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Members exhibit heterotropic growth by sulfur respiration. There is a single family THERMOCOCCACEAE.Prochloron: A genus of PROCHLOROPHYTES containing unicellular, spherical bacteria without a mucilaginous sheath. They are found almost exclusively as extracellular symbionts of colonial ASCIDIANS on subtropical or tropical marine shores.Mauritius: One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Port Louis. It was discovered by the Portuguese in 1505, occupied by the Dutch 1598-1710, held by the French 1715-1810 when the British captured it, formally ceded to the British in 1814, and became independent in 1968. It was named by the Dutch in honor of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1567-1625). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p742 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p341)Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Reunion: One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase: A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.LouisianaCyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Knowledge Management: The leveraging of collective wisdom within an organization as a catalyst to increase responsiveness and innovation.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Military Science

The phytoplasma associated with ash yellows and lilac witches'-broom: 'Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini'. (1/18)

Phytoplasmas associated with the plant diseases ash yellows (AshY, occurring in Fraxinus) and lilac witches'-broom (LWB, occurring in Syringa) represent a putative species-level taxon. Phytoplasmal DNA from 19 ash or lilac sources across the known geographic range of AshY (71-113 degrees W) was examined to determine if AshY and LWB phytoplasmas are a coherent group, if variability exists in both conserved and anonymous DNA, and if variability in 16S rDNA is related to host or geographic origin. The 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S spacer were amplified using primer pair P1/P7 and analysed using 15 restriction enzymes. RFLPs were detected in digests obtained with Alul, Hhal or Taql, for a total of four RFLP profile types. Sequencing of the amplimers from strains AshY1T, AshY3, AshY5 and LWB3 (which represent the four 16S rDNA RFLP profile types) revealed only three positions in the 16S rRNA gene and one position in the 16S-23S spacer at which differences occurred; these were single nucleotide substitutions. Sequence homology between any two strains was > 99.8%. A portion of a ribosomal protein operon, amplified with primer pair rpF1/R1 from each of the four strains noted above, was analysed with six restriction enzymes, resulting in the detection of two RFLP profiles with Msel. Southern analysis, utilizing two non-specific probes from other phytoplasma groups, revealed three RFLP profile types in anonymous chromosomal DNA of strains representing the four 16S rDNA genotypes. Two strains, AshY3 and LWB3, had unique combinations of characters in the various assays. On the basis of RFLP profiles, the strains from the other plants sampled comprised two groups. The grouping was not clearly related to host or geographic origin. The genome size of strain AshY3 was estimated from PFGE data to be 645 kbp. Phylogenetic analysis of a 1423 bp 16S rDNA sequence from strains AshY1T, AshY3, AshY5 and LWB3, together with sequences from 14 other mollicutes archived in GenBank, produced a tree on which the AshY and LWB strains clustered as a discrete group, consistent with previous analyses utilizing only type strain AshY1T. Thus, the AshY phytoplasma group is coherent but heterogeneous. The name 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini' is proposed for this group.  (+info)

Classification of aster yellows-group phytoplasmas based on combined analyses of rRNA and tuf gene sequences. (2/18)

Seventy phytoplasma isolates, including 10 previously characterized reference strains, of the aster yellows group were examined by RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rDNA and RFLP and sequence analysis of the tuf gene. On the basis of rDNA restriction profiles, seven previously proposed 16S rDNA subgroups (16SrI-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F and -K) were recognized in the material examined. In addition, three new subgroups that differ in the RFLP profiles were identified and designated 16SrI-L, 16SrI-M and 16SrI-N. Of the two types of rDNA sequences used, an 1800 bp fragment comprising the entire 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rDNA spacer region proved more suitable for AY-group phytoplasma differentiation than a 1240 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Many differences in the rDNA profiles between the subgroups could be explained by sequence heterogeneity of the two phytoplasmal rRNA operons. The subgroups delineated by RFLP analysis of a 940 bp tuf gene fragment are consistent with subgroups defined on the basis of rDNA sequences. However, subgroups 16SrI-D, -L and -M showed the same tuf gene restriction profiles as subgroup 16SrI-B. This result was confirmed by sequence analysis in which these subgroups differed slightly in their tuf gene sequence, when compared with members of subgroup 16SrI-B. On the basis of combined analyses of rDNA and tuf gene sequences and in view of pathological aspects, the taxonomic distinction of AY-subgroups 16SrI-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F, -K and -N appears to be substantial.  (+info)

The first phytoplasma RNase P RNA provides new insights into the sequence requirements of this ribozyme. (3/18)

A high variability of RNase P RNA structures is seen among members of the Mycoplasma group. To gain further insight into the structure-function relations of this ribozyme, we have searched for the RNase P RNA gene from more distant relatives, the phytoplasmas. These mycoplasma-like organisms are the aetiological agents of many severe plant diseases. We report the sequence and catalytic properties of RNase P RNA from the phytoplasma causing apple proliferation disease. The primary and postulated secondary structure of this 443 nt long RNA are most similar to those of Acholeplasma, supporting the phylogenetic position of this pathogen. Remarkably, the extremely AT-rich (73.6%) phytoplasma RNA differs from the known bacterial consensus sequence by a single base pair, which is positioned close to the substrate cleavage site in current three-dimensional models. Phytoplasma RNase P RNA functions as an efficient ribozyme in vitro. Conversion of its sequence to the full consensus and kinetic analysis of the resulting mutant RNAs suggests that neither the sequence alone, nor the type of pairing at this position is crucial for substrate binding or catalysis by the RNase P ribozyme. These results refine the bacterial consensus structure close to the catalytic core and thus improve our understanding of RNase P RNA function.  (+info)

'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense', a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches' broom disease. (4/18)

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a valuable ornamental species widely planted in Brazil. Many plants are affected by witches' broom disease, which is characterized by excessive axillary branching, abnormally small leaves, and deformed flowers, symptoms that are characteristic of diseases attributed to phytoplasmas. A phytoplasma was detected in diseased Hibiscus by amplification of rRNA operon sequences by PCRs, and was characterized by RFLP and nucleotide sequence analyses of 16S rDNA. The collective RFLP patterns of amplified 16S rDNA differed from the patterns described previously for other phytoplasmas. On the basis of the RFLP patterns, the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma was classified in a new 16S rRNA RFLP group, designated group 16SrXV. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from this and other phytoplasmas identified the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma as a member of a distinct subclade (designated subclade xiv) of the class Mollicutes. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was consistent with the hypothesis that there was divergent evolution of hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma and its closest relatives (members of 16S rRNA RFLP group 16SrII) from a common ancestor. On the basis of unique properties of the DNA from hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma, it is proposed that it represents a new taxon, namely 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense'.  (+info)

Cloning and expression analysis of Phytoplasma protein translocation genes. (5/18)

Genes encoding SecA and SecY proteins, essential components of the Sec protein translocation system, were cloned from onion yellows phytoplasma, an unculturable plant pathogenic bacterium. The secA gene consists of 2,505 nucleotides encoding an 835 amino acid protein (95.7 kDa) and shows the highest similarity with SecA of Bacillus subtilis. Anti-SecA rabbit antibody was prepared from a purified partial SecA protein, with a histidine tag expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis confirmed that SecA protein (approximately 96 kDa) is produced in phytoplasma-infected plants. Immunohistochemical thin sections observed by optical microscopy showed that SecA is characteristically present in plant phloem tissues infected with phytoplasma. The secY gene consists of 1,239 nucleotides encoding a 413 amino acid protein (45.9 kDa) and shows the highest similarity with SecY of B. subtilis. These results suggest the presence of a functional Sec system in phytoplasmas. Because phytoplasmas are endocellular bacteria lacking cell walls, this system might secrete bacterial proteins directly into the host cytoplasm. This study is what we believe to be the first report of the sequence and expression analysis of phytoplasma genes encoding membrane proteins with a predicted function.  (+info)

'Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae', a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with chestnut witches' broom disease. (6/18)

In Korea, Japanese chestnut trees (Castanea crenata Sieb. and Zucc.) showing symptoms indicative of witches' broom disease, including abnormally small leaves and yellowing of young leaves, were examined. Since the symptoms were suggestive of a phytoplasma infection, tissues were assayed for phytoplasmas by PCR analysis using a pair of universal primers that amplify a 1.4-kbp phytoplasma 16S rDNA fragment. The phytoplasma-specific fragment was amplified from diseased plants, but not from healthy plants, indicating that a phytoplasma was the causal agent of the chestnut witches' broom (CnWB) disease. The phylogenetic relationship of the CnWB phytoplasma to other phytoplasmas was examined by sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences of the phytoplasmas placed the CnWB phytoplasma within a distinct subgroup in the phytoplasma clade of the class Mollicutes. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the CnWB phytoplasma is related most closely to coconut phytoplasmas and suggested that they share a common ancestor. The unique properties of the CnWB phytoplasma sequences clearly establish that it represents a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae'.  (+info)

Identification of aster yellows phytoplasma in garlic and green onion by PCR-based methods. (7/18)

In the summer of 1999, typical yellows-type symptoms were observed on garlic and green onion plants in a number of gardens and plots around Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. DNA was extracted from leaf tissues of evidently healthy and infected plants. DNA amplifications were conducted on these samples, using two primer pairs, R16F2n/R2 and R16(1)F1/R1, derived from phytoplasma rDNA sequences. DNA samples of aster yellows (AY), lime witches'-broom (LWB) and potato witches'-broom (PWB) phytoplasmas served as controls and were used to determine group relatedness. In a direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, DNA amplification with universal primer pair R16F2n/R2 gave the expected amplified products of 1.2 kb. Dilution (1/40) of each of the latter products were used as template and nested with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1. An expected PCR product of 1.1 kb was obtained from each phytoplasma-infected garlic and green onion samples, LWB and AY phytoplasmas but not from PWB phytoplasma. An aliquot from each amplification product (1.2 kb) with universal primers was subjected to PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify phytoplasma isolates, using four restriction endonucleases (AluI, KpnI, MseI and RsaI). DNA amplification with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1 and RFLP analysis indicated the presence of AY phytoplasma in the infected garlic and green onion samples. These results suggest that AY phytoplasma in garlic and green onion samples belong to the subgroup 16Sr1-A.  (+info)

'Candidatus phytoplasma phoenicium' sp. nov., a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging lethal disease of almond trees in Lebanon and Iran. (8/18)

Almonds (Prunus amygdalus) represent an important crop in most Mediterranean countries. A new and devastating disease of almond trees in Lebanon was recently reported, characterized by the development of severe witches'-brooms on which no flowers or fruits developed, and leading to tree death within a few years. A phytoplasma was detected in diseased trees by PCR amplification of rRNA operon sequences, and RFLP patterns of amplified DNA indicated that the phytoplasma belonged to the pigeon pea witches'-broom (PPWB) group. In the present work, the presence of a phytoplasma in symptomatic plants was confirmed by electron microscopy; this phytoplasma was graft-transmissible to almond, plum and peach seedlings. The phytoplasma was characterized by sequence analysis of rRNA genes and was shown to be different from the phytoplasmas previously described in the PPWB group. A 16S rDNA phylogenetic tree identified the almond tree phytoplasma as a member of a distinct subclade of the class Mollicutes. Oligonucleotides have been defined for specific detection of the new phytoplasma. The almond phytoplasma from Lebanon was shown to be identical to a phytoplasma that induces a disease called 'almond brooming' in Iran, but different from another PPWB-group phytoplasma that infects herbaceous annual plants in Lebanon. Based on its unique properties, the name 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' is proposed for the phytoplasma associated with almond witches'-broom in Lebanon and Iran.  (+info)

Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches Broom protein11 shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular phosphate (Pi) and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and microRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches Broom protein11 suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding
A safflower disease was observed in the fields of South Khorasan (Iran) in 2017-2018. Affected plants had extensive fasciation, bushy growth, small leaves, phyllody and shortened internodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed using universal phytoplasma primers pairs P1/P7, R16mF1/mR1 and M1/M2 to detect putative phytoplasma (s). Nested PCR analyses showed that all symptomatic plants were positive for phytoplasma infection, while asymptomatic plants were negative. Nucleotide sequence analysis and RFLP analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences indicated that safflower fasciation in Iran was associated with a phytoplasma that belonged to the peanut witches broom group (16SrII). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that safflowers fasciation phytoplasma (SaP) must be classified in Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia (16SrII) taxonomic group. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a phytoplasma associated with safflower fasciation in Iran and the world. ...
A safflower disease was observed in the fields of South Khorasan (Iran) in 2017-2018. Affected plants had extensive fasciation, bushy growth, small leaves, phyllody and shortened internodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed using universal phytoplasma primers pairs P1/P7, R16mF1/mR1 and M1/M2 to detect putative phytoplasma (s). Nested PCR analyses showed that all symptomatic plants were positive for phytoplasma infection, while asymptomatic plants were negative. Nucleotide sequence analysis and RFLP analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences indicated that safflower fasciation in Iran was associated with a phytoplasma that belonged to the peanut witches broom group (16SrII). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that safflowers fasciation phytoplasma (SaP) must be classified in Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia (16SrII) taxonomic group. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a phytoplasma associated with safflower fasciation in Iran and the world. ...
With as many berry bushes, I have seen my share of witches broom in blackberries. What are the symptoms of witches broom fungus, and is there a method for treating witches broom disease? Click this article to learn more.
LI, Zheng-Nan et al. Detection and molecular characterization of cactus witches-broom disease associated with a group 16SrII phytoplasma in northern areas of China. Trop. plant pathol. [online]. 2012, vol.37, n.3, pp.210-214. ISSN 1982-5676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1982-56762012000300008.. In July 2010, cacti with typical phytoplasma symptoms were observed in Yangling district, Shaanxi Province, China. Based on amplification of 16S rRNA gene, phytoplasmas were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) driven with universal primer pairs P1/ P7, followed by a nested PCR with universal primer pairs R16F2n/R16R2. Fragments of expected sizes (1.8 kb and 1.2 kb) were obtained from symptomatic samples, but not from the asymptomatic samples. Sequencing results and BLASTn analysis of the 1806 bp products (P1/P7) showed that the phytoplasma belonged to group 16SrII. Phylogenetic analysis to the R16F2n/R16R2 region and virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) indicated that this ...
Figure 1. Development of cocoa production of Brazil, Malaysia and Indonesia from 1961 to 2009 (FAOSTAT 2011).. Brazil participated with nearly 20% of the overall world cocoa production until the 1980ss , 85% (600.000 ha) of the cocoa area was located in the southern part of the Estate of Bahía. While the fungus of the Witches´ Broom disease was already endemic in the Estates of Rondonia, Amazonas and Pará, the Estate of Bahía was still free of Witches´Broom infections until 1989. A quarantine belt around Bahía and Espirito Santo had been established to avoid the introduction of infected plant material from the Amazon region. The control measures were concentrated around the airports, while at that time road links to the Amazon region did not yet exist.. Infections by wind to a distance of more than 2000 km through semi- arid regions were considered as extreme unlikely (ROCHA, MIRANDA, SGRILLO & SETUBAL 1993).. The first infections of Witches´Broom in Bahía were discovered in late 1989 . ...
6. Now encourage the children to take away two, then three, etc from the red group. How many are remaining? What is the difference? Is the green group larger than the red group? Is the yellow group the smallest or largest? Ask many of these questions to enhance the compare and contrast learning experience. Doing the opposite with addition, have the children to add two, three, etc. and ask them What is the sum once the fish are added back into that group? Again have the children take away by eating a certain number of Goldfish from their groups and name the difference as they go. ...
The Côte dIvoire lethal yellowing (CILY) phytoplasma is rapidly spreading and severely affecting the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Grand-Lahou. Symptoms resemble those associated with the Cape St. Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD) in Ghana ...
Photos 1 and 2: Tiny, immature, sterile pods on soybean from Darling Downs. A devastating disease was observed in several paddocks of soybean crops in the
مقدمه: بیماری پوسیدگی نرم در گیاهان که توسط عوامل باکتریایی بیماری‌زا ایجاد می‌شوند، هرساله سبب کاهش محصولات تولیدی و همچنین خسارت به محصولات انباری می‌گردند. تحقیق حاضر به‌منظور ردیابی و شناسایی عوامل باکتریایی عامل پوسیدگی نرم متعلق به جنس سودوموناس در برخی از محصولات صیفی و گیاهان تزیینی انجام شد. مواد و روش‌ها: طی فصول زراعی در سال‌های 1394 تا 1396، نمونه‌های مشکوک و دارای علائم بیماری از میزبان‌های بادمجان، ذرت، برگ قاشقی، ذرت شیرین و گوجه‌فرنگی جمع‌آوری گردید. ویژگی‌های بیوشیمایی و موفولوژیکی جدایه‌ها بر اساس روش‌های استاندارد باکتری‌شناسی
During a survey in 2003 in Limon Pampa, Rio Chico, Bolivia, lucerne (Medicago sativa) plants showing typical phytoplasma witches broom and little leaf symptoms were collected and evaluated by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 16S rDNA primers P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2. The PCR products (~1250 bp) were purified and directly sequenced, and the sequence was compared with those of other phytoplasmas. The sequence (accession number AY725211) had the highest similarity (98%) with the phytoplasma from ash witches broom disease, a member of the 16SrI aster yellows group (Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris). This is thought to be the first report of alfalfa witches broom disease in Bolivia, and the first report of an isolate of Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris infecting lucerne. ...
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Phytoplasmas have diverged from Gram-positive bacteria, and belong to the genus Phytoplasma within the class Mollicutes. They are plant pathogens, causing severe symptoms such as stunting, phyllody, witches broom, yellowing, and yield losses in over 300 economically important plant species worldwide. Transmission of phytoplasmas to plants occurs when insects feed from plant phloem. The bacteria are introduced into plant phloem with insect saliva. In plants, phytoplasmas remain restricted to the phloem tissue where they systemically spread throughout the plant. They are among the smallest self-replicating organisms known, and are characterized by a small genome with a low G+C content, and a lack of a firm cell wall. (EBI Integr8 ...
Jorge MC Mondego, Marcelo F Carazzolle, Gustavo GL Costa, Eduardo F Formighieri, Lucas P Parizzi, Johana Rincones, Carolina Cotomacci, Dirce M Carraro, Anderson F Cunha, Helaine Carrer, Ramon O Vidal, Raissa C Estrela, Odalys Garcia, Daniela PT Thomazella, Bruno V de Oliveira, Acassia BL Pires, Maria Carolina S Rio, Marcos Renato R Araujo, Marcos H de Moraes, Luis AB Castro, Karina P Gramacho, Marilda S Goncalves, Jose P Moura Neto, Aristoteles Goes Neto, Luciana V Barbosa, Mark J Guiltinan, Bryan A Bailey, Lyndel W Meinhardt, Julio CM Cascardo, Goncalo AG Pereira (2008). A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches Broom Disease of cacao BMC Genomics, 9 (1) DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-548. ...
Dianas Desserts is dedicated to Home Bakers. Here you will find my recipes, recipes that have been given to me by family and friends, and recipes Ive found through research over the years.
Ting tager tid, nogle gange lang tid Odenseanske Dead Witch var for et års tid siden klar med deres anden EP, Forest of Bodies. Derfor kommer denne anmeldelse lidt på bagkant. Dead Witch spiller, ifølge dem selv, nordisk hardcore. Det bliver dog ikke uddybet nærmere, hvad dette nordiske islæt indebærer - andet end at de trækker på inspiration fra blandt andet stoner-, doom- og
Carolyn MacCulloughs Once a Witch centers around Tamsin, a girl born into a family full of witches, prophesied to be a beacon among them - who is now seventeen years old and has yet to show a glimmer of Talent. Frustrated at constantly being the "family misfit," Tamsin jumps at the chance to prove herself when a stranger strolls into her familys bookshop - and undercover magical agency - needing help in finding a particular clock in the picture he carries. The stranger mistakes her for her powerful older sister, Rowena, and Tamsin does nothing to dissuade him of this notion, instead promising to take on the task. But it proves more difficult than shed thought, and she turns to her childhood friend Gabriel, whose magical Talent is finding anything he searches for. Gabriel soon realizes the clock doesnt exist in their world - or rather, in their time. When they both Travel back to 1899 in order to find it, they unleash a series of events they never expected, putting Tamsins sister Rowena into ...
A bad spell for a worst witch Mildred Hubble returns to Miss Cackles Academy for Witches for her second year, determined to lose her embarrassing
Cover your head with a customisable Witch hat from Zazzle! Shop for embroidered hats, trucker hats & visors. Start shopping today!
Does anyone know where to find the high-pitched version of the song Witch Doctor? I always kinda assumed it was Alvin and the Chipmunks, but Im not so sure now. To be clear, Im talking about the 1950s or 1960s version, not the bizarre modern one.
SEVEN WITCHES ha publicado el videoclip para "World Without Man". El tema se incluye en su disco "The Way Of The Wicked", lanzado el 18 de Septiembre de 2015 de manera independiente ...
Last year I posted about getting a puppy, her name is Dot. I went on a search for this puppy because she came to me in a dream. I know, I know, many people are just pish posh over…. Read more →. ...
Джеймс Макилрой · Пол Алендър · Джонатан Притчърд · Дарън Гардън · Уъс Саргинсън · Пол Раян · Бенджамин Раян · Андреа Майер · Стюърт Анстис · Джаред Деметер · Робин Ийгълстоун · Николас Баркър · Демиън Грегъри · Сара Дева · Джиън Пайръс · Лес Смит · Дейв Хиршаймър · Ейдриън Ерландсън · Дейв Пайбъс · Мартин Пауъл · Чарлс Хеджър · Рози Смит · Ашли Елайлън · Каролин ...
​​​​​​ A young man who was always drunk and believing that life had been unfair to him, one day visited a witch doctor concerning his future.
No doubt compelled by the remarkable success of low-budget hits like Paranormal Activity and The Blair Witch Project, Paramount is…. Read More » ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extrachromosomal DNA isolated from tomato big bud and Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense phytoplasma strains. AU - Tran-nguyen, L. AU - Gibb, Karen. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - The nucleotide sequences of two extrachromosomal elements from tomato big bud (TBB) and one extrachromosomal element from Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense (Ca. P. australiense) phytoplasmas were determined. Both TBB plasmids (3319 and 4092 bp) contained an open reading frame (?570 bp) with homology to the rolling circle replication initiator protein (Rep). This gene was shorter than the rep genes identified from other phytoplasma plasmids, geminiviruses and bacterial plasmids. Both TBB extrachromosomal DNAs (eDNAs) encoded a putative DNA primase (dnaG) gene, a chromosomal gene required for DNA replication and which contains the conserved topoisomerase/primase domain. We speculate that the replication mechanism for the TBB phytoplasma eDNA involves the dnaG gene instead of the rep gene. The Ca. P. ...
Witches broom disease is sweeping through more than 60 percent of the longan-growing area in the Cuu Long (Mekong) Delta, leaving many farmers with severe losses, according to the Plant Protection Department. The disease appeared in Viet Nam in 2003 from infected longan (Dimocarpus longan) strains imported from neighbouring countries, according to experts. There are no effective measures to prevent or control the disease.
Comment: The news has been published via International Society of Infectious Diseases. For some plant diseases only very few data is available on the extent of the disease, on its biology and epidemiology. Since witches broom symptoms can apear on differnet fruit species of Prunus, Malus and other fruit trees in other parts of the world, also information on their control should be searched there. The causal agent is phytoplasma, which can be determined only in lab diagnostic procedure. In general the spread of the disease is possible by care for healthy planting material and
Phytoplasmas are mycoplasma-like pathogens of witches broom disease, and are responsible for serious yield losses of Paulownia trees worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of disease development in Paulownia are of considerable interest, but still poorly understood. Here, we have applied transcriptome sequencing technology and a de novo assembly approach to analyze gene expression profiles in Paulownia fortunei infected by phytoplasmas. Our previous researches suggested that methyl methane sulfonated (MMS) could reverse the effects of the infection. In this study, leaf samples from healthy, infected, and both infected and methyl methane sulfonate treated plants were analyzed. The results showed that the gene expression profile of P. fortunei underwent dramatic changes after Paulownia witches broom (PaWB) phytoplasma infection. Genes that encoded key enzymes in plant-pathogen interaction processes were significantly up-regulated in the PaWB-infected Paulownia. Genes involved in circadian rhythm and
Pear decline (PD) is an important disease of Pyrus communis fruiting cultivars in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. PD is caused by a phloem-limited phytoplasma that, in California, is transmitted from diseased to healthy trees by pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola. The percentage of phytoplasma-infected pear psylla has never been assessed in the United States in field-collected insects. Pear psylla were collected monthly from PD-infected trees from three orchards in northern California. Individual psylla were tested for the presence of PD phytoplasma, using both a quantitative DNA hybridization and PD phytoplasma-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The percentage of infected psylla ranged from 0 to 45% depending on the orchard, the month and year collected, and the method of detection. The PD phytoplasma was detected in both the winterform and summerform pear psylla. Significantly more infected psylla were detected with PCR than with DNA hybridization analysis in two of the three ...
Religion: A witch will almost certainly worship a patron deity, since without one she loses many of her powers. Said deity will most likely be a nature and/or lore deity, or an air/water elemental. She is likely to take her religion very seriously, and have a close and meaningful relationship with her deity, but is seldom evangelical about it, preferring to work quietly to spread to values of her religion instead. Other Classes: The witch typically acts as a healer and (de)buffer in a group. She will generally be fairly adept at protecting herself from fighter-type creatures, but fair poorly against rogues, and will adjust her likeliness to engage them accordingly. Witches are likely to be friendly toward but not close to other witches. A witch will generally abhor any character that acts in a way disrespectful to nature or to her chosen deity (if she has one). Stupid or naive characters may be frightened of her, if not subject to her charms. Most witches will retain a relationship with their ...
The pungent smell of green onions (Allium spp.) may keep some pests from venturing too close. But all plants seem to have their own enemies, and green onions, also known as scallions, have their ...
Price above represents a per pound price for a 32lb bag. Onion Sets, or baby onions, are used to grow green and/or dry onions. Taking about 4 to 5 weeks to mature, plant these seeds in your garden in either late fall or early spring to achieve green onions. If left in for the full 90-day maturity period, you will have dry onions in late July or early August.
When buying the bulb onions look for firm bulbs without much of a scent and try not buy any that have cuts or bruises. Store them in a cool dark and dry place that has plenty of air circulation.. Green onions should have crisp, bright green stalks and small firm bulbs with the root end intact. Green onions can be stored in a cloth bag in the refrigerator for a little over a week. If you buy green onions from the farmers market, you will find that many vendors will keep the roots intact. This preserves the onions health and flavor. Green onions with the root can be kept in a bowl or jar that has enough water in the bottom to submerge just the roots. Then you can snip off the green parts, as you need them. The onion will continue to grow as long as the water is kept fresh. You can even plant the root again in soil and new green onions will grow. When cutting a bulb onion keep the root intact and the cut side on the cutting board and fewer tears will fall. Onions are always best used fresh. Once ...
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So why do the brooms fit into this? Because to achieve their hallucinations, these early drug users needed a distribution method that was a little more complicated than simple ingestion. When consumed, those old-school hallucinogens could cause assorted unpleasantnesses-including nausea, vomiting, and skin irritation. What people realized, though, was that absorbing them through the skin could lead to hallucinations that arrived without the unsavory side effects. And the most receptive areas of the body for that absorption were the sweat glands of the armpits ... and the mucus membranes of the genitals. So people used their developing pharmacological knowledge to produce drug-laden balms-or, yep, "witchs brews." And to distribute those salves with maximum effectiveness, these crafty hallucinators borrowed a technology from the home: a broom. Specifically, the handle of the broom. And then ... you get the idea. ...
Use easy green onion (aka scallion and spring onion) curls as a garnish, on sandwiches and tacos, in salads, or in rice and noodle bowls.
Just heard a radio report about the food poisoning from Taco Bell. Unless I grossly misheard, they reported that it wasnt only green onions that were a problem, but also scallions. Arent these two names for the same food in this context ...
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Leaf samples were collected from infected and asymptomatic plants grown in pots, of floricultural crops. DNA for use as template in PCR reactions was extracted from fresh tissue according to a methodology described elsewhere (Lee et al., 1993).. Phytoplasma detection was conducted by the nested PCR method to amplify the 16S rDNA region using the universal primer pairs R16mF2/mR1 and R16F2n/R2 (Gundersen & Lee, 1996). DNA amplified in PCR primed by the first primer pair was diluted 1:50 with water and used as template in PCR primed by the second primer pair. PCR was carried out in a final volume of 25 µL as previously described (Gundersen & Lee, 1996) for 35 cycles, following the steps: 1 min for denaturation at 94ºC (2 min for the first cycle), 2 min for annealing at 50ºC, and 3 min for primer extension at 72ºC (7 min in the final cycle). The DNA amplified fragments were analyzed by electrophoresis through 1% agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide, and DNA bands ...
Q: I have an issue thats been haunting me all summer long. We have these things that look like elongated air plants on our bottlebrush tree, but my neighbor says theyre called Witches Brooms and that I dont stand a ghost of a chance getting rid of them. Shes kidding, right? A: No, shes not, but dont let that frighten you. Knowledge is power! Witches Broom is a nickname for Sphaeropsis gall, which is a fungal ailment affecting numerous woody shrubs and trees including citrus, hawthorn, Continue Reading ...
Societies that believe in witches also hate and fear them. Since actual witches who can conjure magic spells and cast curses dont exist outside the realm
The Witchs Son. Disclaimer: I do not own the characters of Inuyasha or Yu Yu Hakusho that appear in this fic. Also, I do not own the story of The Witchs Son. Im just borrowing them to write this fi. c.. A/N: I read this story when I first came to America and loved it. Just the other day, I was reading Unforgettable by Kura-kuns-lovr on and I immediately thought of this short story written by Vivian Vande Velde. Now, Im using this story to write a one-shot crossover fic of Inuyasha and Yu Yu Hakusho. I hope everyone reads it and enjoys it. Kurama/Kagome implied.. "Talking" Thinking. 1776 - Summerfield, New York. When Shiori Minamino brought her son, Kurama, back from the dead for the first time, he looked all fragile and wispy, like morning mist on the village commons.. She was so startled to see her magic actually work - though she had studied and planned the whole year for just this thing - that for long moments she could do nothing be silently gaze at him. His face was pale and shed ...
The Witchs Daughter- Adventure Module GSAM01 - Grinning Skull Design Studios presents their first system agnostic adventure module: The Witchs Daughter, a tale of rel
Phytoplasmas are bacteria without cell walls from the class Mollicutes. They are obligate intracellular plant pathogens which cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants including the grapevine (Vitis vinifera). | Plant Genomics
If you substitute green onions for the baby Vidalias, be sure to use 1 1/2 cups instead of 2 because green onions are so much stronger than mild,
Witches ointments were magical drug pastes, ointments, and oils that women and men were said to smear over their bodies and flying vehicles such as brooms.
If you refuse, you can still consult our product pages but you wont be able to add product to your shopping cart. Once cookies are enabled, features such as: shopping cart, account creation, delivery and pickup will be made available to you.. ...
Find great deals for Dying Surfer Meets His Maker [Digipak] by All Them Witches (CD, Oct-2015, New West (Record Label)). Shop with confidence on eBay!
The planet will be fine without us. We need to save us. Consumer Watch Witch! Plastic waste, water waste, waste of resources not tolerated!
The planet will be fine without us. We need to save us. Consumer Watch Witch! Plastic waste, water waste, waste of resources not tolerated!
Hellraiser Witch lyrics & video : Id Been Craving For Death And I Screamed In A Wrath When She Came Up To Me Said She Would Det Me Free She Was Pretty And Wise And She Gave,Me...
Famili Acholeplasmataceae *Genus Acholeplasma. *Genus Phytoplasma (Candidatus). Filum Fusobacteria[sunting , sunting sumber]. * ...
Acholeplasmataceae 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of ...
... and the Acholeplasmataceae (Lim and Sears, 1992) and there seems to be only a single tRNA-CCA for tryptophan in Acholeplasma ...
Family Acholeplasmataceae Genus Acholeplasma Genus Phytoplasma (Candidatus) Family Fusobacteriaceae Genus Fusobacterium Species ...
... acholeplasmataceae MeSH B03.440.560.074.150 --- Acholeplasma MeSH B03.440.560.074.150.500 --- Acholeplasma laidlawii MeSH ...
proposed in 1984 to elevate the family Acholeplasmataceae to the ordinal rank Acholeplasmatales, thus separating it from ... The Acholeplasmatales are an order in the class Mollicutes, containing only one family, Acholeplasmataceae, comprising the ... Proposal for elevation of the family Acholeplasmataceae to ordinal rank: Acholeplasmatales. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34 ... and the sterol-nonrequiring Acholeplasmataceae. In view of the many properties in which the acholeplasmas distinguish from ...
proposed in 1984 to elevate the family Acholeplasmataceae to the ordinal rank Acholeplasmatales, thus separating it from ... The Acholeplasmatales are an order in the class Mollicutes, containing only one family, Acholeplasmataceae, comprising the ... Proposal for elevation of the family Acholeplasmataceae to ordinal rank: Acholeplasmatales. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34 ... and the sterol-nonrequiring Acholeplasmataceae. In view of the many properties in which the acholeplasmas distinguish from ...
order Mycoplasmatales). A family of Gram-negative, chemo-organotrophic bacteria that do not require the presence of sterols (see steroid) for growth. Cells are spherical, pleomorphic, or filamentous. They are found as parasites in a variety of mammals and birds. There is 1 genus (Acholeplasma). ...
OC Bacteria; Tenericutes; Mollicutes; Acholeplasmatales; Acholeplasmataceae; OC Acholeplasma. OX NCBI_TaxID=441768; RN [0] RP ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Terrabacteria group › Tenericutes › Mollicutes › Acholeplasmatales › Acholeplasmataceae › ...
Family Acholeplasmataceae [II] *Genus Acholeplasma [I]. *Family Mycoplasmataceae [I] *Genus Mycoplasma [I] ...
Famili Acholeplasmataceae *Genus Acholeplasma. *Genus Phytoplasma (Candidatus). Filum Fusobacteria[sunting , sunting sumber]. * ...
Family: Acholeplasmataceae. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Synonym: Phytoplasma Peach X-disease phytoplasma. ... Family: Acholeplasmataceae. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Common name: apple proliferation phytoplasma (main ... Family: Acholeplasmataceae. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Synonyms: Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum ( ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Tenericutes; Mollicutes; Acholeplasmatales; Acholeplasmataceae; ...
Bacteria; Tenericutes; Mollicutes; Acholeplasmatales; Acholeplasmataceae; Acholeplasma. Industrial uses or economic ...
Acholeplasmataceae,Acholeplasmatales]] , familia = [[Acholeplasmataceae]] , genus = Candidatus Phytoplasma , ...
Acholeplasmataceae Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of ...
This code is not used in the Acholeplasmataceae and plant-pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) (Lim and Sears, 1992) 5. ...
The single genus of the family Acholeplasmataceae, comprising spherical and filamentous cells Explanation of Acholeplasma oculi ... The single genus of the family Acholeplasmataceae, comprising spherical and filamentous cells. ...
Genome Determination and Analysis of Acholeplasma oculi Highlights Loss of Basic Genetic Features in the Acholeplasmataceae. ...
Immunological Heterogeneity of Superoxide Dismutases in the Acholeplasmataceae Gabriel Y. Lee and George E. Kenny ... The three strains possessed biochemical properties typical of the Acholeplasmataceae and were distinguished from the nine ...
Note: In violation of Rules 15 and 21a, Freundt et al. 1984 designate also a type family, Acholeplasmataceae Edward and Freundt ... Proposal for elevation of the family Acholeplasmataceae to ordinal rank: Acholeplasmatales. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34 ...
以下のリストから用語をコピーして、検索機能の [生物系統分類] フィールドに貼り付けることができます。[
Family Acholeplasmataceae (organism) {115110000 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Genus Acholeplasma (organism) { ...
Family Acholeplasmataceae (organism) {115110000 , SNOMED-CT } Download Relationships Other Relationships No other relationships ...
The complexity and dynamics of microbial communities are major factors in the ecology of a system. With the NGS technique, metagenomics data provides a new way to explore microbial interactions. Lotka-Volterra models, which have been widely used to infer animal interactions in dynamic systems, have recently been applied to the analysis of metagenomic data. In this paper, we present the Lotka-Volterra model based tool, the Metagenomic Microbial Interacticon Simulator (MetaMIS), which is designed to analyze the time series data of microbial community profiles. MetaMIS first infers underlying microbial interactions from abundance tables for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and then interprets interaction networks using the Lotka-Volterra model. We also embed a Bray-Curtis dissimilarity method in MetaMIS in order to evaluate the similarity to biological reality. MetaMIS is designed to tolerate a high level of missing data, and can estimate interaction information without the influence of rare microbes.
Bacteria; Tenericutes; Mollicutes; Acholeplasmatales; Acholeplasmataceae; Candidatus Phytoplasma; Candidatus Phytoplasma ...
Acholeplasmataceae (0) * Entomoplasmatales (0) * Mycoplasmatales (2) * Mycoplasmataceae (2) * Mycoplasma (0) * Ureaplasma (2) * ...
Acholeplasmataceae, Adenosine Triphosphatases, ATP-Dependent Proteases, Bacterial Proteins, Base Sequence, DNA, Bacterial, ...
... highlighting the loss of basic genetic features in the Acholeplasmataceae. BMC Genomics 15, 931 (2014) ...
... highlighting the loss of basic genetic features in the Acholeplasmataceae.. Siewert C, Hess WR, Duduk B, Huettel B, Reinhardt R ...
  • The three strains possessed biochemical properties typical of the Acholeplasmataceae and were distinguished from the nine previously recognized Acholeplasma species by serological and deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization techniques. (microbiologyresearch.org)